Hyper-Hyphen hypertext dictionary -- based on Webster's Unabridged 1913
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Bi
A- () A, as a prefix to English words, is derived from various sources. (1) It frequently signifies on or in (from an, a forms of AS. on), denoting a state, as in afoot, on foot, abed, amiss, asleep, aground, aloft, away (AS. onweg), and analogically, ablaze, atremble, etc. (2) AS. of off, from, as in adown (AS. ofd/ne off the dun or hill). (3) AS. a- (Goth. us-, ur-, Ger. er-), usually giving an intensive force, and sometimes the sense of away, on, back, as in arise, abide, ago. (4) Old English y- or i- (corrupted from the AS. inseparable particle ge-, cognate with OHG. ga-, gi-, Goth. ga-), which, as a prefix, made no essential addition to the meaning, as in aware. (5) French a (L. ad to), as in abase, achieve. (6) L. a, ab, abs, from, as in avert. (7) Greek insep. prefix / without, or privative, not, as in abyss, atheist; akin to E. un-.

Abba (n.) Father; religious superior; -- in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch.

Abbe (n.) The French word answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress.

Abbot (n.) One of a class of bishops whose sees were formerly abbeys.

Abderite (n.) An inhabitant of Abdera, in Thrace.

Abelmosk (n.) An evergreen shrub (Hibiscus -- formerly Abelmoschus -- moschatus), of the East and West Indies and Northern Africa, whose musky seeds are used in perfumery and to flavor coffee; -- sometimes called musk mallow.

Aberration (n.) A small periodical change of position in the stars and other heavenly bodies, due to the combined effect of the motion of light and the motion of the observer; called annual aberration, when the observer's motion is that of the earth in its orbit, and daily or diurnal aberration, when of the earth on its axis; amounting when greatest, in the former case, to 20.4'', and in the latter, to 0.3''. Planetary aberration is that due to the motion of light and the motion of the planet relative to the earth.

Aberration (n.) The convergence to different foci, by a lens or mirror, of rays of light emanating from one and the same point, or the deviation of such rays from a single focus; called spherical aberration, when due to the spherical form of the lens or mirror, such form giving different foci for central and marginal rays; and chromatic aberration, when due to different refrangibilities of the colored rays of the spectrum, those of each color having a distinct focus.

Abib (n.) The first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, corresponding nearly to our April. After the Babylonish captivity this month was called Nisan.

Abidance (n.) The state of abiding; abode; continuance; compliance (with).

Abode (imp. & p. p.) of Abide

Abid () of Abide

Abiding (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Abide

Abide (v. i.) To wait; to pause; to delay.

Abide (v. i.) To stay; to continue in a place; to have one's abode; to dwell; to sojourn; -- with with before a person, and commonly with at or in before a place.

Abide (v. i.) To remain stable or fixed in some state or condition; to continue; to remain.

Abide (v. t.) To wait for; to be prepared for; to await; to watch for; as, I abide my time.

Abide (v. t.) To endure; to sustain; to submit to.

Abide (v. t.) To bear patiently; to tolerate; to put up with.

Abide (v. t.) To stand the consequences of; to answer for; to suffer for.

Abider (n.) One who abides, or continues.

Abider (n.) One who dwells; a resident.

Abiding (a.) Continuing; lasting.

Abidingly (adv.) Permanently.

Abies (n.) A genus of coniferous trees, properly called Fir, as the balsam fir and the silver fir. The spruces are sometimes also referred to this genus.

Abietene (n.) A volatile oil distilled from the resin or balsam of the nut pine (Pinus sabiniana) of California.

Abietic (a.) Of or pertaining to the fir tree or its products; as, abietic acid, called also sylvic acid.

Abietin (n.) Alt. of Abietine

Abietine (n.) A resinous obtained from Strasburg turpentine or Canada balsam. It is without taste or smell, is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol (especially at the boiling point), in strong acetic acid, and in ether.

Abietinic (a.) Of or pertaining to abietin; as, abietinic acid.

Abietite (n.) A substance resembling mannite, found in the needles of the common silver fir of Europe (Abies pectinata).

Abigail (n.) A lady's waiting-maid.

Abiliment (n.) Habiliment.

Abilities (pl. ) of Ability

Ability (n.) The quality or state of being able; power to perform, whether physical, moral, intellectual, conventional, or legal; capacity; skill or competence in doing; sufficiency of strength, skill, resources, etc.; -- in the plural, faculty, talent.

Abime (n.) Alt. of Abyme

Abiogenesis (n.) The supposed origination of living organisms from lifeless matter; such genesis as does not involve the action of living parents; spontaneous generation; -- called also abiogeny, and opposed to biogenesis.

Abiogenetic (a.) Of or pertaining to abiogenesis.

Abiogenist (n.) One who believes that life can be produced independently of antecedent.

Abiogenous (a.) Produced by spontaneous generation.

Abiogeny (n.) Same as Abiogenesis.

Abiological (a.) Pertaining to the study of inanimate things.

Abirritant (n.) A medicine that diminishes irritation.

Abirritate (v. t.) To diminish the sensibility of; to debilitate.

Abirritation (n.) A pathological condition opposite to that of irritation; debility; want of strength; asthenia.

Abirritative (a.) Characterized by abirritation or debility.

Abit () 3d sing. pres. of Abide.

Able (superl.) Specially: Having intellectual qualifications, or strong mental powers; showing ability or skill; talented; clever; powerful; as, the ablest man in the senate; an able speech.

Ableness (n.) Ability of body or mind; force; vigor.

Ably (adv.) In an able manner; with great ability; as, ably done, planned, said.

-ably () A suffix composed of -able and the adverbial suffix -ly; as, favorably.

Abode () pret. of Abide.

Abode (n.) Place of continuance, or where one dwells; abiding place; residence; a dwelling; a habitation.

Aboriginal (n.) An original inhabitant of any land; one of the aborigines.

Aborigines (n. pl.) The earliest known inhabitants of a country; native races.

Abort (n.) An untimely birth.

Abortion (n.) The act of giving premature birth; particularly, the expulsion of the human fetus prematurely, or before it is capable of sustaining life; miscarriage.

Abortion (n.) The immature product of an untimely birth.

Above (prep.) Surpassing in number or quantity; more than; as, above a hundred. (Passing into the adverbial sense. See Above, adv., 4.)

Abrasion (n.) The act of abrading, wearing, or rubbing off; the wearing away by friction; as, the abrasion of coins.

Abscess (n.) A collection of pus or purulent matter in any tissue or organ of the body, the result of a morbid process.

Absinthate (n.) A combination of absinthic acid with a base or positive radical.

Absinthin (n.) The bitter principle of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium).

Absinthium (n.) The common wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), an intensely bitter plant, used as a tonic and for making the oil of wormwood.

Absolutism (n.) The state of being absolute; the system or doctrine of the absolute; the principles or practice of absolute or arbitrary government; despotism.

Absolutist (a.) Of or pertaining to absolutism; arbitrary; despotic; as, absolutist principles.

Absolve (v. t.) To set free, or release, as from some obligation, debt, or responsibility, or from the consequences of guilt or such ties as it would be sin or guilt to violate; to pronounce free; as, to absolve a subject from his allegiance; to absolve an offender, which amounts to an acquittal and remission of his punishment.

Absorbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Absorb

Absorb (v. t.) To suck up; to drink in; to imbibe; as a sponge or as the lacteals of the body.

Absorbability (n.) The state or quality of being absorbable.

Absorbent (a.) Absorbing; swallowing; absorptive.

Absorbing (a.) Swallowing, engrossing; as, an absorbing pursuit.

Absorbition (n.) Absorption.

Absorption (n.) The act or process of absorbing or sucking in anything, or of being absorbed and made to disappear; as, the absorption of bodies in a whirlpool, the absorption of a smaller tribe into a larger.

Absorption (n.) An imbibing or reception by molecular or chemical action; as, the absorption of light, heat, electricity, etc.

Absorptive (a.) Having power, capacity, or tendency to absorb or imbibe.

Abstringe (v. t.) To unbind.

Abye (v. t. & i.) To endure; to abide.

Acacia (n.) A genus of leguminous trees and shrubs. Nearly 300 species are Australian or Polynesian, and have terete or vertically compressed leaf stalks, instead of the bipinnate leaves of the much fewer species of America, Africa, etc. Very few are found in temperate climates.

Acacia (n.) The inspissated juice of several species of acacia; -- called also gum acacia, and gum arabic.

Acacine (n.) Gum arabic.

Acatalepsy (n.) Incomprehensibility of things; the doctrine held by the ancient Skeptic philosophers, that human knowledge never amounts to certainty, but only to probability.

Accendibility (n.) Capacity of being kindled, or of becoming inflamed; inflammability.

Accentor (n.) A genus of European birds (so named from their sweet notes), including the hedge warbler. In America sometimes applied to the water thrushes.

Accept (v. t.) To receive as obligatory and promise to pay; as, to accept a bill of exchange.

Acceptability (n.) The quality of being acceptable; acceptableness.

Acceptableness (n.) The quality of being acceptable, or suitable to be favorably received; acceptability.

Acceptance (n.) An assent and engagement by the person on whom a bill of exchange is drawn, to pay it when due according to the terms of the acceptance.

Acceptance (n.) The bill itself when accepted.

Acceptance (n.) An agreeing to the action of another, by some act which binds the person in law.

Acceptor (n.) one who accepts an order or a bill of exchange; a drawee after he has accepted.

Access (n.) A coming to, or near approach; admittance; admission; accessibility; as, to gain access to a prince.

Accessibility (n.) The quality of being accessible, or of admitting approach; receptibility.

Accipiter (n.) A genus of rapacious birds; one of the Accipitres or Raptores.

Accipitres (n. pl.) The order that includes rapacious birds. They have a hooked bill, and sharp, strongly curved talons. There are three families, represented by the vultures, the falcons or hawks, and the owls.

Acclimate (v. t.) To habituate to a climate not native; to acclimatize.

Acclimation (n.) The process of becoming, or the state of being, acclimated, or habituated to a new climate; acclimatization.

Acclimatize (v. t.) To inure or habituate to a climate different from that which is natural; to adapt to the peculiarities of a foreign or strange climate; said of man, the inferior animals, or plants.

Accombination (n.) A combining together.

Accommodation (n.) An accommodation bill or note.

Accompany (v. t.) To cohabit with.

Accompany (v. i.) To cohabit (with).

Accoucheur (n.) A man who assists women in childbirth; a man midwife; an obstetrician.

Accountability (n.) The state of being accountable; liability to be called on to render an account; accountableness.

Accountable ness (n.) The quality or state of being accountable; accountability.

Accustom (v. t.) To make familiar by use; to habituate, familiarize, or inure; -- with to.

Accustom (v. i.) To cohabit.

Accustomable (a.) Habitual; customary; wonted.

Accustomance (n.) Custom; habitual use.

Accustomedness (n.) Habituation.

Acephala (n. pl.) That division of the Mollusca which includes the bivalve shells, like the clams and oysters; -- so called because they have no evident head. Formerly the group included the Tunicata, Brachiopoda, and sometimes the Bryozoa. See Mollusca.

Acephalous (a.) Without a distinct head; -- a term applied to bivalve mollusks.

Acerate (n.) A combination of aceric acid with a salifiable base.

Acerb (a.) Sour, bitter, and harsh to the taste, as unripe fruit; sharp and harsh.

Acerbate (v. t.) To sour; to imbitter; to irritate.

Acerbic (a.) Sour or severe.

Acerbitude (n.) Sourness and harshness.

Acerbity (n.) Sourness of taste, with bitterness and astringency, like that of unripe fruit.

Acerbity (n.) Harshness, bitterness, or severity; as, acerbity of temper, of language, of pain.

Acetated (a.) Combined with acetic acid.

Acetin (n.) A combination of acetic acid with glycerin.

Acetylene (n.) A gaseous compound of carbon and hydrogen, in the proportion of two atoms of the former to two of the latter. It is a colorless gas, with a peculiar, unpleasant odor, and is produced for use as an illuminating gas in a number of ways, but chiefly by the action of water on calcium carbide. Its light is very brilliant.

Acholia (n.) Deficiency or want of bile.

Acholous (a.) Lacking bile.

Achromatic (a.) Uncolored; not absorbing color from a fluid; -- said of tissue.

Achromatopsy (n.) Color blindness; inability to distinguish colors; Daltonism.

Acid (a.) Sour, sharp, or biting to the taste; tart; having the taste of vinegar: as, acid fruits or liquors. Also fig.: Sour-tempered.

Acid (n.) One of a class of compounds, generally but not always distinguished by their sour taste, solubility in water, and reddening of vegetable blue or violet colors. They are also characterized by the power of destroying the distinctive properties of alkalies or bases, combining with them to form salts, at the same time losing their own peculiar properties. They all contain hydrogen, united with a more negative element or radical, either alone, or more generally with oxygen, and take their names from this negative element or radical. Those which contain no oxygen are sometimes called hydracids in distinction from the others which are called oxygen acids or oxacids.

Acidify (v. t.) To sour; to imbitter.

Acidimetry (n.) The measurement of the strength of acids, especially by a chemical process based on the law of chemical combinations, or the fact that, to produce a complete reaction, a certain definite weight of reagent is required.

Acockbill (adv.) Hanging at the cathead, ready to let go, as an anchor.

Acockbill (adv.) Topped up; having one yardarm higher than the other.

Acquirability (n.) The quality of being acquirable; attainableness.

Acquire (v. t.) To gain, usually by one's own exertions; to get as one's own; as, to acquire a title, riches, knowledge, skill, good or bad habits.

Acquit (v. t.) To set free, release or discharge from an obligation, duty, liability, burden, or from an accusation or charge; -- now followed by of before the charge, formerly by from; as, the jury acquitted the prisoner; we acquit a man of evil intentions.

Acquittance (n.) The clearing off of debt or obligation; a release or discharge from debt or other liability.

Acrid (a.) Sharp and harsh, or bitter and not, to the taste; pungent; as, acrid salts.

Acrid (a.) Caustic; bitter; bitterly irritating; as, acrid temper, mind, writing.

Acridness (n.) The quality of being acrid or pungent; irritant bitterness; acrimony; as, the acridity of a plant, of a speech.

Acrimonious (a.) Caustic; bitter-tempered' sarcastic; as, acrimonious dispute, language, temper.

Acrimony (n.) A quality of bodies which corrodes or destroys others; also, a harsh or biting sharpness; as, the acrimony of the juices of certain plants.

Acrimony (n.) Sharpness or severity, as of language or temper; irritating bitterness of disposition or manners.

Acrisy (n.) Inability to judge.

Act (n.) A state of reality or real existence as opposed to a possibility or possible existence.

Action (n.) An act; a thing done; a deed; an enterprise. (pl.): Habitual deeds; hence, conduct; behavior; demeanor.

Acute (a.) Having nice or quick sensibility; susceptible to slight impressions; acting keenly on the senses; sharp; keen; intense; as, a man of acute eyesight, hearing, or feeling; acute pain or pleasure.

Adagial (a.) Pertaining to an adage; proverbial.

Adaptability (n.) Alt. of Adaptableness

Adderwort (n.) The common bistort or snakeweed (Polygonum bistorta).

Addibility (n.) The quantity of being addible; capability of addition.

Addict (v. t.) To apply habitually; to devote; to habituate; -- with to.

Addison's disease () A morbid condition causing a peculiar brownish discoloration of the skin, and thought, at one time, to be due to disease of the suprarenal capsules (two flat triangular bodies covering the upper part of the kidneys), but now known not to be dependent upon this causes exclusively. It is usually fatal.

Adeno- () Combining forms of the Greek word for gland; -- used in words relating to the structure, diseases, etc., of the glands.

Adhibit (v. t.) To admit, as a person or thing; to take in.

Adhibit (v. t.) To use or apply; to administer.

Adhibit (v. t.) To attach; to affix.

Adhibition (n.) The act of adhibiting; application; use.

Adjure (v. t.) To charge, bind, or command, solemnly, as if under oath, or under the penalty of a curse; to appeal to in the most solemn or impressive manner; to entreat earnestly.

Adjutant (n.) A species of very large stork (Ciconia argala), a native of India; -- called also the gigantic crane, and by the native name argala. It is noted for its serpent-destroying habits.

Ad libitum () At one's pleasure; as one wishes.

Administration (n.) The executive part of government; the persons collectively who are intrusted with the execution of laws and the superintendence of public affairs; the chief magistrate and his cabinet or council; or the council, or ministry, alone, as in Great Britain.

Administrative (a.) Pertaining to administration; administering; executive; as, an administrative body, ability, or energy.

Admirability (n.) Admirableness.

Admissibility (n.) The quality of being admissible; admissibleness; as, the admissibility of evidence.

Admission (n.) Declaration of the bishop that he approves of the presentee as a fit person to serve the cure of the church to which he is presented.

Admittance (n.) Admissibility.

Adnubilated (a.) Clouded; obscured.

Adorability (n.) Adorableness.

Adrian (a.) Pertaining to the Adriatic Sea; as, Adrian billows.

Adroit (a.) Dexterous in the use of the hands or in the exercise of the mental faculties; exhibiting skill and readiness in avoiding danger or escaping difficulty; ready in invention or execution; -- applied to persons and to acts; as, an adroit mechanic, an adroit reply.

Adultery (n.) Lewdness or unchastity of thought as well as act, as forbidden by the seventh commandment.

Adultery (n.) The intrusion of a person into a bishopric during the life of the bishop.

Adunque (a.) Hooked; as, a parrot has an adunc bill.

Adust (a.) Having much heat in the constitution and little serum in the blood. [Obs.] Hence: Atrabilious; sallow; gloomy.

Adverbial (a.) Of or pertaining to an adverb; of the nature of an adverb; as, an adverbial phrase or form.

Adverbiality (n.) The quality of being adverbial.

Adverbialize (v. t.) To give the force or form of an adverb to.

Adverbially (adv.) In the manner of an adverb.

Advisability (n.) The quality of being advisable; advisableness.

Advisable-ness (n.) The quality of being advisable or expedient; expediency; advisability.

Adynamia (n.) Considerable debility of the vital powers, as in typhoid fever.

Adynamic (a.) Pertaining to, or characterized by, debility of the vital powers; weak.

Ae () A diphthong in the Latin language; used also by the Saxon writers. It answers to the Gr. ai. The Anglo-Saxon short ae was generally replaced by a, the long / by e or ee. In derivatives from Latin words with ae, it is mostly superseded by e. For most words found with this initial combination, the reader will therefore search under the letter E.

Aeolian (a.) Of or pertaining to Aeolia or Aeolis, in Asia Minor, colonized by the Greeks, or to its inhabitants; aeolic; as, the Aeolian dialect.

Aeolotropic (a.) Exhibiting differences of quality or property in different directions; not isotropic.

Aepyornis (n.) A gigantic bird found fossil in Madagascar.

Aerate (v. t.) To combine or charge with gas; usually with carbonic acid gas, formerly called fixed air.

Aerial (a.) Of or pertaining to the air, or atmosphere; inhabiting or frequenting the air; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air; as, aerial regions or currents.

Aerie (n.) The nest of a bird of prey, as of an eagle or hawk; also a brood of such birds; eyrie. Shak. Also fig.: A human residence or resting place perched like an eagle's nest.

Aerification (n.) The act of combining air with another substance, or the state of being filled with air.

Aerify (v. t.) To infuse air into; to combine air with.

Aero- () The combining form of the Greek word meaning air.

Aerobies (n. pl.) Microorganisms which live in contact with the air and need oxygen for their growth; as the microbacteria which form on the surface of putrefactive fluids.

Aerobiotic (a.) Related to, or of the nature of, aerobies; as, aerobiotic plants, which live only when supplied with free oxygen.

Aerophobia (n.) Alt. of Aerophoby

Esthesiometer (n.) An instrument to measure the degree of sensation, by determining at how short a distance two impressions upon the skin can be distinguished, and thus to determine whether the condition of tactile sensibility is normal or altered.

Affability (n.) The quality of being affable; readiness to converse; courteousness in receiving others and in conversation; complaisant behavior.

Affableness (n.) Affability.

Affect (v. t.) To show a fondness for; to like to use or practice; to choose; hence, to frequent habitually.

Affectation (n.) An attempt to assume or exhibit what is not natural or real; false display; artificial show.

Affectationist (n.) One who exhibits affectation.

Affectibility (n.) The quality or state of being affectible.

Affection (n.) Prejudice; bias.

Affection (n.) Disease; morbid symptom; malady; as, a pulmonary affection.

Affeer (v. t.) To assess or reduce, as an arbitrary penalty or amercement, to a certain and reasonable sum.

Affray (v. t.) The act of suddenly disturbing any one; an assault or attack.

Affriction (n.) The act of rubbing against.

Affy (v. t.) To bind in faith.

After (a.) To ward the stern of the ship; -- applied to any object in the rear part of a vessel; as the after cabin, after hatchway.

Afterbirth (n.) The placenta and membranes with which the fetus is connected, and which come away after delivery.

Afterpains (n. pl.) The pains which succeed childbirth, as in expelling the afterbirth.

Agalaxy (n.) Failure of the due secretion of milk after childbirth.

Agami (n.) A South American bird (Psophia crepitans), allied to the cranes, and easily domesticated; -- called also the gold-breasted trumpeter. Its body is about the size of the pheasant. See Trumpeter.

Agate (n.) A tool used by gold-wire drawers, bookbinders, etc.; -- so called from the agate fixed in it for burnishing.

Agglutinate (a.) Consisting of root words combined but not materially altered as to form or meaning; as, agglutinate forms, languages, etc. See Agglutination, 2.

Agglutination (n.) Combination in which root words are united with little or no change of form or loss of meaning. See Agglutinative, 2.

Agio (n.) The premium or percentage on a better sort of money when it is given in exchange for an inferior sort. The premium or discount on foreign bills of exchange is sometimes called agio.

Agiotage (n.) Exchange business; also, stockjobbing; the maneuvers of speculators to raise or lower the price of stocks or public funds.

Aglutition (n.) Inability to swallow.

Agouty (n.) A rodent of the genus Dasyprocta, about the size of a rabbit, peculiar to South America and the West Indies. The most common species is the Dasyprocta agouti.

Agreeability (n.) Easiness of disposition.

Agreeability (n.) The quality of being, or making one's self, agreeable; agreeableness.

Agreeable (a.) In pursuance, conformity, or accordance; -- in this sense used adverbially for agreeably; as, agreeable to the order of the day, the House took up the report.

Agrimony (n.) The name is also given to various other plants; as, hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum); water agrimony (Bidens).

Ail (n.) Indisposition or morbid affection.

Ailment (n.) Indisposition; morbid affection of the body; -- not applied ordinarily to acute diseases.

Aino (n.) One of a peculiar race inhabiting Yesso, the Kooril Islands etc., in the northern part of the empire of Japan, by some supposed to have been the progenitors of the Japanese. The Ainos are stout and short, with hairy bodies.

Air cell () A receptacle of air in various parts of the system; as, a cell or minute cavity in the walls of the air tubes of the lungs; the air sac of birds; a dilatation of the air vessels in insects.

Air sac () One of the spaces in different parts of the bodies of birds, which are filled with air and connected with the air passages of the lungs; an air cell.

Air vessel () A vessel, cell, duct, or tube containing or conducting air; as the air vessels of insects, birds, plants, etc.; the air vessel of a pump, engine, etc. For the latter, see Air chamber. The air vessels of insects are called tracheae, of plants spiral vessels.

Airy (a.) Having an affected manner; being in the habit of putting on airs; affectedly grand.

Al- (A prefix.) The Arabic definite article answering to the English the; as, Alkoran, the Koran or the Book; alchemy, the chemistry.

Alilonghi (n.) The tunny. See Albicore.

Albacore (n.) See Albicore.

Albatross (n.) A web-footed bird, of the genus Diomedea, of which there are several species. They are the largest of sea birds, capable of long-continued flight, and are often seen at great distances from the land. They are found chiefly in the southern hemisphere.

Albertite (n.) A bituminous mineral resembling asphaltum, found in the county of A. /bert, New Brunswick.

Albicant (a.) Growing or becoming white.

Albication (n.) The process of becoming white, or developing white patches, or streaks.

Albicore (n.) A name applied to several large fishes of the Mackerel family, esp. Orcynus alalonga. One species (Orcynus thynnus), common in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, is called in New England the horse mackerel; the tunny.

Albification (n.) The act or process of making white.

Albigenses (n. pl.) Alt. of Albigeois

Albigeois (n. pl.) A sect of reformers opposed to the church of Rome in the 12th centuries.

Albigensian (a.) Of or pertaining to the Albigenses.

Albiness (n.) A female albino.

Albinism (n.) The state or condition of being an albino: abinoism; leucopathy.

Albinistic (a.) Affected with albinism.

Albinos (pl. ) of Albino

Albino (n.) A person, whether negro, Indian, or white, in whom by some defect of organization the substance which gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes is deficient or in a morbid state. An albino has a skin of a milky hue, with hair of the same color, and eyes with deep red pupil and pink or blue iris. The term is also used of the lower animals, as white mice, elephants, etc.; and of plants in a whitish condition from the absence of chlorophyll.

Albinoism (n.) The state or condition of being an albino; albinism.

Albinotic (a.) Affected with albinism.

Albion (n.) An ancient name of England, still retained in poetry.

Albite (n.) A mineral of the feldspar family, triclinic in crystallization, and in composition a silicate of alumina and soda. It is a common constituent of granite and of various igneous rocks. See Feldspar.

Albuminin (n.) The substance of the cells which inclose the white of birds' eggs.

Albuminuria (n.) A morbid condition in which albumin is present in the urine.

Albumose (n.) A compound or class of compounds formed from albumin by dilute acids or by an acid solution of pepsin. Used also in combination, as antialbumose, hemialbumose.

Alcaic (n.) A kind of verse, so called from Alcaeus. One variety consists of five feet, a spondee or iambic, an iambic, a long syllable, and two dactyls.

Alcedo (n.) A genus of perching birds, including the European kingfisher (Alcedo ispida). See Halcyon.

Aldehyde (n.) A colorless, mobile, and very volatile liquid obtained from alcohol by certain processes of oxidation.

Ale (n.) An intoxicating liquor made from an infusion of malt by fermentation and the addition of a bitter, usually hops.

Alectorides (n. pl.) A group of birds including the common fowl and the pheasants.

Alembic (n.) An apparatus formerly used in distillation, usually made of glass or metal. It has mostly given place to the retort and worm still.

Algaroba (n.) The Honey mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), a small tree found from California to Buenos Ayres; also, its sweet, pulpy pods. A valuable gum, resembling gum arabic, is collected from the tree in Texas and Mexico.

Alhambresque (a.) Made or decorated after the fanciful style of the ornamentation in the Alhambra, which affords an unusually fine exhibition of Saracenic or Arabesque architecture.

Alibi (n.) The plea or mode of defense under which a person on trial for a crime proves or attempts to prove that he was in another place when the alleged act was committed; as, to set up an alibi; to prove an alibi.

Alibility (n.) Quality of being alible.

Alienability (n.) Capability of being alienated.

Alight (v. i.) To descend and settle, lodge, rest, or stop; as, a flying bird alights on a tree; snow alights on a roof.

Alive (a.) Exhibiting the activity and motion of many living beings; swarming; thronged.

Alive (a.) Having susceptibility; easily impressed; having lively feelings, as opposed to apathy; sensitive.

Alkali (n.) One of a class of caustic bases, such as soda, potash, ammonia, and lithia, whose distinguishing peculiarities are solubility in alcohol and water, uniting with oils and fats to form soap, neutralizing and forming salts with acids, turning to brown several vegetable yellows, and changing reddened litmus to blue.

Allantoidea (n. pl.) The division of Vertebrata in which the embryo develops an allantois. It includes reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Allantoid (n.) A membranous appendage of the embryos of mammals, birds, and reptiles, -- in mammals serving to connect the fetus with the parent; the urinary vesicle.

Allay (v. t.) To alleviate; to abate; to mitigate; as, to allay the severity of affliction or the bitterness of adversity.

Allegorical (a.) Belonging to, or consisting of, allegory; of the nature of an allegory; describing by resemblances; figurative.

Allomerism (n.) Variability in chemical constitution without variation in crystalline form.

Allonge (v.) A slip of paper attached to a bill of exchange for receiving indorsements, when the back of the bill itself is already full; a rider.

Allowable (a.) Proper to be, or capable of being, allowed; permissible; admissible; not forbidden; not unlawful or improper; as, a certain degree of freedom is allowable among friends.

Allowableness (n.) The quality of being allowable; permissibleness; lawfulness; exemption from prohibition or impropriety.

Alloxanate (n.) A combination of alloxanic acid and a base or base or positive radical.

Alloy (v. t.) Any combination or compound of metals fused together; a mixture of metals; for example, brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc. But when mercury is one of the metals, the compound is called an amalgam.

Alloyage (n.) The act or art of alloying metals; also, the combination or alloy.

Allspice (n.) The berry of the pimento (Eugenia pimenta), a tree of the West Indies; a spice of a mildly pungent taste, and agreeably aromatic; Jamaica pepper; pimento. It has been supposed to combine the flavor of cinnamon, nutmegs, and cloves; and hence the name. The name is also given to other aromatic shrubs; as, the Carolina allspice (Calycanthus floridus); wild allspice (Lindera benzoin), called also spicebush, spicewood, and feverbush.

Almoner (n.) One who distributes alms, esp. the doles and alms of religious houses, almshouses, etc.; also, one who dispenses alms for another, as the almoner of a prince, bishop, etc.

Aloe (n.) A genus of succulent plants, some classed as trees, others as shrubs, but the greater number having the habit and appearance of evergreen herbaceous plants; from some of which are prepared articles for medicine and the arts. They are natives of warm countries.

Aloin (n.) A bitter purgative principle in aloes.

Alpenstock (n.) A long staff, pointed with iron, used in climbing the Alps.

Alpia (n.) The seed of canary grass (Phalaris Canariensis), used for feeding cage birds.

Alsatian (n.) An inhabitant of Alsatia or Alsace in Germany, or of Alsatia or White Friars (a resort of debtors and criminals) in London.

Alterability (n.) The quality of being alterable; alterableness.

Alterableness (n.) The quality of being alterable; variableness; alterability.

Alterative (a.) Gradually changing, or tending to change, a morbid state of the functions into one of health.

Althea (n.) An ornamental shrub (Hibiscus Syriacus) of the Mallow family.

Altitude (n.) Space extended upward; height; the perpendicular elevation of an object above its foundation, above the ground, or above a given level, or of one object above another; as, the altitude of a mountain, or of a bird above the top of a tree.

Altrices (n. pl.) Nursers, -- a term applied to those birds whose young are hatched in a very immature and helpless condition, so as to require the care of their parents for some time; -- opposed to praecoces.

Aluminated (a.) Combined with alumina.

Amability (n.) Lovableness.

Amadavat (n.) The strawberry finch, a small Indian song bird (Estrelda amandava), commonly caged and kept for fighting. The female is olive brown; the male, in summer, mostly crimson; -- called also red waxbill.

Amalgam (n.) An alloy of mercury with another metal or metals; as, an amalgam of tin, bismuth, etc.

Amalgamate (v. t.) To compound or mix, as quicksilver, with another metal; to unite, combine, or alloy with mercury.

Amalgamate (v. t.) To mix, so as to make a uniform compound; to unite or combine; as, to amalgamate two races; to amalgamate one race with another.

Amalgamate (v. i.) To coalesce, as a result of growth; to combine into a uniform whole; to blend; as, two organs or parts amalgamate.

Amalgamated (a.) Coalesced; united; combined.

Amalgamation (n.) The mixing or blending of different elements, races, societies, etc.; also, the result of such combination or blending; a homogeneous union.

Amarine (n.) A characteristic crystalline substance, obtained from oil of bitter almonds.

Amateurism (n.) The practice, habit, or work of an amateur.

Amb- () Alt. of Ambi-

Ambi- () A prefix meaning about, around; -- used in words derived from the Latin.

Ambergris (n.) A substance of the consistence of wax, found floating in the Indian Ocean and other parts of the tropics, and also as a morbid secretion in the intestines of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), which is believed to be in all cases its true origin. In color it is white, ash-gray, yellow, or black, and often variegated like marble. The floating masses are sometimes from sixty to two hundred and twenty-five pounds in weight. It is wholly volatilized as a white vapor at 212¡ Fahrenheit, and is highly valued in perfumery.

Amber seed () Seed of the Hibiscus abelmoschus, somewhat resembling millet, brought from Egypt and the West Indies, and having a flavor like that of musk; musk seed.

Ambidexter (a.) Using both hands with equal ease.

Ambidexter (n.) A person who uses both hands with equal facility.

Ambidexter (n.) A double-dealer; one equally ready to act on either side in party disputes.

Ambidexter (n.) A juror who takes money from both parties for giving his verdict.

Ambidexterity (n.) The quality of being ambidextrous; the faculty of using both hands with equal facility.

Ambidexterity (n.) Versatility; general readiness; as, ambidexterity of argumentation.

Ambidexterity (n.) Double-dealing.

Ambidexterity (n.) A juror's taking of money from the both parties for a verdict.

Ambidextral (a.) Pertaining equally to the right-hand side and the left-hand side.

Ambidextrous (a.) Having the faculty of using both hands with equal ease.

Ambidextrous (a.) Practicing or siding with both parties.

Ambidextrously (adv.) In an ambidextrous manner; cunningly.

Ambidextrousness (n.) The quality of being ambidextrous; ambidexterity.

Ambient (a.) Encompassing on all sides; circumfused; investing.

Ambient (n.) Something that surrounds or invests; as, air . . . being a perpetual ambient.

Ambigenous (a.) Of two kinds.

Ambigenous (a.) Partaking of two natures, as the perianth of some endogenous plants, where the outer surface is calycine, and the inner petaloid.

Ambigu (n.) An entertainment at which a medley of dishes is set on at the same time.

Ambiguities (pl. ) of Ambiguity

Ambiguity (n.) The quality or state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty, particularly as to the signification of language, arising from its admitting of more than one meaning; an equivocal word or expression.

Ambiguous (a.) Doubtful or uncertain, particularly in respect to signification; capable of being understood in either of two or more possible senses; equivocal; as, an ambiguous course; an ambiguous expression.

Ambiguously (adv.) In an ambiguous manner; with doubtful meaning.

Ambiguousness (n.) Ambiguity.

Ambilevous (a.) Left-handed on both sides; clumsy; -- opposed to ambidexter.

Ambiloquy (n.) Doubtful or ambiguous language.

Ambiparous (a.) Characterized by containing the rudiments of both flowers and leaves; -- applied to a bud.

Ambit (n.) Circuit or compass.

Ambition (n.) The act of going about to solicit or obtain an office, or any other object of desire; canvassing.

Ambition (n.) An eager, and sometimes an inordinate, desire for preferment, honor, superiority, power, or the attainment of something.

Ambition (v. t.) To seek after ambitiously or eagerly; to covet.

Ambitionist (n.) One excessively ambitious.

Ambitionless (a.) Devoid of ambition.

Ambitious (a.) Possessing, or controlled by, ambition; greatly or inordinately desirous of power, honor, office, superiority, or distinction.

Ambitious (a.) Strongly desirous; -- followed by of or the infinitive; as, ambitious to be or to do something.

Ambitious (a.) Springing from, characterized by, or indicating, ambition; showy; aspiring; as, an ambitious style.

Ambitiously (adv.) In an ambitious manner.

Ambitiousness (n.) The quality of being ambitious; ambition; pretentiousness.

Ambitus (n.) The exterior edge or border of a thing, as the border of a leaf, or the outline of a bivalve shell.

Ambitus (n.) A canvassing for votes.

Amblypoda (n. pl.) A group of large, extinct, herbivorous mammals, common in the Tertiary formation of the United States.

Amboyna wood () A beautiful mottled and curled wood, used in cabinetwork. It is obtained from the Pterocarpus Indicus of Amboyna, Borneo, etc.

Ambreate (n.) A salt formed by the combination of ambreic acid with a base or positive radical.

Ambulator (n.) A genus of birds, or one of this genus.

Amir (n.) One of the Mohammedan nobility of Afghanistan and Scinde.

Amenability (n.) The quality of being amenable; amenableness.

Amenableness (n.) The quality or state of being amenable; liability to answer charges; answerableness.

Amendment (n.) In public bodies; Any alternation made or proposed to be made in a bill or motion by adding, changing, substituting, or omitting.

Amercement (n.) The infliction of a penalty at the discretion of the court; also, a mulct or penalty thus imposed. It differs from a fine,in that the latter is, or was originally, a fixed and certain sum prescribed by statue for an offense; but an amercement is arbitrary. Hence, the act or practice of affeering. [See Affeer.]

American (n.) A native of America; -- originally applied to the aboriginal inhabitants, but now applied to the descendants of Europeans born in America, and especially to the citizens of the United States.

Amiability (n.) The quality of being amiable; amiableness; sweetness of disposition.

Amiableness (n.) The quality of being amiable; amiability.

Amicability (n.) The quality of being amicable; friendliness; amicableness.

Amicable (a.) Friendly; proceeding from, or exhibiting, friendliness; after the manner of friends; peaceable; as, an amicable disposition, or arrangement.

Amicableness (n.) The quality of being amicable; amicability.

Amissibility () The quality of being amissible; possibility of being lost.

Gum ammoniac (n.) The concrete juice (gum resin) of an umbelliferous plant, the Dorema ammoniacum. It is brought chiefly from Persia in the form of yellowish tears, which occur singly, or are aggregated into masses. It has a peculiar smell, and a nauseous, sweet taste, followed by a bitter one. It is inflammable, partially soluble in water and in spirit of wine, and is used in medicine as an expectorant and resolvent, and for the formation of certain plasters.

Ammoniated (a.) Combined or impregnated with ammonia.

Amnion (n.) A thin membrane surrounding the embryos of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

Amniota (n. pl.) That group of vertebrates which develops in its embryonic life the envelope called the amnion. It comprises the reptiles, the birds, and the mammals.

Amoebian (n.) One of the Amoebea.

Amoebiform (a.) Alt. of Amoeboid

Amount (n.) The sum total of two or more sums or quantities; the aggregate; the whole quantity; a totality; as, the amount of 7 and 9 is 16; the amount of a bill; the amount of this year's revenue.

Amovability (n.) Liability to be removed or dismissed from office.

Amphibia (n. pl.) One of the classes of vertebrates.

Amphibial (a. & n.) Amphibian.

Amphibian (a.) Of or pertaining to the Amphibia; as, amphibian reptiles.

Amphibian (n.) One of the Amphibia.

Amphibiological (a.) Pertaining to amphibiology.

Amphibiology (n.) A treatise on amphibious animals; the department of natural history which treats of the Amphibia.

Amphibiotica (n. pl.) A division of insects having aquatic larvae.

Amphibious (a.) Having the ability to live both on land and in water, as frogs, crocodiles, beavers, and some plants.

Amphibious (a.) Pertaining to, adapted for, or connected with, both land and water.

Amphibious (a.) Of a mixed nature; partaking of two natures.

Amphibiously (adv.) Like an amphibious being.

Amphibia (pl. ) of Amphibium

Amphibiums (pl. ) of Amphibium

Amphibium (n.) An amphibian.

Amphibolic (a.) Of or pertaining to amphiboly; ambiguous; equivocal.

Amphibological (a.) Of doubtful meaning; ambiguous.

Amphibolous (a.) Ambiguous; doubtful.

Amphiboly (n.) Ambiguous discourse; amphibology.

Amphichroic (a.) Exhibiting or producing two colors, as substances which in the color test may change red litmus to blue and blue litmus to red.

Amphicoelous (a.) Having both ends concave; biconcave; -- said of vertebrae.

Amphid (n.) A salt of the class formed by the combination of an acid and a base, or by the union of two oxides, two sulphides, selenides, or tellurides, as distinguished from a haloid compound.

Amphigen (n.) An element that in combination produces amphid salt; -- applied by Berzelius to oxygen, sulphur, selenium, and tellurium.

Amphilogy (n.) Ambiguity of speech; equivocation.

Amphineura (n. pl.) A division of Mollusca remarkable for the bilateral symmetry of the organs and the arrangement of the nerves.

Amphipneust (n.) One of a tribe of Amphibia, which have both lungs and gills at the same time, as the proteus and siren.

Amphipoda (n. pl.) A numerous group of fourteen -- footed Crustacea, inhabiting both fresh and salt water. The body is usually compressed laterally, and the anterior pairs or legs are directed downward and forward, but the posterior legs are usually turned upward and backward. The beach flea is an example. See Tetradecapoda and Arthrostraca.

Amphisbaena (n.) A genus of harmless lizards, serpentlike in form, without legs, and with both ends so much alike that they appear to have a head at each, and ability to move either way. See Illustration in Appendix.

Amphiscians (n. pl.) The inhabitants of the tropic, whose shadows in one part of the year are cast to the north, and in the other to the south, according as the sun is south or north of their zenith.

Amphitheatrical (a.) Of, pertaining to, exhibited in, or resembling, an amphitheater.

Amphiuma (n.) A genus of amphibians, inhabiting the Southern United States, having a serpentlike form, but with four minute limbs and two persistent gill openings; the Congo snake.

Ampyx (n.) A woman's headband (sometimes of metal), for binding the front hair.

Amygdalin (n.) A glucoside extracted from bitter almonds as a white, crystalline substance.

Amylene (n.) One of a group of metameric hydrocarbons, C5H10, of the ethylene series. The colorless, volatile, mobile liquid commonly called amylene is a mixture of different members of the group.

Amylose (n.) One of the starch group (C6H10O5)n of the carbohydrates; as, starch, arabin, dextrin, cellulose, etc.

Anabas (n.) A genus of fishes, remarkable for their power of living long out of water, and of making their way on land for considerable distances, and for climbing trees; the climbing fishes.

Anacharis (n.) A fresh-water weed of the frog's-bit family (Hydrocharidaceae), native to America. Transferred to England it became an obstruction to navigation. Called also waterweed and water thyme.

Anaconda (n.) A large South American snake of the Boa family (Eunectes murinus), which lives near rivers, and preys on birds and small mammals. The name is also applied to a similar large serpent (Python tigris) of Ceylon.

Anaemia (a.) A morbid condition in which the blood is deficient in quality or in quantity.

Anaerobic (a.) Relating to, or like, anaerobies; anaerobiotic.

Anaerobies (n. pl.) Microorganisms which do not require oxygen, but are killed by it.

Anaerobiotic (a.) Related to, or of the nature of, anaerobies.

Anaesthesia (n.) Entire or partial loss or absence of feeling or sensation; a state of general or local insensibility produced by disease or by the inhalation or application of an anaesthetic.

Anaesthetic (a.) Characterized by, or connected with, insensibility; as, an anaesthetic effect or operation.

Anaesthetic (n.) That which produces insensibility to pain, as chloroform, ether, etc.

Analgesia (n.) Absence of sensibility to pain.

Anallantoidea (n. pl.) The division of Vertebrata in which no allantois is developed. It includes amphibians, fishes, and lower forms.

Analyzer (n.) The part of a polariscope which receives the light after polarization, and exhibits its properties.

Anamorphosis (n.) A morbid or monstrous development, or change of form, or degeneration.

Ancestry (n.) Condition as to ancestors; ancestral lineage; hence, birth or honorable descent.

Anchor (n.) Fig.: That which gives stability or security; that on which we place dependence for safety.

Ancientry (n.) Ancient lineage; ancestry; dignity of birth.

Andalusite (n.) A silicate of aluminium, occurring usually in thick rhombic prisms, nearly square, of a grayish or pale reddish tint. It was first discovered in Andalusia, Spain.

androus () A terminal combining form: Having a stamen or stamens; staminate; as, monandrous, with one stamen; polyandrous, with many stamens.

Anecdote (n.) A particular or detached incident or fact of an interesting nature; a biographical incident or fragment; a single passage of private life.

Anelectrotonus (n.) The condition of decreased irritability of a nerve in the region of the positive electrode or anode on the passage of a current of electricity through it.

Angio- () A prefix, or combining form, in numerous compounds, usually relating to seed or blood vessels, or to something contained in, or covered by, a vessel.

Anglo- () A combining form meaning the same as English; or English and, or English conjoined with; as, Anglo-Turkish treaty, Anglo-German, Anglo-Irish.

Anglophobia (n.) Intense dread of, or aversion to, England or the English.

Angular (a.) Fig.: Lean; lank; raw-boned; ungraceful; sharp and stiff in character; as, remarkably angular in his habits and appearance; an angular female.

Angular (n.) A bone in the base of the lower jaw of many birds, reptiles, and fishes.

Anhima (n.) A South American aquatic bird; the horned screamer or kamichi (Palamedea cornuta). See Kamichi.

Anhinga (n.) An aquatic bird of the southern United States (Platus anhinga); the darter, or snakebird.

Ano (n.) A black bird of tropical America, the West Indies and Florida (Crotophaga ani), allied to the cuckoos, and remarkable for communistic nesting.

Anisodactyls (n. pl.) A group of herbivorous mammals characterized by having the hoofs in a single series around the foot, as the elephant, rhinoceros, etc.

Anisodactyls (n. pl.) A group of perching birds which are anisodactylous.

Anisodactylous (a.) Characterized by unequal toes, three turned forward and one backward, as in most passerine birds.

Annex (v. t.) To attach or connect, as a consequence, condition, etc.; as, to annex a penalty to a prohibition, or punishment to guilt.

Annihilation (n.) The act of reducing to nothing, or nonexistence; or the act of destroying the form or combination of parts under which a thing exists, so that the name can no longer be applied to it; as, the annihilation of a corporation.

Annotine (n.) A bird one year old, or that has once molted.

Anodon (n.) A genus of fresh-water bivalves, having no teeth at the hinge.

Anomaliped (n.) One of a group of perching birds, having the middle toe more or less united to the outer and inner ones.

Anomaly (n.) The angular distance of a planet from its perihelion, as seen from the sun. This is the true anomaly. The eccentric anomaly is a corresponding angle at the center of the elliptic orbit of the planet. The mean anomaly is what the anomaly would be if the planet's angular motion were uniform.

Anomia (n.) A genus of bivalve shells, allied to the oyster, so called from their unequal valves, of which the lower is perforated for attachment.

Anseres (n. pl.) A Linnaean order of aquatic birds swimming by means of webbed feet, as the duck, or of lobed feet, as the grebe. In this order were included the geese, ducks, auks, divers, gulls, petrels, etc.

Anseriformes (n. pl.) A division of birds including the geese, ducks, and closely allied forms.

Answer (n.) A counter-statement of facts in a course of pleadings; a confutation of what the other party has alleged; a responsive declaration by a witness in reply to a question. In Equity, it is the usual form of defense to the complainant's charges in his bill.

Ant bird () See Ant bird, under Ant, n.

Antecedent (a.) Presumptive; as, an antecedent improbability.

Antenatal (a.) Before birth.

Anteorbital (a. & n.) Same as Antorbital.

Antero- () A combining form meaning anterior, front; as, antero-posterior, front and back; antero-lateral, front side, anterior and at the side.

Antestomach (n.) A cavity which leads into the stomach, as in birds.

Antherozooid (n.) One of the mobile male reproductive bodies in the antheridia of cryptogams.

Anthobian (n.) A beetle which feeds on flowers.

Anthracite (n.) A hard, compact variety of mineral coal, of high luster, differing from bituminous coal in containing little or no bitumen, in consequence of which it burns with a nearly non luminous flame. The purer specimens consist almost wholly of carbon. Also called glance coal and blind coal.

Antiae (n. pl.) The two projecting feathered angles of the forehead of some birds; the frontal points.

Antibillous (a.) Counteractive of bilious complaints; tending to relieve biliousness.

Antichthon (n.) Inhabitants of opposite hemispheres.

Antiguggler (n.) A crooked tube of metal, to be introduced into the neck of a bottle for drawing out the liquid without disturbing the sediment or causing a gurgling noise.

Antihydrophobic (a.) Counteracting or preventing hydrophobia.

Antihydrophobic (n.) A remedy for hydrophobia.

Antilyssic (a. & n.) Antihydrophobic.

Antimere (n.) One of the two halves of bilaterally symmetrical animals; one of any opposite symmetrical or homotypic parts in animals and plants.

Antimoniated (a.) Combined or prepared with antimony; as, antimoniated tartar.

Antimoniureted (a.) Combined with or containing antimony; as, antimoniureted hydrogen.

Antinomy (n.) A contradiction or incompatibility of thought or language; -- in the Kantian philosophy, such a contradiction as arises from the attempt to apply to the ideas of the reason, relations or attributes which are appropriate only to the facts or the concepts of experience.

Antipathy (n.) Natural contrariety; incompatibility; repugnancy of qualities; as, oil and water have antipathy.

Antiquary (n.) One devoted to the study of ancient times through their relics, as inscriptions, monuments, remains of ancient habitations, statues, coins, manuscripts, etc.; one who searches for and studies the relics of antiquity.

Antiscii (n. pl.) The inhabitants of the earth, living on different sides of the equator, whose shadows at noon are cast in opposite directions.

Antitrochanter (n.) An articular surface on the ilium of birds against which the great trochanter of the femur plays.

Antorbital (a.) Pertaining to, or situated in, the region of the front of the orbit.

Antorbital (n.) The antorbital bone.

Ant thrush () One of several species of tropical birds, of the Old World, of the genus Pitta, somewhat resembling the thrushes, and feeding chiefly on ants.

Ant thrush () See Ant bird, under Ant.

Anubis (n.) An Egyptian deity, the conductor of departed spirits, represented by a human figure with the head of a dog or fox.

Anura (n. pl.) One of the orders of amphibians characterized by the absence of a tail, as the frogs and toads.

Apagoge (n.) An indirect argument which proves a thing by showing the impossibility or absurdity of the contrary.

Apagogical (a.) Proving indirectly, by showing the absurdity, or impossibility of the contrary.

Apastron (n.) That point in the orbit of a double star where the smaller star is farthest from its primary.

Aphelion (n.) That point of a planet's or comet's orbit which is most distant from the sun, the opposite point being the perihelion.

Apheliotropism (n.) The habit of bending from the sunlight; -- said of certain plants.

Aphthong (n.) A letter, or a combination of letters, employed in spelling a word, but in the pronunciation having no sound.

Aphyllous (a.) Destitute of leaves, as the broom rape, certain euphorbiaceous plants, etc.

Aplanatic (a.) Having two or more parts of different curvatures, so combined as to remove spherical aberration; -- said of a lens.

Aplustre (n.) An ornamental appendage of wood at the ship's stern, usually spreading like a fan and curved like a bird's feather.

Apocynin (n.) A bitter principle obtained from the dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum).

Apode (n.) One of certain animals that have no feet or footlike organs; esp. one of certain fabulous birds which were said to have no feet.

Apoda (n.) An order of Amphibia without feet. See Ophiomorpha.

Apogee (n.) That point in the orbit of the moon which is at the greatest distance from the earth.

Apoplectical (a.) Relating to apoplexy; affected with, inclined to, or symptomatic of, apoplexy; as, an apoplectic person, medicine, habit or temperament, symptom, fit, or stroke.

Apparel (n.) External clothing; vesture; garments; dress; garb; external habiliments or array.

Apparent (a.) Clear or manifest to the understanding; plain; evident; obvious; known; palpable; indubitable.

Apparition (n.) The act of becoming visible; appearance; visibility.

Appearance (n.) Personal presence; exhibition of the person; look; aspect; mien.

Appearance (n.) Probability; likelihood.

Appellancy (n.) Capability of appeal.

Appetibility (n.) The quality of being desirable.

Applicability (n.) The quality of being applicable or fit to be applied.

Appointment (n.) A honorary part or exercise, as an oration, etc., at a public exhibition of a college; as, to have an appointment.

Apposed (a.) Placed in apposition; mutually fitting, as the mandibles of a bird's beak.

Apprehensibiity (n.) The quality of being apprehensible.

Apprentice (v. t.) To bind to, or put under the care of, a master, for the purpose of instruction in a trade or business.

Approach (v. t.) To come near to in place, time, or character; to draw nearer to; as, to approach the city; to approach my cabin; he approached the age of manhood.

Approachability (n.) The quality of being approachable; approachableness.

Approachableness (n.) The quality or state of being approachable; accessibility.

Apse (n.) A projecting part of a building, esp. of a church, having in the plan a polygonal or semicircular termination, and, most often, projecting from the east end. In early churches the Eastern apse was occupied by seats for the bishop and clergy.

Apse (n.) The bishop's seat or throne, in ancient churches.

Apsidal (a.) Of or pertaining to the apsides of an orbit.

Apsis (n.) One of the two points of an orbit, as of a planet or satellite, which are at the greatest and least distance from the central body, corresponding to the aphelion and perihelion of a planet, or to the apogee and perigee of the moon. The more distant is called the higher apsis; the other, the lower apsis; and the line joining them, the line of apsides.

Apt (a.) Having an habitual tendency; habitually liable or likely; -- used of things.

Apteria (n. pl.) Naked spaces between the feathered areas of birds. See Pteryliae.

Apteryges (n. pl.) An order of birds, including the genus Apteryx.

Apteryx (n.) A genus of New Zealand birds about the size of a hen, with only short rudiments of wings, armed with a claw and without a tail; the kiwi. It is allied to the gigantic extinct moas of the same country. Five species are known.

Aquatile (a.) Inhabiting the water.

Aquatinta (n.) A kind of etching in which spaces are bitten by the use of aqua fortis, by which an effect is produced resembling a drawing in water colors or India ink; also, the engraving produced by this method.

Arab (n.) One of a swarthy race occupying Arabia, and numerous in Syria, Northern Africa, etc.

Arabesque (a.) Arabian.

Arabesque (a.) Relating to, or exhibiting, the style of ornament called arabesque; as, arabesque frescoes.

Arabian (a.) Of or pertaining to Arabia or its inhabitants.

Arabian (n.) A native of Arabia; an Arab.

Arabic (a.) Of or pertaining to Arabia or the Arabians.

Arabic (n.) The language of the Arabians.

Arabical (a.) Relating to Arabia; Arabic.

Arabin (n.) A carbohydrate, isomeric with cane sugar, contained in gum arabic, from which it is extracted as a white, amorphous substance.

Arabin (n.) Mucilage, especially that made of gum arabic.

Arabinose (n.) A sugar of the composition C5H10O5, obtained from cherry gum by boiling it with dilute sulphuric acid.

Arabism (n.) An Arabic idiom peculiarly of language.

Arabist (n.) One well versed in the Arabic language or literature; also, formerly, one who followed the Arabic system of surgery.

Araby (n.) The country of Arabia.

Aracari (n.) A South American bird, of the genus Pleroglossius, allied to the toucans. There are several species.

Aragonese (a.) Of or pertaining to Aragon, in Spain, or to its inhabitants.

Aramaic (a.) Pertaining to Aram, or to the territory, inhabitants, language, or literature of Syria and Mesopotamia; Aramaean; -- specifically applied to the northern branch of the Semitic family of languages, including Syriac and Chaldee.

Arbiter (n.) A person appointed, or chosen, by parties to determine a controversy between them.

Arbiter (n.) Any person who has the power of judging and determining, or ordaining, without control; one whose power of deciding and governing is not limited.

Arbiter (v. t.) To act as arbiter between.

Arbitrable (v. t.) Capable of being decided by arbitration; determinable.

Arbitrage (n.) Judgment by an arbiter; authoritative determination.

Arbitrage (n.) A traffic in bills of exchange (see Arbitration of Exchange); also, a traffic in stocks which bear differing values at the same time in different markets.

Arbitral (a.) Of or relating to an arbiter or an arbitration.

Arbitrament (n.) Determination; decision; arbitration.

Arbitrament (n.) The award of arbitrators.

Arbitrarily (adv.) In an arbitrary manner; by will only; despotically; absolutely.

Arbitrariness (n.) The quality of being arbitrary; despoticalness; tyranny.

Arbitrarious (a.) Arbitrary; despotic.

Arbitrary (a.) Depending on will or discretion; not governed by any fixed rules; as, an arbitrary decision; an arbitrary punishment.

Arbitrary (a.) Exercised according to one's own will or caprice, and therefore conveying a notion of a tendency to abuse the possession of power.

Arbitrary (a.) Despotic; absolute in power; bound by no law; harsh and unforbearing; tyrannical; as, an arbitrary prince or government.

Arbitrated (imp. & p. p.) of Arbitrate

Arbitrating (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Arbitrate

Arbitrate (v. t.) To hear and decide, as arbitrators; as, to choose to arbitrate a disputed case.

Arbitrate (v. t.) To decide, or determine generally.

Arbitrate (v. i.) To decide; to determine.

Arbitrate (v. i.) To act as arbitrator or judge; as, to arbitrate upon several reports; to arbitrate in disputes among neighbors; to arbitrate between parties to a suit.

Arbitration (n.) The hearing and determination of a cause between parties in controversy, by a person or persons chosen by the parties.

Arbitrator (n.) A person, or one of two or more persons, chosen by parties who have a controversy, to determine their differences. See Arbitration.

Arbitrator (n.) One who has the power of deciding or prescribing without control; a ruler; a governor.

Arbitratrix (n.) A female who arbitrates or judges.

Arbitress (n.) A female arbiter; an arbitratrix.

Arboreous (a.) Having the form, constitution, or habits, of a proper tree, in distinction from a shrub.

Arboricole (a.) Tree-inhabiting; -- said of certain birds.

Arbor vine () A species of bindweed.

Archaeopteryx (n.) A fossil bird, of the Jurassic period, remarkable for having a long tapering tail of many vertebrae with feathers along each side, and jaws armed with teeth, with other reptilian characteristics.

Archbishop (n.) A chief bishop; a church dignitary of the first class (often called a metropolitan or primate) who superintends the conduct of the suffragan bishops in his province, and also exercises episcopal authority in his own diocese.

Archbishopric (n.) The jurisdiction or office of an archbishop; the see or province over which archbishop exercises archiepiscopal authority.

Archdeacon (n.) In England, an ecclesiastical dignitary, next in rank below a bishop, whom he assists, and by whom he is appointed, though with independent authority.

Archdiocese (n.) The diocese of an archbishop.

Archebiosis (n.) The origination of living matter from non-living. See Abiogenesis.

Archegony (n.) Spontaneous generation; abiogenesis.

Archiepiscopacy (n.) That form of episcopacy in which the chief power is in the hands of archbishops.

Archiepiscopacy (n.) The state or dignity of an archbishop.

Archiepiscopal (a.) Of or pertaining to an archbishop; as, Canterbury is an archiepiscopal see.

Archiepiscopality (n.) The station or dignity of an archbishop; archiepiscopacy.

Archiepiscopate (n.) The office of an archbishop; an archbishopric.

Archierey (n.) The higher order of clergy in Russia, including metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops.

Archprelate (n.) An archbishop or other chief prelate.

Archwife (n.) A big, masculine wife.

Arena (n.) The area in the central part of an amphitheater, in which the gladiators fought and other shows were exhibited; -- so called because it was covered with sand.

Argali (n.) A species of wild sheep (Ovis ammon, or O. argali), remarkable for its large horns. It inhabits the mountains of Siberia and central Asia.

Argala (n.) The adjutant bird.

Argental (a.) Of or pertaining to silver; resembling, containing, or combined with, silver.

Argue (v. t.) To prove or evince; too manifest or exhibit by inference, deduction, or reasoning.

Argus (n.) A genus of East Indian pheasants. The common species (A. giganteus) is remarkable for the great length and beauty of the wing and tail feathers of the male. The species A. Grayi inhabits Borneo.

Aridity (n.) Fig.: Want of interest of feeling; insensibility; dryness of style or feeling; spiritual drought.

Ariel gazelle () A variety of the gazelle (Antilope, / Gazella, dorcas), found in Arabia and adjacent countries.

Aristocrat (n.) One who is overbearing in his temper or habits; a proud or haughty person.

Ark shell () A marine bivalve shell belonging to the genus Arca and its allies.

Arles (n. pl.) An earnest; earnest money; money paid to bind a bargain.

Armed (a.) Having horns, beak, talons, etc; -- said of beasts and birds of prey.

Arnicin (n.) An active principle of Arnica montana. It is a bitter resin.

Arrasways (adv.) Placed in such a position as to exhibit the top and two sides, the corner being in front; -- said of a rectangular form.

Arrogance (n.) The act or habit of arrogating, or making undue claims in an overbearing manner; that species of pride which consists in exorbitant claims of rank, dignity, estimation, or power, or which exalts the worth or importance of the person to an undue degree; proud contempt of others; lordliness; haughtiness; self-assumption; presumption.

Arrogant (a.) Making, or having the disposition to make, exorbitant claims of rank or estimation; giving one's self an undue degree of importance; assuming; haughty; -- applied to persons.

Arrogation (n.) The act of arrogating, or making exorbitant claims; the act of taking more than one is justly entitled to.

Arsenic (n.) One of the elements, a solid substance resembling a metal in its physical properties, but in its chemical relations ranking with the nonmetals. It is of a steel-gray color and brilliant luster, though usually dull from tarnish. It is very brittle, and sublimes at 356¡ Fahrenheit. It is sometimes found native, but usually combined with silver, cobalt, nickel, iron, antimony, or sulphur. Orpiment and realgar are two of its sulphur compounds, the first of which is the true arsenicum of the ancients. The element and its compounds are active poisons. Specific gravity from 5.7 to 5.9. Atomic weight 75. Symbol As.

Arsenicate (v. t.) To combine with arsenic; to treat or impregnate with arsenic.

Arseniureted (a.) Combined with arsenic; -- said some elementary substances or radicals; as, arseniureted hydrogen.

Artful (a.) Using or exhibiting much art, skill, or contrivance; dexterous; skillful.

Article (n.) To accuse or charge by an exhibition of articles.

Article (n.) To bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; as, to article an apprentice to a mechanic.

Articulary (n.) A bone in the base of the lower jaw of many birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.

Artistry (n.) Artistic pursuits; artistic ability.

As (adv. & conj.) Denoting equality or likeness in kind, degree, or manner; like; similar to; in the same manner with or in which; in accordance with; in proportion to; to the extent or degree in which or to which; equally; no less than; as, ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil; you will reap as you sow; do as you are bidden.

Asaphus (n.) A genus of trilobites found in the Lower Silurian formation. See Illust. in Append.

Asbolin (n.) A peculiar acrid and bitter oil, obtained from wood soot.

Ascendant (n.) The horoscope, or that degree of the ecliptic which rises above the horizon at the moment of one's birth; supposed to have a commanding influence on a person's life and fortune.

Ascians (n. pl.) Persons who, at certain times of the year, have no shadow at noon; -- applied to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who have, twice a year, a vertical sun.

Asclepiad (n.) A choriambic verse, first used by the Greek poet Asclepias, consisting of four feet, viz., a spondee, two choriambi, and an iambus.

Ascribing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Ascribe

Ascription (n.) The act of ascribing, imputing, or affirming to belong; also, that which is ascribed.

Ashantee (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Ashantee in Western Africa.

Asiatic (a.) Of or pertaining to Asia or to its inhabitants.

Asininity (n.) The quality of being asinine; stupidity combined with obstinacy.

Asiphonate (a.) Destitute of a siphon or breathing tube; -- said of many bivalve shells.

Asiphonida (n. pl.) A group of bivalve mollusks destitute of siphons, as the oyster; the asiphonate mollusks.

Asp (n.) A small, hooded, poisonous serpent of Egypt and adjacent countries, whose bite is often fatal. It is the Naja haje. The name is also applied to other poisonous serpents, esp. to Vipera aspis of southern Europe. See Haje.

Asparagus (n.) A genus of perennial plants belonging to the natural order Liliaceae, and having erect much branched stems, and very slender branchlets which are sometimes mistaken for leaves. Asparagus racemosus is a shrubby climbing plant with fragrant flowers. Specifically: The Asparagus officinalis, a species cultivated in gardens.

Asper (a.) Rough; rugged; harsh; bitter; stern; fierce.

Asphaltum (n.) Mineral pitch, Jews' pitch, or compact native bitumen. It is brittle, of a black or brown color and high luster on a surface of fracture; it melts and burns when heated, leaving no residue. It occurs on the surface and shores of the Dead Sea, which is therefore called Asphaltites, or the Asphaltic Lake. It is found also in many parts of Asia, Europe, and America. See Bitumen.

Asphaltum (n.) A composition of bitumen, pitch, lime, and gravel, used for forming pavements, and as a water-proof cement for bridges, roofs, etc.; asphaltic cement. Artificial asphalt is prepared from coal tar, lime, sand, etc.

Asphaltic (a.) Pertaining to, of the nature of, or containing, asphalt; bituminous.

Assegai (n.) A spear used by tribes in South Africa as a missile and for stabbing, a kind of light javelin.

Assamar (n.) The peculiar bitter substance, soft or liquid, and of a yellow color, produced when meat, bread, gum, sugar, starch, and the like, are roasted till they turn brown.

Assamese (a.) Of or pertaining to Assam, a province of British India, or to its inhabitants.

Assart (n.) The act or offense of grubbing up trees and bushes, and thus destroying the thickets or coverts of a forest.

Assets (n. pl.) The entire property of all sorts, belonging to a person, a corporation, or an estate; as, the assets of a merchant or a trading association; -- opposed to liabilities.

Assibilate (v. t.) To make sibilant; to change to a sibilant.

Assibilation (n.) Change of a non-sibilant letter to a sibilant, as of -tion to -shun, duke to ditch.

Assignability (n.) The quality of being assignable.

Assignable (a.) Capable of being assigned, allotted, specified, or designated; as, an assignable note or bill; an assignable reason; an assignable quantity.

Assignat (n.) One of the notes, bills, or bonds, issued as currency by the revolutionary government of France (1790-1796), and based on the security of the lands of the church and of nobles which had been appropriated by the state.

Assignment (n.) A transfer of title or interest by writing, as of lease, bond, note, or bill of exchange; a transfer of the whole of some particular estate or interest in lands.

Assimilability (n.) The quality of being assimilable.

Associability (n.) The quality of being associable, or capable of association; associableness.

Associableness (n.) Associability.

Associate (v. t.) To join or connect; to combine in acting; as, particles of gold associated with other substances.

Associate (a.) Closely connected or joined with some other, as in interest, purpose, employment, or office; sharing responsibility or authority; as, an associate judge.

Associate (a.) Connected by habit or sympathy; as, associate motions, such as occur sympathetically, in consequence of preceding motions.

Associated (a.) Joined as a companion; brought into association; accompanying; combined.

Assuefaction (n.) The act of accustoming, or the state of being accustomed; habituation.

Assuetude (n.) Accustomedness; habit; habitual use.

Assume (v. t.) To take for granted, or without proof; to suppose as a fact; to suppose or take arbitrarily or tentatively.

Assumpsit (n.) An action to recover damages for a breach or nonperformance of a contract or promise, express or implied, oral or in writing not under seal. Common or indebitatus assumpsit is brought for the most part on an implied promise. Special assumpsit is founded on an express promise or undertaking.

Assured (a.) Made sure; safe; insured; certain; indubitable; not doubting; bold to excess.

Assuredly (adv.) Certainly; indubitably.

Assyrian (a.) Of or pertaining to Assyria, or to its inhabitants.

Assyrian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Assyria; the language of Assyria.

Astarte (n.) A genus of bivalve mollusks, common on the coasts of America and Europe.

Asterism (n.) An optical property of some crystals which exhibit a star-shaped by reflected light, as star sapphire, or by transmitted light, as some mica.

Asteroid (n.) A starlike body; esp. one of the numerous small planets whose orbits lie between those of Mars and Jupiter; -- called also planetoids and minor planets.

Astheny (n.) Want or loss of strength; debility; diminution of the vital forces.

Asthenic (a.) Characterized by, or pertaining to, debility; weak; debilitating.

Astragalus (n.) The ankle bone, or hock bone; the bone of the tarsus which articulates with the tibia at the ankle.

Astrict (v. t.) To bind up; to confine; to constrict; to contract.

Astrict (v. t.) To bind; to constrain; to restrict; to limit.

Astriction (n.) The act of binding; restriction; also, obligation.

Astringe (v. t.) To bind fast; to constrict; to contract; to cause parts to draw together; to compress.

Astringe (v. t.) To bind by moral or legal obligation.

Astringent (a.) Drawing together the tissues; binding; contracting; -- opposed to laxative; as, astringent medicines; a butter and astringent taste; astringent fruit.

Astro- () The combining form of the Greek word 'a`stron, meaning star.

Astrofell (n.) A bitter herb, probably the same as aster, or starwort.

Astrography (n.) The art of describing or delineating the stars; a description or mapping of the heavens.

Aswail (n.) The sloth bear (Melursus labiatus) of India.

Asymmetrical (a.) Not symmetrical; wanting proportion; esp., not bilaterally symmetrical.

Asymmetry (n.) Want of symmetry, or proportion between the parts of a thing, esp. want of bilateral symmetry.

Asymmetry (n.) Incommensurability.

-ate () In chemistry it is used to denote the salts formed from those acids whose names end -ic (excepting binary or halogen acids); as, sulphate from sulphuric acid, nitrate from nitric acid, etc. It is also used in the case of certain basic salts.

Athanasian (a.) Of or pertaining to Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria in the 4th century.

Athermancy (n.) Inability to transmit radiant heat; impermeability to heat.

Atlas (n.) A work in which subjects are exhibited in a tabular from or arrangement; as, an historical atlas.

Atmolysis (n.) The act or process of separating mingled gases of unequal diffusibility by transmission through porous substances.

Atom (n.) The smallest particle of matter that can enter into combination; one of the elementary constituents of a molecule.

Atrabilarian (a.) Alt. of Atrabilarious

Atrabilarious (a.) Affected with melancholy; atrabilious.

Atrabilarian (n.) A person much given to melancholy; a hypochondriac.

Atrabiliar (a.) Melancholy; atrabilious.

Atrabiliary (a.) Of or pertaining to atra bilis or black bile, a fluid formerly supposed to be produced by the kidneys.

Atrabiliary (a.) Melancholic or hypohondriac; atrabilious; -- from the supposed predominance of black bile, to the influence of which the ancients attributed hypochondria, melancholy, and mania.

Atrabilious (a.) Melancholic or hypochondriac; atrabiliary.

Attach (v. t.) To bind, fasten, tie, or connect; to make fast or join; as, to attach one thing to another by a string, by glue, or the like.

Attach (v. t.) To win the heart of; to connect by ties of love or self-interest; to attract; to fasten or bind by moral influence; -- with to; as, attached to a friend; attaching others to us by wealth or flattery.

Attachment (n.) The act attaching, or state of being attached; close adherence or affection; fidelity; regard; an/ passion of affection that binds a person; as, an attachment to a friend, or to a party.

Attack (n.) An assault upon one's feelings or reputation with unfriendly or bitter words.

Attainability (n.) The quality of being attainable; attainableness.

Attainableness (n.) The quality of being attainable; attainability.

Attend (v. t.) To wait for; to await; to remain, abide, or be in store for.

Attentat (n.) A proceeding in a court of judicature, after an inhibition is decreed.

Attle (n.) Rubbish or refuse consisting of broken rock containing little or no ore.

Attract (v. t.) To draw to, or cause to tend to; esp. to cause to approach, adhere, or combine; or to cause to resist divulsion, separation, or decomposition.

Attractability (n.) The quality or fact of being attractable.

Attraction (n.) An invisible power in a body by which it draws anything to itself; the power in nature acting mutually between bodies or ultimate particles, tending to draw them together, or to produce their cohesion or combination, and conversely resisting separation.

Attribution (n.) The act of attributing or ascribing, as a quality, character, or function, to a thing or person, an effect to a cause.

Attrition (n.) The act of rubbing together; friction; the act of wearing by friction, or by rubbing substances together; abrasion.

Aubin (n.) A broken gait of a horse, between an amble and a gallop; -- commonly called a Canterbury gallop.

Auction (n.) A public sale of property to the highest bidder, esp. by a person licensed and authorized for the purpose; a vendue.

Auctioneer (n.) A person who sells by auction; a person whose business it is to dispose of goods or lands by public sale to the highest or best bidder.

Audibility (n.) The quality of being audible; power of being heard; audible capacity.

Augment (v. t.) To enlarge or increase in size, amount, or degree; to swell; to make bigger; as, to augment an army by reeforcements; rain augments a stream; impatience augments an evil.

Augur (n.) An official diviner who foretold events by the singing, chattering, flight, and feeding of birds, or by signs or omens derived from celestial phenomena, certain appearances of quadrupeds, or unusual occurrences.

Augury (n.) The art or practice of foretelling events by observing the actions of birds, etc.; divination.

August (a.) Of a quality inspiring mingled admiration and reverence; having an aspect of solemn dignity or grandeur; sublime; majestic; having exalted birth, character, state, or authority.

Augustinian (a.) Of or pertaining to St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo in Northern Africa (b. 354 -- d. 430), or to his doctrines.

Auk (n.) A name given to various species of arctic sea birds of the family Alcidae. The great auk, now extinct, is Alca (/ Plautus) impennis. The razor-billed auk is A. torda. See Puffin, Guillemot, and Murre.

Aurate (n.) A combination of auric acid with a base; as, aurate or potassium.

Aurated (a.) Combined with auric acid.

Auriculars (n. pl.) A circle of feathers surrounding the opening of the ear of birds.

Auriculated (a.) Having ears or appendages like ears; eared. Esp.: (a) (Bot.) Having lobes or appendages like the ear; shaped like the ear; auricled. (b) (Zool.) Having an angular projection on one or both sides, as in certain bivalve shells, the foot of some gastropods, etc.

Aurochloride (n.) The trichloride of gold combination with the chloride of another metal, forming a double chloride; -- called also chloraurate.

Aurochs (n.) The European bison (Bison bonasus, / Europaeus), once widely distributed, but now nearly extinct, except where protected in the Lithuanian forests, and perhaps in the Caucasus. It is distinct from the Urus of Caesar, with which it has often been confused.

Auspicate (v. t.) To give a favorable turn to in commencing; to inaugurate; -- a sense derived from the Roman practice of taking the auspicium, or inspection of birds, before undertaking any important business.

Auspice (a.) A divining or taking of omens by observing birds; an omen as to an undertaking, drawn from birds; an augury; an omen or sign in general; an indication as to the future.

Austere () Sour and astringent; rough to the state; having acerbity; as, an austere crab apple; austere wine.

Austereness (n.) Harshness or astringent sourness to the taste; acerbity.

Australasian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Australasia.

Australian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Australia.

Austrian (a.) Of or pertaining to Austria, or to its inhabitants.

Austrian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Austria.

Auto- () A combining form, with the meaning of self, one's self, one's own, itself, its own.

Autobiographer (n.) One who writers his own life or biography.

Autobiographic (a.) Alt. of Autobiographical

Autobiographical (a.) Pertaining to, or containing, autobiography; as, an autobiographical sketch.

Autobiographist (n.) One who writes his own life; an autobiographer.

Autobiographies (pl. ) of Autobiography

Autobiography (n.) A biography written by the subject of it; memoirs of one's life written by one's self.

Autochthon (n.) One who is supposed to rise or spring from the ground or the soil he inhabits; one of the original inhabitants or aborigines; a native; -- commonly in the plural. This title was assumed by the ancient Greeks, particularly the Athenians.

Autocratical (a.) Of or pertaining to autocracy or to an autocrat; absolute; holding independent and arbitrary powers of government.

Automaton (v. i.) A self-moving machine, or one which has its motive power within itself; -- applied chiefly to machines which appear to imitate spontaneously the motions of living beings, such as men, birds, etc.

Autostylic (a.) Having the mandibular arch articulated directly to the cranium, as in the skulls of the Amphibia.

Availabilities (pl. ) of Availability

Availability (n.) The quality of being available; availableness.

Availability (n.) That which is available.

Availableness (n.) Quality of being available; capability of being used for the purpose intended.

Average (a.) Pertaining to an average or mean; medial; containing a mean proportion; of a mean size, quality, ability, etc.; ordinary; usual; as, an average rate of profit; an average amount of rain; the average Englishman; beings of the average stamp.

Avernian (a.) Of or pertaining to Avernus, a lake of Campania, in Italy, famous for its poisonous vapors, which ancient writers fancied were so malignant as to kill birds flying over it. It was represented by the poets to be connected with the infernal regions.

Averroist (n.) One of a sect of peripatetic philosophers, who appeared in Italy before the restoration of learning; so denominated from Averroes, or Averrhoes, a celebrated Arabian philosopher. He held the doctrine of monopsychism.

Aves (n. pl.) The class of Vertebrata that includes the birds.

Avian (a.) Of or instrument to birds.

Aviary (n.) A house, inclosure, large cage, or other place, for keeping birds confined; a bird house.

Avicula (n.) A genus of marine bivalves, having a pearly interior, allied to the pearl oyster; -- so called from a supposed resemblance of the typical species to a bird.

Avicular (a.) Of or pertaining to a bird or to birds.

Avicularia (n. pl.) See prehensile processes on the cells of some Bryozoa, often having the shape of a bird's bill.

Aviculture (n.) Rearing and care of birds.

Avifauna (n.) The birds, or all the kinds of birds, inhabiting a region.

Avoset (n.) A grallatorial bird, of the genus Recurvirostra; the scooper. The bill is long and bend upward toward the tip. The American species is R. Americana.

Avow (n.) To bind, or to devote, by a vow.

Award (v. t.) To give by sentence or judicial determination; to assign or apportion, after careful regard to the nature of the case; to adjudge; as, the arbitrators awarded damages to the complainant.

Award (v. t.) A judgment, sentence, or final decision. Specifically: The decision of arbitrators in a case submitted.

Award (v. t.) The paper containing the decision of arbitrators; that which is warded.

Awful (a.) Worshipful; reverential; law-abiding.

Awl (n.) A pointed instrument for piercing small holes, as in leather or wood; used by shoemakers, saddlers, cabinetmakers, etc. The blade is differently shaped and pointed for different uses, as in the brad awl, saddler's awl, shoemaker's awl, etc.

Awning (n.) That part of the poop deck which is continued forward beyond the bulkhead of the cabin.

Axis (n.) One of several imaginary lines, assumed in describing the position of the planes by which a crystal is bounded.

Axolotl (n.) An amphibian of the salamander tribe found in the elevated lakes of Mexico; the siredon.

Azo- () A combining form of azote

Azo- () Applied loosely to compounds having nitrogen variously combined, as in cyanides, nitrates, etc.

Azotite (n.) A salt formed by the combination of azotous, or nitrous, acid with a base; a nitrite.

Aztec (a.) Of or relating to one of the early races in Mexico that inhabited the great plateau of that country at the time of the Spanish conquest in 1519.

B () is the second letter of the English alphabet. (See Guide to Pronunciation, // 196, 220.) It is etymologically related to p, v, f, w and m , letters representing sounds having a close organic affinity to its own sound; as in Eng. bursar and purser; Eng. bear and Lat. ferre; Eng. silver and Ger. silber; Lat. cubitum and It. gomito; Eng. seven, Anglo-Saxon seofon, Ger. sieben, Lat. septem, Gr."epta`, Sanskrit saptan. The form of letter B is Roman, from Greek B (Beta), of Semitic origin. The small b was formed by gradual change from the capital B.

Babbitt (v. t.) To line with Babbitt metal.

Babbitt metal () A soft white alloy of variable composition (as a nine parts of tin to one of copper, or of fifty parts of tin to five of antimony and one of copper) used in bearings to diminish friction.

Babbler (n.) A name given to any one of family (Timalinae) of thrushlike birds, having a chattering note.

Babian (n.) Alt. of Babion

Babion (n.) A baboon.

Babillard (n.) The lesser whitethroat of Europe; -- called also babbling warbler.

Babingtonite (n.) A mineral occurring in triclinic crystals approaching pyroxene in angle, and of a greenish black color. It is a silicate of iron, manganese, and lime.

Babiroussa (n.) Alt. of Babirussa

Babirussa (n.) A large hoglike quadruped (Sus, / Porcus, babirussa) of the East Indies, sometimes domesticated; the Indian hog. Its upper canine teeth or tusks are large and recurved.

Babish (a.) Like a babe; a childish; babyish.

Babism (n.) The doctrine of a modern religious sect, which originated in Persia in 1843, being a mixture of Mohammedan, Christian, Jewish and Parsee elements.

Babist (n.) A believer in Babism.

Babies (pl. ) of Baby

Babied (imp. & p. p.) of Baby

Baby farm () A place where the nourishment and care of babies are offered for hire.

Babylonian (n.) An inhabitant of Babylonia (which included Chaldea); a Chaldean.

Baccivorous (a.) Eating, or subsisting on, berries; as, baccivorous birds.

Backbite (v. i.) To wound by clandestine detraction; to censure meanly or spitefully (an absent person); to slander or speak evil of (one absent).

Backbite (v. i.) To censure or revile the absent.

Backbiter (n.) One who backbites; a secret calumniator or detractor.

Backbiting (n.) Secret slander; detraction.

Backing (n.) That which is behind, and forms the back of, anything, usually giving strength or stability.

Backwash (v. i.) To clean the oil from (wood) after combing.

Bad (superl.) Wanting good qualities, whether physical or moral; injurious, hurtful, inconvenient, offensive, painful, unfavorable, or defective, either physically or morally; evil; vicious; wicked; -- the opposite of good; as, a bad man; bad conduct; bad habits; bad soil; bad health; bad crop; bad news.

Badger (n.) A carnivorous quadruped of the genus Meles or of an allied genus. It is a burrowing animal, with short, thick legs, and long claws on the fore feet. One species (M. vulgaris), called also brock, inhabits the north of Europe and Asia; another species (Taxidea Americana / Labradorica) inhabits the northern parts of North America. See Teledu.

Bag (v. i.) To swell or hang down like a full bag; as, the skin bags from containing morbid matter.

Bail bond () Special bail in court to abide the judgment.

Baker (v. i.) One whose business it is to bake bread, biscuit, etc.

Balaam (n.) A paragraph describing something wonderful, used to fill out a newspaper column; -- an allusion to the miracle of Balaam's ass speaking.

Balance (n.) To make the sums of the debits and credits of an account equal; -- said of an item; as, this payment, or credit, balances the account.

Balance (n.) To arrange accounts in such a way that the sum total of the debits is equal to the sum total of the credits; as, to balance a set of books.

Ballooning spider () A spider which has the habit of rising into the air. Many kinds ( esp. species of Lycosa) do this while young by ejecting threads of silk until the force of the wind upon them carries the spider aloft.

Balsam (n.) A species of tree (Abies balsamea).

Baltimore bird () Alt. of Baltimore oriole

Baltimore oriole () A common American bird (Icterus galbula), named after Lord Baltimore, because its colors (black and orange red) are like those of his coat of arms; -- called also golden robin.

Bambino (n.) A child or baby; esp., a representation in art of the infant Christ wrapped in swaddling clothes.

Bambino (n.) Babe Ruth.

Ban (n.) A public proclamation or edict; a public order or notice, mandatory or prohibitory; a summons by public proclamation.

Ban (n.) An interdiction, prohibition, or proscription.

Ban (n.) A pecuniary mulct or penalty laid upon a delinquent for offending against a ban; as, a mulct paid to a bishop by one guilty of sacrilege or other crimes.

Ban (v. t.) To forbid; to interdict.

Band (v. t.) A narrow strip of cloth or other material on any article of dress, to bind, strengthen, ornament, or complete it.

Band (v. t.) To bind or tie with a band.

Bandage (n.) A fillet or strip of woven material, used in dressing and binding up wounds, etc.

Bandage (v. t.) To bind, dress, or cover, with a bandage; as, to bandage the eyes.

Bank (n.) An establishment for the custody, loan, exchange, or issue, of money, and for facilitating the transmission of funds by drafts or bills of exchange; an institution incorporated for performing one or more of such functions, or the stockholders (or their representatives, the directors), acting in their corporate capacity.

Bank bill () In America (and formerly in England), a promissory note of a bank payable to the bearer on demand, and used as currency; a bank note.

Bank bill () In England, a note, or a bill of exchange, of a bank, payable to order, and usually at some future specified time. Such bills are negotiable, but form, in the strict sense of the term, no part of the currency.

Bank book () A book kept by a depositor, in which an officer of a bank enters the debits and credits of the depositor's account with the bank.

Banker (n.) One who conducts the business of banking; one who, individually, or as a member of a company, keeps an establishment for the deposit or loan of money, or for traffic in money, bills of exchange, etc.

Bank note () Formerly, a promissory note made by a banker, or banking company, payable to a specified person at a fixed date; a bank bill. See Bank bill, 2.

Bankrupt (n.) A person who, in accordance with the terms of a law relating to bankruptcy, has been judicially declared to be unable to meet his liabilities.

Bankrupt (a.) Depleted of money; not having the means of meeting pecuniary liabilities; as, a bankrupt treasury.

Banter (v. t.) To jest about; to ridicule in speaking of, as some trait, habit, characteristic, and the like.

Bar (n.) The space between the tusks and grinders in the upper jaw of a horse, in which the bit is placed.

Bar (n.) To restrict or confine, as if by a bar; to hinder; to obstruct; to prevent; to prohibit; as, to bar the entrance of evil; distance bars our intercourse; the statute bars my right; the right is barred by time; a release bars the plaintiff's recovery; -- sometimes with up.

Barb (n.) A bit for a horse.

Barbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Barb

Barbacan (n.) See Barbican.

Barbacanage (n.) See Barbicanage.

Barbet (n.) A bird of the family Bucconidae, allied to the Cuckoos, having a large, conical beak swollen at the base, and bearded with five bunches of stiff bristles; the puff bird. It inhabits tropical America and Africa.

Barbican (n.) Alt. of Barbacan

Barbicanage (n.) Alt. of Barbacanage

Barbacanage (n.) Money paid for the support of a barbican.

Barbicel (n.) One of the small hooklike processes on the barbules of feathers.

Barbiers (n.) A variety of paralysis, peculiar to India and the Malabar coast; -- considered by many to be the same as beriberi in chronic form.

Barbigerous (a.) Having a beard; bearded; hairy.

Barbiton (n.) An ancient Greek instrument resembling a lyre.

Barbituric acid () A white, crystalline substance, CH2(CO.NH)2.CO, derived from alloxantin, also from malonic acid and urea, and regarded as a substituted urea.

Baresark (n.) A Berserker, or Norse warrior who fought without armor, or shirt of mail. Hence, adverbially: Without shirt of mail or armor.

Bargain (n.) An agreement between parties concerning the sale of property; or a contract by which one party binds himself to transfer the right to some property for a consideration, and the other party binds himself to receive the property and pay the consideration.

Barnabite (n.) A member of a religious order, named from St. Barnabas.

Baron (n.) A title or degree of nobility; originally, the possessor of a fief, who had feudal tenants under him; in modern times, in France and Germany, a nobleman next in rank below a count; in England, a nobleman of the lowest grade in the House of Lords, being next below a viscount.

Barrenwort (n.) An herbaceous plant of the Barberry family (Epimedium alpinum), having leaves that are bitter and said to be sudorific.

Barrow (n.) A heap of rubbish, attle, etc.

Base (a.) Of humble birth; or low degree; lowly; mean.

Base (a.) Illegitimate by birth; bastard.

Base (n.) The positive, or non-acid component of a salt; a substance which, combined with an acid, neutralizes the latter and forms a salt; -- applied also to the hydroxides of the positive elements or radicals, and to certain organic bodies resembling them in their property of forming salts with acids.

Basi- () A combining form, especially in anatomical and botanical words, to indicate the base or position at or near a base; forming a base; as, basibranchials, the most ventral of the cartilages or bones of the branchial arches; basicranial, situated at the base of the cranium; basifacial, basitemporal, etc.

Basic (a.) Apparently alkaline, as certain normal salts which exhibit alkaline reactions with test paper.

Basking shark () One of the largest species of sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), so called from its habit of basking in the sun; the liver shark, or bone shark. It inhabits the northern seas of Europe and America, and grows to a length of more than forty feet. It is a harmless species.

Basque (n.) One of a race, of unknown origin, inhabiting a region on the Bay of Biscay in Spain and France.

Bat (n.) Shale or bituminous shale.

Batavian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Batavia or Holland.

Batfowling (n.) A mode of catching birds at night, by holding a torch or other light, and beating the bush or perch where they roost. The birds, flying to the light, are caught with nets or otherwise.

Bathybius (n.) A name given by Prof. Huxley to a gelatinous substance found in mud dredged from the Atlantic and preserved in alcohol. He supposed that it was free living protoplasm, covering a large part of the ocean bed. It is now known that the substance is of chemical, not of organic, origin.

Batrachia (n. pl.) The order of amphibians which includes the frogs and toads; the Anura. Sometimes the word is used in a wider sense as equivalent to Amphibia.

Baunscheidtism (n.) A form of acupuncture, followed by the rubbing of the part with a stimulating fluid.

Bavarian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Bavaria.

Bay (n.) The laurel tree (Laurus nobilis). Hence, in the plural, an honorary garland or crown bestowed as a prize for victory or excellence, anciently made or consisting of branches of the laurel.

Baya (n.) The East Indian weaver bird (Ploceus Philippinus).

Bayberry (n.) The fruit of the bay tree or Laurus nobilis.

Bay tree () A species of laurel. (Laurus nobilis).

Bdellium (n.) An unidentified substance mentioned in the Bible (Gen. ii. 12, and Num. xi. 7), variously taken to be a gum, a precious stone, or pearls, or perhaps a kind of amber found in Arabia.

Bead (n.) A little perforated ball, to be strung on a thread, and worn for ornament; or used in a rosary for counting prayers, as by Roman Catholics and Mohammedans, whence the phrases to tell beads, to at one's beads, to bid beads, etc., meaning, to be at prayer.

Beadle (v.) A messenger or crier of a court; a servitor; one who cites or bids persons to appear and answer; -- called also an apparitor or summoner.

Beak (n.) The bill or nib of a bird, consisting of a horny sheath, covering the jaws. The form varied much according to the food and habits of the bird, and is largely used in the classification of birds.

Beak (n.) A similar bill in other animals, as the turtles.

Beak (n.) The upper or projecting part of the shell, near the hinge of a bivalve.

Beak (n.) Any process somewhat like the beak of a bird, terminating the fruit or other parts of a plant.

Beakiron (n.) A bickern; a bench anvil with a long beak, adapted to reach the interior surface of sheet metal ware; the horn of an anvil.

Beambird (n.) A small European flycatcher (Muscicapa gricola), so called because it often nests on a beam in a building.

Bear (v. t.) To sustain, or be answerable for, as blame, expense, responsibility, etc.

Bear (n.) A bier.

Bear (n.) An animal which has some resemblance to a bear in form or habits, but no real affinity; as, the woolly bear; ant bear; water bear; sea bear.

Bearbind (n.) The bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis).

Beard (n.) The cluster of small feathers at the base of the beak in some birds

Beard (n.) The gills of some bivalves, as the oyster.

Beard (n.) In insects, the hairs of the labial palpi of moths and butterflies.

Bearing (n.) The act, power, or time of producing or giving birth; as, a tree in full bearing; a tree past bearing.

Bear's-paw (n.) A large bivalve shell of the East Indies (Hippopus maculatus), often used as an ornament.

Beastly (a.) Pertaining to, or having the form, nature, or habits of, a beast.

Beat (v. i.) To move with pulsation or throbbing.

Beat (n.) A sudden swelling or reenforcement of a sound, recurring at regular intervals, and produced by the interference of sound waves of slightly different periods of vibrations; applied also, by analogy, to other kinds of wave motions; the pulsation or throbbing produced by the vibrating together of two tones not quite in unison. See Beat, v. i., 8.

Beat (v. i.) A place of habitual or frequent resort.

Beating (n.) Pulsation; throbbing; as, the beating of the heart.

Beaver (n.) An amphibious rodent, of the genus Castor.

Bebeerine (n.) Alt. of Bebirine

Bebirine (n.) An alkaloid got from the bark of the bebeeru, or green heart of Guiana (Nectandra Rodioei). It is a tonic, antiperiodic, and febrifuge, and is used in medicine as a substitute for quinine.

Becard (n.) A South American bird of the flycatcher family. (Tityra inquisetor).

Beccafico (n.) A small bird. (Silvia hortensis), which is highly prized by the Italians for the delicacy of its flesh in the autumn, when it has fed on figs, grapes, etc.

Bed (v. t.) To make partaker of one's bed; to cohabit with.

Bed (v. i.) To go to bed; to cohabit.

Bedaubing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Bedaub

Beden (n.) The Abyssinian or Arabian ibex (Capra Nubiana). It is probably the wild goat of the Bible.

Bedlamite (n.) An inhabitant of a madhouse; a madman.

Bedouin (n.) One of the nomadic Arabs who live in tents, and are scattered over Arabia, Syria, and northern Africa, esp. in the deserts.

Beebread (n.) A brown, bitter substance found in some of the cells of honeycomb. It is made chiefly from the pollen of flowers, which is collected by bees as food for their young.

Bee-eater (n.) A bird of the genus Merops, that feeds on bees. The European species (M. apiaster) is remarkable for its brilliant colors.

Bee-eater (n.) An African bird of the genus Rhinopomastes.

Beefeater (n.) An African bird of the genus Buphaga, which feeds on the larvae of botflies hatched under the skin of oxen, antelopes, etc. Two species are known.

Beefwood (n.) An Australian tree (Casuarina), and its red wood, used for cabinetwork; also, the trees Stenocarpus salignus of New South Wales, and Banksia compar of Queensland.

Beer (n.) A fermented liquor made from any malted grain, but commonly from barley malt, with hops or some other substance to impart a bitter flavor.

Beet (n.) A biennial plant of the genus Beta, which produces an edible root the first year and seed the second year.

Beg (v. t.) To ask for as a charity, esp. to ask for habitually or from house to house.

Beg (v. i.) To ask alms or charity, especially to ask habitually by the wayside or from house to house; to live by asking alms.

Begird (v. t.) To bind with a band or girdle; to gird.

Begonia (n.) A genus of plants, mostly of tropical America, many species of which are grown as ornamental plants. The leaves are curiously one-sided, and often exhibit brilliant colors.

Behind (adv.) Not yet brought forward, produced, or exhibited to view; out of sight; remaining.

Belgian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Belgium.

Belime (v. t.) To besmear or insnare with birdlime.

Bellbird (n.) A South American bird of the genus Casmarhincos, and family Cotingidae, of several species; the campanero.

Bellbird (n.) The Myzantha melanophrys of Australia.

Belong (v. i.) To be native to, or an inhabitant of; esp. to have a legal residence, settlement, or inhabitancy, whether by birth or operation of law, so as to be entitled to maintenance by the parish or town.

Belooche Beloochee (a.) Of or pertaining to Beloochistan, or to its inhabitants.

Belooche Beloochee (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Beloochistan.

Bench (n.) A collection or group of dogs exhibited to the public; -- so named because the animals are usually placed on benches or raised platforms.

Bend (n.) Hard, indurated clay; bind.

Benediction (n.) The form of instituting an abbot, answering to the consecration of a bishop.

Benedictus (a.) The song of Zacharias at the birth of John the Baptist (Luke i. 68); -- so named from the first word of the Latin version.

Bene placito () At pleasure; ad libitum.

Benevolence (n.) A species of compulsory contribution or tax, which has sometimes been illegally exacted by arbitrary kings of England, and falsely represented as a gratuity.

Benign (a.) Exhibiting or manifesting kindness, gentleness, favor, etc.; mild; kindly; salutary; wholesome.

Bent (v.) A leaning or bias; proclivity; tendency of mind; inclination; disposition; purpose; aim.

Benthamism (n.) That phase of the doctrine of utilitarianism taught by Jeremy Bentham; the doctrine that the morality of actions is estimated and determined by their utility; also, the theory that the sensibility to pleasure and the recoil from pain are the only motives which influence human desires and actions, and that these are the sufficient explanation of ethical and jural conceptions.

Benumbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Benumb

Benumb (a.) To make torpid; to deprive of sensation or sensibility; to stupefy; as, a hand or foot benumbed by cold.

Benumbment (n.) Act of benumbing, or state of being benumbed; torpor.

Benzal (n.) A compound radical, C6H5.CH, of the aromatic series, related to benzyl and benzoyl; -- used adjectively or in combination.

Benzoyl (n.) A compound radical, C6H5.CO; the base of benzoic acid, of the oil of bitter almonds, and of an extensive series of compounds.

Berber (n.) A member of a race somewhat resembling the Arabs, but often classed as Hamitic, who were formerly the inhabitants of the whole of North Africa from the Mediterranean southward into the Sahara, and who still occupy a large part of that region; -- called also Kabyles. Also, the language spoken by this people.

Berberine (n.) An alkaloid obtained, as a bitter, yellow substance, from the root of the barberry, gold thread, and other plants.

Bergmeal (n.) An earthy substance, resembling fine flour. It is composed of the shells of infusoria, and in Lapland and Sweden is sometimes eaten, mixed with flour or ground birch bark, in times of scarcity. This name is also given to a white powdery variety of calcite.

Beriberi (n.) An acute disease occurring in India, characterized by multiple inflammatory changes in the nerves, producing great muscular debility, a painful rigidity of the limbs, and cachexy.

Bernese (a.) Pertaining to the city or canton of Bern, in Switzerland, or to its inhabitants.

Berretta (n.) A square cap worn by ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church. A cardinal's berretta is scarlet; that worn by other clerics is black, except that a bishop's is lined with green.

Berth (n.) A place in a ship to sleep in; a long box or shelf on the side of a cabin or stateroom, or of a railway car, for sleeping in.

Besetting (a.) Habitually attacking, harassing, or pressing upon or about; as, a besetting sin.

Best (a.) Having good qualities in the highest degree; most good, kind, desirable, suitable, etc.; most excellent; as, the best man; the best road; the best cloth; the best abilities.

Best (n.) Utmost; highest endeavor or state; most nearly perfect thing, or being, or action; as, to do one's best; to the best of our ability.

Betel (n.) A species of pepper (Piper betle), the leaves of which are chewed, with the areca or betel nut and a little shell lime, by the inhabitants of the East Indies. It is a woody climber with ovate many-nerved leaves.

Bethlemite (n.) An inhabitant of Bethlehem in Judea.

Betroth (v. t.) To nominate to a bishopric, in order to consecration.

Betulin (n.) A substance of a resinous nature, obtained from the outer bark of the common European birch (Betula alba), or from the tar prepared therefrom; -- called also birch camphor.

Bevy (n.) A flock of birds, especially quails or larks; also, a herd of roes.

Bezique (n.) A game at cards in which various combinations of cards in the hand, when declared, score points.

Bhang (n.) An astringent and narcotic drug made from the dried leaves and seed capsules of wild hemp (Cannabis Indica), and chewed or smoked in the East as a means of intoxication. See Hasheesh.

Bi- () In most branches of science bi- in composition denotes two, twice, or doubly; as, bidentate, two-toothed; biternate, doubly ternate, etc.

Bi- () In the composition of chemical names bi- denotes two atoms, parts, or equivalents of that constituent to the name of which it is prefixed, to one of the other component, or that such constituent is present in double the ordinary proportion; as, bichromate, bisulphide. Be- and di- are often used interchangeably.

Bias (n.) A slant; a diagonal; as, to cut cloth on the bias.

Bias (adv.) In a slanting manner; crosswise; obliquely; diagonally; as, to cut cloth bias.

Biauriculate (a.) Having two auricles, as the heart of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

Biaxial (a.) Having two axes; as, biaxial polarization.

Bib (n.) A bibcock.

Bibacity (n.) The practice or habit of drinking too much; tippling.

Bibb (n.) A bibcock. See Bib, n., 3.

Bibber (n.) One given to drinking alcoholic beverages too freely; a tippler; -- chiefly used in composition; as, winebibber.

Bibirine (n.) See Bebeerine.

Bibitory (a.) Of or pertaining to drinking or tippling.

Bible (n.) The Book by way of eminence, -- that is, the book which is made up of the writings accepted by Christians as of divine origin and authority, whether such writings be in the original language, or translated; the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments; -- sometimes in a restricted sense, the Old Testament; as, King James's Bible; Douay Bible; Luther's Bible. Also, the book which is made up of writings similarly accepted by the Jews; as, a rabbinical Bible.

Biblical (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, the Bible; as, biblical learning; biblical authority.

Biblicality (n.) The quality of being biblical; a biblical subject.

Bibliographer (n.) One who writes, or is versed in, bibliography.

Bibliographical (a.) Pertaining to bibliography, or the history of books.

Bibliological (a.) Relating to bibliology.

Bibliology (n.) An account of books; book lore; bibliography.

Bibliomaniac (a.) Relating to a bibliomaniac.

Bibliomaniacal (a.) Pertaining to a passion for books; relating to a bibliomaniac.

Bibliopegic (a.) Relating to the binding of books.

Bibliopegist (n.) A bookbinder.

Bibliopegistic (a.) Pertaining to the art of binding books.

Bibliopegy (n.) The art of binding books.

Bibliophobia (n.) A dread of books.

Bibliopolistic (a.) Of or pertaining to bibliopolism.

Biblist (n.) A biblical scholar; a biblicist.

Bibulous (v. t.) Readily imbibing fluids or moisture; spongy; as, bibulous blotting paper.

Bibulously (adv.) In a bibulous manner; with profuse imbibition or absorption.

Bicalcarate (a.) Having two spurs, as the wing or leg of a bird.

Bicapsular (a.) Having two capsules; as, a bicapsular pericarp.

Bicaudate (a.) Two-tailed; bicaudal.

Bise (n.) A pale blue pigment, prepared from the native blue carbonate of copper, or from smalt; -- called also blue bice.

Bicentenary (a.) Of or pertaining to two hundred, esp. to two hundred years; as, a bicentenary celebration.

Bichir (n.) A remarkable ganoid fish (Polypterus bichir) found in the Nile and other African rivers. See Brachioganoidei.

Bichromate (n.) A salt containing two parts of chromic acid to one of the other ingredients; as, potassium bichromate; -- called also dichromate.

Bichromatize (v. t.) To combine or treat with a bichromate, esp. with bichromate of potassium; as, bichromatized gelatine.

Bicipital (a.) Pertaining to a biceps muscle; as, bicipital furrows, the depressions on either side of the biceps of the arm.

Bicipital (a.) Dividing into two parts at one extremity; having two heads or two supports; as, a bicipital tree.

Bicipitous (a.) Having two heads; bicipital.

Bickerer (n.) One who bickers.

Biconcave (a.) Concave on both sides; as, biconcave vertebrae.

Biconvex (a.) Convex on both sides; as, a biconvex lens.

Bicycler (n.) One who rides a bicycle.

Bicyclic (a.) Relating to bicycles.

Bicycling (n.) The use of a bicycle; the act or practice of riding a bicycle.

Bicyclism (n.) The art of riding a bicycle.

Bicyclist (n.) A bicycler.

Bicycular (a.) Relating to bicycling.

Bid (v. t.) To offer in words; to declare, as a wish, a greeting, a threat, or defiance, etc.; as, to bid one welcome; to bid good morning, farewell, etc.

Bid (v. t.) To make a bid; to state what one will pay or take.

Bidder (n.) One who bids or offers a price.

Bidding (n.) The act or process of making bids; an offer; a proposal of a price, as at an auction.

Bide (v. t.) To dwell; to inhabit; to abide; to stay.

Bide (v. t.) To wait for; as, I bide my time. See Abide.

Biding (n.) Residence; habitation.

Biennial (a.) Happening, or taking place, once in two years; as, a biennial election.

Biennial (n.) Something which takes place or appears once in two years; esp. a biennial examination.

Bifariously (adv.) In a bifarious manner.

Bifilar (a.) Two-threaded; involving the use of two threads; as, bifilar suspension; a bifilar balance.

Big (superl.) Great with young; pregnant; swelling; ready to give birth or produce; -- often figuratively.

Big (superl.) Having greatness, fullness, importance, inflation, distention, etc., whether in a good or a bad sense; as, a big heart; a big voice; big looks; to look big. As applied to looks, it indicates haughtiness or pride.

Bigam (n.) A bigamist.

Bigamist (n.) One who is guilty of bigamy.

Bigamous (a.) Guilty of bigamy; involving bigamy; as, a bigamous marriage.

Big-bellied (a.) Having a great belly; as, a big-bellied man or flagon; advanced in pregnancy.

Bigeminate (a.) Having a forked petiole, and a pair of leaflets at the end of each division; biconjugate; twice paired; -- said of a decompound leaf.

Biggen (v. t. & i.) To make or become big; to enlarge.

Bight (v.) A corner, bend, or angle; a hollow; as, the bight of a horse's knee; the bight of an elbow.

Bigness (n.) The state or quality of being big; largeness; size; bulk.

Bignonia (n.) A large genus of American, mostly tropical, climbing shrubs, having compound leaves and showy somewhat tubular flowers. B. capreolata is the cross vine of the Southern United States. The trumpet creeper was formerly considered to be of this genus.

Bigotedly (adv.) In the manner of a bigot.

Bigotry (n.) The state of mind of a bigot; obstinate and unreasoning attachment of one's own belief and opinions, with narrow-minded intolerance of beliefs opposed to them.

Bigotry (n.) The practice or tenets of a bigot.

Bigwig (a.) A person of consequence; as, the bigwigs of society.

Bilabiate (a.) Having two lips, as the corols of certain flowers.

Bilateral (a.) Of or pertaining to the two sides of a central area or organ, or of a central axis; as, bilateral symmetry in animals, where there is a similarity of parts on the right and left sides of the body.

Bilaterality (n.) State of being bilateral.

Bile (n.) A yellow, or greenish, viscid fluid, usually alkaline in reaction, secreted by the liver. It passes into the intestines, where it aids in the digestive process. Its characteristic constituents are the bile salts, and coloring matters.

Bile (n.) Bitterness of feeling; choler; anger; ill humor; as, to stir one's bile.

Bilestone (n.) A gallstone, or biliary calculus. See Biliary.

Bilge (v. i.) To suffer a fracture in the bilge; to spring a leak by a fracture in the bilge.

Bilge (v. t.) To fracture the bilge of, or stave in the bottom of (a ship or other vessel).

Bilgy (a.) Having the smell of bilge water.

Biliary (a.) Relating or belonging to bile; conveying bile; as, biliary acids; biliary ducts.

Biliation (n.) The production and excretion of bile.

Biliferous (a.) Generating bile.

Bilifuscin (n.) A brownish green pigment found in human gallstones and in old bile. It is a derivative of bilirubin.

Bilimbi (n.) Alt. of Bilimbing

Bilimbing (n.) The berries of two East Indian species of Averrhoa, of the Oxalideae or Sorrel family. They are very acid, and highly esteemed when preserved or pickled. The juice is used as a remedy for skin diseases.

Biliment (n.) A woman's ornament; habiliment.

Bilin (n.) A name applied to the amorphous or crystalline mass obtained from bile by the action of alcohol and ether. It is composed of a mixture of the sodium salts of the bile acids.

Bilinear (a.) Of, pertaining to, or included by, two lines; as, bilinear coordinates.

Bilingual (a.) Containing, or consisting of, two languages; expressed in two languages; as, a bilingual inscription; a bilingual dictionary.

Bilingualism (n.) Quality of being bilingual.

Bilious (a.) Of or pertaining to the bile.

Bilious (a.) Disordered in respect to the bile; troubled with an excess of bile; as, a bilious patient; dependent on, or characterized by, an excess of bile; as, bilious symptoms.

Biliousness (n.) The state of being bilious.

Bilirubin (n.) A reddish yellow pigment present in human bile, and in that from carnivorous and herbivorous animals; the normal biliary pigment.

Biliteral (a.) Consisting of two letters; as, a biliteral root of a Sanskrit verb.

Biliteralism (n.) The property or state of being biliteral.

Biliverdin (n.) A green pigment present in the bile, formed from bilirubin by oxidation.

Bilk (v. t.) To frustrate or disappoint; to deceive or defraud, by nonfulfillment of engagement; to leave in the lurch; to give the slip to; as, to bilk a creditor.

Bill (n.) A beak, as of a bird, or sometimes of a turtle or other animal.

Bill (v. i.) To join bills, as doves; to caress in fondness.

Bill (n.) The bell, or boom, of the bittern

Bill (n.) A cutting instrument, with hook-shaped point, and fitted with a handle; -- used in pruning, etc.; a billhook. When short, called a hand bill, when long, a hedge bill.

Bill (n.) A weapon of infantry, in the 14th and 15th centuries. A common form of bill consisted of a broad, heavy, double-edged, hook-shaped blade, having a short pike at the back and another at the top, and attached to the end of a long staff.

Bill (n.) One who wields a bill; a billman.

Bill (v. t.) To work upon ( as to dig, hoe, hack, or chop anything) with a bill.

Bill (n.) A writing binding the signer or signers to pay a certain sum at a future day or on demand, with or without interest, as may be stated in the document.

Bill (n.) A paper, written or printed, and posted up or given away, to advertise something, as a lecture, a play, or the sale of goods; a placard; a poster; a handbill.

Bill (n.) An account of goods sold, services rendered, or work done, with the price or charge; a statement of a creditor's claim, in gross or by items; as, a grocer's bill.

Bill (n.) Any paper, containing a statement of particulars; as, a bill of charges or expenditures; a weekly bill of mortality; a bill of fare, etc.

Bill (v. t.) To advertise by a bill or public notice.

Bill (v. t.) To charge or enter in a bill; as, to bill goods.

Billboard (n.) A piece of thick plank, armed with iron plates, and fixed on the bow or fore channels of a vessel, for the bill or fluke of the anchor to rest on.

Billboard (n.) A flat surface, as of a panel or of a fence, on which bills are posted; a bulletin board.

Bill book () A book in which a person keeps an account of his notes, bills, bills of exchange, etc., thus showing all that he issues and receives.

Bill broker () One who negotiates the discount of bills.

Billed (a.) Furnished with, or having, a bill, as a bird; -- used in composition; as, broad-billed.

Billet (n.) A ticket from a public officer directing soldiers at what house to lodge; as, a billet of residence.

Billet (n.) An ornament in Norman work, resembling a billet of wood either square or round.

Billfish (n.) The Tetrapturus albidus, a large oceanic species related to the swordfish; the spearfish.

Billhead (n.) A printed form, used by merchants in making out bills or rendering accounts.

Bill holder () A person who holds a bill or acceptance.

Bill holder () A device by means of which bills, etc., are held.

Billhook (n.) A thick, heavy knife with a hooked point, used in pruning hedges, etc. When it has a short handle, it is sometimes called a hand bill; when the handle is long, a hedge bill or scimiter.

Billiard (a.) Of or pertaining to the game of billiards.

Billman (n.) One who uses, or is armed with, a bill or hooked ax.

Billowy (a.) Of or pertaining to billows; swelling or swollen into large waves; full of billows or surges; resembling billows.

Billsticker (n.) One whose occupation is to post handbills or posters in public places.

Billy (n.) A slubbing or roving machine.

Bilocular (a.) Divided into two cells or compartments; as, a bilocular pericarp.

Bimembral (a.) Having two members; as, a bimembral sentence.

Bimetallist (n.) An advocate of bimetallism.

Bimonthly (a.) Occurring, done, or coming, once in two months; as, bimonthly visits; bimonthly publications.

Bimonthly (n.) A bimonthly publication.

Bimuscular (a.) Having two adductor muscles, as a bivalve mollusk.

Bin (n.) A box, frame, crib, or inclosed place, used as a receptacle for any commodity; as, a corn bin; a wine bin; a coal bin.

Bin (v. t.) To put into a bin; as, to bin wine.

Bind (v. t.) To tie, or confine with a cord, band, ligature, chain, etc.; to fetter; to make fast; as, to bind grain in bundles; to bind a prisoner.

Bind (v. t.) To confine, restrain, or hold by physical force or influence of any kind; as, attraction binds the planets to the sun; frost binds the earth, or the streams.

Bind (v. t.) To cover, as with a bandage; to bandage or dress; -- sometimes with up; as, to bind up a wound.

Bind (v. t.) To make fast ( a thing) about or upon something, as by tying; to encircle with something; as, to bind a belt about one; to bind a compress upon a part.

Bind (v. t.) To prevent or restrain from customary or natural action; as, certain drugs bind the bowels.

Bind (v. t.) To protect or strengthen by a band or binding, as the edge of a carpet or garment.

Bind (v. t.) To sew or fasten together, and inclose in a cover; as, to bind a book.

Bind (v. t.) Fig.: To oblige, restrain, or hold, by authority, law, duty, promise, vow, affection, or other moral tie; as, to bind the conscience; to bind by kindness; bound by affection; commerce binds nations to each other.

Bind (v. t.) To place under legal obligation to serve; to indenture; as, to bind an apprentice; -- sometimes with out; as, bound out to service.

Bind (v. i.) To contract; to grow hard or stiff; to cohere or stick together in a mass; as, clay binds by heat.

Bind (v. i.) To exert a binding or restraining influence.

Bind (n.) That which binds or ties.

Bind (n.) Any twining or climbing plant or stem, esp. a hop vine; a bine.

Binder (n.) One who binds; as, a binder of sheaves; one whose trade is to bind; as, a binder of books.

Binder (n.) Anything that binds, as a fillet, cord, rope, or band; a bandage; -- esp. the principal piece of timber intended to bind together any building.

Bindery (n.) A place where books, or other articles, are bound; a bookbinder's establishment.

Binding (a.) That binds; obligatory.

Binding (n.) The act or process of one who, or that which, binds.

Binding (n.) Anything that binds; a bandage; the cover of a book, or the cover with the sewing, etc.; something that secures the edge of cloth from raveling.

Bindingly (adv.) So as to bind.

Bindingness (n.) The condition or property of being binding; obligatory quality.

Bindweed (n.) A plant of the genus Convolvulus; as, greater bindweed (C. Sepium); lesser bindweed (C. arvensis); the white, the blue, the Syrian, bindweed. The black bryony, or Tamus, is called black bindweed, and the Smilax aspera, rough bindweed.

Bine (n.) The winding or twining stem of a hop vine or other climbing plant.

Bing (n.) A heap or pile; as, a bing of wood.

Binocular (a.) Pertaining to both eyes; employing both eyes at once; as, binocular vision.

Binocular (a.) Adapted to the use of both eyes; as, a binocular microscope or telescope.

Binocular (n.) A binocular glass, whether opera glass, telescope, or microscope.

Binocularly (adv.) In a binocular manner.

Binomial (a.) Consisting of two terms; pertaining to binomials; as, a binomial root.

Binominal (a.) Of or pertaining to two names; binomial.

Binotonous (a.) Consisting of two notes; as, a binotonous cry.

Binucleate (a.) Having two nuclei; as, binucleate cells.

Biogeny (n.) A doctrine that the genesis or production of living organisms can take place only through the agency of living germs or parents; -- opposed to abiogenesis.

Biogenetic (a.) Pertaining to biogenesis.

Biogenist (n.) A believer in the theory of biogenesis.

Biographical (a.) Of or pertaining to biography; containing biography.

Biological (a.) Of or relating to biology.

Biologist (n.) A student of biology; one versed in the science of biology.

Biomagnetic (a.) Relating to biomagnetism.

Bioplasmic (a.) Pertaining to, or consisting of, bioplasm.

Bioplast (n.) A tiny mass of bioplasm, in itself a living unit and having formative power, as a living white blood corpuscle; bioblast.

Biotic (a.) Relating to life; as, the biotic principle.

Biparous (a.) Bringing forth two at a birth.

Bipartite (a.) Being in two parts; having two correspondent parts, as a legal contract or writing, one for each party; shared by two; as, a bipartite treaty.

Bipedal (n.) Having two feet; biped.

Bipedal (n.) Pertaining to a biped.

Bipolar (a.) Doubly polar; having two poles; as, a bipolar cell or corpuscle.

Biquadrate (n.) The fourth power, or the square of the square. Thus 4x4=16, the square of 4, and 16x16=256, the biquadrate of 4.

Biquadratic (a.) Of or pertaining to the biquadrate, or fourth power.

Biquadratic (n.) A biquadrate.

Biquadratic (n.) A biquadratic equation.

Biradiated (a.) Having two rays; as, a biradiate fin.

Birch (n.) A tree of several species, constituting the genus Betula; as, the white or common birch (B. alba) (also called silver birch and lady birch); the dwarf birch (B. glandulosa); the paper or canoe birch (B. papyracea); the yellow birch (B. lutea); the black or cherry birch (B. lenta).

Birch (n.) The wood or timber of the birch.

Birch (n.) A birch twig or birch twigs, used for flogging.

Birch (n.) A birch-bark canoe.

Birch (a.) Of or pertaining to the birch; birchen.

Birch (v. t.) To whip with a birch rod or twig; to flog.

Birchen (a.) Of or relating to birch.

Bird (n.) Specifically, among sportsmen, a game bird.

Bird (v. i.) To catch or shoot birds.

Birdbolt (n.) A short blunt arrow for killing birds without piercing them.

Birdcage (n.) A cage for confining birds.

Birdcall (n.) A sound made in imitation of the note or cry of a bird for the purpose of decoying the bird or its mate.

Birdcall (n.) An instrument of any kind, as a whistle, used in making the sound of a birdcall.

Birdcatcher (n.) One whose employment it is to catch birds; a fowler.

Birdcatching (n.) The art, act, or occupation or catching birds or wild fowls.

Birder (n.) A birdcatcher.

Bird fancier () One who takes pleasure in rearing or collecting rare or curious birds.

Bird fancier () One who has for sale the various kinds of birds which are kept in cages.

Birdie (n.) A pretty or dear little bird; -- a pet name.

Birdikin (n.) A young bird.

Birdlet (n.) A little bird; a nestling.

Birdlike (a.) Resembling a bird.

Birdlime (n.) An extremely adhesive viscid substance, usually made of the middle bark of the holly, by boiling, fermenting, and cleansing it. When a twig is smeared with this substance it will hold small birds which may light upon it. Hence: Anything which insnares.

Birdlime (v. t.) To smear with birdlime; to catch with birdlime; to insnare.

Birdling (n.) A little bird; a nestling.

Birdman (n.) A fowler or birdcatcher.

Bird of paradise () The name of several very beautiful birds of the genus Paradisea and allied genera, inhabiting New Guinea and the adjacent islands. The males have brilliant colors, elegant plumes, and often remarkable tail feathers.

Birdseed (n.) Canary seed, hemp, millet or other small seeds used for feeding caged birds.

Bird's-eye (a.) Seen from above, as if by a flying bird; embraced at a glance; hence, general; not minute, or entering into details; as, a bird's-eye view.

Bird's-eye (a.) Marked with spots resembling bird's eyes; as, bird's-eye diaper; bird's-eye maple.

Bird's-nest (n.) The nest in which a bird lays eggs and hatches her young.

Bird's-nesting (n.) Hunting for, or taking, birds' nests or their contents.

Birectangular (a.) Containing or having two right angles; as, a birectangular spherical triangle.

Birk (n.) A birch tree.

Birken (v. t.) To whip with a birch or rod.

Birken (a.) Birchen; as, birken groves.

Birth (n.) The act or fact of coming into life, or of being born; -- generally applied to human beings; as, the birth of a son.

Birth (n.) Lineage; extraction; descent; sometimes, high birth; noble extraction.

Birth (n.) The act of bringing forth; as, she had two children at a birth.

Birth (n.) Origin; beginning; as, the birth of an empire.

Birthday (n.) The day of the month in which a person was born, in whatever succeeding year it may recur; the anniversary of one's birth.

Birthday (a.) Of or pertaining to the day of birth, or its anniversary; as, birthday gifts or festivities.

Birthdom (n.) The land of one's birth; one's inheritance.

Birthmark (n.) Some peculiar mark or blemish on the body at birth.

Birthplace (n.) The town, city, or country, where a person is born; place of origin or birth, in its more general sense.

Birthright (n.) Any right, privilege, or possession to which a person is entitled by birth, such as an estate descendible by law to an heir, or civil liberty under a free constitution; esp. the rights or inheritance of the first born.

Biscayan (n.) A native or inhabitant of Biscay.

Biscotin (n.) A confection made of flour, sugar, marmalade, and eggs; a sweet biscuit.

Biscuit (n.) A kind of unraised bread, of many varieties, plain, sweet, or fancy, formed into flat cakes, and bakes hard; as, ship biscuit.

Bisector (n.) One who, or that which, bisects; esp. (Geom.) a straight line which bisects an angle.

Bisectrix (n.) The line bisecting the angle between the optic axes of a biaxial crystal.

Bishop (n.) In the Roman Catholic, Greek, and Anglican or Protestant Episcopal churches, one ordained to the highest order of the ministry, superior to the priesthood, and generally claiming to be a successor of the Apostles. The bishop is usually the spiritual head or ruler of a diocese, bishopric, or see.

Bishop (n.) A piece used in the game of chess, bearing a representation of a bishop's miter; -- formerly called archer.

Bishop (v. t.) To make seem younger, by operating on the teeth; as, to bishop an old horse or his teeth.

Bishopdom (n.) Jurisdiction of a bishop; episcopate.

Bishoplike (a.) Resembling a bishop; belonging to a bishop.

Bishoply (adv.) In the manner of a bishop.

Bishopric (n.) A diocese; the district over which the jurisdiction of a bishop extends.

Bishopric (n.) The office of a spiritual overseer, as of an apostle, bishop, or presbyter.

Bishop's length () A canvas for a portrait measuring 58 by 94 inches. The half bishop measures 45 by 56.

Bishop-stool (n.) A bishop's seat or see.

Bisilicate (n.) A salt of metasilicic acid; -- so called because the ratio of the oxygen of the silica to the oxygen of the base is as two to one. The bisilicates include many of the most common and important minerals.

Bismite (n.) Bismuth trioxide, or bismuth ocher.

Bismuthal (a.) Containing bismuth.

Bismuthic (a.) Of or pertaining to bismuth; containing bismuth, when this element has its higher valence; as, bismuthic oxide.

Bismuthiferous (a.) Containing bismuth.

Bismuthinite (n.) Native bismuth sulphide; -- sometimes called bismuthite.

Bismuthous (a.) Of, or containing, bismuth, when this element has its lower valence.

Bismuthyl (n.) Hydrous carbonate of bismuth, an earthy mineral of a dull white or yellowish color.

Bison (n.) The aurochs or European bison.

Bison (n.) The American bison buffalo (Bison Americanus), a large, gregarious bovine quadruped with shaggy mane and short black horns, which formerly roamed in herds over most of the temperate portion of North America, but is now restricted to very limited districts in the region of the Rocky Mountains, and is rapidly decreasing in numbers.

Bissextile (n.) Leap year; every fourth year, in which a day is added to the month of February on account of the excess of the tropical year (365 d. 5 h. 48 m. 46 s.) above 365 days. But one day added every four years is equivalent to six hours each year, which is 11 m. 14 s. more than the excess of the real year. Hence, it is necessary to suppress the bissextile day at the end of every century which is not divisible by 400, while it is retained at the end of those which are divisible by 400.

Bisulphide (n.) A sulphide having two atoms of sulphur in the molecule; a disulphide, as in iron pyrites, FeS2; -- less frequently called bisulphuret.

Bit (v. t.) To put a bridle upon; to put the bit in the mouth of.

Bit (v.) A part of anything, such as may be bitten off or taken into the mouth; a morsel; a bite. Hence: A small piece of anything; a little; a mite.

Bit (v.) A tool for boring, of various forms and sizes, usually turned by means of a brace or bitstock. See Bitstock.

Bit () 3d sing. pr. of Bid, for biddeth.

Bite (v. t.) To seize with the teeth, so that they enter or nip the thing seized; to lacerate, crush, or wound with the teeth; as, to bite an apple; to bite a crust; the dog bit a man.

Bite (v. t.) To cause sharp pain, or smarting, to; to hurt or injure, in a literal or a figurative sense; as, pepper bites the mouth.

Bite (v. t.) To take hold of; to hold fast; to adhere to; as, the anchor bites the ground.

Bite (v. i.) To seize something forcibly with the teeth; to wound with the teeth; to have the habit of so doing; as, does the dog bite?

Bite (v. i.) To cause a smarting sensation; to have a property which causes such a sensation; to be pungent; as, it bites like pepper or mustard.

Bite (v. i.) To take or keep a firm hold; as, the anchor bites.

Bite (v.) The act of seizing with the teeth or mouth; the act of wounding or separating with the teeth or mouth; a seizure with the teeth or mouth, as of a bait; as, to give anything a hard bite.

Bite (v.) The wound made by biting; as, the pain of a dog's or snake's bite; the bite of a mosquito.

Bite (v.) A morsel; as much as is taken at once by biting.

Biter (n.) One who, or that which, bites; that which bites often, or is inclined to bite, as a dog or fish.

Biting (a.) That bites; sharp; cutting; sarcastic; caustic.

Bitingly (adv.) In a biting manner.

Bitless (a.) Not having a bit or bridle.

Bitstock (n.) A stock or handle for holding and rotating a bit; a brace.

Bitt (v. t.) To put round the bitts; as, to bitt the cable, in order to fasten it or to slacken it gradually, which is called veering away.

Bittacle (n.) A binnacle.

Bitten (a.) Terminating abruptly, as if bitten off; premorse.

Bitter (n.) AA turn of the cable which is round the bitts.

Bitter (v. t.) Having a peculiar, acrid, biting taste, like that of wormwood or an infusion of hops; as, a bitter medicine; bitter as aloes.

Bitter (v. t.) Causing pain or smart; piercing; painful; sharp; severe; as, a bitter cold day.

Bitter (v. t.) Characterized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty; harsh; stern; virulent; as, bitter reproach.

Bitter (n.) Any substance that is bitter. See Bitters.

Bitter (v. t.) To make bitter.

Bitterbump (n.) the butterbump or bittern.

Bitterful (a.) Full of bitterness.

Bittering (n.) A bitter compound used in adulterating beer; bittern.

Bitterish (a.) Somewhat bitter.

Bitterly (adv.) In a bitter manner.

Bittern (n.) A wading bird of the genus Botaurus, allied to the herons, of various species.

Bittern (a.) The brine which remains in salt works after the salt is concreted, having a bitter taste from the chloride of magnesium which it contains.

Bittern (a.) A very bitter compound of quassia, cocculus Indicus, etc., used by fraudulent brewers in adulterating beer.

Bitterness (n.) The quality or state of being bitter, sharp, or acrid, in either a literal or figurative sense; implacableness; resentfulness; severity; keenness of reproach or sarcasm; deep distress, grief, or vexation of mind.

Bitternut (n.) The swamp hickory (Carya amara). Its thin-shelled nuts are bitter.

Bitters (n. pl.) A liquor, generally spirituous in which a bitter herb, leaf, or root is steeped.

Bitter spar () A common name of dolomite; -- so called because it contains magnesia, the soluble salts of which are bitter. See Dolomite.

Bittersweet (a.) Sweet and then bitter or bitter and then sweet; esp. sweet with a bitter after taste; hence (Fig.), pleasant but painful.

Bittersweet (n.) Anything which is bittersweet.

Bittersweet (n.) A climbing shrub, with oval coral-red berries (Solanum dulcamara); woody nightshade. The whole plant is poisonous, and has a taste at first sweetish and then bitter. The branches are the officinal dulcamara.

Bitterwood (n.) A West Indian tree (Picraena excelsa) from the wood of which the bitter drug Jamaica quassia is obtained.

Bitterwort (n.) The yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea), which has a very bitter taste.

Bittock (n.) A small bit of anything, of indefinite size or quantity; a short distance.

Bittor Bittour (n.) The bittern.

Bitts (n. pl.) A frame of two strong timbers fixed perpendicularly in the fore part of a ship, on which to fasten the cables as the ship rides at anchor, or in warping. Other bitts are used for belaying (belaying bitts), for sustaining the windlass (carrick bitts, winch bitts, or windlass bitts), to hold the pawls of the windlass (pawl bitts) etc.

Bitumed (a.) Smeared with bitumen.

Bituminate (v. t.) To treat or impregnate with bitumen; to cement with bitumen.

Bituminiferous (a.) Producing bitumen.

Bituminization (n.) The process of bituminizing.

Bituminize (v. t.) To prepare, treat, impregnate, or coat with bitumen.

Bituminous (a.) Having the qualities of bitumen; compounded with bitumen; containing bitumen.

Bivalency (n.) The quality of being bivalent.

Bivalent (p. pr.) Equivalent in combining or displacing power to two atoms of hydrogen; dyad.

Bivalved (a.) Having two valves, as the oyster and some seed pods; bivalve.

Biventral (a.) Having two bellies or protuberances; as, a biventral, or digastric, muscle, or the biventral lobe of the cerebellum.

Bivial (a.) Of or relating to the bivium.

Blabbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Blab

Black (a.) Fig.: Dismal, gloomy, or forbidding, like darkness; destitute of moral light or goodness; atrociously wicked; cruel; mournful; calamitous; horrible.

Blackbird (n.) In England, a species of thrush (Turdus merula), a singing bird with a fin note; the merle. In America the name is given to several birds, as the Quiscalus versicolor, or crow blackbird; the Agelaeus phoeniceus, or red-winged blackbird; the cowbird; the rusty grackle, etc. See Redwing.

Black book () One of several books of a political character, published at different times and for different purposes; -- so called either from the color of the binding, or from the character of the contents.

Black-browed (a.) Having black eyebrows. Hence: Gloomy; dismal; threatening; forbidding.

Blackcap (n.) A small European song bird (Sylvia atricapilla), with a black crown; the mock nightingale.

Blackfeet (n. pl.) A tribe of North American Indians formerly inhabiting the country from the upper Missouri River to the Saskatchewan, but now much reduced in numbers.

Blackfish (n.) A small kind of whale, of the genus Globicephalus, of several species. The most common is G. melas. Also sometimes applied to other whales of larger size.

Black friar () A friar of the Dominican order; -- called also predicant and preaching friar; in France, Jacobin. Also, sometimes, a Benedictine.

Blacktail (n.) The black-tailed deer (Cervus / Cariacus Columbianus) of California and Oregon; also, the mule deer of the Rocky Mountains. See Mule deer.

Blaeberry (n.) The bilberry.

Blame (v.) That which is deserving of censure or disapprobation; culpability; fault; crime; sin.

Blase (a.) Having the sensibilities deadened by excess or frequency of enjoyment; sated or surfeited with pleasure; used up.

Blasphemous (a.) Speaking or writing blasphemy; uttering or exhibiting anything impiously irreverent; profane; as, a blasphemous person; containing blasphemy; as, a blasphemous book; a blasphemous caricature.

-blast () A suffix or terminal formative, used principally in biological terms, and signifying growth, formation; as, bioblast, epiblast, mesoblast, etc.

Blazon (n.) The art or act of describing or depicting heraldic bearings in the proper language or manner.

Blazon (v. t.) To depict in colors; to display; to exhibit conspicuously; to publish or make public far and wide.

Blear-eyed (a.) Lacking in perception or penetration; short-sighted; as, a blear-eyed bigot.

Blend (v. t.) To mix or mingle together; esp. to mingle, combine, or associate so that the separate things mixed, or the line of demarcation, can not be distinguished. Hence: To confuse; to confound.

Blesbok (n.) A South African antelope (Alcelaphus albifrons), having a large white spot on the forehead.

Blimbi (n.) Alt. of Blimbing

Blimbing (n.) See Bilimbi, etc.

Blink-eyed (a.) Habitually winking.

Bloat (v. t.) To make turgid, as with water or air; to cause a swelling of the surface of, from effusion of serum in the cellular tissue, producing a morbid enlargement, often accompanied with softness.

Block (v. t.) The perch on which a bird of prey is kept.

Blood (n.) Descent; lineage; especially, honorable birth; the highest royal lineage.

Bloodbird (n.) An Australian honeysucker (Myzomela sanguineolata); -- so called from the bright red color of the male bird.

Blotter (n.) One who, or that which, blots; esp. a device for absorbing superfluous ink.

Blotting paper () A kind of thick, bibulous, unsized paper, used to absorb superfluous ink from freshly written manuscript, and thus prevent blots.

Blueback (n.) A trout (Salmo oquassa) inhabiting some of the lakes of Maine.

Blueback (n.) A salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) of the Columbia River and northward.

Bluebeard (n.) The hero of a mediaeval French nursery legend, who, leaving home, enjoined his young wife not to open a certain room in his castle. She entered it, and found the murdered bodies of his former wives. -- Also used adjectively of a subject which it is forbidden to investigate.

Bluebill (n.) A duck of the genus Fuligula. Two American species (F. marila and F. affinis) are common. See Scaup duck.

Bluebird (n.) A small song bird (Sialia sialis), very common in the United States, and, in the north, one of the earliest to arrive in spring. The male is blue, with the breast reddish. It is related to the European robin.

Bluebreast (n.) A small European bird; the blue-throated warbler.

Bluegown (n.) One of a class of paupers or pensioners, or licensed beggars, in Scotland, to whim annually on the king's birthday were distributed certain alms, including a blue gown; a beadsman.

Bluethroat (n.) A singing bird of northern Europe and Asia (Cyanecula Suecica), related to the nightingales; -- called also blue-throated robin and blue-throated warbler.

Blunt (v. t.) To repress or weaken, as any appetite, desire, or power of the mind; to impair the force, keenness, or susceptibility, of; as, to blunt the feelings.

Blustering (a.) Exhibiting noisy violence, as the wind; stormy; tumultuous.

Board (n.) Paper made thick and stiff like a board, for book covers, etc.; pasteboard; as, to bind a book in boards.

Boatbill (n.) A wading bird (Cancroma cochlearia) of the tropical parts of South America. Its bill is somewhat like a boat with the keel uppermost.

Boatbill (n.) A perching bird of India, of the genus Eurylaimus.

Boat-shaped (a.) See Cymbiform.

Boatswain (n.) The tropic bird.

Boat-tail (n.) A large grackle or blackbird (Quiscalus major), found in the Southern United States.

Bob (n.) A small piece of cork or light wood attached to a fishing line to show when a fish is biting; a float.

Bob (n.) A short, jerking motion; act of bobbing; as, a bob of the head.

Bobbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Bob

Bobbin (n.) A small pin, or cylinder, formerly of bone, now most commonly of wood, used in the making of pillow lace. Each thread is wound on a separate bobbin which hangs down holding the thread at a slight tension.

Bobbin (n.) A spool or reel of various material and construction, with a head at one or both ends, and sometimes with a hole bored through its length by which it may be placed on a spindle or pivot. It is used to hold yarn or thread, as in spinning or warping machines, looms, sewing machines, etc.

Bobbin (n.) The little rounded piece of wood, at the end of a latch string, which is pulled to raise the latch.

Bobbin (n.) A fine cord or narrow braid.

Bobbin (n.) A cylindrical or spool-shaped coil or insulated wire, usually containing a core of soft iron which becomes magnetic when the wire is traversed by an electrical current.

Bobbinet (n.) A kind of cotton lace which is wrought by machines, and not by hand.

Bobbinwork (n.) Work woven with bobbins.

Bobbish (a.) Hearty; in good spirits.

Bobolink (n.) An American singing bird (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). The male is black and white; the female is brown; -- called also, ricebird, reedbird, and Boblincoln.

Bode (n.) A bid; an offer.

Bode (p. p.) Bid or bidden.

Boggle (n.) To stop or hesitate as if suddenly frightened, or in doubt, or impeded by unforeseen difficulties; to take alarm; to exhibit hesitancy and indecision.

Bohemian (a.) Of or pertaining to Bohemia, or to the language of its ancient inhabitants or their descendants. See Bohemian, n., 2.

Bohemian (n.) The language of the Czechs (the ancient inhabitants of Bohemia), the richest and most developed of the dialects of the Slavic family.

Bohemian (n.) A restless vagabond; -- originally, an idle stroller or gypsy (as in France) thought to have come from Bohemia; in later times often applied to an adventurer in art or literature, of irregular, unconventional habits, questionable tastes, or free morals.

Boisterous (a.) Exhibiting tumultuous violence and fury; acting with noisy turbulence; violent; rough; stormy.

Bojanus organ () A glandular organ of bivalve mollusca, serving in part as a kidney.

Bold (n.) Exhibiting or requiring spirit and contempt of danger; planned with courage; daring; vigorous.

Bolt (v. t.) To cause to start or spring forth; to dislodge, as conies, rabbits, etc.

Bombast (a.) High-sounding; inflated; big without meaning; magniloquent; bombastic.

Bombic (a.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, the silkworm; as, bombic acid.

Bombilate (n.) To hum; to buzz.

Bombilation (n.) A humming sound; a booming.

Bombinate (v. i.) To hum; to boom.

Bombination (n.) A humming or buzzing.

Bonassus (n.) The aurochs or European bison. See Aurochs.

Boncilate (n.) A substance composed of ground bone, mineral matters, etc., hardened by pressure, and used for making billiard balls, boxes, etc.

Bond (n.) That which binds, ties, fastens, or confines, or by which anything is fastened or bound, as a cord, chain, etc.; a band; a ligament; a shackle or a manacle.

Bond (n.) A binding force or influence; a cause of union; a uniting tie; as, the bonds of fellowship.

Bond (n.) A writing under seal, by which a person binds himself, his heirs, executors, and administrators, to pay a certain sum on or before a future day appointed. This is a single bond. But usually a condition is added, that, if the obligor shall do a certain act, appear at a certain place, conform to certain rules, faithfully perform certain duties, or pay a certain sum of money, on or before a time specified, the obligation shall be void; otherwise it shall remain in full force. If the condition is not performed, the bond becomes forfeited, and the obligor and his heirs are liable to the payment of the whole sum.

Bond (n.) The union or tie of the several stones or bricks forming a wall. The bricks may be arranged for this purpose in several different ways, as in English or block bond (Fig. 1), where one course consists of bricks with their ends toward the face of the wall, called headers, and the next course of bricks with their lengths parallel to the face of the wall, called stretchers; Flemish bond (Fig.2), where each course consists of headers and stretchers alternately, so laid as always to break joints; Cross bond, which differs from the English by the change of the second stretcher line so that its joints come in the middle of the first, and the same position of stretchers comes back every fifth line; Combined cross and English bond, where the inner part of the wall is laid in the one method, the outer in the other.

Bondstone (n.) A stone running through a wall from one face to another, to bind it together; a binding stone.

Bone (n.) Anything made of bone, as a bobbin for weaving bone lace.

Boned (a.) Having (such) bones; -- used in composition; as, big-boned; strong-boned.

Bonito (n.) The cobia or crab eater (Elacate canada), an edible fish of the Middle and Southern United States.

Bonne bouche () A delicious morsel or mouthful; a tidbit.

Bonnet (n.) An accomplice of a gambler, auctioneer, etc., who entices others to bet or to bid; a decoy.

Boobies (pl. ) of Booby

Booby (n.) A swimming bird (Sula fiber or S. sula) related to the common gannet, and found in the West Indies, nesting on the bare rocks. It is so called on account of its apparent stupidity. The name is also sometimes applied to other species of gannets; as, S. piscator, the red-footed booby.

Bookbinder (n.) One whose occupation is to bind books.

Bookbindery (n.) A bookbinder's shop; a place or establishment for binding books.

Bookbinding (n.) The art, process, or business of binding books.

Boom (v. i.) To cry with a hollow note; to make a hollow sound, as the bittern, and some insects.

Boom (n.) A hollow roar, as of waves or cannon; also, the hollow cry of the bittern; a booming.

Booming (n.) The act of producing a hollow or roaring sound; a violent rushing with heavy roar; as, the booming of the sea; a deep, hollow sound; as, the booming of bitterns.

Booted (a.) Having an undivided, horny, bootlike covering; -- said of the tarsus of some birds.

Boottopping (n.) The act or process of daubing a vessel's bottom near the surface of the water with a mixture of tallow, sulphur, and resin, as a temporary protection against worms, after the slime, shells, etc., have been scraped off.

Borate (n.) A salt formed by the combination of boric acid with a base or positive radical.

Boreal (a.) Northern; pertaining to the north, or to the north wind; as, a boreal bird; a boreal blast.

Borele (n.) The smaller two-horned rhinoceros of South Africa (Atelodus bicornis).

Borer (n.) A marine, bivalve mollusk, of the genus Teredo and allies, which burrows in wood. See Teredo.

Borer (n.) Any bivalve mollusk (Saxicava, Lithodomus, etc.) which bores into limestone and similar substances.

Boride (n.) A binary compound of boron with a more positive or basic element or radical; -- formerly called boruret.

Born (v. t.) Brought forth, as an animal; brought into life; introduced by birth.

Born (v. t.) Having from birth a certain character; by or from birth; by nature; innate; as, a born liar.

Borough (n.) In England, an incorporated town that is not a city; also, a town that sends members to parliament; in Scotland, a body corporate, consisting of the inhabitants of a certain district, erected by the sovereign, with a certain jurisdiction; in America, an incorporated town or village, as in Pennsylvania and Connecticut.

Borough (n.) The collective body of citizens or inhabitants of a borough; as, the borough voted to lay a tax.

Boss (n.) A protuberant ornament on any work, either of different material from that of the work or of the same, as upon a buckler or bridle; a stud; a knob; the central projection of a shield. See Umbilicus.

Boswellian (a.) Relating to, or characteristic of, Boswell, the biographer of Dr. Johnson.

Bottomry (n.) A contract in the nature of a mortgage, by which the owner of a ship, or the master as his agent, hypothecates and binds the ship (and sometimes the accruing freight) as security for the repayment of money advanced or lent for the use of the ship, if she terminates her voyage successfully. If the ship is lost by perils of the sea, the lender loses the money; but if the ship arrives safe, he is to receive the money lent, with the interest or premium stipulated, although it may, and usually does, exceed the legal rate of interest. See Hypothecation.

Boud (n.) A weevil; a worm that breeds in malt, biscuit, etc.

Bouge (v. i.) To bilge.

Bouge (v. t.) To stave in; to bilge.

Bounce (v. i.) To boast; to talk big; to bluster.

Bouncer (n.) Something big; a good stout example of the kind.

Bouncing (a.) Excessive; big.

Bound (p. p. & a.) Inclosed in a binding or cover; as, a bound volume.

Bounden (p. p & a.) Made obligatory; imposed as a duty; binding.

Bower bird () An Australian bird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus / holosericeus), allied to the starling, which constructs singular bowers or playhouses of twigs and decorates them with bright-colored objects; the satin bird.

Bowl (n.) A ball of wood or other material used for rolling on a level surface in play; a ball of hard wood having one side heavier than the other, so as to give it a bias when rolled.

Bowl (n.) An ancient game, popular in Great Britain, played with biased balls on a level plat of greensward.

Bow net () A net for catching birds.

Boy (n.) A male child, from birth to the age of puberty; a lad; hence, a son.

Boycott (v. t.) To combine against (a landlord, tradesman, employer, or other person), to withhold social or business relations from him, and to deter others from holding such relations; to subject to a boycott.

Boycott (n.) The process, fact, or pressure of boycotting; a combining to withhold or prevent dealing or social intercourse with a tradesman, employer, etc.; social and business interdiction for the purpose of coercion.

Brace (n.) A curved instrument or handle of iron or wood, for holding and turning bits, etc.; a bitstock.

Brace (v. t.) To bind or tie closely; to fasten tightly.

Bracer (n.) That which braces, binds, or makes firm; a band or bandage.

Brach (n.) A bitch of the hound kind.

Brachioganoidei (n. pl.) An order of ganoid fishes of which the bichir of Africa is a living example. See Crossopterygii.

Brachiolaria (n. pl.) A peculiar early larval stage of certain starfishes, having a bilateral structure, and swimming by means of bands of vibrating cilia.

Brachiopoda (n.) A class of Molluscoidea having a symmetrical bivalve shell, often attached by a fleshy peduncle.

Brachydiagonal (a.) Pertaining to the shorter diagonal, as of a rhombic prism.

Brachydiagonal (n.) The shorter of the diagonals in a rhombic prism.

Brachypinacoid (n.) A plane of an orthorhombic crystal which is parallel both to the vertical axis and to the shorter lateral (brachydiagonal) axis.

Brachypteres (n.pl.) A group of birds, including auks, divers, and penguins.

Bracket (n.) A piece or combination of pieces, usually triangular in general shape, projecting from, or fastened to, a wall, or other surface, to support heavy bodies or to strengthen angles.

Braid (v. t.) To mingle, or to bring to a uniformly soft consistence, by beating, rubbing, or straining, as in some culinary operations.

Braid (n.) A narrow fabric, as of wool, silk, or linen, used for binding, trimming, or ornamenting dresses, etc.

Brail (n.) A thong of soft leather to bind up a hawk's wing.

Brake (v. t.) A sharp bit or snaffle.

Bramble net () A net to catch birds.

Brank (v. i.) To hold up and toss the head; -- applied to horses as spurning the bit.

Brat (n.) A coarse kind of apron for keeping the clothes clean; a bib.

Bravura (n.) A florid, brilliant style of music, written for effect, to show the range and flexibility of a singer's voice, or the technical force and skill of a performer; virtuoso music.

Brazilian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Brazil.

Brazil wood () A very heavy wood of a reddish color, imported from Brazil and other tropical countries, for cabinet-work, and for dyeing. The best is the heartwood of Caesalpinia echinata, a leguminous tree; but other trees also yield it. An inferior sort comes from Jamaica, the timber of C. Braziliensis and C. crista. This is often distinguished as Braziletto , but the better kind is also frequently so named.

Break (v. t.) To exchange for other money or currency of smaller denomination; as, to break a five dollar bill.

Breed (v. t.) To give birth to; to be the native place of; as, a pond breeds fish; a northern country breeds stout men.

Breed (v. i.) To be formed in the parent or dam; to be generated, or to grow, as young before birth.

Breed (v. i.) To have birth; to be produced or multiplied.

Breton (n.) A native or inhabitant of Brittany, or Bretagne, in France; also, the ancient language of Brittany; Armorican.

Breviped (n.) A breviped bird.

Brevipen (n.) A brevipennate bird.

Brevipennate (a.) Short-winged; -- applied to birds which can not fly, owing to their short wings, as the ostrich, cassowary, and emu.

Brevirostrate (a.) Short-billed; having a short beak.

Bribing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Bribe

Brid (n.) A bird.

Bridle (n.) The head gear with which a horse is governed and restrained, consisting of a headstall, a bit, and reins, with other appendages.

Bridoon (n.) The snaffle and rein of a military bridle, which acts independently of the bit, at the pleasure of the rider. It is used in connection with a curb bit, which has its own rein.

Bright's disease () An affection of the kidneys, usually inflammatory in character, and distinguished by the occurrence of albumin and renal casts in the urine. Several varieties of Bright's disease are now recognized, differing in the part of the kidney involved, and in the intensity and course of the morbid process.

Brilliant (a.) A diamond or other gem of the finest cut, formed into faces and facets, so as to reflect and refract the light, by which it is rendered more brilliant. It has at the middle, or top, a principal face, called the table, which is surrounded by a number of sloping facets forming a bizet; below, it has a small face or collet, parallel to the table, connected with the girdle by a pavilion of elongated facets. It is thus distinguished from the rose diamond, which is entirely covered with facets on the surface, and is flat below.

Britannia (n.) A white-metal alloy of tin, antimony, bismuth, copper, etc. It somewhat resembles silver, and is used for table ware. Called also Britannia metal.

British (a.) Of or pertaining to Great Britain or to its inhabitants; -- sometimes restricted to the original inhabitants.

Britisher (n.) An Englishman; a subject or inhabitant of Great Britain, esp. one in the British military or naval service.

Broadbill (n.) A wild duck (Aythya, / Fuligula, marila), which appears in large numbers on the eastern coast of the United States, in autumn; -- called also bluebill, blackhead, raft duck, and scaup duck. See Scaup duck.

Broadbill (n.) The shoveler. See Shoveler.

Broadmouth (n.) One of the Eurylaimidae, a family of East Indian passerine birds.

Brocard (n.) An elementary principle or maximum; a short, proverbial rule, in law, ethics, or metaphysics.

Broiler (n.) A chicken or other bird fit for broiling.

Broker (v. t.) A dealer in money, notes, bills of exchange, etc.

Bromate (v. t.) To combine or impregnate with bromine; as, bromated camphor.

Bromine (n.) One of the elements, related in its chemical qualities to chlorine and iodine. Atomic weight 79.8. Symbol Br. It is a deep reddish brown liquid of a very disagreeable odor, emitting a brownish vapor at the ordinary temperature. In combination it is found in minute quantities in sea water, and in many saline springs. It occurs also in the mineral bromyrite.

Brontotherium (n.) A genus of large extinct mammals from the miocene strata of western North America. They were allied to the rhinoceros, but the skull bears a pair of powerful horn cores in front of the orbits, and the fore feet were four-toed. See Illustration in Appendix.

Brood (v. t.) The young birds hatched at one time; a hatch; as, a brood of chickens.

Brookite (n.) A mineral consisting of titanic oxide, and hence identical with rutile and octahedrite in composition, but crystallizing in the orthorhombic system.

Brow (n.) The prominent ridge over the eye, with the hair that covers it, forming an arch above the orbit.

Brown bill () A bill or halberd of the 16th and 17th centuries. See 4th Bill.

Brown thrush () A common American singing bird (Harporhynchus rufus), allied to the mocking bird; -- also called brown thrasher.

Brush (n.) The act of brushing; as, to give one's clothes a brush; a rubbing or grazing with a quick motion; a light touch; as, we got a brush from the wheel as it passed.

Brush turkey () A large, edible, gregarious bird of Australia (Talegalla Lathami) of the family Megapodidae. Also applied to several allied species of New Guinea.

Bruteness (n.) Insensibility.

Bryonin (n.) A bitter principle obtained from the root of the bryony (Bryonia alba and B. dioica). It is a white, or slightly colored, substance, and is emetic and cathartic.

Bryony (n.) The common name of several cucurbitaceous plants of the genus Bryonia. The root of B. alba (rough or white bryony) and of B. dioica is a strong, irritating cathartic.

Buceros (n.) A genus of large perching birds; the hornbills.

Buck (n.) The male of deer, especially fallow deer and antelopes, or of goats, sheep, hares, and rabbits.

Buck bean () A plant (Menyanthes trifoliata) which grows in moist and boggy places, having racemes of white or reddish flowers and intensely bitter leaves, sometimes used in medicine; marsh trefoil; -- called also bog bean.

Buckler (n.) The anterior segment of the shell of trilobites.

Buddhism (n.) The religion based upon the doctrine originally taught by the Hindoo sage Gautama Siddartha, surnamed Buddha, "the awakened or enlightened," in the sixth century b. c., and adopted as a religion by the greater part of the inhabitants of Central and Eastern Asia and the Indian Islands. Buddha's teaching is believed to have been atheistic; yet it was characterized by elevated humanity and morality. It presents release from existence (a beatific enfranchisement, Nirvana) as the greatest good. Buddhists believe in transmigration of souls through all phases and forms of life. Their number was estimated in 1881 at 470,000,000.

Budge (n.) A kind of fur prepared from lambskin dressed with the wool on; -- used formerly as an edging and ornament, esp. of scholastic habits.

Buffalo (n.) The bison of North America.

Buffet (v. t.) To affect as with blows; to strike repeatedly; to strive with or contend against; as, to buffet the billows.

Bufo (n.) A genus of Amphibia including various species of toads.

Build (v. t.) To increase and strengthen; to increase the power and stability of; to settle, or establish, and preserve; -- frequently with up; as, to build up one's constitution.

Bulbiferous (n.) Producing bulbs.

Bulbul (n.) The Persian nightingale (Pycnonotus jocosus). The name is also applied to several other Asiatic singing birds, of the family Timaliidae. The green bulbuls belong to the Chloropsis and allied genera.

Bulge (n.) The bilge or protuberant part of a cask.

Bulge (n.) The bilge of a vessel. See Bilge, 2.

Bulge (v. i.) To bilge, as a ship; to founder.

Bullen-bullen (n.) The lyre bird.

Bullfinch (n.) A bird of the genus Pyrrhula and other related genera, especially the P. vulgaris / rubicilla, a bird of Europe allied to the grosbeak, having the breast, cheeks, and neck, red.

Bullfrog (n.) A very large species of frog (Rana Catesbiana), found in North America; -- so named from its loud bellowing in spring.

Bullhead (n.) A fresh-water fish of many species, of the genus Uranidea, esp. U. gobio of Europe, and U. Richardsoni of the United States; -- called also miller's thumb.

Bumble (n.) The bittern.

Bumble (v. i.) To make a hollow or humming noise, like that of a bumblebee; to cry as a bittern.

Bump (v. i.) To make a loud, heavy, or hollow noise, as the bittern; to boom.

Bump (n.) The noise made by the bittern.

Bunn (n.) A slightly sweetened raised cake or bisquit with a glazing of sugar and milk on the top crust.

Bunchiness (n.) The quality or condition of being bunchy; knobbiness.

Bunchy (a.) Growing in bunches, or resembling a bunch; having tufts; as, the bird's bunchy tail.

Bundle (v. t.) To tie or bind in a bundle or roll.

Bung (n.) The large stopper of the orifice in the bilge of a cask.

Bung (n.) The orifice in the bilge of a cask through which it is filled; bunghole.

Bung (v. t.) To stop, as the orifice in the bilge of a cask, with a bung; to close; -- with up.

Bunker (n.) A large bin or similar receptacle; as, a coal bunker.

Bunny (n.) A pet name for a rabbit or a squirrel.

Bunodonts (n. pl.) A division of the herbivorous mammals including the hogs and hippopotami; -- so called because the teeth are tuberculated.

Bunting (n.) A bird of the genus Emberiza, or of an allied genus, related to the finches and sparrows (family Fringillidae).

Burbolt (n.) A birdbolt.

Burden (n.) A birth.

Burdock (n.) A genus of coarse biennial herbs (Lappa), bearing small burs which adhere tenaciously to clothes, or to the fur or wool of animals.

Bureaucracy (n.) A system of carrying on the business of government by means of departments or bureaus, each under the control of a chief, in contradiction to a system in which the officers of government have an associated authority and responsibility; also, government conducted on this system.

Bureaucrat (n.) An official of a bureau; esp. an official confirmed in a narrow and arbitrary routine.

Burgess (n.) An inhabitant of a borough or walled town, or one who possesses a tenement therein; a citizen or freeman of a borough.

Burgess (n.) An inhabitant of a Scotch burgh qualified to vote for municipal officers.

Burghbrech (n.) The offense of violating the pledge given by every inhabitant of a tithing to keep the peace; breach of the peace.

Burgher (n.) A freeman of a burgh or borough, entitled to enjoy the privileges of the place; any inhabitant of a borough.

Burgomaster (n.) An aquatic bird, the glaucous gull (Larus glaucus), common in arctic regions.

Burman (n.) A member of the Burman family, one of the four great families Burmah; also, sometimes, any inhabitant of Burmah; a Burmese.

Burmese (a.) Of or pertaining to Burmah, or its inhabitants.

Burn (v. t.) To cause to combine with oxygen or other active agent, with evolution of heat; to consume; to oxidize; as, a man burns a certain amount of carbon at each respiration; to burn iron in oxygen.

Burn (v. i.) To combine energetically, with evolution of heat; as, copper burns in chlorine.

Burniebee (n.) The ladybird.

Burnish (a.) To cause to shine; to make smooth and bright; to polish; specifically, to polish by rubbing with something hard and smooth; as, to burnish brass or paper.

Burnisher (n.) A tool with a hard, smooth, rounded end or surface, as of steel, ivory, or agate, used in smoothing or polishing by rubbing. It has a variety of forms adapted to special uses.

Burnous (n.) A combination cloak and hood worn by women.

Burrow (n.) A shelter; esp. a hole in the ground made by certain animals, as rabbits, for shelter and habitation.

Burrow (n.) A heap or heaps of rubbish or refuse.

Burrow (v. i.) To excavate a hole to lodge in, as in the earth; to lodge in a hole excavated in the earth, as conies or rabbits.

Burton (n.) A peculiar tackle, formed of two or more blocks, or pulleys, the weight being suspended to a hook block in the bight of the running part.

Busbies (pl. ) of Busby

Buss (n.) A small strong vessel with two masts and two cabins; -- used in the herring fishery.

Bustard (n.) A bird of the genus Otis.

Bustle (n.) A kind of pad or cushion worn on the back below the waist, by women, to give fullness to the skirts; -- called also bishop, and tournure.

Busy (a.) Engaged in some business; hard at work (either habitually or only for the time being); occupied with serious affairs; not idle nor at leisure; as, a busy merchant.

But (adv. & conj.) On the contrary; on the other hand; only; yet; still; however; nevertheless; more; further; -- as connective of sentences or clauses of a sentence, in a sense more or less exceptive or adversative; as, the House of Representatives passed the bill, but the Senate dissented; our wants are many, but quite of another kind.

Butterbird (n.) The rice bunting or bobolink; -- so called in the island of Jamaica.

Butterbump (n.) The European bittern.

Buxom (a.) Having the characteristics of health, vigor, and comeliness, combined with a gay, lively manner; stout and rosy; jolly; frolicsome.

Buzz (v. i.) To make a low, continuous, humming or sibilant sound, like that made by bees with their wings. Hence: To utter a murmuring sound; to speak with a low, humming voice.

Buzzard (n.) A bird of prey of the Hawk family, belonging to the genus Buteo and related genera.

By (pref.) Used in specifying adjacent dimensions; as, a cabin twenty feet by forty.

By (adv.) Passing near; going past; past; beyond; as, the procession has gone by; a bird flew by.

By-bidder (n.) One who bids at an auction in behalf of the auctioneer or owner, for the purpose of running up the price of articles.

Byssus (n.) A tuft of long, tough filaments which are formed in a groove of the foot, and issue from between the valves of certain bivalve mollusks, as the Pinna and Mytilus, by which they attach themselves to rocks, etc.

Byzantine (n.) A native or inhabitant of Byzantium, now Constantinople; sometimes, applied to an inhabitant of the modern city of Constantinople.

C () C is the third letter of the English alphabet. It is from the Latin letter C, which in old Latin represented the sounds of k, and g (in go); its original value being the latter. In Anglo-Saxon words, or Old English before the Norman Conquest, it always has the sound of k. The Latin C was the same letter as the Greek /, /, and came from the Greek alphabet. The Greeks got it from the Ph/nicians. The English name of C is from the Latin name ce, and was derived, probably, through the French. Etymologically C is related to g, h, k, q, s (and other sibilant sounds). Examples of these relations are in L. acutus, E. acute, ague; E. acrid, eager, vinegar; L. cornu, E. horn; E. cat, kitten; E. coy, quiet; L. circare, OF. cerchier, E. search.

Caaba (n.) The small and nearly cubical stone building, toward which all Mohammedans must pray.

Cabala (n.) A kind of occult theosophy or traditional interpretation of the Scriptures among Jewish rabbis and certain mediaeval Christians, which treats of the nature of god and the mystery of human existence. It assumes that every letter, word, number, and accent of Scripture contains a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation for ascertaining these occult meanings. The cabalists pretend even to foretell events by this means.

Cabiai (n.) The capybara. See Capybara.

Cabin (n.) A cottage or small house; a hut.

Cabin (n.) A small room; an inclosed place.

Cabin (n.) A room in ship for officers or passengers.

Cabined (imp. & p. p.) of Cabin

Cabining (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Cabin

Cabin (v. i.) To live in, or as in, a cabin; to lodge.

Cabin (v. t.) To confine in, or as in, a cabin.

Cabinet (n.) A hut; a cottage; a small house.

Cabinet (n.) A small room, or retired apartment; a closet.

Cabinet (n.) A private room in which consultations are held.

Cabinet (n.) The advisory council of the chief executive officer of a nation; a cabinet council.

Cabinet (n.) A set of drawers or a cupboard intended to contain articles of value. Hence:

Cabinet (n.) A decorative piece of furniture, whether open like an etagere or closed with doors. See Etagere.

Cabinet (n.) Any building or room set apart for the safe keeping and exhibition of works of art, etc.; also, the collection itself.

Cabinet (a.) Suitable for a cabinet; small.

Cabineting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Cabinet

Cabinet (v. i.) To inclose

Cabinetmaker (n.) One whose occupation is to make cabinets or other choice articles of household furniture, as tables, bedsteads, bureaus, etc.

Cabinetmaking (n.) The art or occupation of making the finer articles of household furniture.

Cabinetwork (n.) The art or occupation of working upon wooden furniture requiring nice workmanship; also, such furniture.

Cabirean (n.) One of the Cabiri.

Cabbiri (n. pl.) Certain deities originally worshiped with mystical rites by the Pelasgians in Lemnos and Samothrace and afterwards throughout Greece; -- also called sons of Hephaestus (or Vulcan), as being masters of the art of working metals.

Cabirian (a.) Same as Cabiric.

Cabiric (a.) Of or pertaining to the Cabiri, or to their mystical worship.

Cabrilla (n.) A name applied to various species of edible fishes of the genus Serranus, and related genera, inhabiting the Meditarranean, the coast of California, etc. In California, some of them are also called rock bass and kelp salmon.

Caburn (n.) A small line made of spun yarn, to bind or worm cables, seize tackles, etc.

Cachexy (n.) A condition of ill health and impairment of nutrition due to impoverishment of the blood, esp. when caused by a specific morbid process (as cancer or tubercle).

Cacoethes (n.) A bad custom or habit; an insatiable desire; as, cacoethes scribendi, "The itch for writing".

Cacomixl (n.) A North American carnivore (Bassaris astuta), about the size of a cat, related to the raccoons. It inhabits Mexico, Texas, and California.

Cacophony (n.) A combination of discordant sounds.

Caddis (n.) The larva of a caddice fly. These larvae generally live in cylindrical cases, open at each end, and covered externally with pieces of broken shells, gravel, bits of wood, etc. They are a favorite bait with anglers. Called also caddice worm, or caddis worm.

Caducibranchiate (a.) With temporary gills: -- applied to those Amphibia in which the gills do not remain in adult life.

Caecilian (n.) A limbless amphibian belonging to the order Caeciliae or Ophimorpha. See Ophiomorpha.

Caffeine (n.) A white, bitter, crystallizable substance, obtained from coffee. It is identical with the alkaloid theine from tea leaves, and with guaranine from guarana.

Cage (n.) A box or inclosure, wholly or partly of openwork, in wood or metal, used for confining birds or other animals.

Cageling (n.) A bird confined in a cage; esp. a young bird.

Cagot (n.) One of a race inhabiting the valleys of the Pyrenees, who until 1793 were political and social outcasts (Christian Pariahs). They are supposed to be a remnant of the Visigoths.

Cairn (n.) A rounded or conical heap of stones erected by early inhabitants of the British Isles, apparently as a sepulchral monument.

Calambour (n.) A species of agalloch, or aloes wood, of a dusky or mottled color, of a light, friable texture, and less fragrant than calambac; -- used by cabinetmakers.

Calcareo-bituminous (a.) Consisting of, or containing, lime and bitumen.

Calcific (a.) Calciferous. Specifically: (Zool.) of or pertaining to the portion of the oviduct which forms the eggshell in birds and reptiles.

Calcium (n.) An elementary substance; a metal which combined with oxygen forms lime. It is of a pale yellow color, tenacious, and malleable. It is a member of the alkaline earth group of elements. Atomic weight 40. Symbol Ca.

Calculus (n.) Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but most frequent in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as, biliary calculi; urinary calculi, etc.

Caledonian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Caledonia or Scotland.

Calendar (n.) An orderly list or enumeration of persons, things, or events; a schedule; as, a calendar of state papers; a calendar of bills presented in a legislative assembly; a calendar of causes arranged for trial in court; a calendar of a college or an academy.

Calf (n.) Leather made of the skin of the calf; especially, a fine, light-colored leather used in bookbinding; as, to bind books in calf.

Californian (n.) A native or inhabitant of California.

Calk (v. t.) To copy, as a drawing, by rubbing the back of it with red or black chalk, and then passing a blunt style or needle over the lines, so as to leave a tracing on the paper or other thing against which it is laid or held.

Call (n.) The cry of a bird; also a noise or cry in imitation of a bird; or a pipe to call birds by imitating their note or cry.

Calliope (n.) A beautiful species of humming bird (Stellula Calliope) of California and adjacent regions.

Calmucks (n. pl.) A branch of the Mongolian race inhabiting parts of the Russian and Chinese empires; also (sing.), the language of the Calmucks.

Calorescence (n.) The conversion of obscure radiant heat into light; the transmutation of rays of heat into others of higher refrangibility.

Calorimeter (n.) An apparatus for measuring the amount of heat contained in bodies or developed by some mechanical or chemical process, as friction, chemical combination, combustion, etc.

Caloyer (n.) A monk of the Greek Church; a cenobite, anchoret, or recluse of the rule of St. Basil, especially, one on or near Mt. Athos.

Calumba (n.) The root of a plant (Jateorrhiza Calumba, and probably Cocculus palmatus), indigenous in Mozambique. It has an unpleasantly bitter taste, and is used as a tonic and antiseptic.

Calumbin (n.) A bitter principle extracted as a white crystalline substance from the calumba root.

Calymene (n.) A genus of trilobites characteristic of the Silurian age.

Cambial (a.) Belonging to exchanges in commerce; of exchange.

Cambist (n.) A banker; a money changer or broker; one who deals in bills of exchange, or who is skilled in the science of exchange.

Cambistry (n.) The science of exchange, weight, measures, etc.

Cambium (n.) A series of formative cells lying outside of the wood proper and inside of the inner bark. The growth of new wood takes place in the cambium, which is very soft.

Cambium (n.) A fancied nutritive juice, formerly supposed to originate in the blood, to repair losses of the system, and to promote its increase.

Camel (n.) A large ruminant used in Asia and Africa for carrying burdens and for riding. The camel is remarkable for its ability to go a long time without drinking. Its hoofs are small, and situated at the extremities of the toes, and the weight of the animal rests on the callous. The dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) has one bunch on the back, while the Bactrian camel (C. Bactrianus) has two. The llama, alpaca, and vicu–a, of South America, belong to a related genus (Auchenia).

Chamomile (n.) A genus of herbs (Anthemis) of the Composite family. The common camomile, A. nobilis, is used as a popular remedy. Its flowers have a strong and fragrant and a bitter, aromatic taste. They are tonic, febrifugal, and in large doses emetic, and the volatile oil is carminative.

Campanero (n.) The bellbird of South America. See Bellbird.

Camporated () Combined or impregnated with camphor.

Canaanite (n.) A Native or inhabitant of the land of Canaan, esp. a member of any of the tribes who inhabited Canaan at the time of the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt.

Canadian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Canada.

Canary (a.) Of or pertaining to the Canary Islands; as, canary wine; canary birds.

Canary (n.) A canary bird.

Canary (n.) A pale yellow color, like that of a canary bird.

Canary bird () A small singing bird of the Finch family (Serinus Canarius), a native of the Canary Islands. It was brought to Europe in the 16th century, and made a household pet. It generally has a yellowish body with the wings and tail greenish, but in its wild state it is more frequently of gray or brown color. It is sometimes called canary finch.

Candid (a.) Free from undue bias; disposed to think and judge according to truth and justice, or without partiality or prejudice; fair; just; impartial; as, a candid opinion.

Canker-bit (a.) Eaten out by canker, or as by canker.

Cannabin (n.) A poisonous resin extracted from hemp (Cannabis sativa, variety Indica). The narcotic effects of hasheesh are due to this resin.

Cannabine (a.) Pertaining to hemp; hempen.

Cannabis (n.) A genus of a single species belonging to the order Uricaceae; hemp.

Canon bit () That part of a bit which is put in a horse's mouth.

Cant (n.) A sudden thrust, push, kick, or other impulse, producing a bias or change of direction; also, the bias or turn so give; as, to give a ball a cant.

Cant (n.) A call for bidders at a public sale; an auction.

Cant (v. t.) to sell by auction, or bid a price at a sale by auction.

Cantabile (a.) In a melodious, flowing style; in a singing style, as opposed to bravura, recitativo, or parlando.

Cantabile (n.) A piece or passage, whether vocal or instrumental, peculiarly adapted to singing; -- sometimes called cantilena.

Canterbury (n.) A city in England, giving its name various articles. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury (primate of all England), and contains the shrine of Thomas a Becket, to which pilgrimages were formerly made.

Cantharidin (n.) The active principle of the cantharis, or Spanish fly, a volatile, acrid, bitter solid, crystallizing in four-sided prisms.

Cantilena (n.) See Cantabile.

Caoutchouc (n.) A tenacious, elastic, gummy substance obtained from the milky sap of several plants of tropical South America (esp. the euphorbiaceous tree Siphonia elastica or Hevea caoutchouc), Asia, and Africa. Being impermeable to liquids and gases, and not readly affected by exposure to air, acids, and alkalies, it is used, especially when vulcanized, for many purposes in the arts and in manufactures. Also called India rubber (because it was first brought from India, and was formerly used chiefly for erasing pencil marks) and gum elastic. See Vulcanization.

Cap (n.) The whole top of the head of a bird from the base of the bill to the nape of the neck.

Capabilities (pl. ) of Capability

Capability (n.) The quality of being capable; capacity; capableness; esp. intellectual power or ability.

Capability (n.) Capacity of being used or improved.

Capable (a.) Possessing ability, qualification, or susceptibility; having capacity; of sufficient size or strength; as, a room capable of holding a large number; a castle capable of resisting a long assault.

Capableness (n.) The quality or state of being capable; capability; adequateness; competency.

Capacity (n.) The power of receiving and holding ideas, knowledge, etc.; the comprehensiveness of the mind; the receptive faculty; capability of undestanding or feeling.

Capacity (n.) Ability; power pertaining to, or resulting from, the possession of strength, wealth, or talent; possibility of being or of doing.

Caperberry (n.) The currantlike fruit of the African and Arabian caper (Capparis sodado).

Capillary (n.) A minute, thin-walled vessel; particularly one of the smallest blood vessels connecting arteries and veins, but used also for the smallest lymphatic and biliary vessels.

Capitibranchiata (n. pl.) A division of annelids in which the gills arise from or near the head. See Tubicola.

Capper (n.) A by-bidder; a decoy for gamblers [Slang, U. S.].

Caprifole (n.) The woodbine or honeysuckle.

Capsicum (n.) A genus of plants of many species, producing capsules or dry berries of various forms, which have an exceedingly pungent, biting taste, and when ground form the red or Cayenne pepper of commerce.

Capuchin (n.) Other species of Cabus, as C. fatuellus (the brown or horned capucine.), C. albifrons (the cararara), and C. apella.

Capybara (n.) A large South American rodent (Hydrochaerus capybara) Living on the margins of lakes and rivers. It is the largest extant rodent, being about three feet long, and half that in height. It somewhat resembles the Guinea pig, to which it is related; -- called also cabiai and water hog.

Carabid (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the genus Carbus or family Carabidae.

Carabid (n.) One of the Carabidae, a family of active insectivorous beetles.

Carabine (n.) A carbine.

Carabineer (n.) A carbineer.

Caracara (n.) A south American bird of several species and genera, resembling both the eagles and the vultures. The caracaras act as scavengers, and are also called carrion buzzards.

Caravan (n.) A large, covered wagon, or a train of such wagons, for conveying wild beasts, etc., for exhibition; an itinerant show, as of wild beasts.

Caraway (n.) A biennial plant of the Parsley family (Carum Carui). The seeds have an aromatic smell, and a warm, pungent taste. They are used in cookery and confectionery, and also in medicine as a carminative.

Carbanil (n.) A mobile liquid, CO.N.C6H5, of pungent odor. It is the phenyl salt of isocyanic acid.

Carbide (n.) A binary compound of carbon with some other element or radical, in which the carbon plays the part of a negative; -- formerly termed carburet.

Carbimide (n.) The technical name for isocyanic acid. See under Isocyanic.

Carbine (n.) A short, light musket or rifle, esp. one used by mounted soldiers or cavalry.

Carbineer (n.) A soldier armed with a carbine.

Carbinol (n.) Methyl alcohol, CH3OH; -- also, by extension, any one in the homologous series of paraffine alcohols of which methyl alcohol is the type.

Carbonated (a.) Combined or impregnated with carbonic acid.

Carbonide (n.) A carbide.

Carbonize (v. t.) To impregnate or combine with carbon, as in making steel by cementation.

Carbonyl (n.) The radical (CO)'', occuring, always combined, in many compounds, as the aldehydes, the ketones, urea, carbonyl chloride, etc.

Carburet (n.) A carbide. See Carbide

Carburet (v. t.) To combine or to impregnate with carbon, as by passing through or over a liquid hydrocarbon; to carbonize or carburize.

Carbureted (a.) Combined with carbon in the manner of a carburet or carbide.

Carburize (v. t.) To combine with carbon or a carbon compound; -- said esp. of a process for conferring a higher degree of illuminating power on combustible gases by mingling them with a vapor of volatile hydrocarbons.

Cardamine (n.) A genus of cruciferous plants, containing the lady's-smock, cuckooflower, bitter cress, meadow cress, etc.

Cardioinhibitory (a.) Checking or arresting the heart's action.

Cardiosphygmograph (n.) A combination of cardiograph and sphygmograph.

Cardo (n.) The hinge of a bivalve shell.

Care (n.) A burdensome sense of responsibility; trouble caused by onerous duties; anxiety; concern; solicitude.

Care (n.) Charge, oversight, or management, implying responsibility for safety and prosperity.

Caret (n.) The hawkbill turtle. See Hawkbill.

Cariama (n.) A large, long-legged South American bird (Dicholophus cristatus) which preys upon snakes, etc. See Seriema.

Carib (n.) A native of the Caribbee islands or the coasts of the Caribbean sea; esp., one of a tribe of Indians inhabiting a region of South America, north of the Amazon, and formerly most of the West India islands.

Carina (n.) The keel of the breastbone of birds.

Carinatae (n. pl.) A grand division of birds, including all existing flying birds; -- So called from the carina or keel on the breastbone.

Carinated (a.) Shaped like the keel or prow of a ship; having a carina or keel; as, a carinate calyx or leaf; a carinate sternum (of a bird).

Carolinian (n.) A native or inhabitant of north or South Carolina.

Carp (n.) A fresh-water herbivorous fish (Cyprinus carpio.). Several other species of Cyprinus, Catla, and Carassius are called carp. See Cruclan carp.

Carpintero (n.) A california woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), noted for its habit of inserting acorns in holes which it drills in trees. The acorns become infested by insect larvae, which, when grown, are extracted for food by the bird.

Carrier (n.) That which drives or carries; as: (a) A piece which communicates to an object in a lathe the motion of the face plate; a lathe dog. (b) A spool holder or bobbin holder in a braiding machine. (c) A movable piece in magazine guns which transfers the cartridge to a position from which it can be thrust into the barrel.

Carrot (n.) An umbelliferous biennial plant (Daucus Carota), of many varieties.

Carry (v. t.) To contain; to comprise; to bear the aspect of ; to show or exhibit; to imply.

Carthaginian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Carthage.

Caruncula (n.) A naked, flesh appendage, on the head of a bird, as the wattles of a turkey, etc.

Carus (n.) Coma with complete insensibility; deep lethargy.

Cascarilla (n.) A euphorbiaceous West Indian shrub (Croton Eleutheria); also, its aromatic bark.

Cascarillin (n.) A white, crystallizable, bitter substance extracted from oil of cascarilla.

Cassareep (n.) A condiment made from the sap of the bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima) deprived of its poisonous qualities, concentrated by boiling, and flavored with aromatics. See Pepper pot.

Cassava (n.) A shrubby euphorbiaceous plant of the genus Manihot, with fleshy rootstocks yielding an edible starch; -- called also manioc.

Cassican (n.) An American bird of the genus Cassicus, allied to the starlings and orioles, remarkable for its skillfully constructed and suspended nest; the crested oriole. The name is also sometimes given to the piping crow, an Australian bird.

Cassowary (n.) A large bird, of the genus Casuarius, found in the east Indies. It is smaller and stouter than the ostrich. Its head is armed with a kind of helmet of horny substance, consisting of plates overlapping each other, and it has a group of long sharp spines on each wing which are used as defensive organs. It is a shy bird, and runs with great rapidity. Other species inhabit New Guinea, Australia, etc.

Cassumuniar (n.) A pungent, bitter, aromatic, gingerlike root, obtained from the East Indies.

Castilian (n.) An inhabitant or native of Castile, in Spain.

Castoreum (n.) A peculiar bitter orange-brown substance, with strong, penetrating odor, found in two sacs between the anus and external genitals of the beaver; castor; -- used in medicine as an antispasmodic, and by perfumers.

Casus (n.) An event; an occurrence; an occasion; a combination of circumstances; a case; an act of God. See the Note under Accident.

Catabiotic (a.) See under Force.

Catafalque (n.) A temporary structure sometimes used in the funeral solemnities of eminent persons, for the public exhibition of the remains, or their conveyance to the place of burial.

Catalan (n.) A native or inhabitant of Catalonia; also, the language of Catalonia.

Catalpa (n.) A genus of American and East Indian trees, of which the best know species are the Catalpa bignonioides, a large, ornamental North American tree, with spotted white flowers and long cylindrical pods, and the C. speciosa, of the Mississipi valley; -- called also Indian bean.

Catastasis (n.) The state, or condition of anything; constitution; habit of body.

Catawbas (n. pl.) An Appalachian tribe of Indians which originally inhabited the regions near the Catawba river and the head waters of the Santee.

Catbird (n.) An American bird (Galeoscoptes Carolinensis), allied to the mocking bird, and like it capable of imitating the notes of other birds, but less perfectly. Its note resembles at times the mewing of a cat.

Catch (v. t.) To take captive, as in a snare or net, or on a hook; as, to catch a bird or fish.

Catechu (n.) A dry, brown, astringent extract, obtained by decoction and evaporation from the Acacia catechu, and several other plants growing in India. It contains a large portion of tannin or tannic acid, and is used in medicine and in the arts. It is also known by the names terra japonica, cutch, gambier, etc.

Catelectrotonus (n.) The condition of increased irritability of a nerve in the region of the cathode or negative electrode, on the passage of a current of electricity through it.

Catenary (n.) The curve formed by a rope or chain of uniform density and perfect flexibility, hanging freely between two points of suspension, not in the same vertical line.

Catfish (n.) A name given in the United States to various species of siluroid fishes; as, the yellow cat (Amiurus natalis); the bind cat (Gronias nigrilabrus); the mud cat (Pilodictic oilwaris), the stone cat (Noturus flavus); the sea cat (Arius felis), etc. This name is also sometimes applied to the wolf fish. See Bullhrad.

Catharist (n.) One aiming at or pretending to a greater purity of like than others about him; -- applied to persons of various sects. See Albigenses.

Cathartin (n.) The bitter, purgative principle of senna. It is a glucoside with the properties of a weak acid; -- called also cathartic acid, and cathartina.

Cathedra (n.) The official chair or throne of a bishop, or of any person in high authority.

Cathedral (n.) The principal church in a diocese, so called because in it the bishop has his official chair (Cathedra) or throne.

Cathedral (a.) Emanating from the chair of office, as of a pope or bishop; official; authoritative.

Catholic (a.) Not narrow-minded, partial, or bigoted; liberal; as, catholic tastes.

Cat-salt (n.) A sort of salt, finely granulated, formed out of the bittern or leach brine.

Cat's-eye (n.) A variety of quartz or chalcedony, exhibiting opalescent reflections from within, like the eye of a cat. The name is given to other gems affording like effects, esp. the chrysoberyl.

Cat's-paw (n.) A particular hitch or turn in the bight of a rope, into which a tackle may be hooked.

Caucasian (n.) A native or inhabitant of the Caucasus, esp. a Circassian or Georgian.

Caul (n.) A part of the amnion, one of the membranes enveloping the fetus, which sometimes is round the head of a child at its birth.

Cauterization (n.) The act of searing some morbid part by the application of a cautery or caustic; also, the effect of such application.

Cautery (n.) A burning or searing, as of morbid flesh, with a hot iron, or by application of a caustic that will burn, corrode, or destroy animal tissue.

Cavillous (a.) Characterized by caviling, or disposed to cavil; quibbing.

Cayugas (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting western New-York, forming part of the confederacy called the Five Nations.

Cedar (n.) The name of several evergreen trees. The wood is remarkable for its durability and fragrant odor.

Celebrate (v. t.) To honor by solemn rites, by ceremonies of joy and respect, or by refraining from ordinary business; to observe duly; to keep; as, to celebrate a birthday.

Celestial (n.) An inhabitant of heaven.

Celt (n.) One of an ancient race of people, who formerly inhabited a great part of Central and Western Europe, and whose descendants at the present day occupy Ireland, Wales, the Highlands of Scotland, and the northern shores of France.

Celtiberian (a.) Of or pertaining to the ancient Celtiberia (a district in Spain lying between the Ebro and the Tagus) or its inhabitants the Celtiberi (Celts of the river Iberus).

Celtiberian (n.) An inhabitant of Celtiberia.

Cementation (n.) A process which consists in surrounding a solid body with the powder of other substances, and heating the whole to a degree not sufficient to cause fusion, the physical properties of the body being changed by chemical combination with powder; thus iron becomes steel by cementation with charcoal, and green glass becomes porcelain by cementation with sand.

Cenobite (n.) One of a religious order, dwelling in a convent, or a community, in opposition to an anchoret, or hermit, who lives in solitude.

Cenobitic (a.) Alt. of Cenobitical

Cenobitical (a.) Of or pertaining to a cenobite.

Cenobitism (n.) The state of being a cenobite; the belief or practice of a cenobite.

Censor (n.) One who is empowered to examine manuscripts before they are committed to the press, and to forbid their publication if they contain anything obnoxious; -- an official in some European countries.

Centennial (a.) Happening once in a hundred years; as, centennial jubilee; a centennial celebration.

Centerbit (n.) Alt. of Centrebit

Centrebit (n.) An instrument turning on a center, for boring holes. See Bit, n., 3.

Centilitre (n.) The hundredth part of a liter; a measure of volume or capacity equal to a little more than six tenths (0.6102) of a cubic inch, or one third (0.338) of a fluid ounce.

Centistere (n.) The hundredth part of a stere, equal to .353 cubic feet.

Centralism (n.) The state or condition of being central; the combination of several parts into one whole; centralization.

Centralization (n.) The act or process of centralizing, or the state of being centralized; the act or process of combining or reducing several parts into a whole; as, the centralization of power in the general government; the centralization of commerce in a city.

Cephalata (n. pl.) A large division of Mollusca, including all except the bivalves; -- so called because the head is distinctly developed. See Illustration in Appendix.

Cephalo () A combining form denoting the head, of the head, connected with the head; as, cephalosome, cephalopod.

Cephaloptera (n.) One of the generic names of the gigantic ray (Manta birostris), known as devilfish and sea devil. It is common on the coasts of South Carolina, Florida, and farther south. Some of them grow to enormous size, becoming twenty feet of more across the body, and weighing more than a ton.

Cephalotomy (n.) Craniotomy; -- usually applied to bisection of the fetal head with a saw.

Cerasin (n.) A white amorphous substance, the insoluble part of cherry gum; -- called also meta-arabinic acid.

Cere (n.) The soft naked sheath at the base of the beak of birds of prey, parrots, and some other birds. See Beak.

Cerebellum (n.) The large lobe of the hind brain in front of and above the medulla; the little brain. It controls combined muscular action. See Brain.

Cerebrate (v. i.) To exhibit mental activity; to have the brain in action.

Ceroma (n.) The cere of birds.

Cerris (n.) A species of oak (Quercus cerris) native in the Orient and southern Europe; -- called also bitter oak and Turkey oak.

Certainty (n.) Clearness; freedom from ambiguity; lucidity.

Cetrarin (n.) A white substance extracted from the lichen, Iceland moss (Cetraria Islandica). It consists of several ingredients, among which is cetraric acid, a white, crystalline, bitter substance.

Chafe (v. t.) To fret and wear by rubbing; as, to chafe a cable.

Chafe (v. i.) To rub; to come together so as to wear by rubbing; to wear by friction.

Chafe (v. i.) To be worn by rubbing; as, a cable chafes.

Chaffinch (n.) A bird of Europe (Fringilla coelebs), having a variety of very sweet songs, and highly valued as a cage bird; -- called also copper finch.

Chafing (v. t.) The act of rubbing, or wearing by friction; making by rubbing.

Chain (n.) That which confines, fetters, or secures, as a chain; a bond; as, the chains of habit.

Chain (v. t.) To fasten, bind, or connect with a chain; to fasten or bind securely, as with a chain; as, to chain a bulldog.

Chalaza (n.) A spiral band of thickened albuminous substance which exists in the white of the bird's egg, and serves to maintain the yolk in its position; the treadle.

Chaldean (n.) A native or inhabitant of Chaldea.

Chalder (n.) A kind of bird; the oyster catcher.

Chalybite (n.) Native iron carbonate; -- usually called siderite.

Chamber (n.) A cavity in a mine, usually of a cubical form, to contain the powder.

Champ (v. t.) To bite with repeated action of the teeth so as to be heard.

Champ (v. t.) To bite into small pieces; to crunch.

Champ (v. i.) To bite or chew impatiently.

Champer (n.) One who champs, or bites.

Chance (n.) A possibility; a likelihood; an opportunity; -- with reference to a doubtful result; as, a chance to escape; a chance for life; the chances are all against him.

Chance (n.) Probability.

Change (v. t.) Specifically: To give, or receive, smaller denominations of money (technically called change) for; as, to change a gold coin or a bank bill.

Change (v. t.) Any variation or alteration; a passing from one state or form to another; as, a change of countenance; a change of habits or principles.

Change (v. t.) Small money; the money by means of which the larger coins and bank bills are made available in small dealings; hence, the balance returned when payment is tendered by a coin or note exceeding the sum due.

Changeability (n.) Changeableness.

Changeableness (n.) The quality of being changeable; fickleness; inconstancy; mutability.

Chank (n.) The East Indian name for the large spiral shell of several species of sea conch much used in making bangles, esp. Turbinella pyrum. Called also chank chell.

Chapter (n.) A bishop's council.

Charr (n.) One of the several species of fishes of the genus Salvelinus, allied to the spotted trout and salmon, inhabiting deep lakes in mountainous regions in Europe. In the United States, the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is sometimes called a char.

Character (n.) The peculiar quality, or the sum of qualities, by which a person or a thing is distinguished from others; the stamp impressed by nature, education, or habit; that which a person or thing really is; nature; disposition.

Charge (v. t.) To place something to the account of as a debt; to debit, as, to charge one with goods. Also, to enter upon the debit side of an account; as, to charge a sum to one.

Charge (v. t.) To accuse; to make a charge or assertion against (a person or thing); to lay the responsibility (for something said or done) at the door of.

Charge (v. i.) To debit on an account; as, to charge for purchases.

Charge (v. t.) Custody or care of any person, thing, or place; office; responsibility; oversight; obigation; duty.

Charge (v. t.) An address (esp. an earnest or impressive address) containing instruction or exhortation; as, the charge of a judge to a jury; the charge of a bishop to his clergy.

Charge (v. t.) An entry or a account of that which is due from one party to another; that which is debited in a business transaction; as, a charge in an account book.

Charm (n.) A word or combination of words sung or spoken in the practice of magic; a magical combination of words, characters, etc.; an incantation.

Charras (n.) The gum resin of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). Same as Churrus.

Chart (n.) A sheet of paper, pasteboard, or the like, on which information is exhibited, esp. when the information is arranged in tabular form; as, an historical chart.

Chase (v.) Vehement pursuit for the purpose of killing or capturing, as of an enemy, or game; an earnest seeking after any object greatly desired; the act or habit of hunting; a hunt.

Chat (n.) A bird of the genus Icteria, allied to the warblers, in America. The best known species are the yellow-breasted chat (I. viridis), and the long-tailed chat (I. longicauda). In Europe the name is given to several birds of the family Saxicolidae, as the stonechat, and whinchat.

Chatteration (n.) The act or habit of chattering.

Chatterer (n.) A bird of the family Ampelidae -- so called from its monotonous note. The Bohemion chatterer (Ampelis garrulus) inhabits the arctic regions of both continents. In America the cedar bird is a more common species. See Bohemian chatterer, and Cedar bird.

Chattering (n.) The act or habit of talking idly or rapidly, or of making inarticulate sounds; the sounds so made; noise made by the collision of the teeth; chatter.

Chaus (n.) a lynxlike animal of Asia and Africa (Lynx Lybicus).

Chaw (v. t.) To grind with the teeth; to masticate, as food in eating; to chew, as the cud; to champ, as the bit.

Cheapen (v. t.) To ask the price of; to bid, bargain, or chaffer for.

Cheatableness (n.) Capability of being cheated.

Chebec (n.) A small American bird (Empidonax minimus); the least flycatcher.

Check (n.) The forsaking by a hawk of its proper game to follow other birds.

Check (v. i.) To turn, when in pursuit of proper game, and fly after other birds.

Checkrein (n.) A branch rein connecting the driving rein of one horse of a span or pair with the bit of the other horse.

Cheek (n.) The branches of a bridle bit.

Cheep (v. i.) To chirp, as a young bird.

Cheep (n.) A chirp, peep, or squeak, as of a young bird or mouse.

Chemical (a.) Pertaining to chemistry; characterized or produced by the forces and operations of chemistry; employed in the processes of chemistry; as, chemical changes; chemical combinations.

Chenomorphae (n. pl.) An order of birds, including the swans, ducks, geese, flamingoes and screamers.

Cherokees (n. pl.) An Appalachian tribe of Indians, formerly inhabiting the region about the head waters of the Tennessee River. They are now mostly settled in the Indian Territory, and have become one of the most civilized of the Indian Tribes.

Cherry (n.) The wild cherry; as, Prunus serotina (wild black cherry), valued for its timber; P. Virginiana (choke cherry), an American shrub which bears astringent fruit; P. avium and P. Padus, European trees (bird cherry).

Cherry (n.) The timber of the cherry tree, esp. of the black cherry, used in cabinetmaking, etc.

Cherubim (pl. ) of Cherub

Cherub (n.) One of a order of angels, variously represented in art. In European painting the cherubim have been shown as blue, to denote knowledge, as distinguished from the seraphim (see Seraph), and in later art the children's heads with wings are generally called cherubs.

Cherubic (a.) Alt. of Cherubical

Cherubical (a.) Of or pertaining to cherubs; angelic.

Cherubim (n.) The Hebrew plural of Cherub.. Cf. Seraphim.

Cherubin (a.) Cherubic; angelic.

Cherubin (n.) A cherub.

Chess (n.) A game played on a chessboard, by two persons, with two differently colored sets of men, sixteen in each set. Each player has a king, a queen, two bishops, two knights, two castles or rooks, and eight pawns.

Cheveril (v. i.) Soft leather made of kid skin. Fig.: Used as a symbol of flexibility.

Chevrotain (n.) A small ruminant of the family Tragulidae a allied to the musk deer. It inhabits Africa and the East Indies. See Kanchil.

Chew (v. t.) To bite and grind with the teeth; to masticate.

Chew (v. i.) To perform the action of biting and grinding with the teeth; to ruminate; to meditate.

Chewink (n.) An american bird (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) of the Finch family, so called from its note; -- called also towhee bunting and ground robin.

Cheyennes (n. pl.) A warlike tribe of indians, related to the blackfeet, formerly inhabiting the region of Wyoming, but now mostly on reservations in the Indian Territory. They are noted for their horsemanship.

Chickabiddy (n.) A chicken; a fowl; also, a trivial term of endearment for a child.

Chickadee (n.) A small bird, the blackcap titmouse (Parus atricapillus), of North America; -- named from its note.

Chicken (n.) A young bird or fowl, esp. a young barnyard fowl.

Chickweed (n.) The name of several caryophyllaceous weeds, especially Stellaria media, the seeds and flower buds of which are a favorite food of small birds.

Chief hare () A small rodent (Lagamys princeps) inhabiting the summits of the Rocky Mountains; -- also called crying hare, calling hare, cony, American pika, and little chief hare.

Child (n.) A young person of either sex. esp. one between infancy and youth; hence, one who exhibits the characteristics of a very young person, as innocence, obedience, trustfulness, limited understanding, etc.

Child (v. i.) To give birth; to produce young.

Childbirth (n.) The act of bringing forth a child; travail; labor.

Chimere (n.) The upper robe worn by a bishop, to which lawn sleeves are usually attached.

Chin (n.) The exterior or under surface embraced between the branches of the lower jaw bone, in birds.

Chinese (n. sing. & pl.) The language of China, which is monosyllabic.

Chippeways (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting the northern and western shores of Lake Superior; -- called also Objibways.

Chipping bird () The chippy.

Chippy (n.) A small American sparrow (Spizella socialis), very common near dwelling; -- also called chipping bird and chipping sparrow, from its simple note.

Chirk (v. i.) To chirp like a bird.

Chirm (v. i.) To chirp or to make a mournful cry, as a bird.

Chirp (v. i.) To make a shop, sharp, cheerful, as of small birds or crickets.

Chirp (n.) A short, sharp note, as of a bird or insect.

Chitter (v. i.) To chirp in a tremulous manner, as a bird.

Chloralism (n.) A morbid condition of the system resulting from excessive use of chloral.

Chloride (n.) A binary compound of chlorine with another element or radical; as, chloride of sodium (common salt).

Chlorinate (v. t.) To treat, or cause to combine, with chlorine.

Chlorometry (n.) The process of testing the bleaching power of any combination of chlorine.

Cholaemaa (n.) A disease characterized by severe nervous symptoms, dependent upon the presence of the constituents of the bile in the blood.

Cholagogue (a.) Promoting the discharge of bile from the system.

Cholagogue (n.) An agent which promotes the discharge of bile from the system.

Choledology (n.) A treatise on the bile and bilary organs.

Choleic (a.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, bile; as, choleic acid.

Choler (n.) The bile; -- formerly supposed to be the seat and cause of irascibility.

Choleric (a.) Abounding with, or producing choler, or bile.

Cholesterin (n.) A white, fatty, crystalline substance, tasteless and odorless, found in animal and plant products and tissue, and especially in nerve tissue, in the bile, and in gallstones.

Choliamb (n.) Alt. of Choliambic

Choliambic (n.) A verse having an iambus in the fifth place, and a spondee in the sixth or last.

Cholinic (a.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, the bile.

Cholochrome (n.) See Bilirubin.

Cholophaein (n.) See Bilirubin.

Chondro- () A combining form meaning a grain, granular, granular cartilage, cartilaginous; as, the chondrocranium, the cartilaginous skull of the lower vertebrates and of embryos.

Chord (n.) A combination of tones simultaneously performed, producing more or less perfect harmony, as, the common chord.

Chorepiscopus (n.) A "country" or suffragan bishop, appointed in the ancient church by a diocesan bishop to exercise episcopal jurisdiction in a rural district.

Choriambic (a.) Pertaining to a choriamb.

Choriambic (n.) A choriamb.

Choriambi (pl. ) of Choriambus

Chough (n.) A bird of the Crow family (Fregilus graculus) of Europe. It is of a black color, with a long, slender, curved bill and red legs; -- also called chauk, chauk-daw, chocard, Cornish chough, red-legged crow. The name is also applied to several allied birds, as the Alpine chough.

Chouicha (n.) The salmon of the Columbia River or California. See Quinnat.

Chowder (n.) A dish made of fresh fish or clams, biscuit, onions, etc., stewed together.

Chrism (n.) Olive oil mixed with balm and spices, consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday, and used in the administration of baptism, confirmation, ordination, etc.

Christmas (n.) An annual church festival (December 25) and in some States a legal holiday, in memory of the birth of Christ, often celebrated by a particular church service, and also by special gifts, greetings, and hospitality.

Chromatrope (n.) An instrument for exhibiting certain chromatic effects of light (depending upon the persistence of vision and mixture of colors) by means of rapidly rotating disks variously colored.

Chromatype (n.) A colored photographic picture taken upon paper made sensitive with potassium bichromate or some other salt of chromium.

Chronic (a.) Continuing for a long time; lingering; habitual.

Chrysarobin (n.) A bitter, yellow substance forming the essential constituent of Goa powder, and yielding chrysophanic acid proper; hence formerly called also chrysphanic acid.

Chrysophane (n.) A glucoside extracted from rhubarb as a bitter, yellow, crystalline powder, and yielding chrysophanic acid on decomposition.

Chud (v. t.) To champ; to bite.

Church (v. t.) To bless according to a prescribed form, or to unite with in publicly returning thanks in church, as after deliverance from the dangers of childbirth; as, the churching of women.

Churchgoing (a.) Habitually attending church.

Chyluria (n.) A morbid condition in which the urine contains chyle or fatty matter, giving it a milky appearance.

Cilician (n.) A native or inhabitant of Cilicia.

Cimbia (n.) A fillet or band placed around the shaft of a column as if to strengthen it.

Cimbric (a.) Pertaining to the Cimbri, an ancient tribe inhabiting Northern Germany.

Cimia (n.) See Cimbia.

Cinchona (n.) The bark of any species of Cinchona containing three per cent. or more of bitter febrifuge alkaloids; Peruvian bark; Jesuits' bark.

Cinchonidine (n.) One of the quinine group of alkaloids, found especially in red cinchona bark. It is a white crystalline substance, C19H22N2O, with a bitter taste and qualities similar to, but weaker than, quinine; -- sometimes called also cinchonidia.

Cingalese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or natives of Ceylon descended from its primitive inhabitants

Cipher (n.) A combination or interweaving of letters, as the initials of a name; a device; a monogram; as, a painter's cipher, an engraver's cipher, etc. The cut represents the initials N. W.

Circassian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Circassia.

Circination (n.) An orbicular motion.

Circler (n.) A mean or inferior poet, perhaps from his habit of wandering around as a stroller; an itinerant poet. Also, a name given to the cyclic poets. See under Cyclic, a.

Circuit (n.) The act of moving or revolving around, or as in a circle or orbit; a revolution; as, the periodical circuit of the earth round the sun.

Circulate (v. t.) To cause to pass from place to place, or from person to person; to spread; as, to circulate a report; to circulate bills of credit.

Circulation (n.) Currency; circulating coin; notes, bills, etc., current for coin.

Circumambiency (n.) The act of surrounding or encompassing.

Circumambient (a.) Surrounding; inclosing or being on all sides; encompassing.

Circumcise (v. t.) To cut off the prepuce of foreskin of, in the case of males, and the internal labia of, in the case of females.

Circumcision (n.) The act of cutting off the prepuce or foreskin of males, or the internal labia of females.

Circumference (n.) The external surface of a sphere, or of any orbicular body.

Circumnutation (n.) The successive bowing or bending in different directions of the growing tip of the stems of many plants, especially seen in climbing plants.

Circumscribing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Circumscribe

Circumscriptive (a.) Circumscribing or tending to circumscribe; marcing the limits or form of.

Circumstantial (a.) Abounding with circumstances; detailing or exhibiting all the circumstances; minute; particular.

Circus (n.) A circular inclosure for the exhibition of feats of horsemanship, acrobatic displays, etc. Also, the company of performers, with their equipage.

Cirrous (a.) Tufted; -- said of certain feathers of birds.

Cit (n.) A citizen; an inhabitant of a city; a pert townsman; -- used contemptuously.

Citizen (n.) An inhabitant of a city; a townsman.

Citizen (a.) Of or pertaining to the inhabitants of a city; characteristic of citizens; effeminate; luxurious.

City (n.) A corporate town; in the United States, a town or collective body of inhabitants, incorporated and governed by a mayor and aldermen or a city council consisting of a board of aldermen and a common council; in Great Britain, a town corporate, which is or has been the seat of a bishop, or the capital of his see.

City (n.) The collective body of citizens, or inhabitants of a city.

Clam (v. t.) A bivalve mollusk of many kinds, especially those that are edible; as, the long clam (Mya arenaria), the quahog or round clam (Venus mercenaria), the sea clam or hen clam (Spisula solidissima), and other species of the United States. The name is said to have been given originally to the Tridacna gigas, a huge East Indian bivalve.

Clamatores (n. pl.) A division of passerine birds in which the vocal muscles are but little developed, so that they lack the power of singing.

Clamber (v. t.) To ascend by climbing with difficulty.

Clamp (n.) Something rigid that holds fast or binds things together; a piece of wood or metal, used to hold two or more pieces together.

Clamp (n.) A piece of wood placed across another, or inserted into another, to bind or strengthen.

Clannish (a.) Of or pertaining to a clan; closely united, like a clan; disposed to associate only with one's clan or clique; actuated by the traditions, prejudices, habits, etc., of a clan.

Clape (n.) A bird; the flicker.

Clapper (n.) A rabbit burrow.

Claque (n.) A collection of persons employed to applaud at a theatrical exhibition.

Classical (n.) Of or pertaining to the ancient Greeks and Romans, esp. to Greek or Roman authors of the highest rank, or of the period when their best literature was produced; of or pertaining to places inhabited by the ancient Greeks and Romans, or rendered famous by their deeds.

Clavellated (a.) Said of potash, probably in reference to its having been obtained from billets of wood by burning.

Clavicle (n.) The collar bone, which is joined at one end to the scapula, or shoulder blade, and at the other to the sternum, or breastbone. In man each clavicle is shaped like the letter /, and is situated just above the first rib on either side of the neck. In birds the two clavicles are united ventrally, forming the merrythought, or wishbone.

Claw (n.) A sharp, hooked nail, as of a beast or bird.

Cleaning (n.) The afterbirth of cows, ewes, etc.

Cleanly (superl.) Habitually clean; pure; innocent.

Clear (superl.) Free from ambiguity or indistinctness; lucid; perspicuous; plain; evident; manifest; indubitable.

Clear (v. t.) To free from obscurity or ambiguity; to relive of perplexity; to make perspicuous.

Clear (v. i.) To make exchanges of checks and bills, and settle balances, as is done in a clearing house.

Cleavelandite (n.) A variety of albite, white and lamellar in structure.

Clue (n.) A combination of lines or nettles by which a hammock is suspended.

Clientele (n.) The persons who make habitual use of the services of another person; one's clients, collectively; as, the clientele of a lawyer, doctor, notary, etc.

Climbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Climb

Climb (n.) The act of one who climbs; ascent by climbing.

Climber (n.) A bird that climbs, as a woodpecker or a parrot.

Climbing () p. pr. & vb. n. of Climb.

Clinorhombic (a.) Possessing the qualities of a prism, obliquely inclined to a rhombic base; monoclinic.

Cloaca (n.) The common chamber into which the intestinal, urinary, and generative canals discharge in birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes.

Clubbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Club

Club (v. i.) To form a club; to combine for the promotion of some common object; to unite.

Clubbish (a.) Rude; clownish.

Clubbish (a.) Disposed to club together; as, a clubbish set.

Clubbist (n.) A member of a club; a frequenter of clubs.

Clubfoot (n.) A short, variously distorted foot; also, the deformity, usually congenital, which such a foot exhibits; talipes.

Clutch (n.) The nest complement of eggs of a bird.

Coach (n.) A cabin on the after part of the quarter-deck, usually occupied by the captain.

Coadjutor (n.) The assistant of a bishop or of a priest holding a benefice.

Coagulability (n.) The quality of being coagulable; capacity of being coagulated.

Coalesce (n.) To unite in one body or product; to combine into one body or community; as, vapors coalesce.

Coalfish (n.) The cobia.

Coalition (n.) A combination, for temporary purposes, of persons, parties, or states, having different interests.

Coal tar () A thick, black, tarry liquid, obtained by the distillation of bituminous coal in the manufacture of illuminating gas; used for making printer's ink, black varnish, etc. It is a complex mixture from which many substances have been obtained, especially hydrocarbons of the benzene or aromatic series.

Coat (n.) The habit or vesture of an order of men, indicating the order or office; cloth.

Cob (n.) A Spanish coin formerly current in Ireland, worth abiut 4s. 6d.

Cobbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Cob

Cobaea (n.) A genus of climbing plants, native of Mexico and South America. C. scandens is a conservatory climber with large bell-shaped flowers.

Cobbing (a.) Haughty; purse-proud. See Cob, n., 2.

Cobia (n.) An oceanic fish of large size (Elacate canada); the crabeater; -- called also bonito, cubbyyew, coalfish, and sergeant fish.

Cobiron (n.) An andiron with a knob at the top.

Cobishop (n.) A joint or coadjutant bishop.

Cobra de capello () The hooded snake (Naia tripudians), a highly venomous serpent inhabiting India.Naja --

Cobweb (n.) That which is thin and unsubstantial, or flimsy and worthless; rubbish.

Cocaine (n.) A powerful alkaloid, C17H21NO4, obtained from the leaves of coca. It is a bitter, white, crystalline substance, and is remarkable for producing local insensibility to pain.

Coccinella (n.) A genus of small beetles of many species. They and their larvae feed on aphids or plant lice, and hence are of great benefit to man. Also called ladybirds and ladybugs.

Cocculus Indicus (n.) The fruit or berry of the Anamirta Cocculus, a climbing plant of the East Indies. It is a poisonous narcotic and stimulant.

Cochleated (a.) Having the form of a snail shell; spiral; turbinated.

Cock (n.) The male of birds, particularly of gallinaceous or domestic fowls.

Cock (v. i.) To strut; to swagger; to look big, pert, or menacing.

Cock-a-hoop (a.) Boastful; defiant; exulting. Also used adverbially.

Cockatoo (n.) A bird of the Parrot family, of the subfamily Cacatuinae, having a short, strong, and much curved beak, and the head ornamented with a crest, which can be raised or depressed at will. There are several genera and many species; as the broad-crested (Plictolophus, / Cacatua, cristatus), the sulphur-crested (P. galeritus), etc. The palm or great black cockatoo of Australia is Microglossus aterrimus.

Cockatrice (n.) A representation of this serpent. It has the head, wings, and legs of a bird, and tail of a serpent.

Cockbill (v. t.) To tilt up one end of so as to make almost vertical; as, to cockbill the yards as a sign of mourning.

Cockle (n.) A bivalve mollusk, with radiating ribs, of the genus Cardium, especially C. edule, used in Europe for food; -- sometimes applied to similar shells of other genera.

Cockpit (n.) In yachts and other small vessels, a space lower than the rest of the deck, which affords easy access to the cabin.

Cocktail (n.) A species of rove beetle; -- so called from its habit of elevating the tail.

Cocobolas (n.) A very beautiful and hard wood, obtained in the West India Islands. It is used in cabinetmaking, for the handles of tools, and for various fancy articles.

Coction (n.) The change which the humorists believed morbific matter undergoes before elimination.

Coenesthesis (n.) Common sensation or general sensibility, as distinguished from the special sensations which are located in, or ascribed to, separate organs, as the eye and ear. It is supposed to depend on the ganglionic system.

Coenobite (n.) See Cenobite.

Coffee (n.) The "beans" or "berries" (pyrenes) obtained from the drupes of a small evergreen tree of the genus Coffea, growing in Abyssinia, Arabia, Persia, and other warm regions of Asia and Africa, and also in tropical America.

Cogitability (n.) The quality of being cogitable; conceivableness.

Cognate (a.) Allied by blood; kindred by birth; specifically (Law), related on the mother's side.

Cognoscibility (n.) The quality of being cognoscible.

Cohabited (imp. & p. p.) of Cohabit

Cohabiting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Cohabit

Cohabit (v.) To inhabit or reside in company, or in the same place or country.

Cohabit (v.) To dwell or live together as husband and wife.

Cohabitant (n.) One who dwells with another, or in the same place or country.

Cohabitation (n.) The act or state of dwelling together, or in the same place with another.

Cohabitation (n.) The living together of a man and woman in supposed sexual relationship.

Cohabiter (n.) A cohabitant.

Cohesibility (n.) The state of being cohesible.

Cohibited (imp. & p. p.) of Cohibit

Cohibiting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Cohibit

Cohibit (v. t.) To restrain.

Cohibition (n.) Hindrance; restraint.

Coinhabitant (n.) One who dwells with another, or with others.

Cojuror (n.) One who swears to another's credibility.

Coke (n.) Mineral coal charred, or depriver of its bitumen, sulphur, or other volatile matter by roasting in a kiln or oven, or by distillation, as in gas works. It is lagerly used where / smokeless fire is required.

Colchicine (n.) A powerful vegetable alkaloid, C17H19NO5, extracted from the Colchicum autumnale, or meadow saffron, as a white or yellowish amorphous powder, with a harsh, bitter taste; -- called also colchicia.

Cold (n.) A morbid state of the animal system produced by exposure to cold or dampness; a catarrh.

Cold-blooded (a.) Deficient in sensibility or feeling; hard-hearted.

Colicroot (n.) A bitter American herb of the Bloodwort family, with the leaves all radical, and the small yellow or white flowers in a long spike (Aletris farinosa and A. aurea). Called sometimes star grass, blackroot, blazing star, and unicorn root.

Collar (n.) A colored ring round the neck of a bird or mammal.

Collar (n.) An eye formed in the bight or bend of a shroud or stay to go over the masthead; also, a rope to which certain parts of rigging, as dead-eyes, are secured.

Collate (v. t.) To gather and place in order, as the sheets of a book for binding.

Collation (v. t.) The gathering and examination of sheets preparatory to binding.

Collation (v. t.) The presentation of a clergyman to a benefice by a bishop, who has it in his own gift.

Collative (a.) Passing or held by collation; -- said of livings of which the bishop and the patron are the same person.

College (n.) A collection, body, or society of persons engaged in common pursuits, or having common duties and interests, and sometimes, by charter, peculiar rights and privileges; as, a college of heralds; a college of electors; a college of bishops.

Colligate (v. t.) To tie or bind together.

Colligation (n.) A binding together.

Colloquy (n.) In some American colleges, a part in exhibitions, assigned for a certain scholarship rank; a designation of rank in collegiate scholarship.

Collusion (n.) An agreement between two or more persons to defraud a person of his rights, by the forms of law, or to obtain an object forbidden by law.

Collybist (n.) A money changer.

Colocynth (n.) The light spongy pulp of the fruit of the bitter cucumber (Citrullus, / Cucumis, colocynthis), an Asiatic plant allied to the watermelon; coloquintida. It comes in white balls, is intensely bitter, and a powerful cathartic. Called also bitter apple, bitter cucumber, bitter gourd.

Colocynthin (n.) The active medicinal principle of colocynth; a bitter, yellow, crystalline substance, regarded as a glucoside.

Colombier (n.) A large size of paper for drawings. See under Paper.

Colombin (n.) See Calumbin.

Colonist (n.) A member or inhabitant of a colony.

Colorado beetle () A yellowish beetle (Doryphora decemlineata), with ten longitudinal, black, dorsal stripes. It has migrated eastwards from its original habitat in Colorado, and is very destructive to the potato plant; -- called also potato beetle and potato bug. See Potato beetle.

Colostrum (n.) The first milk secreted after delivery; biestings.

Columbae (n. pl.) An order of birds, including the pigeons.

Columbate (n.) A salt of columbic acid; a niobate. See Columbium.

Columbia (n.) America; the United States; -- a poetical appellation given in honor of Columbus, the discoverer.

Columbiad (n.) A form of seacoast cannon; a long, chambered gun designed for throwing shot or shells with heavy charges of powder, at high angles of elevation.

Columbian (a.) Of or pertaining to the United States, or to America.

Columbic (a.) Pertaining to, or containing, columbium or niobium; niobic.

Columbic (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, the columbo root.

Columbier (n.) See Colombier.

Columbiferous (a.) Producing or containing columbium.

Columbin (n.) A white, crystalline, bitter substance. See Calumbin.

Columbine (a.) Of or pertaining to a dove; dovelike; dove-colored.

Columbine (n.) A plant of several species of the genus Aquilegia; as, A. vulgaris, or the common garden columbine; A. Canadensis, the wild red columbine of North America.

Columbine (n.) The mistress or sweetheart of Harlequin in pantomimes.

Columbite (n.) A mineral of a black color, submetallic luster, and high specific specific gravity. It is a niobate (or columbate) of iron and manganese, containing tantalate of iron; -- first found in New England.

Columbium (n.) A rare element of the vanadium group, first found in a variety of the mineral columbite occurring in Connecticut, probably at Haddam. Atomic weight 94.2. Symbol Cb or Nb. Now more commonly called niobium.

Coly (n.) Any bird of the genus Colius and allied genera. They inhabit Africa.

Coma (n.) A state of profound insensibility from which it is difficult or impossible to rouse a person. See Carus.

Comanches (n. pl.) A warlike, savage, and nomadic tribe of the Shoshone family of Indians, inhabiting Mexico and the adjacent parts of the United States; -- called also Paducahs. They are noted for plundering and cruelty.

Comb (n.) The naked fleshy crest or caruncle on the upper part of the bill or hood of a cock or other bird. It is usually red.

Combing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Comb

Comb (v. t.) To disentangle, cleanse, or adjust, with a comb; to lay smooth and straight with, or as with, a comb; as, to comb hair or wool. See under Combing.

Comber (n.) One who combs; one whose occupation it is to comb wool, flax, etc. Also, a machine for combing wool, flax, etc.

Combinable (a.) Capable of combining; consistent with.

Combinate (a.) United; joined; betrothed.

Combination (n.) The act or process of combining or uniting persons and things.

Combination (n.) The result of combining or uniting; union of persons or things; esp. a union or alliance of persons or states to effect some purpose; -- usually in a bad sense.

Combination (n.) The act or process of uniting by chemical affinity, by which substances unite with each other in definite proportions by weight to form distinct compounds.

Combination (n.) The different arrangements of a number of objects, as letters, into groups.

Combined (imp. & p. p.) of Combine

Combining (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Combine

Combine (v. t.) To unite or join; to link closely together; to bring into harmonious union; to cause or unite so as to form a homogeneous substance, as by chemical union.

Combine (v. t.) To bind; to hold by a moral tie.

Combine (v. i.) To form a union; to agree; to coalesce; to confederate.

Combine (v. i.) To unite by affinity or natural attraction; as, two substances, which will not combine of themselves, may be made to combine by the intervention of a third.

Combine (v. i.) In the game of casino, to play a card which will take two or more cards whose aggregate number of pips equals those of the card played.

Combined (a.) United closely; confederated; chemically united.

Combinedly (adv. In combination or cooperation) ; jointly.

Combiner (n.) One who, or that which, combines.

Combing (n.) The act or process of using a comb or a number of combs; as, the combing of one's hair; the combing of wool.

Combing (n.) That which is caught or collected with a comb, as loose, tangled hair.

Combing (n.) Hair arranged to be worn on the head.

Combing (n.) See Coamings.

Combustibility (n.) The quality of being combustible.

Combustibleness (n.) Combustibility.

Combustion (n.) The combination of a combustible with a supporter of combustion, producing heat, and sometimes both light and heat.

Comet (n.) A member of the solar system which usually moves in an elongated orbit, approaching very near to the sun in its perihelion, and receding to a very great distance from it at its aphelion. A comet commonly consists of three parts: the nucleus, the envelope, or coma, and the tail; but one or more of these parts is frequently wanting. See Illustration in Appendix.

Coming (a.) Approaching; of the future, especially the near future; the next; as, the coming week or year; the coming exhibition.

Command (v. t.) To order with authority; to lay injunction upon; to direct; to bid; to charge.

Commendam (n.) A vacant living or benefice commended to a cleric (usually a bishop) who enjoyed the revenue until a pastor was provided. A living so held was said to be held in commendam. The practice was abolished by law in 1836.

Commendatory (a.) Holding a benefice in commendam; as, a commendatory bishop.

Commensurability (n.) The quality of being commensurable.

Commissary (n.) An officer of the bishop, who exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction in parts of the diocese at a distance from the residence of the bishop.

Commissure (n.) The point of union between two parts, as the angles of the lips or eyelids, the mandibles of a bird, etc.

Commit (v. t.) To pledge or bind; to compromise, expose, or endanger by some decisive act or preliminary step; -- often used reflexively; as, to commit one's self to a certain course.

Commitment (n.) The act of referring or intrusting to a committee for consideration and report; as, the commitment of a petition or a bill.

Common (v.) Given to habits of lewdness; prostitute.

Commonalty (n.) The common people; those classes and conditions of people who are below the rank of nobility; the commons.

Commoner (n.) One of the common people; one having no rank of nobility.

Commonly (adv.) Usually; generally; ordinarily; frequently; for the most part; as, confirmed habits commonly continue through life.

Commons (n. pl.) The mass of the people, as distinguished from the titled classes or nobility; the commonalty; the common people.

Commorancy (n.) A dwelling or ordinary residence in a place; habitation.

Commorant (n.) Ordinarily residing; inhabiting.

Commorant (n.) Inhabiting or occupying temporarily.

Commune (n.) A small territorial district in France under the government of a mayor and municipal council; also, the inhabitants, or the government, of such a district. See Arrondissement.

Communicability (n.) The quality of being communicable; capability of being imparted.

Communistic (a.) Living or having their nests in common, as certain birds.

Commutability (n.) The quality of being commutable.

Companion (n.) A skylight on an upper deck with frames and sashes of various shapes, to admit light to a cabin or lower deck.

Compartment (n.) One of the parts into which an inclosed portion of space is divided, as by partitions, or lines; as, the compartments of a cabinet, a house, or a garden.

Compasses (n.) An instrument for describing circles, measuring figures, etc., consisting of two, or (rarely) more, pointed branches, or legs, usually joined at the top by a rivet on which they move.

Compatibility (n.) The quality or power of being compatible or congruous; congruity; as, a compatibility of tempers; a compatibility of properties.

Compatibleness (n.) Compatibility; consistency; fitness; agreement.

Competency (n.) The state of being competent; fitness; ability; adequacy; power.

Complacency (n.) The manifestation of contentment or satisfaction; good nature; kindness; civility; affability.

Complaint (n.) A formal allegation or charge against a party made or presented to the appropriate court or officer, as for a wrong done or a crime committed (in the latter case, generally under oath); an information; accusation; the initial bill in proceedings in equity.

Complexion (n.) A combination; a complex.

Complexion (n.) The bodily constitution; the temperament; habitude, or natural disposition; character; nature.

Complicate (v. t.) To fold or twist together; to combine intricately; to make complex; to combine or associate so as to make intricate or difficult.

Composite (n.) That which is made up of parts or compounded of several elements; composition; combination; compound.

Composition (n.) The invention or combination of the parts of any literary work or discourse, or of a work of art; as, the composition of a poem or a piece of music.

Composition (n.) The art or practice of so combining the different parts of a work of art as to produce a harmonious whole; also, a work of art considered as such. See 4, below.

Composition (n.) The state of being put together or composed; conjunction; combination; adjustment.

Composition (n.) A mass or body formed by combining two or more substances; as, a chemical composition.

Composure (n.) A combination; a union; a bond.

Compound (v. t.) To form or make by combining different elements, ingredients, or parts; as, to compound a medicine.

Compound (v. t.) To put together, as elements, ingredients, or parts, in order to form a whole; to combine, mix, or unite.

Compound (v. t.) To modify or change by combination with some other thing or part; to mingle with something else.

Compound (n.) That which is compounded or formed by the union or mixture of elements ingredients, or parts; a combination of simples; a compound word; the result of composition.

Compound (n.) A union of two or more ingredients in definite proportions by weight, so combined as to form a distinct substance; as, water is a compound of oxygen and hydrogen.

Compounder (n.) A Jacobite who favored the restoration of James II, on condition of a general amnesty and of guarantees for the security of the civil and ecclesiastical constitution of the realm.

Comprehensibility (n.) The quality or state of being comprehensible; capability of being understood.

Comprehensibleness (n.) The quality of being comprehensible; comprehensibility.

Compressibility (n.) The quality of being compressible of being compressible; as, the compressibility of elastic fluids.

Compressibleness (n.) The quality of being compressible; compressibility.

Compromise (n.) A mutual agreement to refer matters in dispute to the decision of arbitrators.

Compromise (n.) A settlement by arbitration or by mutual consent reached by concession on both sides; a reciprocal abatement of extreme demands or rights, resulting in an agreement.

Compromise (n.) To bind by mutual agreement; to agree.

Compsognathus (n.) A genus of Dinosauria found in the Jurassic formation, and remarkable for having several birdlike features.

Concavo-convex (a.) Specifically, having such a combination of concave and convex sides as makes the focal axis the shortest line between them. See Illust. under Lens.

Conceptibility (n.) The quality of being conceivable; conceivableness.

Concert (v. i.) To act in harmony or conjunction; to form combined plans.

Conchifera (n. pl.) That class of Mollusca which includes the bivalve shells; the Lamellibranchiata. See Mollusca.

Conchiform (a.) Shaped like one half of a bivalve shell; shell-shaped.

Conchoidal (a.) Having elevations or depressions in form like one half of a bivalve shell; -- applied principally to a surface produced by fracture.

Concoct (v. t.) To prepare from crude materials, as food; to invent or prepare by combining different ingredients; as, to concoct a new dish or beverage.

Concoction (n.) The act of concocting or preparing by combining different ingredients; also, the food or compound thus prepared.

Concoction (n.) Abatement of a morbid process, as a fever and return to a normal condition.

Concord (n.) An agreeable combination of tones simultaneously heard; a consonant chord; consonance; harmony.

Concubinacy (n.) The practice of concubinage.

Concubinage (n.) The cohabiting of a man and a woman who are not legally married; the state of being a concubine.

Concubinage (n.) A plea, in which it is alleged that the woman suing for dower was not lawfully married to the man in whose lands she seeks to be endowed, but that she was his concubine.

Concubinal (a.) Of or pertaining to concubinage.

Concubinarian (a. & n.) Concubinary.

Concubinary (a.) Relating to concubinage; living in concubinage.

Concubinaries (pl. ) of Concubinary

Concubinary (n.) One who lives in concubinage.

Concubinate (n.) Concubinage.

Concubine (n.) A woman who cohabits with a man without being his wife; a paramour.

Concubine (n.) A wife of inferior condition; a lawful wife, but not united to the man by the usual ceremonies, and of inferior condition. Such were Hagar and Keturah, the concubines of Abraham; and such concubines were allowed by the Roman laws. Their children were not heirs of their father.

Concupiscence (n.) Sexual lust; morbid carnal passion.

Concupiscent (a.) Having sexual lust; libidinous; lustful; lecherous; salacious.

Concur (v. i.) To meet in the same point; to combine or conjoin; to contribute or help toward a common object or effect.

Concurrence (n.) The act of concurring; a meeting or coming together; union; conjunction; combination.

Condensability (n.) Capability of being condensed.

Condense (v. i.) To combine or unite (as two chemical substances) with or without separation of some unimportant side products.

Condor (n.) A very large bird of the Vulture family (Sarcorhamphus gryphus), found in the most elevated parts of the Andes.

Conducibility (n.) The state or quality of being conducible; conducibleness.

Conductibility (n.) Capability of being conducted; as, the conductibility of heat or electricity.

Conductibility (n.) Conductivity; capacity for receiving and transmitting.

Cone (n.) The fruit or strobile of the Coniferae, as of the pine, fir, cedar, and cypress. It is composed of woody scales, each one of which has one or two seeds at its base.

Coney (n.) A rabbit. See Cony.

Confederacy (n.) A combination of two or more persons to commit an unlawful act, or to do a lawful act by unlawful means. See Conspiracy.

Confinement (n.) Restraint within doors by sickness, esp. that caused by childbirth; lying-in.

Confirmation (n.) A rite supplemental to baptism, by which a person is admitted, through the laying on of the hands of a bishop, to the full privileges of the church, as in the Roman Catholic, the Episcopal Church, etc.

Confirmation (n.) A conveyance by which a voidable estate is made sure and not voidable, or by which a particular estate is increased; a contract, express or implied, by which a person makes that firm and binding which was before voidable.

Confluxibility (n.) The tendency of fluids to run together.

Conformability (n.) The state of being conformable.

Conformability (n.) The parallelism of two sets of strata which are in contact.

Conformableness (n.) The quality of being conformable; conformability.

Confrication (n.) A rubbing together; friction.

Confusability (n.) Capability of being confused.

Confusion (n.) The state of being mixed or blended so as to produce indistinctness or error; indistinct combination; disorder; tumult.

Congenital (a.) Existing at, or dating from, birth; pertaining to one from birth; born with one; connate; constitutional; natural; as, a congenital deformity. See Connate.

Congestion (n.) Overfullness of the capillary and other blood vessels, etc., in any locality or organ (often producing other morbid symptoms); local hyper/mia, active or passive; as, arterial congestion; venous congestion; congestion of the lungs.

Conglobing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Conglobe

Congo snake () An amphibian (Amphiuma means) of the order Urodela, found in the southern United States. See Amphiuma.

Congregation (n.) An assembly of persons; a gathering; esp. an assembly of persons met for the worship of God, and for religious instruction; a body of people who habitually so meet.

Conico- (a.) A combining form, meaning somewhat resembling a cone; as, conico-cylindrical, resembling a cone and a cylinder; conico-hemispherical; conico-subulate.

Coniferin (n.) A glucoside extracted from the cambium layer of coniferous trees as a white crystalline substance.

Conirostres (n. pl.) A tribe of perching birds, including those which have a strong conical bill, as the finches.

Conium (n.) A genus of biennial, poisonous, white-flowered, umbelliferous plants, bearing ribbed fruit ("seeds") and decompound leaves.

Conjubilant (a.) Shouting together for joy; rejoicing together.

Conjugal (a.) Belonging to marriage; suitable or appropriate to the marriage state or to married persons; matrimonial; connubial.

Conjugally (adv.) In a conjugal manner; matrimonially; connubially.

Conjugation (n.) the act of uniting or combining; union; assemblage.

Conjuncture (n.) The act of joining, or state of being joined; union; connection; combination.

Conjuncture (n.) A crisis produced by a combination of circumstances; complication or combination of events or circumstances; plight resulting from various conditions.

Conjuration (n.) The act of calling or summoning by a sacred name, or in solemn manner; the act of binding by an oath; an earnest entreaty; adjuration.

Conjure (v. i.) To combine together by an oath; to conspire; to confederate.

Connascency (n.) The common birth of two or more at the same tome; production of two or more together.

Connate (a.) Born with another; being of the same birth.

Connate (a.) Congenital; existing from birth.

Connation (n.) Connection by birth; natural union.

Connaturally (adv.) By the act of nature; originally; from birth.

Connect (v. t.) To join, or fasten together, as by something intervening; to associate; to combine; to unite or link together; to establish a bond or relation between.

Connubial (a.) Of or pertaining to marriage, or the marriage state; conjugal; nuptial.

Connubiality (n.) The quality of being connubial; something characteristics of the conjugal state; an expression of connubial tenderness.

Connutritious (a.) Nutritious by force of habit; -- said of certain kinds of food.

Consanguineal (a.) Of the same blood; related by birth.

Consanguineous (a.) Of the same blood; related by birth; descended from the same parent or ancestor.

Consecrate (v. t.) To set apart to a sacred office; as, to consecrate a bishop.

Consecutive (a.) Having similarity of sequence; -- said of certain parallel progressions of two parts in a piece of harmony; as, consecutive fifths, or consecutive octaves, which are forbidden.

Consequential (a.) Assuming or exhibiting an air of consequence; pretending to importance; pompous; self-important; as, a consequential man. See Consequence, n., 4.

Conservatism (n.) The disposition and tendency to preserve what is established; opposition to change; the habit of mind; or conduct, of a conservative.

Consign (v. t.) To send or address (by bill of lading or otherwise) to an agent or correspondent in another place, to be cared for or sold, or for the use of such correspondent; as, to consign a cargo or a ship; to consign goods.

Consignify (v. t.) To signify or denote in combination with something else.

Consistency (n.) That which stands together as a united whole; a combination.

Consistency (n.) Firmness of constitution or character; substantiality; durability; persistency.

Consistory (n.) The spiritual court of a diocesan bishop held before his chancellor or commissioner in his cathedral church or elsewhere.

Consolidate (v. t.) To unite, as various particulars, into one mass or body; to bring together in close union; to combine; as, to consolidate the armies of the republic.

Consolidation (n.) The act or process of consolidating, making firm, or uniting; the state of being consolidated; solidification; combination.

Consolidation (n.) The combination of several actions into one.

Consonant (n.) An articulate sound which in utterance is usually combined and sounded with an open sound called a vowel; a member of the spoken alphabet other than a vowel; also, a letter or character representing such a sound.

Consort (n.) Concurrence; conjunction; combination; association; union.

Consort (n.) An assembly or association of persons; a company; a group; a combination.

Conspiracy (n.) A combination of men for an evil purpose; an agreement, between two or more persons, to commit a crime in concert, as treason; a plot.

Conspire (v. t.) To plot; to plan; to combine for.

Constancy (n.) The state or quality of being constant or steadfast; freedom from change; stability; fixedness; immutability; as, the constancy of God in his nature and attributes.

Constancy (n.) Fixedness or firmness of mind; persevering resolution; especially, firmness of mind under sufferings, steadiness in attachments, or perseverance in enterprise; stability; fidelity.

Consternation (n.) Amazement or horror that confounds the faculties, and incapacitates for reflection; terror, combined with amazement; dismay.

Constitution (n.) The aggregate of all one's inherited physical qualities; the aggregate of the vital powers of an individual, with reference to ability to endure hardship, resist disease, etc.; as, a robust constitution.

Constrict (v. t.) To draw together; to render narrower or smaller; to bind; to cramp; to contract or cause to shrink.

Constriction (n.) The state of being constricted; the point where a thing is constricted; a narrowing or binding.

Constrictive (a.) Serving or tending to bind or constrict.

Constringent (a.) Having the quality of contracting, binding, or compressing.

Constructive (a.) Having ability to construct or form; employed in construction; as, to exhibit constructive power.

Constructiveness (n.) Tendency or ability to form or construct.

Construe (v. t. ) To apply the rules of syntax to (a sentence or clause) so as to exhibit the structure, arrangement, or connection of, or to discover the sense; to explain the construction of; to interpret; to translate.

Consuetude (n.) Custom, habit; usage.

Contemperation (n.) Proportionate mixture or combination.

Contemptibility (n.) The quality of being contemptible; contemptibleness.

Content (n.) An expression of assent to a bill or motion; an affirmative vote; also, a member who votes "Content.".

Context (v. t.) To knit or bind together; to unite closely.

Contingency (n.) The quality or state of being contingent or casual; the possibility of coming to pass.

Continual (a.) Proceeding without interruption or cesstaion; continuous; unceasing; lasting; abiding.

Continuance (n.) A holding on, or remaining in a particular state; permanence, as of condition, habits, abode, etc.; perseverance; constancy; duration; stay.

Continue (v. i.) To remain in a given place or condition; to remain in connection with; to abide; to stay.

Continue (v. i.) To be steadfast or constant in any course; to persevere; to abide; to endure; to persist; to keep up or maintain a particular condition, course, or series of actions; as, the army continued to advance.

Contline (n.) The space between the bilges of two casks stowed side by side.

Contraband (n.) Illegal or prohibited traffic.

Contraband (n.) Goods or merchandise the importation or exportation of which is forbidden.

Contraband (a.) Prohibited or excluded by law or treaty; forbidden; as, contraband goods, or trade.

Contraband (v. t.) To import illegally, as prohibited goods; to smuggle.

Contraband (v. t.) To declare prohibited; to forbid.

Contract (n.) To bring on; to incur; to acquire; as, to contract a habit; to contract a debt; to contract a disease.

Contractibility (n.) Capability of being contracted; quality of being contractible; as, the contractibility and dilatability of air.

Contractibleness (n.) Contractibility.

Contraction (n.) The act of incurring or becoming subject to, as liabilities, obligation, debts, etc.; the process of becoming subject to; as, the contraction of a disease.

Contraindication (n.) An indication or symptom which forbids the method of treatment usual in such cases.

Contrast (v. i.) To stand in opposition; to exhibit difference, unlikeness, or opposition of qualities.

Contribution (n.) An irregular and arbitrary imposition or tax leved on the people of a town or country.

Contrition (n.) The act of grinding or ribbing to powder; attrition; friction; rubbing.

Controllability (n.) Capability of being controlled; controllableness.

Controllableness (n.) Capability of being controlled.

Contumacious (a.) Exhibiting contumacy; contemning authority; obstinate; perverse; stubborn; disobedient.

Contumelious (a.) Exhibiting contumely; rudely contemptuous; insolent; disdainful.

Convalescent (a.) Recovering from sickness or debility; partially restored to health or strength.

Convallamarin (n.) A white, crystalline, poisonous substance, regarded as a glucoside, extracted from the lily of the valley (Convallaria Majalis). Its taste is first bitter, then sweet.

Convention (v. i.) General agreement or concurrence; arbitrary custom; usage; conventionality.

Conventionalism (n.) That which is received or established by convention or arbitrary agreement; that which is in accordance with the fashion, tradition, or usage.

Conversableness (n.) The quality of being conversable; disposition to converse; sociability.

Conversance (n.) The state or quality of being conversant; habit of familiarity; familiar acquaintance; intimacy.

Convertibility (n.) The condition or quality of being convertible; capability of being exchanged; convertibleness.

Convertibleness (n.) The state of being convertible; convertibility.

Convivialist (n.) A person of convivial habits.

Convolvulaceous (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the family of plants of which the bindweed and the morning-glory are common examples.

Convolvulus (n.) A large genus of plants having monopetalous flowers, including the common bindweed (C. arwensis), and formerly the morning-glory, but this is now transferred to the genus Ipomaea.

Cony (n.) A rabbit, esp., the European rabbit (Lepus cuniculus)

Coordinate (v. t.) To give a common action, movement, or condition to; to regulate and combine so as to produce harmonious action; to adjust; to harmonize; as, to coordinate muscular movements.

Coordination (n.) The act of coordinating; the act of putting in the same order, class, rank, dignity, etc.; as, the coordination of the executive, the legislative, and the judicial authority in forming a government; the act of regulating and combining so as to produce harmonious results; harmonious adjustment; as, a coordination of functions.

Coot (n.) A wading bird with lobate toes, of the genus Fulica.

Copaiva (n.) A more or less viscid, yellowish liquid, the bitter oleoresin of several species of Copaifera, a genus of trees growing in South America and the West Indies. It is stimulant and diuretic, and is much used in affections of the mucous membranes; -- called also balsam of copaiba.

Copal () A resinous substance flowing spontaneously from trees of Zanzibar, Madagascar, and South America (Trachylobium Hornemannianum, T. verrucosum, and Hymenaea Courbaril), and dug from earth where forests have stood in Africa; -- used chiefly in making varnishes.

Copernican (a.) Pertaining to Copernicus, a Prussian by birth (b. 1473, d. 1543), who taught the world the solar system now received, called the Copernican system.

Coquette (n.) A tropical humming bird of the genus Lophornis, with very elegant neck plumes. Several species are known. See Illustration under Spangle, v. t.

Coquettish (a.) Practicing or exhibiting coquetry; alluring; enticing.

Coquimbite (n.) A mineral consisting principally of sulphate of iron; white copperas; -- so called because found in the province of Coquimbo, Chili.

Cora (n.) The Arabian gazelle (Gazella Arabica), found from persia to North Africa.

Coracoid (a.) Pertaining to a bone of the shoulder girdle in most birds, reptiles, and amphibians, which is reduced to a process of the scapula in most mammals.

Corbell (n.) Small gabions.

Corbies (pl. ) of Corby

Corbie (n.) Alt. of Corby

Corbiestep (n.) One of the steps in which a gable wall is often finished in place of a continuous slope; -- also called crowstep.

Cord (n.) A solid measure, equivalent to 128 cubic feet; a pile of wood, or other coarse material, eight feet long, four feet high, and four feet broad; -- originally measured with a cord or line.

Cord (n.) Any structure having the appearance of a cord, esp. a tendon or a nerve. See under Spermatic, Spinal, Umbilical, Vocal.

Cord (v. t.) To bind with a cord; to fasten with cords; to connect with cords; to ornament or finish with a cord or cords, as a garment.

Corfute (n.) A native or inhabitant of Corfu, an island in the Mediterranean Sea.

Corinthian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Corinth.

Cormorant (n.) Any species of Phalacrocorax, a genus of sea birds having a sac under the beak; the shag. Cormorants devour fish voraciously, and have become the emblem of gluttony. They are generally black, and hence are called sea ravens, and coalgeese.

Cornbind (n.) A weed that binds stalks of corn, as Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum Convolvulus.

Corncrake (n.) A bird (Crex crex or C. pratensis) which frequents grain fields; the European crake or land rail; -- called also corn bird.

Corner (n.) The state of things produced by a combination of persons, who buy up the whole or the available part of any stock or species of property, which compels those who need such stock or property to buy of them at their own price; as, a corner in a railway stock.

Cornin (n.) A bitter principle obtained from dogwood (Cornus florida), as a white crystalline substance; -- called also cornic acid.

Corniplume (n.) A hornlike tuft of feathers on the head of some birds.

Coronated (a.) Having the coronal feathers lengthened or otherwise distinguished; -- said of birds.

Coroneted (a.) Wearing, or entitled to wear, a coronet; of noble birth or rank.

Corporate (a.) Formed into a body by legal enactment; united in an association, and endowed by law with the rights and liabilities of an individual; incorporated; as, a corporate town.

Corrigibility (n.) Quality of being corrigible; capability of being corrected; corrigibleness.

Corrigibleness (n.) The state or quality of being corrigible; corrigibility.

Corrodibility (n.) The quality of being corrodible.

Corrosibility (n.) Corrodibility.

Corruptibility (n.) The quality of being corruptible; the possibility or liability of being corrupted; corruptibleness.

Cortes (n. pl.) The legislative assembly, composed of nobility, clergy, and representatives of cities, which in Spain and in Portugal answers, in some measure, to the Parliament of Great Britain.

Corymbiferous (a.) Bearing corymbs of flowers or fruit.

Cosmorama (n.) An exhibition in which a series of views in various parts of the world is seen reflected by mirrors through a series of lenses, with such illumination, etc., as will make the views most closely represent reality.

Cossack (n.) One of a warlike, pastoral people, skillful as horsemen, inhabiting different parts of the Russian empire and furnishing valuable contingents of irregular cavalry to its armies, those of Little Russia and those of the Don forming the principal divisions.

Costiveness (n.) Inability to express one's self; stiffness.

Cotinga (n.) A bird of the family Cotingidae, including numerous bright-colored South American species; -- called also chatterers.

Cottontail (n.) The American wood rabbit (Lepus sylvaticus); -- also called Molly cottontail.

Coudee (n.) A measure of length; the distance from the elbow to the end of the middle finger; a cubit.

Cougar (n.) An American feline quadruped (Felis concolor), resembling the African panther in size and habits. Its color is tawny, without spots; hence writers often called it the American lion. Called also puma, panther, mountain lion, and catamount. See Puma.

Co-une (v. t.) To combine or unite.

Counterirritate (v. t.) To produce counter irritation in; to treat with one morbid process for the purpose of curing another.

Countermand (v. t.) To prohibit; to forbid.

Countess (n.) The wife of an earl in the British peerage, or of a count in the Continental nobility; also, a lady possessed of the same dignity in her own right. See the Note under Count.

Country (adv.) A tract of land; a region; the territory of an independent nation; (as distinguished from any other region, and with a personal pronoun) the region of one's birth, permanent residence, or citizenship.

Country (adv.) The inhabitants or people of a state or a region; the populace; the public. Hence: (a) One's constituents. (b) The whole body of the electors of state; as, to dissolve Parliament and appeal to the country.

Country (adv.) The inhabitants of the district from which a jury is drawn.

Countryman (n.) An inhabitant or native of a region.

Countryman (n.) One who dwells in the country, as distinguished from a townsman or an inhabitant of a city; a rustic; a husbandman or farmer.

Countrywoman (n.) A woman born, or dwelling, in the country, as opposed to the city; a woman born or dwelling in the same country with another native or inhabitant.

Couplement (n.) Union; combination; a coupling; a pair.

Courlan (n.) A South American bird, of the genus Aramus, allied to the rails.

Courser (n.) A grallatorial bird of Europe (Cursorius cursor), remarkable for its speed in running. Sometimes, in a wider sense, applied to running birds of the Ostrich family.

Couvade (n.) A custom, among certain barbarous tribes, that when a woman gives birth to a child her husband takes to his bed, as if ill.

Cove (v. t.) To brood, cover, over, or sit over, as birds their eggs.

Covenant (v. i.) To agree (with); to enter into a formal agreement; to bind one's self by contract; to make a stipulation.

Covert (a.) One of the special feathers covering the bases of the quills of the wings and tail of a bird. See Illust. of Bird.

Covet (v. t.) To long for inordinately or unlawfully; to hanker after (something forbidden).

Covey (n.) A brood or hatch of birds; an old bird with her brood of young; hence, a small flock or number of birds together; -- said of game; as, a covey of partridges.

Cowbird (n.) The cow blackbird (Molothrus ater), an American starling. Like the European cuckoo, it builds no nest, but lays its eggs in the nests of other birds; -- so called because frequently associated with cattle.

Cowhage (n.) A leguminous climbing plant of the genus Mucuna, having crooked pods covered with sharp hairs, which stick to the fingers, causing intolerable itching. The spiculae are sometimes used in medicine as a mechanical vermifuge.

Coxcombical (a.) Befitting or indicating a coxcomb; like a coxcomb; foppish; conceited.

Coxcomical (a.) Coxcombical.

Crab (v. t.) To make sour or morose; to embitter.

Crabbing (n.) The act or art of catching crabs.

Crabbing (n.) The fighting of hawks with each other.

Crabbing (n.) A process of scouring cloth between rolls in a machine.

Crabbish (a.) Somewhat sour or cross.

Crabeater (n.) The cobia.

Cracker (n.) A thin, dry biscuit, often hard or crisp; as, a Boston cracker; a Graham cracker; a soda cracker; an oyster cracker.

Cracknel (v. t.) A hard brittle cake or biscuit.

Cradle (n.) The ribbing for vaulted ceilings and arches intended to be covered with plaster.

Cragsman (n.) One accustomed to climb rocks or crags; esp., one who makes a business of climbing the cliffs overhanging the sea to get the eggs of sea birds or the birds themselves.

Crake (v. t. & i.) To cry out harshly and loudly, like the bird called crake.

Cramp (v. t.) to bind together; to unite.

Crampon (n.) An a/rial rootlet for support in climbing, as of ivy.

Crane (n.) A wading bird of the genus Grus, and allied genera, of various species, having a long, straight bill, and long legs and neck.

Crane's-bill (n.) The geranium; -- so named from the long axis of the fruit, which resembles the beak of a crane.

Crane's-bill (n.) A pair of long-beaked forceps.

Crankbird (n.) A small European woodpecker (Picus minor).

Crankness (n.) Liability to be overset; -- said of a ship or other vessel.

Crants (n.) A garland carried before the bier of a maiden.

Craw (n.) The crop of a bird.

Craze (n.) A strong habitual desire or fancy; a crotchet.

Credence (n.) A cupboard, sideboard, or cabinet, particularly one intended for the display of rich vessels or plate, and consisting chiefly of open shelves for that purpose.

Credibility (n.) The quality of being credible; credibleness; as, the credibility of facts; the credibility of witnesses.

Credibleness (n.) The quality or state of being credible; worthiness of belief; credibility.

Credit (n.) The side of an account on which are entered all items reckoned as values received from the party or the category named at the head of the account; also, any one, or the sum, of these items; -- the opposite of debit; as, this sum is carried to one's credit, and that to his debit; A has several credits on the books of B.

Credit mobilier () A joint stock company, formed for general banking business, or for the construction of public works, by means of loans on personal estate, after the manner of the credit foncier on real estate. In practice, however, this distinction has not been strictly observed.

Creeks (n. pl.) A tribe or confederacy of North American Indians, including the Muskogees, Seminoles, Uchees, and other subordinate tribes. They formerly inhabited Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.

Creel (n.) A bar or set of bars with skewers for holding paying-off bobbins, as in the roving machine, throstle, and mule.

Creeper (n.) A small bird of the genus Certhia, allied to the wrens. The brown or common European creeper is C. familiaris, a variety of which (var. Americana) inhabits America; -- called also tree creeper and creeptree. The American black and white creeper is Mniotilta varia.

Crees (n. pl.) An Algonquin tribe of Indians, inhabiting a large part of British America east of the Rocky Mountains and south of Hudson's Bay.

Creole (n.) One born of European parents in the American colonies of France or Spain or in the States which were once such colonies, esp. a person of French or Spanish descent, who is a native inhabitant of Louisiana, or one of the States adjoining, bordering on the Gulf of of Mexico.

Crepitation (n.) A grating or crackling sensation or sound, as that produced by rubbing two fragments of a broken bone together, or by pressing upon cellular tissue containing air.

Crepusculous (a.) Flying in the twilight or evening, or before sunrise; -- said certain birds and insects.

Crest (n.) A tuft, or other excrescence or natural ornament, growing on an animal's head; the comb of a cock; the swelling on the head of a serpent; the lengthened feathers of the crown or nape of bird, etc.

Crestless (a.) Without a crest or escutcheon; of low birth.

Cretan (n.) A native or inhabitant of Crete or Candia.

Crib (n.) A box or bin, or similar wooden structure, for storing grain, salt, etc.; as, a crib for corn or oats.

Cribbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Crib

Crib (v. t.) To shut up or confine in a narrow habitation; to cage; to cramp.

Criber (n.) Alt. of Crib-biter

Crib-biter (n.) A horse that has the habit of cribbing.

Cribbing (n.) The act of inclosing or confining in a crib or in close quarters.

Cribbing (n.) Purloining; stealing; plagiarizing.

Cribbing (n.) A framework of timbers and plank backing for a shaft lining, to prevent caving, percolation of water, etc.

Cribbing (n.) A vicious habit of a horse; crib-biting. The horse lays hold of the crib or manger with his teeth and draws air into the stomach with a grunting sound.

Crib-biting (n.) Same as Cribbing, 4.

Cricket (n.) An orthopterous insect of the genus Gryllus, and allied genera. The males make chirping, musical notes by rubbing together the basal parts of the veins of the front wings.

Crime (n.) Any violation of law, either divine or human; an omission of a duty commanded, or the commission of an act forbidden by law.

Cripple (v. t.) To deprive of strength, activity, or capability for service or use; to disable; to deprive of resources; as, to be financially crippled.

Crissum (n.) That part of a bird, or the feathers, surrounding the cloacal opening; the under tail coverts.

Croak (v. i.) To complain; especially, to grumble; to forebode evil; to utter complaints or forebodings habitually.

Croaker (n.) One who croaks, murmurs, grumbles, or complains unreasonably; one who habitually forebodes evil.

Crociary (n.) One who carries the cross before an archbishop.

Crocodile (n.) A large reptile of the genus Crocodilus, of several species. They grow to the length of sixteen or eighteen feet, and inhabit the large rivers of Africa, Asia, and America. The eggs, laid in the sand, are hatched by the sun's heat. The best known species is that of the Nile (C. vulgaris, or C. Niloticus). The Florida crocodile (C. Americanus) is much less common than the alligator and has longer jaws. The name is also sometimes applied to the species of other related genera, as the gavial and the alligator.

Cromlech (n.) A monument of rough stones composed of one or more large ones supported in a horizontal position upon others. They are found chiefly in countries inhabited by the ancient Celts, and are of a period anterior to the introduction of Christianity into these countries.

Crook (n.) A bishop's staff of office. Cf. Pastoral staff.

Crookbill (n.) A New Zealand plover (Anarhynchus frontalis), remarkable for having the end of the beak abruptly bent to the right.

Crop (n.) The pouchlike enlargement of the gullet of birds, serving as a receptacle for food; the craw.

Crop (v. t.) To cut off the tops or tips of; to bite or pull off; to browse; to pluck; to mow; to reap.

Crosier (n.) The pastoral staff of a bishop (also of an archbishop, being the symbol of his office as a shepherd of the flock of God.

Crossbeak (n.) Same as Crossbill.

Crossbeam (n.) A beam laid across the bitts, to which the cable is fastened when riding at anchor.

Cross-bearer (n.) A subdeacon who bears a cross before an archbishop or primate on solemn occasions.

Crossbill () A bill brought by a defendant, in an equity or chancery suit, against the plaintiff, respecting the matter in question in that suit.

Crossbill (n.) A bird of the genus Loxia, allied to the finches. Their mandibles are strongly curved and cross each other; the crossbeak.

Cross-birth (n.) Any preternatural labor, in which the body of the child lies across the pelvis of the mother, so that the shoulder, arm, or trunk is the part first presented at the mouth of the uterus.

Crossbite (n.) A deception; a cheat.

Crossbite (b. t.) To deceive; to trick; to gull.

Crossbreed (n.) A breed or an animal produced from parents of different breeds; a new variety, as of plants, combining the qualities of two parent varieties or stocks.

Cross-eye (n.) See Strabismus.

Cross-eyed (a.) Affected with strabismus; squint-eyed; squinting.

Crossopterygii (n. pl.) An order of ganoid fishes including among living species the bichir (Polypterus). See Brachioganoidei.

Crosspiece (n.) A bar or timber connecting two knightheads or two bitts.

Cross-purpose (n.) A conversational game, in which questions and answers are made so as to involve ludicrous combinations of ideas.

Cross-reading (n.) The reading of the lines of a newspaper directly across the page, instead of down the columns, thus producing a ludicrous combination of ideas.

Croton (n.) A genus of euphorbiaceous plants belonging to tropical countries.

Croton bug () A small, active, winged species of cockroach (Ectobia Germanica), the water bug. It is common aboard ships, and in houses in cities, esp. in those with hot-water pipes.

Crow (v. i.) A bird, usually black, of the genus Corvus, having a strong conical beak, with projecting bristles. It has a harsh, croaking note. See Caw.

Crown (n.) The bights formed by the several turns of a cable.

Crude (superl.) Harsh and offensive, as a color; tawdry or in bad taste, as a combination of colors, or any design or work of art.

Crumb (n.) Fig.: A little; a bit; as, a crumb of comfort.

Crumbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Crumb

Crunch (v. t.) To crush with the teeth; to chew with a grinding noise; to craunch; as, to crunch a biscuit.

Cruorin (n.) The coloring matter of the blood in the living animal; haemoglobin.

Cry (v. i.) To utter lamentations; to lament audibly; to express pain, grief, or distress, by weeping and sobbing; to shed tears; to bawl, as a child.

Cryptobranchiata (n. pl.) A division of the Amphibia; the Derotremata.

Crypturi (n. pl.) An order of flying, drom/ognathous birds, including the tinamous of South America. See Tinamou.

Cubbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Cub

Cuban (a.) Of or pertaining to Cuba or its inhabitants.

Cuban (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Cuba.

Cubature (n.) The process of determining the solid or cubic contents of a body.

Cubing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Cube

Cubebic (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, cubebs; as, cubebic acid (a soft olive-green resin extracted from cubebs).

Cubic (a.) Alt. of Cubical

Cubical (a.) Having the form or properties of a cube; contained, or capable of being contained, in a cube.

Cubical (a.) Isometric or monometric; as, cubic cleavage. See Crystallization.

Cubic (n.) A curve of the third degree.

Cubically (adv.) In a cubical method.

Cubicalness (n.) The quality of being cubical.

Cubicle (n.) A loding room; esp., a sleeping place partitioned off from a large dormitory.

Cubicular (a.) Belonging to a chamber or bedroom.

Cubiform (a.) Of the form of a cube.

Cubile (n.) The lowest course of stones in a building.

Cubilose (n.) A mucilagenous secretion of certain birds found as the characteristic ingredient of edible bird's-nests.

Cubit (n.) The forearm; the ulna, a bone of the arm extending from elbow to wrist.

Cubit (n.) A measure of length, being the distance from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger.

Cubital (a.) Of or pertaining to the cubit or ulna; as, the cubital nerve; the cubital artery; the cubital muscle.

Cubital (a.) Of the length of a cubit.

Cubital (n.) A sleeve covering the arm from the elbow to the hand.

Cubited (a.) Having the measure of a cubit.

Cubo-octahedral (a.) Presenting a combination of a cube and an octahedron.

Cubo-octahedron (n.) A combination of a cube and octahedron, esp. one in which the octahedral faces meet at the middle of the cubic edges.

Cuckoo (n.) A bird belonging to Cuculus, Coccyzus, and several allied genera, of many species.

Cuckooflower (n.) A species of Cardamine (C. pratensis), or lady's smock. Its leaves are used in salads. Also, the ragged robin (Lychnis Flos-cuculi).

Cuckoopint (n.) A plant of the genus Arum (A. maculatum); the European wake-robin.

Cucullated (a.) Having a hoodlike crest on the head, as certain birds, mammals, and reptiles.

Cucurbit (n.) Alt. of Cucurbite

Cucurbite (n.) A vessel or flask for distillation, used with, or forming part of, an alembic; a matrass; -- originally in the shape of a gourd, with a wide mouth. See Alembic.

Cucurbitaceous (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a family of plants of which the cucumber, melon, and gourd are common examples.

Cucurbitive (a.) Having the shape of a gourd seed; -- said of certain small worms.

Cuddy (n.) A small cabin: also, the galley or kitchen of a vessel.

Cue (n.) A straight tapering rod used to impel the balls in playing billiards.

Cufic (a.) Of or pertaining to the older characters of the Arabic language.

Cullibility (n.) Gullibility.

Culm (n.) Mineral coal that is not bituminous; anthracite, especially when found in small masses.

Culmen (n.) The dorsal ridge of a bird's bill.

Culpabilities (pl. ) of Culpability

Culpability (n.) The state of being culpable.

Cultirostral (a.) Having a bill shaped like the colter of a plow, or like a knife, as the heron, stork, etc.

Cultirostres (n. pl.) A tribe of wading birds including the stork, heron, crane, etc.

Cultrated (a.) Sharp-edged and pointed; shaped like a pruning knife, as the beak of certain birds.

Culverkey (n.) An English meadow plant, perhaps the columbine or the bluebell squill (Scilla nutans).

Cumin (n.) A dwarf umbelliferous plant, somewhat resembling fennel (Cuminum Cyminum), cultivated for its seeds, which have a bitterish, warm taste, with an aromatic flavor, and are used like those of anise and caraway.

Cunning (a.) Wrought with, or exhibiting, skill or ingenuity; ingenious; curious; as, cunning work.

Curability (n.) The state of being curable; curableness.

Curassow (n.) A large gallinaceous bird of the American genera Crax, Ourax, etc., of the family Cracidae.

Curbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Curb

Curb (n.) That which curbs, restrains, or subdues; a check or hindrance; esp., a chain or strap attached to the upper part of the branches of a bit, and capable of being drawn tightly against the lower jaw of the horse.

Curculio (n.) One of a large group of beetles (Rhynchophora) of many genera; -- called also weevils, snout beetles, billbeetles, and billbugs. Many of the species are very destructive, as the plum curculio, the corn, grain, and rice weevils, etc.

Cure (v. t.) To set free from (something injurious or blameworthy), as from a bad habit.

Curfew (n.) The ringing of an evening bell, originally a signal to the inhabitants to cover fires, extinguish lights, and retire to rest, -- instituted by William the Conqueror; also, the bell itself.

Curious (a.) Exhibiting care or nicety; artfully constructed; elaborate; wrought with elegance or skill.

Curious (a.) Careful or anxious to learn; eager for knowledge; given to research or inquiry; habitually inquisitive; prying; -- sometimes with after or of.

Curlew (n.) A wading bird of the genus Numenius, remarkable for its long, slender, curved bill.

Currish (a.) Having the qualities, or exhibiting the characteristics, of a cur; snarling; quarrelsome; snappish; churlish; hence, also malicious; malignant; brutal.

Cursores (n. pl.) An order of running birds including the ostrich, emu, and allies; the Ratitaae.

Curtness (n.) The quality of bing curt.

Curvirostral (a.) Having a crooked beak, as the crossbill.

Curvirostres (n. pl.) A group of passerine birds, including the creepers and nuthatches.

Cushewbird (n.) The galeated curassow. See Curassow.

Cushion (n.) the elastic edge of a billiard table.

Custom (n.) Frequent repetition of the same act; way of acting common to many; ordinary manner; habitual practice; usage; method of doing or living.

Custom (n.) Habitual buying of goods; practice of frequenting, as a shop, manufactory, etc., for making purchases or giving orders; business support.

Customarily (adv.) In a customary manner; habitually.

Customary (a.) Agreeing with, or established by, custom; established by common usage; conventional; habitual.

Cut (v. t.) To wound or hurt deeply the sensibilities of; to pierce; to lacerate; as, sarcasm cuts to the quick.

Cutter (n.) A fast sailing vessel with one mast, rigged in most essentials like a sloop. A cutter is narrower end deeper than a sloop of the same length, and depends for stability on a deep keel, often heavily weighted with lead.

Cutting (a.) Severe; sarcastic; biting; as, a cutting reply.

Cutwater (n.) A sea bird of the Atlantic (Rhynchops nigra); -- called also black skimmer, scissorsbill, and razorbill. See Skimmer.

Cyanogen (n.) A colorless, inflammable, poisonous gas, C2N2, with a peach-blossom odor, so called from its tendency to form blue compounds; obtained by heating ammonium oxalate, mercuric cyanide, etc. It is obtained in combination, forming an alkaline cyanide when nitrogen or a nitrogenous compound is strongly ignited with carbon and soda or potash. It conducts itself like a member of the halogen group of elements, and shows a tendency to form complex compounds. The name is also applied to the univalent radical, CN (the half molecule of cyanogen proper), which was one of the first compound radicals recognized.

Cyanuric acid () an organic acid, C3O3N3H3, first obtained by heating uric acid or urea, and called pyrouric acid; afterwards obtained from isocyanic acid. It is a white crystalline substance, odorless and almost tasteless; -- called also tricarbimide.

Cyclamen (n.) A genus of plants of the Primrose family, having depressed rounded corms, and pretty nodding flowers with the petals so reflexed as to point upwards, whence it is called rabbits' ears. It is also called sow bread, because hogs are said to eat the corms.

Cycle (n.) An imaginary circle or orbit in the heavens; one of the celestial spheres.

Cycle (n.) A bicycle or tricycle, or other light velocipede.

Cycle (v. i.) To ride a bicycle, tricycle, or other form of cycle.

Cycling (n.) The act, art, or practice, of riding a cycle, esp. a bicycle or tricycle.

Cyclo- () A combining form meaning circular, of a circle or wheel.

Cyclometer (n.) A contrivance for recording the revolutions of a wheel, as of a bicycle.

Cyclops (n. sing. & pl.) One of a race of giants, sons of Neptune and Amphitrite, having but one eye, and that in the middle of the forehead. They were fabled to inhabit Sicily, and to assist in the workshops of Vulcan, under Mt. Etna.

Cymbiform (a.) Shaped like a boat; (Bot.) elongated and having the upper surface decidedly concave, as the glumes of many grasses.

Cymbium (n.) A genus of marine univalve shells; the gondola.

Cynanthropy (n.) A kind of madness in which men fancy themselves changed into dogs, and imitate the voice and habits of that animal.

Cyphonautes (n.) The free-swimming, bivalve larva of certain Bryozoa.

Cypress (n.) A coniferous tree of the genus Cupressus. The species are mostly evergreen, and have wood remarkable for its durability.

Cyprian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Cyprus, especially of ancient Cyprus; a Cypriot.

Cypriot (n.) A native or inhabitant of Cyprus.

Cypris (n.) A genus of small, bivalve, fresh-water Crustacea, belonging to the Ostracoda; also, a member of this genus.

Cyrenian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Cyrene.

Cyst (n.) A pouch or sac without opening, usually membranous and containing morbid matter, which is accidentally developed in one of the natural cavities or in the substance of an organ.

Dabbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Dab

Dabb (n.) A large, spine-tailed lizard (Uromastix spinipes), found in Egypt, Arabia, and Palestine; -- called also dhobb, and dhabb.

Dabber (n.) That with which one dabs; hence, a pad or other device used by printers, engravers, etc., as for dabbing type or engraved plates with ink.

Dabchick (n.) A small water bird (Podilymbus podiceps), allied to the grebes, remarkable for its quickness in diving; -- called also dapchick, dobchick, dipchick, didapper, dobber, devil-diver, hell-diver, and pied-billed grebe.

Dactylotheca (n.) The scaly covering of the toes, as in birds.

Dagger (n.) A short weapon used for stabbing. This is the general term: cf. Poniard, Stiletto, Bowie knife, Dirk, Misericorde, Anlace.

Dalesman (n.) One living in a dale; -- a term applied particularly to the inhabitants of the valleys in the north of England, Norway, etc.

Dalmania (n.) A genus of trilobites, of many species, common in the Upper Silurian and Devonian rocks.

Dalmatic (n.) A vestment with wide sleeves, and with two stripes, worn at Mass by deacons, and by bishops at pontifical Mass; -- imitated from a dress originally worn in Dalmatia.

Daltonism (n.) Inability to perceive or distinguish certain colors, esp. red; color blindness. It has various forms and degrees. So called from the chemist Dalton, who had this infirmity.

Daman (n.) A small herbivorous mammal of the genus Hyrax. The species found in Palestine and Syria is Hyrax Syriacus; that of Northern Africa is H. Brucei; -- called also ashkoko, dassy, and rock rabbit. See Cony, and Hyrax.

Damnability (n.) The quality of being damnable; damnableness.

Dane (n.) A native, or a naturalized inhabitant, of Denmark.

Danger (n.) Power to harm; subjection or liability to penalty.

Danseuse (n.) A professional female dancer; a woman who dances at a public exhibition as in a ballet.

Danubian (a.) Pertaining to, or bordering on, the river Danube.

Daphnin (n.) A dark green bitter resin extracted from the mezereon (Daphne mezereum) and regarded as the essential principle of the plant.

Daphnin (n.) A white, crystalline, bitter substance, regarded as a glucoside, and extracted from Daphne mezereum and D. alpina.

Darbies (n. pl.) Manacles; handcuffs.

Darter (n.) The snakebird, a water bird of the genus Plotus; -- so called because it darts out its long, snakelike neck at its prey. See Snakebird.

Dasypaedes (n. pl.) Those birds whose young are covered with down when hatched.

Datiscin (n.) A white crystalline glucoside extracted from the bastard hemp (Datisca cannabina).

Daubing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Daub

Daubry (n.) A daubing; specious coloring; false pretenses.

Daubing (n.) The act of one who daubs; that which is daubed.

Daubing (n.) A rough coat of mortar put upon a wall to give it the appearance of stone; rough-cast.

Daubing (n.) In currying, a mixture of fish oil and tallow worked into leather; -- called also dubbing.

Daw (n.) A European bird of the Crow family (Corvus monedula), often nesting in church towers and ruins; a jackdaw.

Dayfly (n.) A neuropterous insect of the genus Ephemera and related genera, of many species, and inhabiting fresh water in the larval state; the ephemeral fly; -- so called because it commonly lives but one day in the winged or adult state. See Ephemeral fly, under Ephemeral.

Day-net (n.) A net for catching small birds.

Daysman (n.) An umpire or arbiter; a mediator.

Deacon (n.) An officer in Christian churches appointed to perform certain subordinate duties varying in different communions. In the Roman Catholic and Episcopal churches, a person admitted to the lowest order in the ministry, subordinate to the bishops and priests. In Presbyterian churches, he is subordinate to the minister and elders, and has charge of certain duties connected with the communion service and the care of the poor. In Congregational churches, he is subordinate to the pastor, and has duties as in the Presbyterian church.

Deaconess (n.) A woman set apart for church work by a bishop.

Deal (n.) An arrangement to attain a desired result by a combination of interested parties; -- applied to stock speculations and political bargains.

Dean (n.) A dignitary or presiding officer in certain ecclesiastical and lay bodies; esp., an ecclesiastical dignitary, subordinate to a bishop.

Dear (superl.) Marked by scarcity or dearth, and exorbitance of price; as, a dear year.

Death (v. i.) The cessation of all vital phenomena without capability of resuscitation, either in animals or plants.

Deathbird (n.) Tengmalm's or Richardson's owl (Nyctale Tengmalmi); -- so called from a superstition of the North American Indians that its note presages death.

Deathwatch (n.) A small beetle (Anobium tessellatum and other allied species). By forcibly striking its head against woodwork it makes a ticking sound, which is a call of the sexes to each other, but has been imagined by superstitious people to presage death.

Debauchee (v. t.) One who is given to intemperance or bacchanalian excesses; a man habitually lewd; a libertine.

Debauchery (n.) Excessive indulgence of the appetites; especially, excessive indulgence of lust; intemperance; sensuality; habitual lewdness.

Debile (a.) Weak.

Debilitant (a.) Diminishing the energy of organs; reducing excitement; as, a debilitant drug.

Debilitated (imp. & p. p.) of Debilitate

Debilitating (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Debilitate

Debilitate (v. t.) To impair the strength of; to weaken; to enfeeble; as, to debilitate the body by intemperance.

Debilitation (n.) The act or process of debilitating, or the condition of one who is debilitated; weakness.

Debility (a.) The state of being weak; weakness; feebleness; languor.

Debit (n.) A debt; an entry on the debtor (Dr.) side of an account; -- mostly used adjectively; as, the debit side of an account.

Debited (imp. & p. p.) of Debit

Debiting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Debit

Debit (v. t.) To charge with debt; -- the opposite of, and correlative to, credit; as, to debit a purchaser for the goods sold.

Debit (v. t.) To enter on the debtor (Dr.) side of an account; as, to debit the amount of goods sold.

Debitor (n.) A debtor.

Debituminization (n.) The act of depriving of bitumen.

Debituminize (v. t.) To deprive of bitumen.

Debonair (a.) Characterized by courteousness, affability, or gentleness; of good appearance and manners; graceful; complaisant.

Debris (n.) Rubbish, especially such as results from the destruction of anything; remains; ruins.

Debt (n.) That which is due from one person to another, whether money, goods, or services; that which one person is bound to pay to another, or to perform for his benefit; thing owed; obligation; liability.

Decalitre (n.) A measure of capacity in the metric system; a cubic volume of ten liters, equal to about 610.24 cubic inches, that is, 2.642 wine gallons.

Decastere (n.) A measure of capacity, equal to ten steres, or ten cubic meters.

Decasyllabic (a.) Having, or consisting of, ten syllables.

Deceitfulness (n.) The disposition to deceive; as, a man's deceitfulness may be habitual.

Deceivableness (n.) Capability of deceiving.

Deceivableness (n.) Liability to be deceived or misled; as, the deceivableness of a child.

Deceptiveness (n.) The power or habit of deceiving; tendency or aptness to deceive.

Decided (a.) Free from ambiguity; unequivocal; unmistakable; unquestionable; clear; evident; as, a decided advantage.

Decilitre (n.) A measure of capacity or volume in the metric system; one tenth of a liter, equal to 6.1022 cubic inches, or 3.38 fluid ounces.

Decision (n.) An account or report of a conclusion, especially of a legal adjudication or judicial determination of a question or cause; as, a decision of arbitrators; a decision of the Supreme Court.

Decistere (n.) The tenth part of the stere or cubic meter, equal to 3.531 cubic feet. See Stere.

Declaratory (a.) Making declaration, explanation, or exhibition; making clear or manifest; affirmative; expressive; as, a clause declaratory of the will of the legislature.

Declare (v. t.) To make known by language; to communicate or manifest explicitly and plainly in any way; to exhibit; to publish; to proclaim; to announce.

Declarer (n.) One who makes known or proclaims; that which exhibits.

Decompose (v. t.) To separate the constituent parts of; to resolve into original elements; to set free from previously existing forms of chemical combination; to bring to dissolution; to rot or decay.

Decompose (v. i.) To become resolved or returned from existing combinations; to undergo dissolution; to decay; to rot.

Decomposed (a.) Separated or broken up; -- said of the crest of birds when the feathers are divergent.

Decomposition (n.) Repeated composition; a combination of compounds.

Decubitus (n.) An attitude assumed in lying down; as, the dorsal decubitus.

Decuman (a.) Large; chief; -- applied to an extraordinary billow, supposed by some to be every tenth in order. [R.] Also used substantively.

Decumbiture (n.) Confinement to a sick bed, or time of taking to one's bed from sickness.

Decumbiture (n.) Aspect of the heavens at the time of taking to one's sick bed, by which the prognostics of recovery or death were made.

Deducibility (n.) Deducibleness.

Deducibleness (n.) The quality of being deducible; deducibility.

Deerberry (n.) A shrub of the blueberry group (Vaccinium stamineum); also, its bitter, greenish white berry; -- called also squaw huckleberry.

Deergrass (n.) An American genus (Rhexia) of perennial herbs, with opposite leaves, and showy flowers (usually bright purple), with four petals and eight stamens, -- the only genus of the order Melastomaceae inhabiting a temperate clime.

Defectibility (n.) Deficiency; imperfection.

Defend (v. t.) To prohibit; to forbid.

Defence (n.) Prohibition; a prohibitory ordinance.

Defensibility (n.) Capability of being defended.

Defensibleness (n.) Capability of being defended; defensibility.

Define (v. t.) To determine or clearly exhibit the boundaries of; to mark the limits of; as, to define the extent of a kingdom or country.

Define (v. t.) To determine with precision; to mark out with distinctness; to ascertain or exhibit clearly; as, the defining power of an optical instrument.

Deflagrability (n.) The state or quality of being deflagrable.

Degradation (n.) The act of reducing in rank, character, or reputation, or of abasing; a lowering from one's standing or rank in office or society; diminution; as, the degradation of a peer, a knight, a general, or a bishop.

Degradation (n.) The state or condition of a species or group which exhibits degraded forms; degeneration.

Dejection (n.) A low condition; weakness; inability.

Delawares (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting the valley of the Delaware River, but now mostly located in the Indian Territory.

Delicacy (a.) Nice propriety of manners or conduct; susceptibility or tenderness of feeling; refinement; fastidiousness; and hence, in an exaggerated sense, effeminacy; as, great delicacy of behavior; delicacy in doing a kindness; delicacy of character that unfits for earnest action.

Delicate (a.) Of exacting tastes and habits; dainty; fastidious.

Deligate (v. t.) To bind up; to bandage.

Deligation (n.) A binding up; a bandaging.

Delineation (n.) The act of representing, portraying, or describing, as by lines, diagrams, sketches, etc.; drawing an outline; as, the delineation of a scene or face; in drawing and engraving, representation by means of lines, as distinguished from representation by means of tints and shades; accurate and minute representation, as distinguished from art that is careless of details, or subordinates them excessively.

Deliquesce (v. i.) To dissolve gradually and become liquid by attracting and absorbing moisture from the air, as certain salts, acids, and alkalies.

Deliquiate (v. i.) To melt and become liquid by absorbing water from the air; to deliquesce.

Deliver (v. t.) To free from, or disburden of, young; to relieve of a child in childbirth; to bring forth; -- often with of.

Delivery (n.) The act of giving birth; parturition; the expulsion or extraction of a fetus and its membranes.

Delphic (a.) Ambiguous; mysterious.

Demisability (n.) The state of being demisable.

Demobilization (n.) The disorganization or disarming of troops which have previously been mobilized or called into active service; the change from a war footing to a peace footing.

Demobilize (v. t.) To disorganize, or disband and send home, as troops which have been mobilized.

Demography (n.) The study of races, as to births, marriages, mortality, health, etc.

Demonstrability (n.) The quality of being demonstrable; demonstrableness.

Demonstrableness (n.) The quality of being demonstrable; demonstrability.

Demonstrate (v. t.) To point out; to show; to exhibit; to make evident.

Demonstrate (v. t.) To show, or make evident, by reasoning or proof; to prove by deduction; to establish so as to exclude the possibility of doubt or denial.

Demonstrate (v. t.) To exhibit and explain (a dissection or other anatomical preparation).

Demonstration (n.) The act of demonstrating; an exhibition; proof; especially, proof beyond the possibility of doubt; indubitable evidence, to the senses or reason.

Demonstration (n.) The exhibition and explanation of a dissection or other anatomical preparation.

Demonstration (n.) (Mil.) a decisive exhibition of force, or a movement indicating an attack.

Demonstrative (a.) Having the nature of demonstration; tending to demonstrate; making evident; exhibiting clearly or conclusively.

Demonstrator (n.) One who demonstrates; one who proves anything with certainty, or establishes it by indubitable evidence.

Demulcent (n.) A substance, usually of a mucilaginous or oily nature, supposed to be capable of soothing an inflamed nervous membrane, or protecting it from irritation. Gum Arabic, glycerin, olive oil, etc., are demulcents.

Denizen (n.) A dweller; an inhabitant.

Denizen (n.) One who is admitted by favor to all or a part of the rights of citizenship, where he did not possess them by birth; an adopted or naturalized citizen.

Dentilabial (a.) Formed by the teeth and the lips, or representing a sound so formed.

Dentilabial (n.) A dentilabial sound or letter.

Dentiloquy (n.) The habit or practice of speaking through the teeth, or with them closed.

Dentiroster (n.) A dentirostral bird.

Dentirostral (a.) Having a toothed bill; -- applied to a group of passerine birds, having the bill notched, and feeding chiefly on insects, as the shrikes and vireos. See Illust. (N) under Beak.

Deny (v. t.) To disclaim connection with, responsibility for, and the like; to refuse to acknowledge; to disown; to abjure; to disavow.

Depeculation (n.) A robbing or embezzlement.

Dependence (n.) Subjection to the direction or disposal of another; inability to help or provide for one's self.

Dephlogisticcate (v. t.) To deprive of phlogiston, or the supposed principle of inflammability.

Deplorability (n.) Deplorableness.

Depopulate (v. t.) To deprive of inhabitants, whether by death or by expulsion; to reduce greatly the populousness of; to dispeople; to unpeople.

Depopulation (n.) The act of depopulating, or condition of being depopulated; destruction or explusion of inhabitants.

Depravation (n.) Change for the worse; deterioration; morbid perversion.

Depressomotor (a.) Depressing or diminishing the capacity for movement, as depressomotor nerves, which lower or inhibit muscular activity.

Derbio (n.) A large European food fish (Lichia glauca).

Derivation (n.) A drawing of humors or fluids from one part of the body to another, to relieve or lessen a morbid process.

Derogate (v. i.) To act beneath one-s rank, place, birth, or character; to degenerate.

Derotremata (n. pl.) The tribe of aquatic Amphibia which includes Amphiuma, Menopoma, etc. They have permanent gill openings, but no external gills; -- called also Cryptobranchiata.

Dertrotheca (n.) The horny covering of the end of the bill of birds.

Descendibility (n.) The quality of being descendible; capability of being transmitted from ancestors; as, the descendibility of an estate.

Descent (n.) Derivation, as from an ancestor; procedure by generation; lineage; birth; extraction.

Describing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Describe

Describe (v. i.) To use the faculty of describing; to give a description; as, Milton describes with uncommon force and beauty.

Description (n.) The act of describing; a delineation by marks or signs.

Deshabille (n.) An undress; a careless toilet.

Design (n.) To mark out and exhibit; to designate; to indicate; to show; to point out; to appoint.

Desirability (n.) The state or quality of being desirable; desirableness.

Desire (v. t.) Excessive or morbid longing; lust; appetite.

Desman (n.) An amphibious, insectivorous mammal found in Russia (Myogale moschata). It is allied to the moles, but is called muskrat by some English writers.

Desmine (n.) Same as Stilbite. It commonly occurs in bundles or tufts of crystals.

Desmognathous (a.) Having the maxillo-palatine bones united; -- applied to a group of carinate birds (Desmognathae), including various wading and swimming birds, as the ducks and herons, and also raptorial and other kinds.

Desolate (a.) Destitute or deprived of inhabitants; deserted; uninhabited; hence, gloomy; as, a desolate isle; a desolate wilderness; a desolate house.

Desolate (v. t.) To make desolate; to leave alone; to deprive of inhabitants; as, the earth was nearly desolated by the flood.

Desolation (n.) The act of desolating or laying waste; destruction of inhabitants; depopulation.

Despicability (n.) Despicableness.

Despotical (a.) Having the character of, or pertaining to, a despot; absolute in power; possessing and abusing unlimited power; evincing despotism; tyrannical; arbitrary.

Destructibility (n.) The quality of being capable of destruction; destructibleness.

Desudation (n.) A sweating; a profuse or morbid sweating, often succeeded by an eruption of small pimples.

Determinability (n.) The quality of being determinable; determinableness.

Determinableness (n.) Capability of being determined; determinability.

Determinate (a.) Having defined limits; not uncertain or arbitrary; fixed; established; definite.

Detestability (n.) Capacity of being odious.

Deuterogamy (n.) A second marriage, after the death of the first husband of wife; -- in distinction from bigamy, as defined in the old canon law. See Bigamy.

Deut- () A prefix which formerly properly indicated the second in a regular series of compound in the series, and not to its composition, but which is now generally employed in the same sense as bi-or di-, although little used.

Deutoxide (n.) A compound containing in the molecule two atoms of oxygen united with some other element or radical; -- usually called dioxide, or less frequently, binoxide.

Deviation (n.) The voluntary and unnecessary departure of a ship from, or delay in, the regular and usual course of the specific voyage insured, thus releasing the underwriters from their responsibility.

Device (n.) An emblematic design, generally consisting of one or more figures with a motto, used apart from heraldic bearings to denote the historical situation, the ambition, or the desire of the person adopting it. See Cognizance.

Devil-diver (n.) Alt. of Devil bird

Devil bird (n.) A small water bird. See Dabchick.

Devilfish (n.) A huge ray (Manta birostris / Cephaloptera vampyrus) of the Gulf of Mexico and Southern Atlantic coasts. Several other related species take the same name. See Cephaloptera.

Devise (v. t.) To form in the mind by new combinations of ideas, new applications of principles, or new arrangement of parts; to formulate by thought; to contrive; to excogitate; to invent; to plan; to scheme; as, to devise an engine, a new mode of writing, a plan of defense, or an argument.

Devitrification (n.) The act or process of devitrifying, or the state of being devitrified. Specifically, the conversion of molten glassy matter into a stony mass by slow cooling, the result being the formation of crystallites, microbites, etc., in the glassy base, which are then called devitrification products.

Devotee (n.) One who is wholly devoted; esp., one given wholly to religion; one who is superstitiously given to religious duties and ceremonies; a bigot.

Dewclaw (n.) In any animal, esp. of the Herbivora, a rudimentary claw or small hoof not reaching the ground.

Dhow (n.) A coasting vessel of Arabia, East Africa, and the Indian Ocean. It has generally but one mast and a lateen sail.

Diageotropic (a.) Relating to, or exhibiting, diageotropism.

Diagraph (n.) A drawing instrument, combining a protractor and scale.

Dialysis (n.) Debility.

Diamagnetic (a.) Pertaining to, or exhibiting the phenomena of, diamagnetism; taking, or being of a nature to take, a position at right angles to the lines of magnetic force. See Paramagnetic.

Diamagnetic (n.) Any substance, as bismuth, glass, phosphorous, etc., which in a field of magnetic force is differently affected from the ordinary magnetic bodies, as iron; that is, which tends to take a position at right angles to the lines of magnetic force, and is repelled by either pole of the magnet.

Diameter (n.) Any right line passing through the center of a figure or body, as a circle, conic section, sphere, cube, etc., and terminated by the opposite boundaries; a straight line which bisects a system of parallel chords drawn in a curve.

Diamido- (a.) A prefix or combining form of Diamine. [Also used adjectively.]

Dianium (n.) Same as Columbium.

Diaphemetric (a.) Relating to the measurement of the tactile sensibility of parts; as, diaphemetric compasses.

Diarrhoea (n.) A morbidly frequent and profuse discharge of loose or fluid evacuations from the intestines, without tenesmus; a purging or looseness of the bowels; a flux.

Diathesis (n.) Bodily condition or constitution, esp. a morbid habit which predisposes to a particular disease, or class of diseases.

Diatribist (n.) One who makes a diatribe or diatribes.

Diatryma (n.) An extinct eocene bird from New Mexico, larger than the ostrich.

Diazo- () A combining form (also used adjectively), meaning pertaining to, or derived from, a series of compounds containing a radical of two nitrogen atoms, united usually to an aromatic radical; as, diazo-benzene, C6H5.N2.OH.

Dibasic (a.) Having two acid hydrogen atoms capable of replacement by basic atoms or radicals, in forming salts; bibasic; -- said of acids, as oxalic or sulphuric acids. Cf. Diacid, Bibasic.

Dicentra (n.) A genus of herbaceous plants, with racemes of two-spurred or heart-shaped flowers, including the Dutchman's breeches, and the more showy Bleeding heart (D. spectabilis).

Dichotomize (v. t.) To cut into two parts; to part into two divisions; to divide into pairs; to bisect.

Dichotomize (v. t.) To exhibit as a half disk. See Dichotomy, 3.

Dichotomy (n.) That phase of the moon in which it appears bisected, or shows only half its disk, as at the quadratures.

Dichotomy (n.) Successive division and subdivision, as of a stem of a plant or a vein of the body, into two parts as it proceeds from its origin; successive bifurcation.

Dichromate (n.) A salt of chromic acid containing two equivalents of the acid radical to one of the base; -- called also bichromate.

Dichromatic (a.) Having or exhibiting two colors.

Dichromatic (a.) Having two color varieties, or two phases differing in color, independently of age or sex, as in certain birds and insects.

Dictation (n.) The act of dictating; the act or practice of prescribing; also that which is dictated.

Dictation (n.) The speaking to, or the giving orders to, in an overbearing manner; authoritative utterance; as, his habit, even with friends, was that of dictation.

Dictionary (n.) Hence, a book containing the words belonging to any system or province of knowledge, arranged alphabetically; as, a dictionary of medicine or of botany; a biographical dictionary.

Dictum (n.) An arbitrament or award.

Dicyanide (n.) A compound of a binary type containing two cyanogen groups or radicals; -- called also bicyanide.

Die (n.) Any small cubical or square body.

Diet (n.) Course of living or nourishment; what is eaten and drunk habitually; food; victuals; fare.

Differentiation (n.) The act of distinguishing or describing a thing, by giving its different, or specific difference; exact definition or determination.

Diffidence (n.) The state of being diffident; distrust; want of confidence; doubt of the power, ability, or disposition of others.

Diffusibility (n.) The quality of being diffusible; capability of being poured or spread out.

Diffusibleness (n.) Diffusibility.

Digastric (a.) Having two bellies; biventral; -- applied to muscles which are fleshy at each end and have a tendon in the middle, and esp. to the muscle which pulls down the lower jaw.

Digestibility (n.) The quality of being digestible.

Digestibleness (n.) The quality of being digestible; digestibility.

Digraph (n.) Two signs or characters combined to express a single articulated sound; as ea in head, or th in bath.

Diiodide (n.) A compound of a binary type containing two atoms of iodine; -- called also biniodide.

Dilatability (n.) The quality of being dilatable, or admitting expansion; -- opposed to contractibility.

Dilogical (a.) Ambiguous; of double meaning.

Dilogy (n.) An ambiguous speech; a figure in which a word is used an equivocal sense.

Dinornis (n.) A genus of extinct, ostrichlike birds of gigantic size, which formerly inhabited New Zealand. See Moa.

Dinosauria (n. pl.) An order of extinct mesozoic reptiles, mostly of large size (whence the name). Notwithstanding their size, they present birdlike characters in the skeleton, esp. in the pelvis and hind limbs. Some walked on their three-toed hind feet, thus producing the large "bird tracks," so-called, of mesozoic sandstones; others were five-toed and quadrupedal. See Illust. of Compsognathus, also Illustration of Dinosaur in Appendix.

Diocesan (n.) A bishop, viewed in relation to his diocese; as, the diocesan of New York.

Diocese (n.) The circuit or extent of a bishop's jurisdiction; the district in which a bishop exercises his ecclesiastical authority.

Diomedea (n.) A genus of large sea birds, including the albatross. See Albatross.

Diorama (n.) A mode of scenic representation, invented by Daguerre and Bouton, in which a painting is seen from a distance through a large opening. By a combination of transparent and opaque painting, and of transmitted and reflected light, and by contrivances such as screens and shutters, much diversity of scenic effect is produced.

Diorama (n.) A building used for such an exhibition.

Dioxide (n.) An oxide containing two atoms of oxygen in each molecule; binoxide.

Diplococcus (n.) A form of micrococcus in which cocci are united in a binary manner. See Micrococcus.

Dipnoi (n. pl.) A group of ganoid fishes, including the living genera Ceratodus and Lepidosiren, which present the closest approximation to the Amphibia. The air bladder acts as a lung, and the nostrils open inside the mouth. See Ceratodus, and Illustration in Appendix.

Dipping (n.) The practice of taking snuff by rubbing the teeth or gums with a stick or brush dipped in snuff.

Dipropargyl (n.) A pungent, mobile, volatile liquid, C6H6, produced artificially from certain allyl derivatives. Though isomeric with benzine, it is very different in its chemical relations. Called also dipropinyl.

Dipsas (n.) A serpent whose bite was fabled to produce intense thirst.

Dipsomania (n.) A morbid an uncontrollable craving (often periodic) for drink, esp. for alcoholic liquors; also improperly used to denote acute and chronic alcoholism.

Direct (a.) Immediate; express; plain; unambiguous.

Directly (adv.) Without circumlocution or ambiguity; absolutely; in express terms.

Directory (n.) A book containing the names and residences of the inhabitants of any place, or of classes of them; an address book; as, a business directory.

Dis- () A prefix from the Latin, whence F. des, or sometimes de-, dis-. The Latin dis-appears as di-before b, d, g, l, m, n, r, v, becomes dif-before f, and either dis-or di- before j. It is from the same root as bis twice, and duo, E. two. See Two, and cf. Bi-, Di-, Dia-. Dis-denotes separation, a parting from, as in distribute, disconnect; hence it often has the force of a privative and negative, as in disarm, disoblige, disagree. Also intensive, as in dissever.

Disabilities (pl. ) of Disability

Disability (n.) State of being disabled; deprivation or want of ability; absence of competent physical, intellectual, or moral power, means, fitness, and the like.

Disability (n.) Want of legal qualification to do a thing; legal incapacity or incompetency.

Disable (a.) Lacking ability; unable.

Disablement (n.) Deprivation of ability; incapacity.

Disaccustom (v. t.) To destroy the force of habit in; to wean from a custom.

Disavow (v. t.) To refuse strongly and solemnly to own or acknowledge; to deny responsibility for, approbation of, and the like; to disclaim; to disown; as, he was charged with embezzlement, but he disavows the crime.

Disbind (v. t.) To unbind; to loosen.

Disceptator (n.) One who arbitrates or decides.

Discerpibility (n.) Alt. of Discerptibility

Discerptibility (n.) Capability or liableness to be discerped.

Discharge (v. t.) To of something weighing upon or impeding over one, as a debt, claim, obligation, responsibility, accusation, etc.; to absolve; to acquit; to clear.

Discharge (v. t.) To prohibit; to forbid.

Discharge (v. t.) Act of relieving of something which oppresses or weighs upon one, as an obligation, liability, debt, accusation, etc.; acquittance; as, the discharge of a debtor.

Discharge (v. t.) Act of removing, or getting rid of, an obligation, liability, etc.; fulfillment, as by the payment of a debt, or the performance of a trust or duty.

Discharge (v. t.) That which discharges or releases from an obligation, liability, penalty, etc., as a price of ransom, a legal document.

Discipline (n.) Subjection to rule; submissiveness to order and control; habit of obedience.

Discipline (v. t.) To accustom to regular and systematic action; to bring under control so as to act systematically; to train to act together under orders; to teach subordination to; to form a habit of obedience in; to drill.

Disclaim (v. t.) To renounce all claim to deny; ownership of, or responsibility for; to disown; to disavow; to reject.

Disclosed (p. a.) Represented with wings expanded; -- applied to doves and other birds not of prey.

Discodactylia (n. pl.) A division of amphibians having suctorial disks on the toes, as the tree frogs.

Discontinue (v. t.) To interrupt the continuance of; to intermit, as a practice or habit; to put an end to; to cause to cease; to cease using, to stop; to leave off.

Discontinuous (a.) Exhibiting a dissolution of continuity; gaping.

Discord (v. i.) Union of musical sounds which strikes the ear harshly or disagreeably, owing to the incommensurability of the vibrations which they produce; want of musical concord or harmony; a chord demanding resolution into a concord.

Discordant (n.) Said of strata which lack conformity in direction of bedding, either as in unconformability, or as caused by a fault.

Discount (v.) To deduct from an account, debt, charge, and the like; to make an abatement of; as, merchants sometimes discount five or six per cent for prompt payment of bills.

Discount (v.) To lend money upon, deducting the discount or allowance for interest; as, the banks discount notes and bills of exchange.

Discount (v. t.) A deduction made for interest, in advancing money upon, or purchasing, a bill or note not due; payment in advance of interest upon money.

Discoverability (n.) The quality of being discoverable.

Discredit (v. t.) To deprive of credibility; to destroy confidence or trust in; to cause disbelief in the accuracy or authority of.

Discriminate (v. i.) To make a difference or distinction; to distinguish accurately; as, in judging of evidence, we should be careful to discriminate between probability and slight presumption.

Discrimination (n.) The arbitrary imposition of unequal tariffs for substantially the same service.

Discubitory (a.) Leaning; fitted for a reclining posture.

Discussive (n.) A medicine that discusses or disperses morbid humors; a discutient.

Discutient (a.) Serving to disperse morbid matter; discussive; as, a discutient application.

Discutient (n.) An agent (as a medicinal application) which serves to disperse morbid matter.

Disdiapason (n.) An interval of two octaves, or a fifteenth; -- called also bisdiapason.

Disease (n.) An alteration in the state of the body or of some of its organs, interrupting or disturbing the performance of the vital functions, and causing or threatening pain and weakness; malady; affection; illness; sickness; disorder; -- applied figuratively to the mind, to the moral character and habits, to institutions, the state, etc.

Diseasedness (n.) The state of being diseased; a morbid state; sickness.

Disembitter (v. t.) To free from

Disgust (v. t.) Repugnance to what is offensive; aversion or displeasure produced by something loathsome; loathing; strong distaste; -- said primarily of the sickening opposition felt for anything which offends the physical organs of taste; now rather of the analogous repugnance excited by anything extremely unpleasant to the moral taste or higher sensibilities of our nature; as, an act of cruelty may excite disgust.

Dishabilitate (v. t.) To disqualify.

Dishabille (n.) An undress; a loose, negligent dress; deshabille.

Dishabit (v. t.) To dislodge.

Dishabited (p. a.) Rendered uninhabited.

Dishabituate (v. t.) To render unaccustomed.

Dishonest (a.) Characterized by fraud; indicating a want of probity; knavish; fraudulent; unjust.

Dishonesty (n.) Want of honesty, probity, or integrity in principle; want of fairness and straightforwardness; a disposition to defraud, deceive, or betray; faithlessness.

Dishonesty (n.) Violation of trust or of justice; fraud; any deviation from probity; a dishonest act.

Dishonor (v. t.) To refuse or decline to accept or pay; -- said of a bill, check, note, or draft which is due or presented; as, to dishonor a bill exchange.

Dishwasher (n.) A European bird; the wagtail.

Disimbitter (v. t.) To free from bitterness.

Disinhabited (a.) Uninhabited.

Disinterested (a.) Not influenced by regard to personal interest or advantage; free from selfish motive; having no relation of interest or feeling; not biased or prejudiced; as, a disinterested decision or judge.

Disinterestedly (adv.) In a disinterested manner; without bias or prejudice.

Dislikelihood (n.) The want of likelihood; improbability.

Disnaturalize (v. t.) To make alien; to deprive of the privileges of birth.

Disobedience (n.) Neglect or refusal to obey; violation of a command or prohibition.

Disobedient (a.) Neglecting or refusing to obey; omitting to do what is commanded, or doing what is prohibited; refractory; not observant of duty or rules prescribed by authority; -- applied to persons and acts.

Disorb (v. t.) To throw out of the proper orbit; to unsphere.

Dispassionate (a.) Not dictated by passion; not proceeding from temper or bias; impartial; as, dispassionate proceedings; a dispassionate view.

Dispensation (n.) The relaxation of a law in a particular case; permission to do something forbidden, or to omit doing something enjoined; specifically, in the Roman Catholic Church, exemption from some ecclesiastical law or obligation to God which a man has incurred of his own free will (oaths, vows, etc.).

Dispeople (v. t.) To deprive of inhabitants; to depopulate.

Dispersion (n.) The separation of light into its different colored rays, arising from their different refrangibilities.

Displant (v. t.) To remove (what is planted or fixed); to unsettle and take away; to displace; to root out; as, to displant inhabitants.

Displant (v. t.) To strip of what is planted or settled; as, to displant a country of inhabitants.

Display (v. t.) To spread before the view; to show; to exhibit to the sight, or to the mind; to make manifest.

Display (v. t.) To make an exhibition of; to set in view conspicuously or ostentatiously; to exhibit for the sake of publicity; to parade.

Display (n.) An opening or unfolding; exhibition; manifestation.

Display (n.) Ostentatious show; exhibition for effect; parade.

Displayed (a.) Unfolded; expanded; exhibited conspicuously or ostentatiously.

Displayed (a.) With wings expanded; -- said of a bird of pray, esp. an eagle.

Disqualification (n.) The act of disqualifying, or state of being disqualified; want of qualification; incompetency; disability; as, the disqualification of men for holding certain offices.

Disreputability (n.) The state of being disreputable.

Disrespectability (n.) Want of respectability.

Disrobing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Disrobe

Dissection (n.) Anything dissected; especially, some part, or the whole, of an animal or plant dissected so as to exhibit the structure; an anatomical so prepared.

Dissociability (n.) Want of sociability; unsociableness.

Dissolubility (n.) The quality of being dissoluble; capacity of being dissoluble; capacity of being dissolved by heat or moisture, and converted into a fluid.

Dissolubleness (n.) The quality of being dissoluble; dissolubility.

Dissolvability (n.) Capacity of being dissolved; solubility.

Dissonance (n.) A mingling of discordant sounds; an inharmonious combination of sounds; discord.

Dissyllabic (a.) Consisting of two syllables only; as, a dissyllabic foot in poetry.

Dissyllabification (n.) A forming into two syllables.

Dissyllabify (v. t.) To form into two syllables.

Dissyllabize (v. t.) To form into two syllables; to dissyllabify.

Distemper (v. t.) A morbid state of the animal system; indisposition; malady; disorder; -- at present chiefly applied to diseases of brutes; as, a distemper in dogs; the horse distemper; the horn distemper in cattle.

Distemper (v. t.) Morbid temper of the mind; undue predominance of a passion or appetite; mental derangement; bad temper; ill humor.

Distensibility (n.) The quality or capacity of being distensible.

Distillation (n.) The separation of the volatile parts of a substance from the more fixed; specifically, the operation of driving off gas or vapor from volatile liquids or solids, by heat in a retort or still, and the condensation of the products as far as possible by a cool receiver, alembic, or condenser; rectification; vaporization; condensation; as, the distillation of illuminating gas and coal, of alcohol from sour mash, or of boric acid in steam.

Distinguish (v. t.) Not set apart from others by visible marks; to make distinctive or discernible by exhibiting differences; to mark off by some characteristic.

Distrain (v. t.) To press heavily upon; to bear down upon with violence; hence, to constrain or compel; to bind; to distress, torment, or afflict.

Distributive (a.) Expressing separation; denoting a taking singly, not collectively; as, a distributive adjective or pronoun, such as each, either, every; a distributive numeral, as (Latin) bini (two by two).

Disturbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Disturb

Disturbation (n.) Act of disturbing; disturbance.

Disulphide (n.) A binary compound of sulphur containing two atoms of sulphur in each molecule; -- formerly called disulphuret. Cf. Bisulphide.

Dithyrambic (a.) Pertaining to, or resembling, a dithyramb; wild and boisterous.

Dithyrambic (n.) A dithyrambic poem; a dithyramb.

Ditokous (a.) Producing only two eggs for a clutch, as certain birds do.

Ditto (n.) The aforesaid thing; the same (as before). Often contracted to do., or to two "turned commas" ("), or small marks. Used in bills, books of account, tables of names, etc., to save repetition.

Diurnal (a.) Active by day; -- applied especially to the eagles and hawks among raptorial birds, and to butterflies (Diurna) among insects.

Diurnal (a.) A diurnal bird or insect.

Divalent (a.) Having two units of combining power; bivalent. Cf. Valence.

Divaricate (v. i.) To part into two branches; to become bifid; to fork.

Divarication (n.) An ambiguity of meaning; a disagreement of difference in opinion.

Diver (n.) Any bird of certain genera, as Urinator (formerly Colymbus), or the allied genus Colymbus, or Podiceps, remarkable for their agility in diving.

Diversifiability (n.) The quality or capacity of being diversifiable.

Divide (v. i.) To vote, as in the British Parliament, by the members separating themselves into two parties (as on opposite sides of the hall or in opposite lobbies), that is, the ayes dividing from the noes.

Divider (n.) An instrument for dividing lines, describing circles, etc., compasses. See Compasses.

Divisibility (n.) The quality of being divisible; the property of bodies by which their parts are capable of separation.

Do (v. t. / auxiliary) To cash or to advance money for, as a bill or note.

Dobbin (n.) An old jaded horse.

Dobbin (n.) Sea gravel mixed with sand.

Docibility (n.) Alt. of Docibleness

Docket (n.) A bill tied to goods, containing some direction, as the name of the owner, or the place to which they are to be sent; a label.

Dodecasyllabic (a.) Having twelve syllables.

Dodecatemory (n.) A tern applied to the twelve houses, or parts, of the zodiac of the primum mobile, to distinguish them from the twelve signs; also, any one of the twelve signs of the zodiac.

Dodge (v. t.) Fig.: To evade by craft; as, to dodge a question; to dodge responsibility.

Dodger (n.) A small handbill.

Dodo (n.) A large, extinct bird (Didus ineptus), formerly inhabiting the Island of Mauritius. It had short, half-fledged wings, like those of the ostrich, and a short neck and legs; -- called also dronte. It was related to the pigeons.

Doe (n.) A female deer or antelope; specifically, the female of the fallow deer, of which the male is called a buck. Also applied to the female of other animals, as the rabbit. See the Note under Buck.

Doghole (n.) A place fit only for dogs; a vile, mean habitation or apartment.

Dogma (n.) A doctrinal notion asserted without regard to evidence or truth; an arbitrary dictum.

Dolomite (n.) A mineral consisting of the carbonate of lime and magnesia in varying proportions. It occurs in distinct crystals, and in extensive beds as a compact limestone, often crystalline granular, either white or clouded. It includes much of the common white marble. Also called bitter spar.

Doloroso (a. & adv.) Plaintive; pathetic; -- used adverbially as a musical direction.

Domestic (a.) Living in or near the habitations of man; domesticated; tame as distinguished from wild; as, domestic animals.

Domesticate (a.) To make domestic; to habituate to home life; as, to domesticate one's self.

Domicile (v. t.) To establish in a fixed residence, or a residence that constitutes habitancy; to domiciliate.

Domiciliation (n.) The act of domiciliating; permanent residence; inhabitancy.

Domination (n.) The act of dominating; exercise of power in ruling; dominion; supremacy; authority; often, arbitrary or insolent sway.

Domineer (v. t.) To rule with insolence or arbitrary sway; to play the master; to be overbearing; to tyrannize; to bluster; to swell with conscious superiority or haughtiness; -- often with over; as, to domineer over dependents.

Dominican (n.) One of an order of mendicant monks founded by Dominic de Guzman, in 1215. A province of the order was established in England in 1221. The first foundation in the United States was made in 1807. The Master of the Sacred Palace at Rome is always a Dominican friar. The Dominicans are called also preaching friars, friars preachers, black friars (from their black cloak), brothers of St. Mary, and in France, Jacobins.

Do-nothingness (n.) Inactivity; habitual sloth; idleness.

Dorian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Doris in Greece.

Dotterel (v. i.) A European bird of the Plover family (Eudromias, / Charadrius, morinellus). It is tame and easily taken, and is popularly believed to imitate the movements of the fowler.

Double-dyed (a.) Dyed twice; thoroughly or intensely colored; hence; firmly fixed in opinions or habits; as, a double-dyed villain.

Double-headed (a.) Having two heads; bicipital.

Doubtful (a.) Characterized by ambiguity; dubious; as, a doubtful expression; a doubtful phrase.

Doubtfulness (n.) Uncertainty of meaning; ambiguity; indefiniteness.

Doughbird (n.) The Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis). See Curlew.

Doughfaceism (n.) The character of a doughface; truckling pliability.

Dove's-foot (n.) The columbine.

Dovetail (n.) A flaring tenon, or tongue (shaped like a bird's tail spread), and a mortise, or socket, into which it fits tightly, making an interlocking joint between two pieces which resists pulling a part in all directions except one.

Down (n.) The soft under feathers of birds. They have short stems with soft rachis and bards and long threadlike barbules, without hooklets.

Drabbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Drab

Drabbish (a.) Somewhat drab in color.

Drabbish (a.) Having the character of a drab or low wench.

Dradge (n.) Inferior ore, separated from the better by cobbing.

Draff (n.) An order from one person or party to another, directing the payment of money; a bill of exchange.

Drama (n.) A composition, in prose or poetry, accommodated to action, and intended to exhibit a picture of human life, or to depict a series of grave or humorous actions of more than ordinary interest, tending toward some striking result. It is commonly designed to be spoken and represented by actors on the stage.

Draw (v. t.) To write in due form; to prepare a draught of; as, to draw a memorial, a deed, or bill of exchange.

Drawee (n.) The person on whom an order or bill of exchange is drawn; -- the correlative of drawer.

Drawer (n.) One who draws a bill of exchange or order for payment; -- the correlative of drawee.

Drawnet (n.) A net for catching the larger sorts of birds; also, a dragnet.

Dreissena (n.) A genus of bivalve shells of which one species (D. polymorpha) is often so abundant as to be very troublesome in the fresh waters of Europe.

Dress (v. t.) To adjust; to put in good order; to arrange; specifically: (a) To prepare for use; to fit for any use; to render suitable for an intended purpose; to get ready; as, to dress a slain animal; to dress meat; to dress leather or cloth; to dress or trim a lamp; to dress a garden; to dress a horse, by currying and rubbing; to dress grain, by cleansing it; in mining and metallurgy, to dress ores, by sorting and separating them.

Dress (n.) That which is used as the covering or ornament of the body; clothes; garments; habit; apparel.

Dressing (n.) Dress; raiment; especially, ornamental habiliment or attire.

Dribbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Drib

Dribbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Dribble

Drift (n.) A drove or flock, as of cattle, sheep, birds.

Drill (n.) A marine gastropod, of several species, which kills oysters and other bivalves by drilling holes through the shell. The most destructive kind is Urosalpinx cinerea.

Drink (v. i.) To swallow anything liquid, for quenching thirst or other purpose; to imbibe; to receive or partake of, as if in satisfaction of thirst; as, to drink from a spring.

Drink (v. t.) To swallow (a liquid); to receive, as a fluid, into the stomach; to imbibe; as, to drink milk or water.

Drink (v. t.) To take in (a liquid), in any manner; to suck up; to absorb; to imbibe.

Drinking (n.) The act of one who drinks; the act of imbibing.

Droll (n.) Something exhibited to raise mirth or sport, as a puppet, a farce, and the like.

Drome (n.) The crab plover (Dromas ardeola), a peculiar North African bird, allied to the oyster catcher.

Dromedary (n.) The Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius), having one hump or protuberance on the back, in distinction from the Bactrian camel, which has two humps.

Drongo (n.) A passerine bird of the family Dicruridae. They are usually black with a deeply forked tail. They are natives of Asia, Africa, and Australia; -- called also drongo shrikes.

Droop (v. i.) To hang bending downward; to sink or hang down, as an animal, plant, etc., from physical inability or exhaustion, want of nourishment, or the like.

Drop (n.) To give birth to; as, to drop a lamb.

Dropper (n.) A dog which suddenly drops upon the ground when it sights game, -- formerly a common, and still an occasional, habit of the setter.

Drosera (n.) A genus of low perennial or biennial plants, the leaves of which are beset with gland-tipped bristles. See Sundew.

Drovy (a.) Turbid; muddy; filthy.

Drubbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Drub

Drumly (a.) Turbid; muddy.

Drumstick (n.) Anything resembling a drumstick in form, as the tibiotarsus, or second joint, of the leg of a fowl.

Drunkard (n.) One who habitually drinks strong liquors immoderately; one whose habit it is to get drunk; a toper; a sot.

Drunkenness (n.) The state of being drunken with, or as with, alcoholic liquor; intoxication; inebriety; -- used of the casual state or the habit.

Dry (superl.) Of certain morbid conditions, in which there is entire or comparative absence of moisture; as, dry gangrene; dry catarrh.

Dry (superl.) Exhibiting a sharp, frigid preciseness of execution, or the want of a delicate contour in form, and of easy transition in coloring.

Dry-rubbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Dry-rub

Dualism (n.) The doctrine that all mankind are divided by the arbitrary decree of God, and in his eternal foreknowledge, into two classes, the elect and the reprobate.

Dubbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Dub

Dubbing (n.) The act of dubbing, as a knight, etc.

Dubbing (n.) The act of rubbing, smoothing, or dressing; a dressing off smooth with an adz.

Dubbing (n.) A dressing of flour and water used by weavers; a mixture of oil and tallow for dressing leather; daubing.

Dubbing (n.) The body substance of an angler's fly.

Dubieties (pl. ) of Dubiety

Dubiety (n.) Doubtfulness; uncertainty; doubt.

Dubiosities (pl. ) of Dubiosity

Dubiosity (n.) The state of being doubtful; a doubtful statement or thing.

Dubious (a.) Doubtful or not settled in opinion; being in doubt; wavering or fluctuating; undetermined.

Dubious (a.) Occasioning doubt; not clear, or obvious; equivocal; questionable; doubtful; as, a dubious answer.

Dubious (a.) Of uncertain event or issue; as, in dubious battle.

Dubiously (adv.) In a dubious manner.

Dubiousness (n.) State of being dubious.

Dubitable (a.) Liable to be doubted; uncertain.

Dubitancy (n.) Doubt; uncertainty.

Dubitate (v. i.) To doubt.

Dubitation (n.) Act of doubting; doubt.

Dubitative (a.) Tending to doubt; doubtful.

Duck (v. t.) Any bird of the subfamily Anatinae, family Anatidae.

Duckbill (n.) See Duck mole, under Duck, n.

Duck-billed (a.) Having a bill like that of a duck.

Duck's-bill (a.) Having the form of a duck's bill.

Duebill (n.) A brief written acknowledgment of a debt, not made payable to order, like a promissory note.

Dugong (n.) An aquatic herbivorous mammal (Halicore dugong), of the order Sirenia, allied to the manatee, but with a bilobed tail. It inhabits the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, East Indies, and Australia.

Duke (n.) In England, one of the highest order of nobility after princes and princesses of the royal blood and the four archbishops of England and Ireland.

Dulcamarin (n.) A glucoside extracted from the bittersweet (Solanum Dulcamara), as a yellow amorphous substance. It probably occasions the compound taste. See Bittersweet, 3(a).

Dumbness (n.) The quality or state of being dumb; muteness; silence; inability to speak.

Dummy (n.) An imitation or copy of something, to be used as a substitute; a model; a lay figure; as, a figure on which clothing is exhibited in shop windows; a blank paper copy used to show the size of the future book, etc.

Dunbird (n.) The pochard; -- called also dunair, and dunker, or dun-curre.

Dunbird (n.) An American duck; the ruddy duck.

Dunlin (n.) A species of sandpiper (Tringa alpina); -- called also churr, dorbie, grass bird, and red-backed sandpiper. It is found both in Europe and America.

Duoliteral (a.) Consisting of two letters only; biliteral.

Durability (n.) The state or quality of being durable; the power of uninterrupted or long continuance in any condition; the power of resisting agents or influences which tend to cause changes, decay, or dissolution; lastingness.

Durableness (n.) Power of lasting, enduring, or resisting; durability.

Duress (n.) The state of compulsion or necessity in which a person is influenced, whether by the unlawful restrain of his liberty or by actual or threatened physical violence, to incur a civil liability or to commit an offense.

Dutch (a.) Pertaining to Holland, or to its inhabitants.

Dwell (v. i.) To abide; to remain; to continue.

Dwell (v. i.) To abide as a permanent resident, or for a time; to live in a place; to reside.

Dwell (v. t.) To inhabit.

Dweller (n.) An inhabitant; a resident; as, a cave dweller.

Dwelling (n.) Habitation; place or house in which a person lives; abode; domicile.

Dyad (n.) An element, atom, or radical having a valence or combining power of two.

Dyad (a.) Having a valence or combining power of two; capable of being substituted for, combined with, or replaced by, two atoms of hydrogen; as, oxygen and calcium are dyad elements. See Valence.

Dyaks (n. pl.) The aboriginal and most numerous inhabitants of Borneo. They are partially civilized, but retain many barbarous practices.

Dyscrasia (n.) An ill habit or state of the constitution; -- formerly regarded as dependent on a morbid condition of the blood and humors.

Dyslysin (n.) A resinous substance formed in the decomposition of cholic acid of bile; -- so called because it is difficult to solve.

Dysodile (n.) An impure earthy or coaly bitumen, which emits a highly fetid odor when burning.

Dysphoria (n.) Impatience under affliction; morbid restlessness; dissatisfaction; the fidgets.

Dzeron (n.) The Chinese yellow antelope (Procapra gutturosa), a remarkably swift-footed animal, inhabiting the deserts of Central Asia, Thibet, and China.

Eager (a.) Sharp; keen; bitter; severe.

Eagle (n.) Any large, rapacious bird of the Falcon family, esp. of the genera Aquila and Haliaeetus. The eagle is remarkable for strength, size, graceful figure, keenness of vision, and extraordinary flight. The most noted species are the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetus); the imperial eagle of Europe (A. mogilnik / imperialis); the American bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus); the European sea eagle (H. albicilla); and the great harpy eagle (Thrasaetus harpyia). The figure of the eagle, as the king of birds, is commonly used as an heraldic emblem, and also for standards and emblematic devices. See Bald eagle, Harpy, and Golden eagle.

Early (adv.) In advance of the usual or appointed time; in good season; prior in time; among or near the first; -- opposed to late; as, the early bird; an early spring; early fruit.

Earnest (n.) Something of value given by the buyer to the seller, by way of token or pledge, to bind the bargain and prove the sale.

Earth (n.) The globe or planet which we inhabit; the world, in distinction from the sun, moon, or stars. Also, this world as the dwelling place of mortals, in distinction from the dwelling place of spirits.

Earthling (n.) An inhabitant of the earth; a mortal.

Earthpea (n.) A species of pea (Amphicarpaea monoica). It is a climbing leguminous plant, with hairy underground pods.

Easel (n.) A frame (commonly) of wood serving to hold a canvas upright, or nearly upright, for the painter's convenience or for exhibition.

Easy (v. t.) Free from care, responsibility, discontent, and the like; not anxious; tranquil; as, an easy mind.

Eavesdropping (n.) The habit of lurking about dwelling houses, and other places where persons meet fro private intercourse, secretly listening to what is said, and then tattling it abroad. The offense is indictable at common law.

Ebbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Ebb

Ebionite (n.) One of a sect of heretics, in the first centuries of the church, whose doctrine was a mixture of Judaism and Christianity. They denied the divinity of Christ, regarding him as an inspired messenger, and rejected much of the New Testament.

Ebionitism (n.) The system or doctrine of the Ebionites.

Ebriosity (n.) Addiction to drink; habitual drunkenness.

Ecballium (n.) A genus of cucurbitaceous plants consisting of the single species Ecballium agreste (or Elaterium), the squirting cucumber. Its fruit, when ripe, bursts and violently ejects its seeds, together with a mucilaginous juice, from which elaterium, a powerful cathartic medicine, is prepared.

Eccaleobion (n.) A contrivance for hatching eggs by artificial heat.

Eccentric (a.) Deviating or departing from the center, or from the line of a circle; as, an eccentric or elliptical orbit; pertaining to deviation from the center or from true circular motion.

Eccentric (n.) In the Ptolemaic system, the supposed circular orbit of a planet about the earth, but with the earth not in its center.

Eccentric (n.) A circle described about the center of an elliptical orbit, with half the major axis for radius.

Eccentricity (n.) The ratio of the distance of the center of the orbit of a heavenly body from the center of the body round which it revolves to the semi-transverse axis of the orbit.

Echelon (n.) An arrangement of a body of troops when its divisions are drawn up in parallel lines each to the right or the left of the one in advance of it, like the steps of a ladder in position for climbing. Also used adjectively; as, echelon distance.

Economical (a.) Managing with frugality; guarding against waste or unnecessary expense; careful and frugal in management and in expenditure; -- said of character or habits.

Ecstasy (n.) A state which consists in total suspension of sensibility, of voluntary motion, and largely of mental power. The body is erect and inflexible; the pulsation and breathing are not affected.

Ecto- () A combining form signifying without, outside, external.

Ectobronchium (n.) One of the dorsal branches of the main bronchi in the lungs of birds.

Ectopia (n.) A morbid displacement of parts, especially such as is congenial; as, ectopia of the heart, or of the bladder.

Edder (n.) Flexible wood worked into the top of hedge stakes, to bind them together.

Edder (v. t.) To bind the top interweaving edder; as, to edder a hedge.

Edibility (n.) Suitableness for being eaten; edibleness.

Educability (n.) Capability of being educated.

Efface (v. t.) To cause to disappear (as anything impresses or inscribed upon a surface) by rubbing out, striking out, etc.; to erase; to render illegible or indiscernible; as, to efface the letters on a monument, or the inscription on a coin.

Effervesce (v. i.) To exhibit, in lively natural expression, feelings that can not be repressed or concealed; as, to effervesce with joy or merriment.

Effumability (n.) The capability of flying off in fumes or vapor.

Egre (a.) Sharp; bitter; acid; sour.

Egg (n.) The oval or roundish body laid by domestic poultry and other birds, tortoises, etc. It consists of a yolk, usually surrounded by the "white" or albumen, and inclosed in a shell or strong membrane.

Egg-bird (n.) A species of tern, esp. the sooty tern (Sterna fuliginosa) of the West Indies. In the Bahama Islands the name is applied to the tropic bird, Phaethon flavirostris.

Eggery (n.) A place where eggs are deposited (as by sea birds) or kept; a nest of eggs.

Eglantine (n.) The sweetbrier (R. rubiginosa).

Egoism (n.) Excessive love and thought of self; the habit of regarding one's self as the center of every interest; selfishness; -- opposed to altruism.

Eider (n.) Any species of sea duck of the genus Somateria, esp. Somateria mollissima, which breeds in the northern parts of Europe and America, and lines its nest with fine down (taken from its own body) which is an article of commerce; -- called also eider duck. The American eider (S. Dresseri), the king eider (S. spectabilis), and the spectacled eider (Arctonetta Fischeri) are related species.

E-la (n.) Originally, the highest note in the scale of Guido; hence, proverbially, any extravagant saying.

Elasipoda (n. pl.) An order of holothurians mostly found in the deep sea. They are remarkable for their bilateral symmetry and curious forms.

Elater (n.) Any beetle of the family Elateridae, having the habit, when laid on the back, of giving a sudden upward spring, by a quick movement of the articulation between the abdomen and thorax; -- called also click beetle, spring beetle, and snapping beetle.

Elater (n.) The active principle of elaterium, being found in the juice of the wild or squirting cucumber (Ecballium agreste, formerly Motordica Elaterium) and other related species. It is extracted as a bitter, white, crystalline substance, which is a violent purgative.

Elaterite (n.) A mineral resin, of a blackish brown color, occurring in soft, flexible masses; -- called also mineral caoutchouc, and elastic bitumen.

Elayl (n.) Olefiant gas or ethylene; -- so called by Berzelius from its forming an oil combining with chlorine. [Written also elayle.] See Ethylene.

Elcaja (n.) An Arabian tree (Trichilia emetica). The fruit, which is emetic, is sometimes employed in the composition of an ointment for the cure of the itch.

Elect (a.) Chosen to an office, but not yet actually inducted into it; as, bishop elect; governor or mayor elect.

Electricity (n.) A power in nature, a manifestation of energy, exhibiting itself when in disturbed equilibrium or in activity by a circuit movement, the fact of direction in which involves polarity, or opposition of properties in opposite directions; also, by attraction for many substances, by a law involving attraction between surfaces of unlike polarity, and repulsion between those of like; by exhibiting accumulated polar tension when the circuit is broken; and by producing heat, light, concussion, and often chemical changes when the circuit passes between the poles or through any imperfectly conducting substance or space. It is generally brought into action by any disturbance of molecular equilibrium, whether from a chemical, physical, or mechanical, cause.

Electro- () A prefix or combining form signifying pertaining to electricity, produced by electricity, producing or employing electricity, etc.; as, electro-negative; electro-dynamic; electro-magnet.

Electro-biologist (n.) One versed in electro-biology.

Electro-biology (n.) That branch of biology which treats of the electrical phenomena of living organisms.

Electro-biology (n.) That phase of mesmerism or animal magnetism, the phenomena of which are supposed to be produced by a form of electricity.

Electro-bioscopy (n.) A method of determining the presence or absence of life in an animal organism with a current of electricity, by noting the presence or absence of muscular contraction.

Electro-muscular (a.) Pertaining the reaction (contraction) of the muscles under electricity, or their sensibility to it.

Element (n.) One of the ultimate parts which are variously combined in anything; as, letters are the elements of written language; hence, also, a simple portion of that which is complex, as a shaft, lever, wheel, or any simple part in a machine; one of the essential ingredients of any mixture; a constituent part; as, quartz, feldspar, and mica are the elements of granite.

Element (n.) One out of several parts combined in a system of aggregation, when each is of the nature of the whole; as, a single cell is an element of the honeycomb.

Element (n.) One of the necessary data or values upon which a system of calculations depends, or general conclusions are based; as, the elements of a planet's orbit.

Eligibility (n.) The quality of being eligible; eligibleness; as, the eligibility of a candidate; the eligibility of an offer of marriage.

Ellipse (n.) The elliptical orbit of a planet.

Ellipsograph (n.) An instrument for describing ellipses; -- called also trammel.

Elongate (v. i.) To depart to, or be at, a distance; esp., to recede apparently from the sun, as a planet in its orbit.

Elopement (n.) The act of eloping; secret departure; -- said of a woman and a man, one or both, who run away from their homes for marriage or for cohabitation.

Embale (v. t.) To bind up; to inclose.

Embar (v. t.) To stop; to hinder by prohibition; to block up.

Embargo (n.) An edict or order of the government prohibiting the departure of ships of commerce from some or all of the ports within its dominions; a prohibition to sail.

Embargo (v. t.) To lay an embargo on and thus detain; to prohibit from leaving port; -- said of ships, also of commerce and goods.

Embillow (v. i.) To swell or heave like a ///// of the sea.

Embiotocoid (a.) Belonging to, or resembling, the Embiotocidae.

Embiotocoid (n.) One of a family of fishes (Embiotocidae) abundant on the coast of California, remarkable for being viviparous; -- also called surf fishes and viviparous fishes. See Illust. in Append.

Embitter (v. t.) To make bitter or sad. See Imbitter.

Embitterment (n.) The act of embittering; also, that which embitters.

Embolus (n.) A plug of some substance lodged in a blood vessel, being brought thither by the blood current. It consists most frequently of a clot of fibrin, a detached shred of a morbid growth, a globule of fat, or a microscopic organism.

Embossment (n.) A bosslike prominence; figure in relief; raised work; jut; protuberance; esp., a combination of raised surfaces having a decorative effect.

Embrocation (n.) The act of moistening and rubbing a diseased part with spirit, oil, etc.

Emergency (n.) An unforeseen occurrence or combination of circumstances which calls for immediate action or remedy; pressing necessity; exigency.

Emetine (n.) A white crystalline bitter alkaloid extracted from ipecacuanha root, and regarded as its peculiar emetic principle.

Eminent (a.) Being, metaphorically, above others, whether by birth, high station, merit, or virtue; high in public estimation; distinguished; conspicuous; as, an eminent station; an eminent historian, statements, statesman, or saint.

Emeer (n.) An Arabian military commander, independent chieftain, or ruler of a province; also, an honorary title given to the descendants of Mohammed, in the line of his daughter Fatima; among the Turks, likewise, a title of dignity, given to certain high officials.

Emit (v. t.) To issue forth, as an order or decree; to print and send into circulation, as notes or bills of credit.

Emollescence (n.) That degree of softness in a body beginning to melt which alters its shape; the first or lowest degree of fusibility.

Emotiveness (n.) Susceptibility to emotion.

Empeople (v. t.) To form into a people or community; to inhabit; to people.

Emplecton (n.) A kind of masonry in which the outer faces of the wall are ashlar, the space between being filled with broken stone and mortar. Cross layers of stone are interlaid as binders.

Empower (v. t.) To give moral or physical power, faculties, or abilities to.

Emptiness (n.) Want of solidity or substance; unsatisfactoriness; inability to satisfy desire; vacuity; hollowness; the emptiness of earthly glory.

Emu (n.) A large Australian bird, of two species (Dromaius Novae-Hollandiae and D. irroratus), related to the cassowary and the ostrich. The emu runs swiftly, but is unable to fly.

Emulate (a.) Striving to excel; ambitious; emulous.

Emulgent (n.) A medicine that excites the flow of bile.

Emulous (a.) Ambitiously desirous to equal or even to excel another; eager to emulate or vie with another; desirous of like excellence with another; -- with of; as, emulous of another's example or virtues.

Emulsin (n.) The white milky pulp or extract of bitter almonds.

Emu wren () A small wrenlike Australian bird (Stipiturus malachurus), having the tail feathers long and loosely barbed, like emu feathers.

Enable (v. t.) To give strength or ability to; to make firm and strong.

Enablement (n.) The act of enabling, or the state of being enabled; ability.

Enact (v. t.) To decree; to establish by legal and authoritative act; to make into a law; especially, to perform the legislative act with reference to (a bill) which gives it the validity of law.

Enactment (n.) The passing of a bill into a law; the giving of legislative sanction and executive approval to a bill whereby it is established as a law.

Enactment (n.) That which is enacted or passed into a law; a law; a decree; a statute; a prescribed requirement; as, a prohibitory enactment; a social enactment.

Enargite (n.) An iron-black mineral of metallic luster, occurring in small orthorhombic crystals, also massive. It contains sulphur, arsenic, copper, and often silver.

Enbibe (v. t.) To imbibe.

Encamp (v. i.) To form and occupy a camp; to prepare and settle in temporary habitations, as tents or huts; to halt on a march, pitch tents, or form huts, and remain for the night or for a longer time, as an army or a company traveling.

Encamp (v. t.) To form into a camp; to place in a temporary habitation, or quarters.

Enchain (v. t.) To bind with a chain; to hold in chains.

Encyclical (a.) Sent to many persons or places; intended for many, or for a whole order of men; general; circular; as, an encyclical letter of a council, of a bishop, or the pope.

Endaspidean (a.) Having the anterior scutes extending around the tarsus on the inner side; -- said of certain birds.

Endeictic (a.) Serving to show or exhibit; as, an endeictic dialogue, in the Platonic philosophy, is one which exhibits a specimen of skill.

End- () A combining form signifying within; as, endocarp, endogen, endocuneiform, endaspidean.

Energetical (a.) Exhibiting energy; operating with force, vigor, and effect; forcible; powerful; efficacious; as, energetic measures; energetic laws.

Enfeeble (v. t.) To make feeble; to deprive of strength; to reduce the strength or force of; to weaken; to debilitate.

Enfetter (v. t.) To bind in fetters; to enchain.

Enfranchise (v. t.) To set free; to liberate from slavery, prison, or any binding power.

Engage (v. t.) To put under pledge; to pledge; to place under obligations to do or forbear doing something, as by a pledge, oath, or promise; to bind by contract or promise.

Engine (n.) (Pronounced, in this sense, ////.) Natural capacity; ability; skill.

Engineer (v. t.) To use contrivance and effort for; to guide the course of; to manage; as, to engineer a bill through Congress.

English (a.) Of or pertaining to England, or to its inhabitants, or to the present so-called Anglo-Saxon race.

Englishman (n.) A native or a naturalized inhabitant of England.

Engrossment (n.) That which has been engrossed, as an instrument, legislative bill, goods, etc.

Enharbor (v. t.) To find harbor or safety in; to dwell in or inhabit.

Enjoin (v. t.) To prohibit or restrain by a judicial order or decree; to put an injunction on.

Enlace (v. t.) To bind or encircle with lace, or as with lace; to lace; to encircle; to enfold; hence, to entangle.

Enlist (v. i.) To enroll and bind one's self for military or naval service; as, he enlisted in the regular army; the men enlisted for the war.

Ennoble (v. t.) To raise to the rank of nobility; as, to ennoble a commoner.

Ennoblement (n.) The act of making noble, or of exalting, dignifying, or advancing to nobility.

Enough (n.) A sufficiency; a quantity which satisfies desire, is adequate to the want, or is equal to the power or ability; as, he had enough to do take care of himself.

Enstatite (n.) A mineral of the pyroxene group, orthorhombic in crystallization; often fibrous and massive; color grayish white or greenish. It is a silicate of magnesia with some iron. Bronzite is a ferriferous variety.

Entheic (a.) Caused by a morbifie virus implanted in the system; as, an enthetic disease like syphilis.

Enthrone (v. t.) To induct, as a bishop, into the powers and privileges of a vacant see.

Enthronization (n.) The act of enthroning; hence, the admission of a bishop to his stall or throne in his cathedral.

Enthronize (v. t.) To place on a throne; hence, to induct into office, as a bishop.

Entire (n.) A name originally given to a kind of beer combining qualities of different kinds of beer.

Ento- () A combining form signifying within; as, entoblast.

Entobronchium (n.) One of the main bronchi in the lungs of birds.

Entombing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Entomb

Entombment (n.) The act of entombing or burying, or state of being entombed; burial.

Entry (n.) The exhibition or depositing of a ship's papers at the customhouse, to procure license to land goods; or the giving an account of a ship's cargo to the officer of the customs, and obtaining his permission to land the goods. See Enter, v. t., 8, and Entrance, n., 5.

Enubilate (v. t.) To clear from mist, clouds, or obscurity.

Enubilous (a.) Free from fog, mist, or clouds; clear.

Envelop (n.) A set of limits for the performance capabilities of some type of machine, originally used to refer to aircraft. Now also used metaphorically to refer to capabilities of any system in general, including human organizations, esp. in the phrase push the envelope. It is used to refer to the maximum performance available at the current state of the technology, and therefore refers to a class of machines in general, not a specific machine.

Envenom (v. t.) To taint or impregnate with bitterness, malice, or hatred; to imbue as with venom; to imbitter.

Envious (a.) Feeling or exhibiting envy; actuated or directed by, or proceeding from, envy; -- said of a person, disposition, feeling, act, etc.; jealously pained by the excellence or good fortune of another; maliciously grudging; -- followed by of, at, and against; as, an envious man, disposition, attack; envious tongues.

Enwombing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Enwomb

Epaulement (n.) A side work, made of gabions, fascines, or bags, filled with earth, or of earth heaped up, to afford cover from the flanking fire of an enemy.

Ephod (n.) A part of the sacerdotal habit among Jews, being a covering for the back and breast, held together on the shoulders by two clasps or brooches of onyx stones set in gold, and fastened by a girdle of the same stuff as the ephod. The ephod for the priests was of plain linen; that for the high priest was richly embroidered in colors. The breastplate of the high priest was worn upon the ephod in front.

Ephyra (n.) A stage in the development of discophorous medusae, when they first begin to swim about after being detached from the strobila. See Strobila.

Epicleidium (n.) A projection, formed by a separate ossification, at the scapular end of the clavicle of many birds.

Epicurism (n.) Epicurean habits of living; luxury.

Epideictic (a.) Serving to show forth, explain, or exhibit; -- applied by the Greeks to a kind of oratory, which, by full amplification, seeks to persuade.

Epignathous (a.) Hook-billed; having the upper mandible longer than the lower.

Epimachus (n.) A genus of highly ornate and brilliantly colored birds of Australia, allied to the birds of Paradise.

Epineurium (n.) The connective tissue framework and sheath of a nerve which bind together the nerve bundles, each of which has its own special sheath, or perineurium.

Epiornis (n.) One of the gigantic ostrichlike birds of the genus Aepiornis, only recently extinct. Its remains have been found in Madagascar.

Epipodiale (n.) One of the bones of either the forearm or shank, the epipodialia being the radius, ulna, tibia, and fibula.

Epipubic (a.) Relating to the epipubis.

Epipubes (pl. ) of Epipubis

Epipubis (n.) A cartilage or bone in front of the pubis in some amphibians and other animals.

Episcopacy (n.) Government of the church by bishops; church government by three distinct orders of ministers -- bishops, priests, and deacons -- of whom the bishops have an authority superior and of a different kind.

Episcopal (a.) Governed by bishops; as, an episcopal church.

Episcopal (a.) Belonging to, or vested in, bishops; as, episcopal jurisdiction or authority; the episcopal system.

Episcopalian (a.) Pertaining to bishops, or government by bishops; episcopal; specifically, of or relating to the Protestant Episcopal Church.

Episcopant (n.) A bishop.

Episcopate (n.) A bishopric; the office and dignity of a bishop.

Episcopate (n.) The collective body of bishops.

Episcopate (n.) The time of a bishop's rule.

Episcopate (v. i.) To act as a bishop; to fill the office of a prelate.

Episcopicide (n.) The killing of a bishop.

Episcopize (v. t.) To make a bishop of by consecration.

Episcopize (v. i.) To perform the duties of a bishop.

Epistilbite (n.) A crystallized, transparent mineral of the Zeolite family. It is a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime.

Epitaph (n.) A brief writing formed as if to be inscribed on a monument, as that concerning Alexander: "Sufficit huic tumulus, cui non sufficeret orbis."

Epithema (n.) A horny excrescence upon the beak of birds.

Epoch (n.) A fixed point of time, established in history by the occurrence of some grand or remarkable event; a point of time marked by an event of great subsequent influence; as, the epoch of the creation; the birth of Christ was the epoch which gave rise to the Christian era.

Epoch (n.) An arbitrary fixed date, for which the elements used in computing the place of a planet, or other heavenly body, at any other date, are given; as, the epoch of Mars; lunar elements for the epoch March 1st, 1860.

Equability (n.) The quality or condition of being equable; evenness or uniformity; as, equability of temperature; the equability of the mind.

Equal (a.) Bearing a suitable relation; of just proportion; having competent power, abilities, or means; adequate; as, he is not equal to the task.

Equal (a.) Evenly balanced; not unduly inclining to either side; characterized by fairness; unbiased; impartial; equitable; just.

Equation (n.) An expression of the condition of equality between two algebraic quantities or sets of quantities, the sign = being placed between them; as, a binomial equation; a quadratic equation; an algebraic equation; a transcendental equation; an exponential equation; a logarithmic equation; a differential equation, etc.

Equipage (n.) Furniture or outfit, whether useful or ornamental; especially, the furniture and supplies of a vessel, fitting her for a voyage or for warlike purposes, or the furniture and necessaries of an army, a body of troops, or a single soldier, including whatever is necessary for efficient service; equipments; accouterments; habiliments; attire.

Equitable (a.) Possessing or exhibiting equity; according to natural right or natural justice; marked by a due consideration for what is fair, unbiased, or impartial; just; as an equitable decision; an equitable distribution of an estate; equitable men.

Equivalence (n.) The quantity of the combining power of an atom, expressed in hydrogen units; the number of hydrogen atoms can combine with, or be exchanged for; valency. See Valence.

Equivalence (n.) The degree of combining power as determined by relative weight. See Equivalent, n., 2.

Equivalent (n.) That comparative quantity by weight of an element which possesses the same chemical value as other elements, as determined by actual experiment and reference to the same standard. Specifically: (a) The comparative proportions by which one element replaces another in any particular compound; thus, as zinc replaces hydrogen in hydrochloric acid, their equivalents are 32.5 and 1. (b) The combining proportion by weight of a substance, or the number expressing this proportion, in any particular compound; as, the equivalents of hydrogen and oxygen in water are respectively 1 and 8, and in hydric dioxide 1 and 16.

Equivalent (n.) A combining unit, whether an atom, a radical, or a molecule; as, in acid salt two or more equivalents of acid unite with one or more equivalents of base.

Equivalved (a.) Having the valves equal in size and from, as in most bivalve shells.

Equivocal (a.) (Literally, called equally one thing or the other; hence:) Having two significations equally applicable; capable of double interpretation; of doubtful meaning; ambiguous; uncertain; as, equivocal words; an equivocal sentence.

Equivocal (n.) A word or expression capable of different meanings; an ambiguous term; an equivoque.

Equivocate (a.) To use words of equivocal or doubtful signification; to express one's opinions in terms which admit of different senses, with intent to deceive; to use ambiguous expressions with a view to mislead; as, to equivocate is the work of duplicity.

Equivocate (v. t.) To render equivocal or ambiguous.

Equivoke (n.) An ambiguous term; a word susceptible of different significations.

Erasement (n.) The act of erasing; a rubbing out; expunction; obliteration.

Erasion (n.) The act of erasing; a rubbing out; obliteration.

Erbium (n.) A rare metallic element associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden. Symbol Er. Atomic weight 165.9. Its salts are rose-colored and give characteristic spectra. Its sesquioxide is called erbia.

Erethism (n.) A morbid degree of excitement or irritation in an organ.

Ergot (n.) The mycelium or spawn of this fungus infecting grains of rye and wheat. It is a powerful remedial agent, and also a dangerous poison, and is used as a means of hastening childbirth, and to arrest bleeding.

Ergotine () A powerful astringent alkaloid extracted from ergot as a brown, amorphous, bitter substance. It is used to produce contraction of the uterus.

Ericius (n.) The Vulgate rendering of the Hebrew word qip/d, which in the "Authorized Version" is translated bittern, and in the Revised Version, porcupine.

Ericolin (n.) A glucoside found in the bearberry (and others of the Ericaceae), and extracted as a bitter, yellow, amorphous mass.

Eristalis (n.) A genus of dipterous insects whose young (called rat-tailed larvae) are remarkable for their long tapering tail, which spiracles at the tip, and for their ability to live in very impure and salt waters; -- also called drone fly.

Erne (n.) A sea eagle, esp. the European white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla).

Errableness (n.) Liability to error.

Ers (n.) The bitter vetch (Ervum Ervilia).

Erythematic (a.) Characterized by, or causing, a morbid redness of the skin; relating to erythema.

Erythrochroism (n.) An unusual redness, esp. in the plumage of birds, or hair of mammals, independently of age, sex, or season.

Erythrogen (n.) Carbon disulphide; -- so called from certain red compounds which it produces in combination with other substances.

Erythrogen (n.) A crystalline substance obtained from diseased bile, which becomes blood-red when acted on by nitric acid or ammonia.

Escalop (n.) A bivalve shell of the genus Pecten. See Scallop.

Escambio (n.) A license formerly required for the making over a bill of exchange to another over sea.

Eschynite (n.) A rare mineral, containing chiefly niobium, titanium, thorium, and cerium. It was so called by Berzelius on account of the inability of chemical science, at the time of its discovery, to separate some of its constituents.

Escopette (n.) A kind of firearm; a carbine.

Escutcheon (n.) The depression behind the beak of certain bivalves; the ligamental area.

Eskimo (n.) One of a peculiar race inhabiting Arctic America and Greenland. In many respects the Eskimos resemble the Mongolian race.

Essorant (a.) Standing, but with the wings spread, as if about to fly; -- said of a bird borne as a charge on an escutcheon.

Estate (n.) The great classes or orders of a community or state (as the clergy, the nobility, and the commonalty of England) or their representatives who administer the government; as, the estates of the realm (England), which are (1) the lords spiritual, (2) the lords temporal, (3) the commons.

Etch (v. t.) To subject to etching; to draw upon and bite with acid, as a plate of metal.

Etheostomoid (n.) Any fish of the genus Etheostoma and related genera, allied to the perches; -- also called darter. The etheostomoids are small and often bright-colored fishes inhabiting the fresh waters of North America. About seventy species are known. See Darter.

Ether (n.) A light, volatile, mobile, inflammable liquid, (C2H5)2O, of a characteristic aromatic odor, obtained by the distillation of alcohol with sulphuric acid, and hence called also sulphuric ether. It is powerful solvent of fats, resins, and pyroxylin, but finds its chief use as an anaesthetic. Called also ethyl oxide.

Etherization (n.) The administration of ether to produce insensibility.

Ethide (n.) Any compound of ethyl of a binary type; as, potassium ethide.

Ethiopian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Ethiopia; also, in a general sense, a negro or black man.

Ethmotrubinal (a.) See Turbinal.

Ethmotrubinal (n.) An ethmoturbinal bone.

Ethylamine (n.) A colorless, mobile, inflammable liquid, C2H5.NH2, very volatile and with an ammoniacal odor. It is a strong base, and is a derivative of ammonia. Called also ethyl carbamine, and amido ethane.

Ethylene (n.) A colorless, gaseous hydrocarbon, C2H4, forming an important ingredient of illuminating gas, and also obtained by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid in alcohol. It is an unsaturated compound and combines directly with chlorine and bromine to form oily liquids (Dutch liquid), -- hence called olefiant gas. Called also ethene, elayl, and formerly, bicarbureted hydrogen.

Etiolated (a.) Having a blanched or faded appearance, as birds inhabiting desert regions.

Etrurian (n.) A native or inhabitant of ancient Etruria.

Etruscan (n.) A native or inhabitant of Etruria.

Eugenic (a.) Well-born; of high birth.

Eugeny () Nobleness of birth.

Eugubian (a.) Alt. of Eugubine

Eugubine (a.) Of or pertaining to the ancient town of Eugubium (now Gubbio); as, the Eugubine tablets, or tables, or inscriptions.

Eulytite (n.) A mineral, consisting chiefly of the silicate of bismuth, found at Freiberg; -- called also culytine.

Eunomian (n.) A follower of Eunomius, bishop of Cyzicus (4th century A. D.), who held that Christ was not God but a created being, having a nature different from that of the Father.

Euornithes (n. pl.) The division of Aves which includes all the typical birds, or all living birds except the penguins and birds of ostrichlike form.

Eupatrid (n.) One well born, or of noble birth.

Euphemism (n.) A figure in which a harts or indelicate word or expression is softened; a way of describing an offensive thing by an inoffensive expression; a mild name for something disagreeable.

Euphoniad (n.) An instrument in which are combined the characteristic tones of the organ and various other instruments.

Euphonical (a.) Pertaining to, or exhibiting, euphony; agreeable in sound; pleasing to the ear; euphonious; as, a euphonic expression; euphonical orthography.

Euphonism (n.) An agreeable combination of sounds; euphony.

Euphorbia (n.) Spurge, or bastard spurge, a genus of plants of many species, mostly shrubby, herbaceous succulents, affording an acrid, milky juice. Some of them are armed with thorns. Most of them yield powerful emetic and cathartic products.

Euphorbiaceous (a.) Alt. of Euphorbial

Euphorbial (a.) Of, relating to, or resembling, the Euphorbia family.

Euphorbin Euphorbine (n.) A principle, or mixture of principles, derived from various species of Euphorbia.

Euphorbium (n.) An inodorous exudation, usually in the form of yellow tears, produced chiefly by the African Euphorbia resinifrea. It was formerly employed medicinally, but was found so violent in its effects that its use is nearly abandoned.

Eurasiatio (a.) Of or pertaining to the continents of Europe and Asia combined.

Eurhipidurous (a.) Having a fanlike tail; belonging to the Eurhipidurae, a division of Aves which includes all living birds.

European (a.) Of or pertaining to Europe, or to its inhabitants.

European (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Europe.

Europeanize (v. t.) To cause to become like the Europeans in manners or character; to habituate or accustom to European usages.

Eusebian (n.) A follower of Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, who was a friend and protector of Arius.

Euxanthin (n.) A yellow pigment imported from India and China. It has a strong odor, and is said to be obtained from the urine of herbivorous animals when fed on the mango. It consists if a magnesium salt of euxanthic acid. Called also puri, purree, and Indian yellow.

Euxenite (n.) A brownish black mineral with a metallic luster, found in Norway. It contains niobium, titanium, yttrium, and uranium, with some other metals.

Evectics (n.) The branch of medical science which teaches the method of acquiring a good habit of body.

Evection () An inequality of the moon's motion is its orbit to the attraction of the sun, by which the equation of the center is diminished at the syzygies, and increased at the quadratures by about 1¡ 20'.

Evenhanded (a.) Fair or impartial; unbiased.

Enerlasting (n.) A cloth fabic for shoes, etc. See Lasting.

Everywhereness (n.) Ubiquity; omnipresence.

Evil (a.) Having or exhibiting bad moral qualities; morally corrupt; wicked; wrong; vicious; as, evil conduct, thoughts, heart, words, and the like.

Evolutionist (n.) one who holds the doctrine of evolution, either in biology or in metaphysics.

Evolve (v. t.) To unfold or unroll; to open and expand; to disentangle and exhibit clearly and satisfactorily; to develop; to derive; to educe.

Exacerbate (v. t.) To render more violent or bitter; to irriate; to exasperate; to imbitter, as passions or disease.

Exacerbation (n.) The act rendering more violent or bitter; the state of being exacerbated or intensified in violence or malignity; as, exacerbation of passion.

Exact (a.) Habitually careful to agree with a standard, a rule, or a promise; accurate; methodical; punctual; as, a man exact in observing an appointment; in my doings I was exact.

Exasperate (a.) Exasperated; imbittered.

Exasperate (v. t.) To make grievous, or more grievous or malignant; to aggravate; to imbitter; as, to exasperate enmity.

Exasperation (n.) The act of exasperating or the state of being exasperated; irritation; keen or bitter anger.

Exaspidean (a.) Having the anterior scute/ extending around the tarsus on the outer side, leaving the inner side naked; -- said of certain birds.

Excamb (v. t.) Alt. of Excambie

Excambie (v. t.) To exchange; -- used with reference to transfers of land.

Excambion (n.) Alt. of Excambium

Excambium (n.) Exchange; barter; -- used commonly of lands.

Excessive (a.) Characterized by, or exhibiting, excess; overmuch.

Exchange (n.) The process of setting accounts or debts between parties residing at a distance from each other, without the intervention of money, by exchanging orders or drafts, called bills of exchange. These may be drawn in one country and payable in another, in which case they are called foreign bills; or they may be drawn and made payable in the same country, in which case they are called inland bills. The term bill of exchange is often abbreviated into exchange; as, to buy or sell exchange.

Exchangeability (n.) The quality or state of being exchangeable.

Excitability (n.) The quality of being readily excited; proneness to be affected by exciting causes.

Excitability (n.) The property manifested by living organisms, and the elements and tissues of which they are constituted, of responding to the action of stimulants; irritability; as, nervous excitability.

Excite (v. t.) To call to activity in any way; to rouse to feeling; to kindle to passionate emotion; to stir up to combined or general activity; as, to excite a person, the spirits, the passions; to excite a mutiny or insurrection; to excite heat by friction.

Exclusion (n.) The act of excluding, or of shutting out, whether by thrusting out or by preventing admission; a debarring; rejection; prohibition; the state of being excluded.

Eccoriate (v. t.) To strip or wear off the skin of; to abrade; to gall; to break and remove the cuticle of, in any manner, as by rubbing, beating, or by the action of acrid substances.

Excrescence (n.) An excrescent appendage, as, a wart or tumor; anything growing out unnaturally from anything else; a preternatural or morbid development; hence, a troublesome superfluity; an incumbrance; as, an excrescence on the body, or on a plant.

Excrescent (a.) Growing out in an abnormal or morbid manner or as a superfluity.

Excubitorium (n.) A gallery in a church, where persons watched all night.

Exeat (n.) A permission which a bishop grants to a priest to go out of his diocese.

Exempt (a.) Free, or released, from some liability to which others are subject; excepted from the operation or burden of some law; released; free; clear; privileged; -- (with from): not subject to; not liable to; as, goods exempt from execution; a person exempt from jury service.

Exempt (a.) To release or deliver from some liability which others are subject to; to except or excuse from he operation of a law; to grant immunity to; to free from obligation; to release; as, to exempt from military duty, or from jury service; to exempt from fear or pain.

Exercise (n.) The act of exercising; a setting in action or practicing; employment in the proper mode of activity; exertion; application; use; habitual activity; occupation, in general; practice.

Exercise (v. t.) To set in action; to cause to act, move, or make exertion; to give employment to; to put in action habitually or constantly; to school or train; to exert repeatedly; to busy.

Exert (v. t.) To put force, ability, or anything of the nature of an active faculty; to put in vigorous action; to bring into active operation; as, to exert the strength of the body, limbs, faculties, or imagination; to exert the mind or the voice.

Exhaustibility (n.) Capability of being exhausted.

Exhaustive (a.) Serving or tending to exhaust; exhibiting all the facts or arguments; as, an exhaustive method.

Exhibited (imp. & p. p.) of Exhibit

Exhibiting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Exhibit

Exhibit (v. t.) To hold forth or present to view; to produce publicly, for inspection; to show, especially in order to attract notice to what is interesting; to display; as, to exhibit commodities in a warehouse, a picture in a gallery.

Exhibit (v. t.) To submit, as a document, to a court or officer, in course of proceedings; also, to present or offer officially or in legal form; to bring, as a charge.

Exhibit (v. t.) To administer as a remedy; as, to exhibit calomel.

Exhibit (n.) Any article, or collection of articles, displayed to view, as in an industrial exhibition; a display; as, this exhibit was marked A; the English exhibit.

Exhibit (n.) A document produced and identified in court for future use as evidence.

Exhibiter (n.) One who exhibits; one who presents a petition, charge or bill.

Exhibition (n.) The act of exhibiting for inspection, or of holding forth to view; manifestation; display.

Exhibition (n.) That which is exhibited, held forth, or displayed; also, any public show; a display of works of art, or of feats of skill, or of oratorical or dramatic ability; as, an exhibition of animals; an exhibition of pictures, statues, etc.; an industrial exhibition.

Exhibition (n.) Sustenance; maintenance; allowance, esp. for meat and drink; pension. Specifically: (Eng. Univ.) Private benefaction for the maintenance of scholars.

Exhibition (n.) The act of administering a remedy.

Exhibitioner (n.) One who has a pension or allowance granted for support.

Exhibitive (a.) Serving for exhibition; representative; exhibitory.

Exhibitor (n.) One who exhibits.

Exhibitory (a.) Exhibiting; publicly showing.

Exogamy (n.) The custom, or tribal law, which prohibits marriage between members of the same tribe; marriage outside of the tribe; -- opposed to endogamy.

Exon (n.) A native or inhabitant of Exeter, in England.

Exorbitance (n.) Alt. of Exorbitancy

Exorbitancy (n.) A going out of or beyond the usual or due limit; hence, enormity; extravagance; gross deviation from rule, right, or propriety; as, the exorbitances of the tongue or of deportment; exorbitance of demands.

Exorbitant (a.) Departing from an orbit or usual track; hence, deviating from the usual or due course; going beyond the appointed rules or established limits of right or propriety; excessive; extravagant; enormous; inordinate; as, exorbitant appetites and passions; exorbitant charges, demands, or claims.

Exorbitant (a.) Not comprehended in a settled rule or method; anomalous.

Exorbitantly (adv.) In an exorbitant, excessive, or irregular manner; enormously.

Exorbitate (v. i.) To go out of the track; to deviate.

Exostosis (n.) Any protuberance of a bone which is not natural; an excrescence or morbid enlargement of a bone.

Expansibility (n.) The capacity of being expanded; as, the expansibility of air.

Expatriate (v. t.) Reflexively, as To expatriate one's self: To withdraw from one's native country; to renounce the rights and liabilities of citizenship where one is born, and become a citizen of another country.

Expediency (n.) The quality of being expedient or advantageous; fitness or suitableness to effect a purpose intended; adaptedness to self-interest; desirableness; advantage; advisability; -- sometimes contradistinguished from moral rectitude.

Explicit (a.) Not implied merely, or conveyed by implication; distinctly stated; plain in language; open to the understanding; clear; not obscure or ambiguous; express; unequivocal; as, an explicit declaration.

Export (n.) The act of exporting; exportation; as, to prohibit the export of wheat or tobacco.

Exportability (n.) The quality or state of being suitable for exportation.

Expose (v. t.) To set forth; to set out to public view; to exhibit; to show; to display; as, to expose goods for sale; to expose pictures to public inspection.

Exposition (n.) Situation or position with reference to direction of view or accessibility to influence of sun, wind, etc.; exposure; as, an easterly exposition; an exposition to the sun.

Exposition (n.) A public exhibition or show, as of industrial and artistic productions; as, the Paris Exposition of 1878.

Exposure (n.) The state of being exposed or laid open or bare; openness to danger; accessibility to anything that may affect, especially detrimentally; as, exposure to observation, to cold, to inconvenience.

Express (a.) Directly and distinctly stated; declared in terms; not implied or left to inference; made unambiguous by intention and care; clear; not dubious; as, express consent; an express statement.

Express (a.) Intended for a particular purpose; relating to an express; sent on a particular errand; dispatched with special speed; as, an express messenger or train. Also used adverbially.

Express (a.) To give a true impression of; to represent and make known; to manifest plainly; to show in general; to exhibit, as an opinion or feeling, by a look, gesture, and esp. by language; to declare; to utter; to tell.

Extensibility (n.) The quality of being extensible; the capacity of being extended; as, the extensibility of a fiber, or of a plate of metal.

Extensibleness (n.) Extensibility.

Extermination (n.) The act of exterminating; total destruction; eradication; excision; as, the extermination of inhabitants or tribes, of error or vice, or of weeds from a field.

Extersion (n.) The act of wiping or rubbing out.

Extraction (n.) Derivation from a stock or family; lineage; descent; birth; the stock from which one has descended.

Exuviability (n.) Capability of shedding the skin periodically.

Eyas (n.) A nesting or unfledged bird; in falconry, a young hawk from the nest, not able to prey for itself.

Eye (n.) The organ of sight or vision. In man, and the vertebrates generally, it is properly the movable ball or globe in the orbit, but the term often includes the adjacent parts. In most invertebrates the years are immovable ocelli, or compound eyes made up of numerous ocelli. See Ocellus.

Eye (n.) The scar to which the adductor muscle is attached in oysters and other bivalve shells; also, the adductor muscle itself, esp. when used as food, as in the scallop.

Eyecup (n.) A small oval porcelain or glass cup, having a rim curved to fit the orbit of the eye. it is used in the application of liquid remedies to eyes; -- called also eyeglass.

Eyepiece (n.) The lens, or combination of lenses, at the eye end of a telescope or other optical instrument, through which the image formed by the mirror or object glass is viewed.

Eyestone (n.) A small, lenticular, calcareous body, esp. an operculum of a small marine shell of the family Turbinidae, used to remove a foreign substance from the eye. It is put into the inner corner of the eye under the lid, and allowed to work its way out at the outer corner, bringing with it the substance.

Eyry (n.) The nest of a bird of prey or other large bird that builds in a lofty place; aerie.

Fabian (a.) Of, pertaining to, or in the manner of, the Roman general, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus; cautious; dilatory; avoiding a decisive contest.

Face (n.) The exact amount expressed on a bill, note, bond, or other mercantile paper, without any addition for interest or reduction for discount.

Facies (n.) The general aspect or habit of a species, or group of species, esp. with reference to its adaptation to its environment.

Facies (n.) The face of a bird, or the front of the head, excluding the bill.

Facility (n.) Easiness of access; complaisance; affability.

Facing (n.) A powdered substance, as charcoal, bituminous coal, ect., applied to the face of a mold, or mixed with the sand that forms it, to give a fine smooth surface to the casting.

Faction (n.) A party, in political society, combined or acting in union, in opposition to the government, or state; -- usually applied to a minority, but it may be applied to a majority; a combination or clique of partisans of any kind, acting for their own interests, especially if greedy, clamorous, and reckless of the common good.

Facture (n.) An invoice or bill of parcels.

Faculty (n.) Ability to act or perform, whether inborn or cultivated; capacity for any natural function; especially, an original mental power or capacity for any of the well-known classes of mental activity; psychical or soul capacity; capacity for any of the leading kinds of soul activity, as knowledge, feeling, volition; intellectual endowment or gift; power; as, faculties of the mind or the soul.

Fagot (v. t.) To make a fagot of; to bind together in a fagot or bundle; also, to collect promiscuously.

Faint (superl.) Performed, done, or acted, in a weak or feeble manner; not exhibiting vigor, strength, or energy; slight; as, faint efforts; faint resistance.

Fair (superl.) Characterized by frankness, honesty, impartiality, or candor; open; upright; free from suspicion or bias; equitable; just; -- said of persons, character, or conduct; as, a fair man; fair dealing; a fair statement.

Fair (n.) A competitive exhibition of wares, farm products, etc., not primarily for purposes of sale; as, the Mechanics' fair; an agricultural fair.

Faith (n.) Credibility or truth.

Falcon (n.) One of a family (Falconidae) of raptorial birds, characterized by a short, hooked beak, strong claws, and powerful flight.

Falcon (n.) Any species of the genus Falco, distinguished by having a toothlike lobe on the upper mandible; especially, one of this genus trained to the pursuit of other birds, or game.

Falconer (n.) A person who breeds or trains hawks for taking birds or game; one who follows the sport of fowling with hawks.

Falconet (n.) One of a group of Australian birds of the genus Falcunculus, resembling shrikes and titmice.

Faldistory (n.) The throne or seat of a bishop within the chancel.

Faldstool (n.) A folding stool, or portable seat, made to fold up in the manner of a camo stool. It was formerly placed in the choir for a bishop, when he offciated in any but his own cathedral church.

Falk (n.) The razorbill.

Fall (n.) Lapse or declension from innocence or goodness. Specifically: The first apostasy; the act of our first parents in eating the forbidden fruit; also, the apostasy of the rebellious angels.

Fallibility (n.) The state of being fallible; liability to deceive or to be deceived; as, the fallibity of an argument or of an adviser.

Familiar (a.) Characterized by, or exhibiting, the manner of an intimate friend; not formal; unconstrained; easy; accessible.

Familiarize (v. t.) To make familiar or intimate; to habituate; to accustom; to make well known by practice or converse; as, to familiarize one's self with scenes of distress.

Fancier (n.) One who fancies or has a special liking for, or interest in, a particular object or class or objects; hence, one who breeds and keeps for sale birds and animals; as, bird fancier, dog fancier, etc.

Fancy (n.) The faculty by which the mind forms an image or a representation of anything perceived before; the power of combining and modifying such objects into new pictures or images; the power of readily and happily creating and recalling such objects for the purpose of amusement, wit, or embellishment; imagination.

Fanon (n.) A term applied to various articles, as: (a) A peculiar striped scarf worn by the pope at mass, and by eastern bishops. (b) A maniple.

Fantail (n.) Any bird of the Australian genus Rhipidura, in which the tail is spread in the form of a fan during flight. They belong to the family of flycatchers.

Farewell (interj.) Go well; good-by; adieu; -- originally applied to a person departing, but by custom now applied both to those who depart and those who remain. It is often separated by the pronoun; as, fare you well; and is sometimes used as an expression of separation only; as, farewell the year; farewell, ye sweet groves; that is, I bid you farewell.

Faroese (n. sing. & pl.) An inhabitant, or, collectively, inhabitants, of the Faroe islands.

Fasciation (n.) The act or manner of binding up; bandage; also, the condition of being fasciated.

Fastening (n.) Anything that binds and makes fast, as a lock, catch, bolt, bar, buckle, etc.

Fat (superl.) Exhibiting the qualities of a fat animal; coarse; heavy; gross; dull; stupid.

Fauvette (n.) A small singing bird, as the nightingale and warblers.

Favor (n.) Partiality; bias.

Favor (n.) To regard with kindness; to support; to aid, or to have the disposition to aid, or to wish success to; to be propitious to; to countenance; to treat with consideration or tenderness; to show partiality or unfair bias towards.

Feasibilities (pl. ) of Feasibility

Feasibility (n.) The quality of being feasible; practicability; also, that which is feasible; as, before we adopt a plan, let us consider its feasibility.

Feather (n.) One of the peculiar dermal appendages, of several kinds, belonging to birds, as contour feathers, quills, and down.

Feather (n.) Kind; nature; species; -- from the proverbial phrase, "Birds of a feather," that is, of the same species.

Feather (v. i.) To grow or form feathers; to become feathered; -- often with out; as, the birds are feathering out.

Feathered (a.) Having a fringe of feathers, as the legs of certian birds; or of hairs, as the legs of a setter dog.

February (n.) The second month in the year, said to have been introduced into the Roman calendar by Numa. In common years this month contains twenty-eight days; in the bissextile, or leap year, it has twenty-nine days.

Feculent (a.) Foul with extraneous or impure substances; abounding with sediment or excrementitious matter; muddy; thick; turbid.

Feeble (superl.) Deficient in physical strength; weak; infirm; debilitated.

Feebleness (n.) The quality or condition of being feeble; debility; infirmity.

Feel (v. i.) To have the sensibilities moved or affected.

Feel (v. i.) To be conscious of an inward impression, state of mind, persuasion, physical condition, etc.; to perceive one's self to be; -- followed by an adjective describing the state, etc.; as, to feel assured, grieved, persuaded.

Feel (v. i.) To appear to the touch; to give a perception; to produce an impression by the nerves of sensation; -- followed by an adjective describing the kind of sensation.

Feeling (a.) Possessing great sensibility; easily affected or moved; as, a feeling heart.

Feeling (a.) Expressive of great sensibility; attended by, or evincing, sensibility; as, he made a feeling representation of his wrongs.

Feeling (n.) The sense by which the mind, through certain nerves of the body, perceives external objects, or certain states of the body itself; that one of the five senses which resides in the general nerves of sensation distributed over the body, especially in its surface; the sense of touch; nervous sensibility to external objects.

Feeling (n.) The capacity of the soul for emotional states; a high degree of susceptibility to emotions or states of the sensibility not dependent on the body; as, a man of feeling; a man destitute of feeling.

Feetless (a.) Destitute of feet; as, feetless birds.

Fellinic (a.) Of, relating to, or derived from, bile or gall; as, fellinic acid.

Felonwort (n.) The bittersweet nightshade (Solanum Dulcamara). See Bittersweet.

Female (a.) Belonging to the sex which conceives and gives birth to young, or (in a wider sense) which produces ova; not male.

Fenny (a.) Pertaining to, or inhabiting, a fen; abounding in fens; swampy; boggy.

Feral (a.) Wild; untamed; ferine; not domesticated; -- said of beasts, birds, and plants.

Feretory (n.) A portable bier or shrine, variously adorned, used for containing relics of saints.

Fergusonite (n.) A mineral of a brownish black color, essentially a tantalo-niobate of yttrium, erbium, and cerium; -- so called after Robert Ferguson.

Fermentability (n.) Capability of fermentation.

Ferrarese (n., sing. & pl.) A citizen of Ferrara; collectively, the inhabitants of Ferrara.

Ferret (n.) An animal of the Weasel family (Mustela / Putorius furo), about fourteen inches in length, of a pale yellow or white color, with red eyes. It is a native of Africa, but has been domesticated in Europe. Ferrets are used to drive rabbits and rats out of their holes.

Ferri- () A combining form indicating ferric iron as an ingredient; as, ferricyanide.

Ferro- () A prefix, or combining form, indicating ferrous iron as an ingredient; as, ferrocyanide.

Fetter (p. pr. & vb. n.) To put fetters upon; to shackle or confine the feet of with a chain; to bind.

Feud (n.) A combination of kindred to avenge injuries or affronts, done or offered to any of their blood, on the offender and all his race.

Fibbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Fib

Fibrinoplastin (n.) An albuminous substance, existing in the blood, which in combination with fibrinogen forms fibrin; -- called also paraglobulin.

Ficttelite (n.) A white crystallized mineral resin from the Fichtelgebirge, Bavaria.

Fickleness (n.) The quality of being fickle; instability; inconsonancy.

Fidalgo (n.) The lowest title of nobility in Portugal, corresponding to that of Hidalgo in Spain.

Fiddle (n.) A rack or frame of bars connected by strings, to keep table furniture in place on the cabin table in bad weather.

Fierasfer (n.) A genus of small, slender fishes, remarkable for their habit of living as commensals in other animals. One species inhabits the gill cavity of the pearl oyster near Panama; another lives within an East Indian holothurian.

Fieriness (n.) The quality of being fiery; heat; acrimony; irritability; as, a fieriness of temper.

Figeater (n.) A bird. See Figpecker.

Figurability (n.) The quality of being figurable.

Fijian (a.) Of or pertaining to the Fiji islands or their inhabitants.

Filander (n.) A species of kangaroo (Macropus Brunii), inhabiting New Guinea.

File (v. t.) To bring before a court or legislative body by presenting proper papers in a regular way; as, to file a petition or bill.

Fillet (v. t.) To bind, furnish, or adorn with a fillet.

Finale (n.) The closing part, piece, or scene in any public performance or exhibition.

Finch (n.) A small singing bird of many genera and species, belonging to the family Fringillidae.

Find (v. t.) To arrive at, as a conclusion; to determine as true; to establish; as, to find a verdict; to find a true bill (of indictment) against an accused person.

Finfoot (n.) A South American bird (heliornis fulica) allied to the grebes. The name is also applied to several related species of the genus Podica.

Fingrigo (n.) A prickly, climbing shrub of the genus Pisonia. The fruit is a kind of berry.

Finlander (n.) A native or inhabitant of Finland.

Finns (n. pl.) A branch of the Mongolian race, inhabiting Northern and Eastern Europe, including the Magyars, Bulgarians, Permians, Lapps, and Finlanders.

Finpike (n.) The bichir. See Crossopterygii.

Fippenny bit () The Spanish half real, or one sixteenth of a dollar, -- so called in Pennsylvania and the adjacent States.

Fir (n.) A genus (Abies) of coniferous trees, often of large size and elegant shape, some of them valued for their timber and others for their resin. The species are distinguished as the balsam fir, the silver fir, the red fir, etc. The Scotch fir is a Pinus.

Fireback (n.) One of several species of pheasants of the genus Euplocamus, having the lower back a bright, fiery red. They inhabit Southern Asia and the East Indies.

Firebird (n.) The Baltimore oriole.

Firefish (n.) A singular marine fish of the genus Pterois, family Scorpaenidae, of several species, inhabiting the Indo-Pacific region. They are usually red, and have very large spinose pectoral and dorsal fins.

Fireweed (n.) The great willow-herb (Epilobium spicatum).

Firework (n.) A device for producing a striking display of light, or a figure or figures in plain or colored fire, by the combustion of materials that burn in some peculiar manner, as gunpowder, sulphur, metallic filings, and various salts. The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube filled with the combustible material. A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety of figures in fire, often variously colored. The skyrocket is a common form of firework. The name is also given to various combustible preparations used in war.

Firework (n.) A pyrotechnic exhibition.

Firmitude (n.) Strength; stability.

Firmity (n.) Strength; firmness; stability.

First (n.) The upper part of a duet, trio, etc., either vocal or instrumental; -- so called because it generally expresses the air, and has a preeminence in the combined effect.

Fission (n.) A process by which certain coral polyps, echinoderms, annelids, etc., spontaneously subdivide, each individual thus forming two or more new ones. See Strobilation.

Fissirostral (a.) Having the bill cleft beyond the horny part, as in the case of swallows and goatsuckers.

Fissirostres (n. pl.) A group of birds having the bill deeply cleft.

Fist (n.) The talons of a bird of prey.

Fit (n.) A mood of any kind which masters or possesses one for a time; a temporary, absorbing affection; a paroxysm; as, a fit melancholy, of passion, or of laughter.

Fixedness (n.) The state or quality of being fixed; stability; steadfastness.

Flabbily (adv.) In a flabby manner.

Flabbiness (n.) Quality or state of being flabby.

Flabile (a.) Liable to be blown about.

Flacker (v. i.) To flutter, as a bird.

Flambeau (n.) A flaming torch, esp. one made by combining together a number of thick wicks invested with a quick-burning substance (anciently, perhaps, wax; in modern times, pitch or the like); hence, any torch.

Flamingo (n.) Any bird of the genus Phoenicopterus. The flamingoes have webbed feet, very long legs, and a beak bent down as if broken. Their color is usually red or pink. The American flamingo is P. ruber; the European is P. antiquorum.

Flammability (n.) The quality of being flammable; inflammability.

Flatbill (n.) Any bird of the genus Flatyrynchus. They belong to the family of flycatchers.

Flat foot () A foot in which the arch of the instep is flattened so that the entire sole of the foot rests upon the ground; also, the deformity, usually congential, exhibited by such a foot; splayfoot.

Flax (n.) The skin or fibrous part of the flax plant, when broken and cleaned by hatcheling or combing.

Flea (n.) An insect belonging to the genus Pulex, of the order Aphaniptera. Fleas are destitute of wings, but have the power of leaping energetically. The bite is poisonous to most persons. The human flea (Pulex irritans), abundant in Europe, is rare in America, where the dog flea (P. canis) takes its place. See Aphaniptera, and Dog flea. See Illustration in Appendix.

Flea-bite (n.) The bite of a flea, or the red spot caused by the bite.

Flea-bite (n.) A trifling wound or pain, like that of the bite of a flea.

Flea-bitten (a.) Bitten by a flea; as, a flea-bitten face.

Flea-bitten (a.) White, flecked with minute dots of bay or sorrel; -- said of the color of a horse.

Fledgeling (n.) A young bird just fledged.

Fleming (n.) A native or inhabitant of Flanders.

Flesh (n.) Animal food, in distinction from vegetable; meat; especially, the body of beasts and birds used as food, as distinguished from fish.

Flexibility (n.) The state or quality of being flexible; flexibleness; pliancy; pliability; as, the flexibility of strips of hemlock, hickory, whalebone or metal, or of rays of light.

Flexure (n.) The last joint, or bend, of the wing of a bird.

Flight (n.) Lofty elevation and excursion;a mounting; a soa/ing; as, a flight of imagination, ambition, folly.

Flight (n.) A number of beings or things passing through the air together; especially, a flock of birds flying in company; the birds that fly or migrate together; the birds produced in one season; as, a flight of arrows.

Flimsy (superl.) Weak; feeble; limp; slight; vain; without strength or solidity; of loose and unsubstantial structure; without reason or plausibility; as, a flimsy argument, excuse, objection.

Flit (v. i.) To move with celerity through the air; to fly away with a rapid motion; to dart along; to fleet; as, a bird flits away; a cloud flits along.

Flit (v. i.) To remove from one place or habitation to another.

Flitting (n.) A removal from one habitation to another.

Float (v. i.) The cork or quill used in angling, to support the bait line, and indicate the bite of a fish.

Flocculent (a.) Applied to the down of newly hatched or unfledged birds.

Floccus (n.) A tuft of feathers on the head of young birds.

Flock (n.) A company or collection of living creatures; -- especially applied to sheep and birds, rarely to persons or (except in the plural) to cattle and other large animals; as, a flock of ravenous fowl.

Floorer (n.) Anything that floors or upsets a person, as a blow that knocks him down; a conclusive answer or retort; a task that exceeds one's abilities.

Flop (v. t.) To clap or strike, as a bird its wings, a fish its tail, etc.; to flap.

Flop (v. i.) To strike about with something broad abd flat, as a fish with its tail, or a bird with its wings; to rise and fall; as, the brim of a hat flops.

Florentine (n.) A native or inhabitant of Florence, a city in Italy.

Flourish (n.) Something made or performed in a fanciful, wanton, or vaunting manner, by way of ostentation, to excite admiration, etc.; ostentatious embellishment; ambitious copiousness or amplification; parade of words and figures; show; as, a flourish of rhetoric or of wit.

Flower (n.) That part of a plant destined to produce seed, and hence including one or both of the sexual organs; an organ or combination of the organs of reproduction, whether inclosed by a circle of foliar parts or not. A complete flower consists of two essential parts, the stamens and the pistil, and two floral envelopes, the corolla and callyx. In mosses the flowers consist of a few special leaves surrounding or subtending organs called archegonia. See Blossom, and Corolla.

Flown () p. p. of Fly; -- often used with the auxiliary verb to be; as, the birds are flown.

Fluctuability (n.) The capacity or ability to fluctuate.

Fluency (n.) The quality of being fluent; smoothness; readiness of utterance; volubility.

Fluke (n.) An accidental and favorable stroke at billiards (called a scratch in the United States); hence, any accidental or unexpected advantage; as, he won by a fluke.

Fluo- () A combining form indicating fluorine as an ingredient; as in fluosilicate, fluobenzene.

Fluorated (a.) Combined with fluorine; subjected to the action of fluoride.

Fluorescence (n.) That property which some transparent bodies have of producing at their surface, or within their substance, light different in color from the mass of the material, as when green crystals of fluor spar afford blue reflections. It is due not to the difference in the color of a distinct surface layer, but to the power which the substance has of modifying the light incident upon it. The light emitted by fluorescent substances is in general of lower refrangibility than the incident light.

Fluoride (n.) A binary compound of fluorine with another element or radical.

Fluorine (n.) A non-metallic, gaseous element, strongly acid or negative, or associated with chlorine, bromine, and iodine, in the halogen group of which it is the first member. It always occurs combined, is very active chemically, and possesses such an avidity for most elements, and silicon especially, that it can neither be prepared nor kept in glass vessels. If set free it immediately attacks the containing material, so that it was not isolated until 1886. It is a pungent, corrosive, colorless gas. Symbol F. Atomic weight 19.

Fluoroscope (n.) An instrument for observing or exhibiting fluorescence.

Flush (v. i.) To start up suddenly; to take wing as a bird.

Flush (v. t.) To cause to start, as a hunter a bird.

Flush (n.) A flock of birds suddenly started up or flushed.

Flutter (v. t.) To vibrate or move quickly; as, a bird flutters its wings.

Flux (n.) A fluid discharge from the bowels or other part; especially, an excessive and morbid discharge; as, the bloody flux or dysentery. See Bloody flux.

Fluxibility (n.) The quality of being fluxible.

Fly (v. i.) To move in or pass thorugh the air with wings, as a bird.

Fly (v. t.) To cause to fly or to float in the air, as a bird, a kite, a flag, etc.

Fly (v. i.) The pair of arms revolving around the bobbin, in a spinning wheel or spinning frame, to twist the yarn.

Fly-bitten (a.) Marked by, or as if by, the bite of flies.

Flycatcher (n.) One of numerous species of birds that feed upon insects, which they take on the wing.

Fly-catching (a.) Having the habit of catching insects on the wing.

Flyer (n.) The pair of arms attached to the spindle of a spinning frame, over which the thread passes to the bobbin; -- so called from their swift revolution. See Fly, n., 11.

Foam (n.) To gather foam; to froth; as, the billows foam.

Fobbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Fob

Fog (n.) Watery vapor condensed in the lower part of the atmosphere and disturbing its transparency. It differs from cloud only in being near the ground, and from mist in not approaching so nearly to fine rain. See Cloud.

Fo'liolate (a.) Of or pertaining to leaflets; -- used in composition; as, bi-foliolate.

Fomes (n.) Any substance supposed to be capable of absorbing, retaining, and transporting contagious or infectious germs; as, woolen clothes are said to be active fomites.

Fontanel (n.) One of the membranous intervals between the incompleted angles of the parietal and neighboring bones of a fetal or young skull; -- so called because it exhibits a rhythmical pulsation.

Food (n.) Anything that instructs the intellect, excites the feelings, or molds habits of character; that which nourishes.

Foolish (a.) Marked with, or exhibiting, folly; void of understanding; weak in intellect; without judgment or discretion; silly; unwise.

Foolish (a.) Such as a fool would do; proceeding from weakness of mind or silliness; exhibiting a want of judgment or discretion; as, a foolish act.

Foot (n.) A combination of syllables consisting a metrical element of a verse, the syllables being formerly distinguished by their quantity or length, but in modern poetry by the accent.

Fop (n.) One whose ambition it is to gain admiration by showy dress; a coxcomb; an inferior dandy.

Forbade () imp. of Forbid.

Forbade (imp.) of Forbid

Forbidden (p. p.) of Forbid

Forbid () of Forbid

Forbidding (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Forbid

Forbid (v. t.) To command against, or contrary to; to prohibit; to interdict.

Forbid (v. t.) To deny, exclude from, or warn off, by express command; to command not to enter.

Forbid (v. t.) To oppose, hinder, or prevent, as if by an effectual command; as, an impassable river forbids the approach of the army.

Forbid (v. t.) To accurse; to blast.

Forbid (v. t.) To defy; to challenge.

Forbid (v. i.) To utter a prohibition; to prevent; to hinder.

Forbiddance (n.) The act of forbidding; prohibition; command or edict against a thing.

Forbidden (a.) Prohibited; interdicted.

Forbiddenly (adv.) In a forbidden or unlawful manner.

Forbidder (n.) One who forbids.

Forbidding (a.) Repelling approach; repulsive; raising abhorrence, aversion, or dislike; disagreeable; prohibiting or interdicting; as, a forbidding aspect; a forbidding formality; a forbidding air.

Forboden () p. p. of Forbid.

Force (n.) To put in force; to cause to be executed; to make binding; to enforce.

Forefend (v. t.) To hinder; to fend off; to avert; to prevent the approach of; to forbid or prohibit. See Forfend.

Foregut (n.) The anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the intestine, o/ to the entrance of the bile duct.

Forel (v. t.) To bind with a forel.

Foremilk (n.) The milk secreted just before, or directly after, the birth of a child or of the young of an animal; colostrum.

Forerun (v. t.) To come before as an earnest of something to follow; to introduce as a harbinger; to announce.

Forerunner (n.) A messenger sent before to give notice of the approach of others; a harbinger; a sign foreshowing something; a prognostic; as, the forerunner of a fever.

Foreshow (v. t.) To show or exhibit beforehand; to give foreknowledge of; to prognosticate; to foretell.

Forespurrer (n.) One who rides before; a harbinger.

Forester (n.) An inhabitant of a forest.

Forfend (v. t.) To prohibit; to forbid; to avert.

Forficate (a.) Deeply forked, as the tail of certain birds.

Forked (a.) Formed into a forklike shape; having a fork; dividing into two or more prongs or branches; furcated; bifurcated; zigzag; as, the forked lighting.

Forked (a.) Having a double meaning; ambiguous; equivocal.

Forktail (n.) One of several Asiatic and East Indian passerine birds, belonging to Enucurus, and allied genera. The tail is deeply forking.

Fork-tailed (a.) Having the outer tail feathers longer than the median ones; swallow-tailed; -- said of many birds.

Form (n.) The combination of planes included under a general crystallographic symbol. It is not necessarily a closed solid.

Formality (n.) An established order; conventional rule of procedure; usual method; habitual mode.

Formidability (n.) Formidableness.

Formula (n.) A rule or principle expressed in algebraic language; as, the binominal formula.

Formularistic (a.) Pertaining to, or exhibiting, formularization.

Formularization (n.) The act of formularizing; a formularized or formulated statement or exhibition.

Forsay (v. t.) To forbid; to renounce; to forsake; to deny.

Forspeak (v. t.) To forbid; to prohibit.

Fortune (n.) The arrival of something in a sudden or unexpected manner; chance; accident; luck; hap; also, the personified or deified power regarded as determining human success, apportioning happiness and unhappiness, and distributing arbitrarily or fortuitously the lots of life.

Forty-spot (n.) The Tasmanian forty-spotted diamond bird (Pardalotus quadragintus).

Fossa (n.) A pit, groove, cavity, or depression, of greater or less depth; as, the temporal fossa on the side of the skull; the nasal fossae containing the nostrils in most birds.

Foul (n.) A bird.

Fourchette (n.) A small fold of membrane, connecting the labia in the posterior part of the vulva.

Fourchette (n.) The wishbone or furculum of birds.

Four-o'clock (n.) A plant of the genus Mirabilis. There are about half a dozen species, natives of the warmer parts of America. The common four-o'clock is M. Jalapa. Its flowers are white, yellow, and red, and open toward sunset, or earlier in cloudy weather; hence the name. It is also called marvel of Peru, and afternoon lady.

Four-o'clock (n.) The friar bird; -- so called from its cry, which resembles these words.

Fourrier (n.) A harbinger.

Fowl (n.) Any bird; esp., any large edible bird.

Fowl (n.) Any domesticated bird used as food, as a hen, turkey, duck; in a more restricted sense, the common domestic cock or hen (Gallus domesticus).

Foxglove (n.) Any plant of the genus Digitalis. The common English foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) is a handsome perennial or biennial plant, whose leaves are used as a powerful medicine, both as a sedative and diuretic. See Digitalis.

Frabbit (a.) Crabbed; peevish.

Fragility (n.) The condition or quality of being fragile; brittleness; frangibility.

Fragility (n.) Liability to error and sin; frailty.

Franchise (a.) Magnanimity; generosity; liberality; frankness; nobility.

Franciscan (n.) A monk or friar of the Order of St. Francis, a large and zealous order of mendicant monks founded in 1209 by St. Francis of Assisi. They are called also Friars Minor; and in England, Gray Friars, because they wear a gray habit.

Frangibility (n.) The state or quality of being frangible.

Frank (a.) A native or inhabitant of Western Europe; a European; -- a term used in the Levant.

Frankincense (n.) A fragrant, aromatic resin, or gum resin, burned as an incense in religious rites or for medicinal fumigation. The best kinds now come from East Indian trees, of the genus Boswellia; a commoner sort, from the Norway spruce (Abies excelsa) and other coniferous trees. The frankincense of the ancient Jews is still unidentified.

Frap (v. t.) To draw together; to bind with a view to secure and strengthen, as a vessel by passing cables around it; to tighten; as a tackle by drawing the lines together.

Fray (v. t.) To rub; to wear off, or wear into shreds, by rubbing; to fret, as cloth; as, a deer is said to fray her head.

Fray (v. i.) To wear out or into shreads, or to suffer injury by rubbing, as when the threads of the warp or of the woof wear off so that the cross threads are loose; to ravel; as, the cloth frays badly.

Fray (n.) A fret or chafe, as in cloth; a place injured by rubbing.

Free (superl.) Not under an arbitrary or despotic government; subject only to fixed laws regularly and fairly administered, and defended by them from encroachments upon natural or acquired rights; enjoying political liberty.

Free (superl.) Not arbitrary or despotic; assuring liberty; defending individual rights against encroachment by any person or class; instituted by a free people; -- said of a government, institutions, etc.

Free (superl.) Not united or combined with anything else; separated; dissevered; unattached; at liberty to escape; as, free carbonic acid gas; free cells.

Freebooting (a.) Acting the freebooter; practicing freebootery; robbing.

Freethinking (a.) Exhibiting undue boldness of speculation; skeptical.

French (a.) Of or pertaining to France or its inhabitants.

Frequent (n.) Addicted to any course of conduct; inclined to indulge in any practice; habitual; persistent.

Frequent (a.) To visit often; to resort to often or habitually.

Frequentage (n.) The practice or habit of frequenting.

Frequentation (n.) The act or habit of frequenting or visiting often; resort.

Fret (n.) An ornament consisting of smmall fillets or slats intersecting each other or bent at right angles, as in classical designs, or at obilique angles, as often in Oriental art.

Friabiiity (n.) The quality of being friable; friableness.

Fricace (n.) An unguent; also, the act of rubbing with the unguent.

Ftiction (n.) The act of rubbing the surface of one body against that of another; attrition; in hygiene, the act of rubbing the body with the hand, with flannel, or with a brush etc., to excite the skin to healthy action.

Frigid (a.) Wanting warmth, fervor, ardor, fire, vivacity, etc.; unfeeling; forbidding in manner; dull and unanimated; stiff and formal; as, a frigid constitution; a frigid style; a frigid look or manner; frigid obedience or service.

Frill (v. i.) A ruffing of a bird's feathers from cold.

Fringilla (a.) A genus of birds, with a short, conical, pointed bill. It formerly included all the sparrows and finches, but is now restricted to certain European finches, like the chaffinch and brambling.

Frisian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Friesland; also, the language spoken in Friesland. See Friesic, n.

Frivolity (n.) The condition or quality of being frivolous; also, acts or habits of trifling; unbecoming levity of disposition.

Friz (v. t.) To soften and make of even thickness by rubbing, as with pumice stone or a blunt instrument.

Frog (n.) An amphibious animal of the genus Rana and related genera, of many species. Frogs swim rapidly, and take long leaps on land. Many of the species utter loud notes in the springtime.

Frogbit (n.) A European plant (Hydrocharis Morsus-ranae), floating on still water and propagating itself by runners. It has roundish leaves and small white flowers.

Frogbit (n.) An American plant (Limnobium Spongia), with similar habits.

Frogmouth (n.) One of several species of Asiatic and East Indian birds of the genus Batrachostomus (family Podargidae); -- so called from their very broad, flat bills.

Frogs-bit (n.) Frogbit.

Frond (n.) The organ formed by the combination or union into one body of stem and leaf, and often bearing the fructification; as, the frond of a fern or of a lichen or seaweed; also, the peculiar leaf of a palm tree.

Frons (n.) The forehead; the part of the cranium between the orbits and the vertex.

Frontlet (n.) The margin of the head, behind the bill of birds, often bearing rigid bristles.

Fronto- () A combining form signifying relating to the forehead or the frontal bone; as, fronto-parietal, relating to the frontal and the parietal bones; fronto-nasal, etc.

Frost (v. i.) Coldness or insensibility; severity or rigidity of character.

Frostbird (n.) The golden plover.

Frostbite (n.) The freezing, or effect of a freezing, of some part of the body, as the ears or nose.

Frostbite (v. t.) To expose to the effect of frost, or a frosty air; to blight or nip with frost.

Frost-bitten (p. a.) Nipped, withered, or injured, by frost or freezing.

Frosted (a.) Covered with hoarfrost or anything resembling hoarfrost; ornamented with frosting; also, frost-bitten; as, a frosted cake; frosted glass.

Frote (v. t.) To rub or wear by rubbing; to chafe.

Frounce (n.) An affection in hawks, in which white spittle gathers about the hawk's bill.

Frubish (v. t.) To rub up: to furbish.

Frugivorous (a.) Feeding on fruit, as birds and other animals.

Fry (v. i.) To undergo or cause a disturbing action accompanied with a sensation of heat.

Fugacity (a.) Uncertainty; instability.

Fugitiveness (n.) The quality or condition of being fugitive; evanescence; volatility; fugacity; instability.

Foolahs (n. pl.) A peculiar African race of uncertain origin, but distinct from the negro tribes, inhabiting an extensive region of Western Soudan. Their color is brown or yellowish bronze. They are Mohammedans. Called also Fellatahs, Foulahs, and Fellani. Fulah is also used adjectively; as, Fulah empire, tribes, language.

Fulmar (n.) One of several species of sea birds, of the family procellariidae, allied to the albatrosses and petrels. Among the well-known species are the arctic fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) (called also fulmar petrel, malduck, and mollemock), and the giant fulmar (Ossifraga gigantea).

Fungus (n.) A spongy, morbid growth or granulation in animal bodies, as the proud flesh of wounds.

Funiliform (a.) Resembling a cord in toughness and flexibility, as the roots of some endogenous trees.

Funis (n.) A cord; specifically, the umbilical cord or navel string.

Fur (n.) A coat of morbid matter collected on the tongue in persons affected with fever.

Fur (v. t.) To cover with morbid matter, as the tongue.

Furbished (imp. & p. p.) of Furbish

Furbishing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Furbish

Furbish (v. t.) To rub or scour to brightness; to clean; to burnish; as, to furbish a sword or spear.

Furbishable (a.) Capable of being furbished.

Furbisher (n.) One who furbishes; esp., a sword cutler, who finishes sword blades and similar weapons.

Furculum (n.) The wishbone or merrythought of birds, formed by the united clavicles.

Fusibility (n.) The quality of being fusible.

Fusion (v. t.) The union, or binding together, of adjacent parts or tissues.

Future (a.) The possibilities of the future; -- used especially of prospective success or advancement; as, he had great future before him.

Gabbier (n.) One who gabbles; a prater.

Gabion (n.) A hollow cylinder of wickerwork, like a basket without a bottom. Gabions are made of various sizes, and filled with earth in building fieldworks to shelter men from an enemy's fire.

Gabion (n.) An openwork frame, as of poles, filled with stones and sunk, to assist in forming a bar dyke, etc., as in harbor improvement.

Gabionade (n.) A traverse made with gabions between guns or on their flanks, protecting them from enfilading fire.

Gabionade (n.) A structure of gabions sunk in lines, as a core for a sand bar in harbor improvements.

Gabionage (n.) The part of a fortification built of gabions.

Gabioned (p. a.) Furnished with gabions.

Gabionnade (n.) See Gabionade.

Gad (n.) A wedge-shaped billet of iron or steel.

Gaditanian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Cadiz.

Gadolinia (n.) A rare earth, regarded by some as an oxide of the supposed element gadolinium, by others as only a mixture of the oxides of yttrium, erbium, ytterbium, etc.

Gadwall (n.) A large duck (Anas strepera), valued as a game bird, found in the northern parts of Europe and America; -- called also gray duck.

Gag (n.) A mouthful that makes one retch; a choking bit; as, a gag of mutton fat.

Gage (n.) To bind by pledge, or security; to engage.

Gain (n.) A square or beveled notch cut out of a girder, binding joist, or other timber which supports a floor beam, so as to receive the end of the floor beam.

Gainsay (v. t.) To contradict; to deny; to controvert; to dispute; to forbid.

Galatian (a.) Of or pertaining to Galatia or its inhabitants. -- A native or inhabitant of Galatia, in Asia Minor; a descendant of the Gauls who settled in Asia Minor.

Galbanum (n.) A gum resin exuding from the stems of certain Asiatic umbelliferous plants, mostly species of Ferula. The Bubon Galbanum of South Africa furnishes an inferior kind of galbanum. It has an acrid, bitter taste, a strong, unpleasant smell, and is used for medical purposes, also in the arts, as in the manufacture of varnish.

Galea (n.) The upper lip or helmet-shaped part of a labiate flower.

Galena (n.) Lead sulphide; the principal ore of lead. It is of a bluish gray color and metallic luster, and is cubic in crystallization and cleavage.

Galilean (n.) A native or inhabitant of Galilee, the northern province of Palestine under the Romans.

Gall (n.) The bitter, alkaline, viscid fluid found in the gall bladder, beneath the liver. It consists of the secretion of the liver, or bile, mixed with that of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder.

Gall (n.) Anything extremely bitter; bitterness; rancor.

Gall (v. t.) To fret and wear away by friction; to hurt or break the skin of by rubbing; to chafe; to injure the surface of by attrition; as, a saddle galls the back of a horse; to gall a mast or a cable.

Gall (n.) A wound in the skin made by rubbing.

Gallego (n.) A native or inhabitant of Galicia, in Spain; a Galician.

Gallery (a.) A room for the exhibition of works of art; as, a picture gallery; hence, also, a large or important collection of paintings, sculptures, etc.

Galley-bird (n.) The European green woodpecker; also, the spotted woodpecker.

Gallyambic (a.) Consisting of two iambic dimeters catalectic, the last of which lacks the final syllable; -- said of a kind of verse.

Gallinacean (n.) One of the Gallinae or gallinaceous birds.

Gallinae (n.) An order of birds, including the common domestic fowls, pheasants, grouse, quails, and allied forms; -- sometimes called Rasores.

Gallinule (n.) One of several wading birds, having long, webless toes, and a frontal shield, belonging to the family Rallidae. They are remarkable for running rapidly over marshes and on floating plants. The purple gallinule of America is Ionornis Martinica, that of the Old World is Porphyrio porphyrio. The common European gallinule (Gallinula chloropus) is also called moor hen, water hen, water rail, moor coot, night bird, and erroneously dabchick. Closely related to it is the Florida gallinule (Gallinula galeata).

Galloon (n.) A narrow tapelike fabric used for binding hats, shoes, etc., -- sometimes made ornamental.

Galloon (n.) A similar bordering or binding of rich material, such as gold lace.

Gallstone (n.) A concretion, or calculus, formed in the gall bladder or biliary passages. See Calculus, n., 1.

Gally (a.) Like gall; bitter as gall.

Galvanic (a.) Of or pertaining to, or exhibiting the phenomena of, galvanism; employing or producing electrical currents.

Gambeson (n.) Same as Gambison.

Gambet (n.) Any bird of the genuis Totanus. See Tattler.

Gambier (n.) The inspissated juice of a plant (Uncaria Gambir) growing in Malacca. It is a powerful astringent, and, under the name of Terra Japonica, is used for chewing with the Areca nut, and is exported for tanning and dyeing.

Gambier (n.) Catechu.

Gambison (n.) A defensive garment formerly in use for the body, made of cloth stuffed and quilted.

Gambist (n.) A performer upon the viola di gamba. See under Viola.

Gambit (n.) A mode of opening the game, in which a pawn is sacrificed to gain an attacking position.

Game (n.) To play for a stake or prize; to use cards, dice, billiards, or other instruments, according to certain rules, with a view to win money or other thing waged upon the issue of the contest; to gamble.

Gang (v. i.) A combination of similar implements arranged so as, by acting together, to save time or labor; a set; as, a gang of saws, or of plows.

Gangetic (a.) Pertaining to, or inhabiting, the Ganges; as, the Gangetic shark.

Gannet (n.) One of several species of sea birds of the genus Sula, allied to the pelicans.

Ganocephala (n. pl.) A group of fossil amphibians allied to the labyrinthodonts, having the head defended by bony, sculptured plates, as in some ganoid fishes.

Gape (v. i.) Expressing a desire for food; as, young birds gape.

Gape (v. i.) To pen or part widely; to exhibit a gap, fissure, or hiatus.

Gape (n.) The width of the mouth when opened, as of birds, fishes, etc.

The gapes () A disease of young poultry and other birds, attended with much gaping. It is caused by a parasitic nematode worm (Syngamus trachealis), in the windpipe, which obstructs the breathing. See Gapeworm.

Gaper (n.) An East Indian bird of the genus Cymbirhynchus, related to the broadbills.

Gapeworm (n.) The parasitic worm that causes the gapes in birds. See Illustration in Appendix.

Garbed (a.) Dressed; habited; clad.

Garble (n.) Refuse; rubbish.

Garefowl (n.) The great auk; also, the razorbill. See Auk.

Garfish (n.) A European marine fish (Belone vulgaris); -- called also gar, gerrick, greenback, greenbone, gorebill, hornfish, longnose, mackerel guide, sea needle, and sea pike.

Garibaldi (n.) A California market fish (Pomancentrus rubicundus) of a deep scarlet color.

Garrulous (a.) Having a loud, harsh note; noisy; -- said of birds; as, the garrulous roller.

Garter (v. t.) To bind with a garter.

Gasoline (n.) A highly volatile mixture of fluid hydrocarbons, obtained from petroleum, as also by the distillation of bituminous coal. It is used in making air gas, and in giving illuminating power to water gas. See Carburetor.

Gastornis (n.) A genus of large eocene birds from the Paris basin.

Gastro- () A combining form from the Gr. /, /, the stomach, or belly; as in gastrocolic, gastrocele, gastrotomy.

Gaucho (n.) One of the native inhabitants of the pampas, of Spanish-American descent. They live mostly by rearing cattle.

Gauge (v. t.) To measure the capacity, character, or ability of; to estimate; to judge of.

Gaul (n.) A native or inhabitant of Gaul.

Gaviae (n. pl.) The division of birds which includes the gulls and terns.

Gear (n.) Anything worthless; stuff; nonsense; rubbish.

Gelsemine (n.) An alkaloid obtained from the yellow jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens), as a bitter white semicrystalline substance; -- called also gelsemia.

Gelsemium (n.) A genus of climbing plants. The yellow (false) jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens) is a native of the Southern United States. It has showy and deliciously fragrant flowers.

Geminate (a.) In pairs or twains; two together; binate; twin; as, geminate flowers.

Gemitores (n. pl.) A division of birds including the true pigeons.

Gemote (v. t.) A meeting; -- used in combination, as, Witenagemote, an assembly of the wise men.

Gena () The cheek; the feathered side of the under mandible of a bird.

Generability (n.) Capability of being generated.

General (a.) Usual; common, on most occasions; as, his general habit or method.

Generosity (n.) Noble birth.

Generous (a.) Of honorable birth or origin; highborn.

Generous (a.) Exhibiting those qualities which are popularly reregarded as belonging to high birth; noble; honorable; magnanimous; spirited; courageous.

Genesis (n.) The act of producing, or giving birth or origin to anything; the process or mode of originating; production; formation; origination.

Genethliac (a.) Pertaining to nativities; calculated by astrologers; showing position of stars at one's birth.

Genethliac (n.) A birthday poem.

Genethliacs (n.) The science of calculating nativities, or predicting the future events of life from the stars which preside at birth.

Genevan (n.) A native or inhabitant of Geneva.

Genevese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Geneva; collectively, the inhabitants of Geneva; people of Geneva.

Genipap (n.) The edible fruit of a West Indian tree (Genipa Americana) of the order Rubiaceae. It is oval in shape, as a large as a small orange, of a pale greenish color, and with dark purple juice.

Geniture (n.) Generation; procreation; birth.

Genius (n.) Distinguished mental superiority; uncommon intellectual power; especially, superior power of invention or origination of any kind, or of forming new combinations; as, a man of genius.

Genoese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Genoa; collectively, the people of Genoa.

Gent (a.) Gentle; noble; of gentle birth.

Genteel (a.) Possessing or exhibiting the qualities popularly regarded as belonging to high birth and breeding; free from vulgarity, or lowness of taste or behavior; adapted to a refined or cultivated taste; polite; well-bred; as, genteel company, manners, address.

Gentrie (n.) Nobility of birth or of character; gentility.

Gentianine (n.) A bitter, crystallizable substance obtained from gentian.

Gentilesse (a.) Gentleness; courtesy; kindness; nobility.

Gentility (n.) Good extraction; dignity of birth.

Gentiopikrin (n.) A bitter, yellow, crystalline substance, regarded as a glucoside, and obtained from the gentian.

Gentle (superl.) Well-born; of a good family or respectable birth, though not noble.

Gentle (superl.) Soft; not violent or rough; not strong, loud, or disturbing; easy; soothing; pacific; as, a gentle touch; a gentle gallop .

Gentry (a.) Birth; condition; rank by birth.

Gentry (a.) People of education and good breeding; in England, in a restricted sense, those between the nobility and the yeomanry.

Geography (n.) The science which treats of the world and its inhabitants; a description of the earth, or a portion of the earth, including its structure, fetures, products, political divisions, and the people by whom it is inhabited.

Geophagism (n.) The act or habit of eating earth. See Dirt eating, under Dirt.

Geranine (n.) A valuable astringent obtained from the root of the Geranium maculatum or crane's-bill.

Geranine (n.) A liquid terpene, obtained from the crane's-bill (Geranium maculatum), and having a peculiar mulberry odor.

Geranium (n.) A genus of plants having a beaklike tours or receptacle, around which the seed capsules are arranged, and membranous projections, or stipules, at the joints. Most of the species have showy flowers and a pungent odor. Called sometimes crane's-bill.

Gerbil (n.) Alt. of Gerbille

Gerbille (n.) One of several species of small, jumping, murine rodents, of the genus Gerbillus. In their leaping powers they resemble the jerboa. They inhabit Africa, India, and Southern Europe.

Get-up (n.) General composition or structure; manner in which the parts of a thing are combined; make-up; style of dress, etc.

Gib (n.) A piece or slip of metal or wood, notched or otherwise, in a machine or structure, to hold other parts in place or bind them together, or to afford a bearing surface; -- usually held or adjusted by means of a wedge, key, or screw.

Gibbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Gib

Gibbier (n.) Wild fowl; game.

Gibbon (n.) Any arboreal ape of the genus Hylobates, of which many species and varieties inhabit the East Indies and Southern Asia. They are tailless and without cheek pouches, and have very long arms, adapted for climbing.

Gibing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Gibe

Gibingly (adv.) In a gibing manner; scornfully.

Gier-eagle (n.) A bird referred to in the Bible (Lev. xi. 18and Deut. xiv. 17) as unclean, probably the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus).

Gigantical (a.) Bulky, big.

Gigerium (n.) The muscular stomach, or gizzard, of birds.

Ginglymodi (n.) An order of ganoid fishes, including the modern gar pikes and many allied fossil forms. They have rhombic, ganoid scales, a heterocercal tail, paired fins without an axis, fulcra on the fins, and a bony skeleton, with the vertebrae convex in front and concave behind, forming a ball and socket joint. See Ganoidel.

Ginkgo (n.) A large ornamental tree (Ginkgo biloba) from China and Japan, belonging to the Yew suborder of Coniferae. Its leaves are so like those of some maidenhair ferns, that it is also called the maidenhair tree.

Ginseng (n.) A plant of the genus Aralia, the root of which is highly valued as a medicine among the Chinese. The Chinese plant (Aralia Schinseng) has become so rare that the American (A. quinquefolia) has largely taken its place, and its root is now an article of export from America to China. The root, when dry, is of a yellowish white color, with a sweetness in the taste somewhat resembling that of licorice, combined with a slight aromatic bitterness.

Gird (v. t.) To encircle or bind with any flexible band.

Gird (v. t.) To make fast, as clothing, by binding with a cord, girdle, bandage, etc.

Girdle (v. t.) To bind with a belt or sash; to gird.

Girl (n.) A female child, from birth to the age of puberty; a young maiden.

Girth (v. t.) To bind as with a girth.

Give (n.) To exhibit as a product or result; to produce; to show; as, the number of men, divided by the number of ships, gives four hundred to each ship.

Gizzard (n.) The second, or true, muscular stomach of birds, in which the food is crushed and ground, after being softened in the glandular stomach (crop), or lower part of the esophagus; the gigerium.

Glabellum (n.) The median, convex lobe of the head of a trilobite. See Trilobite.

Glair (a.) The white of egg. It is used as a size or a glaze in bookbinding, for pastry, etc.

Glass (v. t.) To smooth or polish anything, as leater, by rubbing it with a glass burnisher.

Glauber's salts () Sulphate of soda, a well-known cathartic. It is a white crystalline substance, with a cooling, slightly bitter taste, and is commonly called "salts."

Glaucine (n.) An alkaloid obtained from the plant Glaucium, as a bitter, white, crystalline substance.

Glean (n.) Cleaning; afterbirth.

Glide (v. i.) To move gently and smoothly; to pass along without noise, violence, or apparent effort; to pass rapidly and easily, or with a smooth, silent motion, as a river in its channel, a bird in the air, a skater over ice.

Globing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Globe

Globiferous (a.) Having a round or globular tip.

Globigerin/ (pl. ) of Globigerina

Globigerina (n.) A genus of small Foraminifera, which live abundantly at or near the surface of the sea. Their dead shells, falling to the bottom, make up a large part of the soft mud, generally found in depths below 3,000 feet, and called globigerina ooze. See Illust. of Foraminifera.

Globulin (n.) An albuminous body, insoluble in water, but soluble in dilute solutions of salt. It is present in the red blood corpuscles united with haematin to form haemoglobin. It is also found in the crystalline lens of the eye, and in blood serum, and is sometimes called crystallin. In the plural the word is applied to a group of proteid substances such as vitellin, myosin, fibrinogen, etc., all insoluble in water, but soluble in dilute salt solutions.

Globulous (a.) Globular; spherical; orbicular.

Globy (a.) Resembling, or pertaining to, a globe; round; orbicular.

Glorify (v. t.) To make glorious in thought or with the heart, by ascribing glory to; to asknowledge the excellence of; to render homage to; to magnify in worship; to adore.

Gloriosa (n.) A genus of climbing plants with very showy lilylike blossoms, natives of India.

Glorious (n.) Exhibiting attributes, qualities, or acts that are worthy of or receive glory; noble; praiseworthy; excellent; splendid; illustrious; inspiring admiration; as, glorious deeds.

Glow (v. i.) To exhibit a strong, bright color; to be brilliant, as if with heat; to be bright or red with heat or animation, with blushes, etc.

Glucinum (n.) A rare metallic element, of a silver white color, and low specific gravity (2.1), resembling magnesium. It never occurs naturally in the free state, but is always combined, usually with silica or alumina, or both; as in the minerals phenacite, chrysoberyl, beryl or emerald, euclase, and danalite. It was named from its oxide glucina, which was known long before the element was isolated. Symbol Gl. Atomic weight 9.1. Called also beryllium.

Glucoside (n.) One of a large series of amorphous or crystalline substances, occurring very widely distributed in plants, rarely in animals, and regarded as influental agents in the formation and disposition of the sugars. They are frequently of a bitter taste, but, by the action of ferments, or of dilute acids and alkalies, always break down into some characteristic substance (acid, aldehyde, alcohol, phenole, or alkaloid) and glucose (or some other sugar); hence the name. They are of the nature of complex and compound ethers, and ethereal salts of the sugar carbohydrates.

Glut (n.) A piece of wood used to fill up behind cribbing or tubbing.

Glycerine (n.) An oily, viscous liquid, C3H5(OH)3, colorless and odorless, and with a hot, sweetish taste, existing in the natural fats and oils as the base, combined with various acids, as oleic, margaric, stearic, and palmitic. It is a triatomic alcohol, and hence is also called glycerol. See Note under Gelatin.

Glycocoll (n.) A crystalline, nitrogenous substance, with a sweet taste, formed from hippuric acid by boiling with hydrochloric acid, and present in bile united with cholic acid. It is also formed from gelatin by decomposition with acids. Chemically, it is amido-acetic acid. Called also glycin, and glycocin.

Glycyrrhiza (n.) A genus of papilionaceous herbaceous plants, one species of which (G. glabra), is the licorice plant, the roots of which have a bittersweet mucilaginous taste.

Glycyrrhizin (n.) A glucoside found in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza), in monesia bark (Chrysophyllum), in the root of the walnut, etc., and extracted as a yellow, amorphous powder, of a bittersweet taste.

Gnat (n.) Any fly resembling a Culex in form or habits; esp., in America, a small biting fly of the genus Simulium and allies, as the buffalo gnat, the black fly, etc.

Gnathidium (n.) The ramus of the lower jaw of a bird as far as it is naked; -- commonly used in the plural.

Gnathotheca (n.) The horney covering of the lower mandible of a bird.

Gnaw (v. t.) To bite, as something hard or tough, which is not readily separated or crushed; to bite off little by little, with effort; to wear or eat away by scraping or continuous biting with the teeth; to nibble at.

Gnaw (v. t.) To bite in agony or rage.

Gnaw (v. i.) To use the teeth in biting; to bite with repeated effort, as in eating or removing with the teethsomething hard, unwiedly, or unmanageable.

Gnome (n.) An imaginary being, supposed by the Rosicrucians to inhabit the inner parts of the earth, and to be the guardian of mines, quarries, etc.

Gnostic (n.) One of the so-called philosophers in the first ages of Christianity, who claimed a true philosophical interpretation of the Christian religion. Their system combined Oriental theology and Greek philosophy with the doctrines of Christianity. They held that all natures, intelligible, intellectual, and material, are derived from the Deity by successive emanations, which they called Eons.

Goa (n.) A species of antelope (Procapra picticauda), inhabiting Thibet.

Goa powder () A bitter powder (also called araroba) found in the interspaces of the wood of a Brazilian tree (Andira araroba) and used as a medicine. It is the material from which chrysarobin is obtained.

Goatfish (n.) A fish of the genus Upeneus, inhabiting the Gulf of Mexico. It is allied to the surmullet.

Goatsucker (n.) One of several species of insectivorous birds, belonging to Caprimulgus and allied genera, esp. the European species (Caprimulgus Europaeus); -- so called from the mistaken notion that it sucks goats. The European species is also goat-milker, goat owl, goat chaffer, fern owl, night hawk, nightjar, night churr, churr-owl, gnat hawk, and dorhawk.

Gobbing (n.) The refuse thrown back into the excavation after removing the coal. It is called also gob stuff.

Gobbing (n.) The process of packing with waste rock; stowing.

Gobioid (a.) Like, or pertaining to, the goby, or the genus Gobius.

Gobioid (n.) A gobioid fish.

Gobies (pl. ) of Goby

Goby (n.) One of several species of small marine fishes of the genus Gobius and allied genera.

Godwit (n.) One of several species of long-billed, wading birds of the genus Limosa, and family Tringidae. The European black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa), the American marbled godwit (L. fedoa), the Hudsonian godwit (L. haemastica), and others, are valued as game birds. Called also godwin.

Goggler (n.) A carangoid oceanic fish (Trachurops crumenophthalmus), having very large and prominent eyes; -- called also goggle-eye, big-eyed scad, and cicharra.

Goldfinch (n.) A beautiful bright-colored European finch (Carduelis elegans). The name refers to the large patch of yellow on the wings. The front of the head and throat are bright red; the nape, with part of the wings and tail, black; -- called also goldspink, goldie, fool's coat, drawbird, draw-water, thistle finch, and sweet William.

Goldfinch (n.) A small American finch (Spinus tristis); the thistle bird.

Gondola (n.) A long, narrow boat with a high prow and stern, used in the canals of Venice. A gondola is usually propelled by one or two oarsmen who stand facing the prow, or by poling. A gondola for passengers has a small open cabin amidships, for their protection against the sun or rain. A sumptuary law of Venice required that gondolas should be painted black, and they are customarily so painted now.

Gonydial (a.) Pertaining to the gonys of a bird's beak.

Gonys (n.) The keel or lower outline of a bird's bill, so far as the mandibular rami are united.

Good (superl.) Adequate; sufficient; competent; sound; not fallacious; valid; in a commercial sense, to be depended on for the discharge of obligations incurred; having pecuniary ability; of unimpaired credit.

Goody-goody (a.) Mawkishly or weakly good; exhibiting goodness with silliness.

Goosander (n.) A species of merganser (M. merganser) of Northern Europe and America; -- called also merganser, dundiver, sawbill, sawneb, shelduck, and sheldrake. See Merganser.

Goose (n.) Any large web-footen bird of the subfamily Anserinae, and belonging to Anser, Branta, Chen, and several allied genera. See Anseres.

Goose (n.) Any large bird of other related families, resembling the common goose.

Gor-belly (n.) A prominent belly; a big-bellied person.

Gorebill (n.) The garfish.

Gorgelet (n.) A small gorget, as of a humming bird.

Gorget (n.) A crescent-shaped, colored patch on the neck of a bird or mammal.

Goslet (n.) One of several species of pygmy geese, of the genus Nettepus. They are about the size of a teal, and inhabit Africa, India, and Australia.

Gothamite (n.) An inhabitant of New York city.

Gouge (n.) A bookbinder's tool for blind tooling or gilding, having a face which forms a curve.

Goura (n.) One of several species of large, crested ground pigeons of the genus Goura, inhabiting New Guinea and adjacent islands. The Queen Victoria pigeon (Goura Victoria) and the crowned pigeon (G. coronata) are among the beat known species.

Gourd (n.) A fleshy, three-celled, many-seeded fruit, as the melon, pumpkin, cucumber, etc., of the order Cucurbitaceae; and especially the bottle gourd (Lagenaria vulgaris) which occurs in a great variety of forms, and, when the interior part is removed, serves for bottles, dippers, cups, and other dishes.

Goutwort (n.) A coarse umbelliferous plant of Europe (Aegopodium Podagraria); -- called also bishop's weed, ashweed, and herb gerard.

Govern (v. t.) To direct and control, as the actions or conduct of men, either by established laws or by arbitrary will; to regulate by authority.

Governability (n.) Governableness.

Gownman (n.) One whose professional habit is a gown, as a divine or lawyer, and particularly a member of an English university; hence, a civilian, in distinction from a soldier.

Grabbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Grab

Grace (n.) The title of a duke, a duchess, or an archbishop, and formerly of the king of England.

Gracious (a.) Abounding in beauty, loveliness, or amiability; graceful; excellent.

Grackle (n.) One of several American blackbirds, of the family Icteridae; as, the rusty grackle (Scolecophagus Carolinus); the boat-tailed grackle (see Boat-tail); the purple grackle (Quiscalus quiscula, or Q. versicolor). See Crow blackbird, under Crow.

Grackle (n.) An Asiatic bird of the genus Gracula. See Myna.

Gradient (a.) Adapted for walking, as the feet of certain birds.

Graduate (v. i.) To taper, as the tail of certain birds.

Graduated (a.) Tapered; -- said of a bird's tail when the outer feathers are shortest, and the others successively longer.

Graduation (n.) The act of graduating, or the state of being graduated; as, graduation of a scale; graduation at a college; graduation in color; graduation by evaporation; the graduation of a bird's tail, etc.

Graf (n.) A German title of nobility, equivalent to earl in English, or count in French. See Earl.

Grainer (n.) An infusion of pigeon's dung used by tanners to neutralize the effects of lime and give flexibility to skins; -- called also grains and bate.

Grallae (n. pl.) An order of birds which formerly included all the waders. By later writers it is usually restricted to the sandpipers, plovers, and allied forms; -- called also Grallatores.

Gramme (n.) The unit of weight in the metric system. It was intended to be exactly, and is very nearly, equivalent to the weight in a vacuum of one cubic centimeter of pure water at its maximum density. It is equal to 15.432 grains. See Grain, n., 4.

Grandeur (n.) The state or quality of being grand; vastness; greatness; splendor; magnificence; stateliness; sublimity; dignity; elevation of thought or expression; nobility of action.

Granivorous (a.) Eating grain; feeding or subsisting on seeds; as, granivorous birds.

Grapevine (n.) A vine or climbing shrub, of the genus Vitis, having small green flowers and lobed leaves, and bearing the fruit called grapes.

-graphy () A suffix denoting the art of writing or describing; also, the writing or description itself; a treatise; as, calligraphy, biography, geography.

Grate (v. t.) To rub roughly or harshly, as one body against another, causing a harsh sound; as, to grate the teeth; to produce (a harsh sound) by rubbing.

Grate (v. t.) To reduce to small particles by rubbing with anything rough or indented; as, to grate a nutmeg.

Grate (v. i.) To produce the effect of rubbing with a hard rough material; to cause wearing, tearing, or bruising. Hence; To produce exasperation, soreness, or grief; to offend by oppression or importunity.

Grater (a.) One who, or that which, grates; especially, an instrument or utensil with a rough, indented surface, for rubbing off small particles of any substance; as a grater for nutmegs.

Gravidated (a.) Made pregnant; big.

Grayling (a.) A European fish (Thymallus vulgaris), allied to the trout, but having a very broad dorsal fin; -- called also umber. It inhabits cold mountain streams, and is valued as a game fish.

Grayling (a.) An American fish of the genus Thymallus, having similar habits to the above; one species (T. Ontariensis), inhabits several streams in Michigan; another (T. montanus), is found in the Yellowstone region.

Great (superl.) Large in space; of much size; big; immense; enormous; expanded; -- opposed to small and little; as, a great house, ship, farm, plain, distance, length.

Great (superl.) Pregnant; big (with young).

Great-bellied (a.) Having a great belly; bigbellied; pregnant; teeming.

Grebe (n.) One of several swimming birds or divers, of the genus Colymbus (formerly Podiceps), and allied genera, found in the northern parts of America, Europe, and Asia. They have strong, sharp bills, and lobate toes.

Grecian (n.) A native or naturalized inhabitant of Greece; a Greek.

Greenfinch (n.) A European finch (Ligurinus chloris); -- called also green bird, green linnet, green grosbeak, green olf, greeny, and peasweep.

Greenlet (n.) l. (Zool.) One of numerous species of small American singing birds, of the genus Vireo, as the solitary, or blue-headed (Vireo solitarius); the brotherly-love (V. Philadelphicus); the warbling greenlet (V. gilvus); the yellow-throated greenlet (V. flavifrons) and others. See Vireo.

Greenlet (n.) Any species of Cyclorhis, a genus of tropical American birds allied to the tits.

\d8Gregarin\91 (n. pl.) An order of Protozoa, allied to the Rhizopoda, and parasitic in other animals, as in the earthworm, lobster, etc. When adult, they have a small, wormlike body inclosing a nucleus, but without external organs; in one of the young stages, they are amoebiform; -- called also Gregarinida, and Gregarinaria.

Gregarious (a.) Habitually living or moving in flocks or herds; tending to flock or herd together; not habitually solitary or living alone.

Gremial (n.) A cloth, often adorned with gold or silver lace, placed on the bishop's lap while he sits in celebrating mass, or in ordaining priests.

Grenadier (n.) Any marine fish of the genus Macrurus, in which the body and tail taper to a point; they mostly inhabit the deep sea; -- called also onion fish, and rat-tail fish.

Gressorious (a.) Adapted for walking; anisodactylous; as the feet of certain birds and insects. See Illust. under Aves.

Grieve (v. t.) To occasion grief to; to wound the sensibilities of; to make sorrowful; to cause to suffer; to afflict; to hurt; to try.

Grim (Compar.) Of forbidding or fear-inspiring aspect; fierce; stern; surly; cruel; frightful; horrible.

Grimace (n.) A distortion of the countenance, whether habitual, from affectation, or momentary aad occasional, to express some feeling, as contempt, disapprobation, complacency, etc.; a smirk; a made-up face.

Grimness (n.) Fierceness of look; sternness; crabbedness; forbiddingness.

Grisons (n. pl.) Inhabitants of the eastern Swiss Alps.

Groove (n.) Hence: The habitual course of life, work, or affairs; fixed routine.

Group (n.) To form a group of; to arrange or combine in a group or in groups, often with reference to mutual relation and the best effect; to form an assemblage of.

Grouse (n. sing. & pl.) Any of the numerous species of gallinaceous birds of the family Tetraonidae, and subfamily Tetraoninae, inhabiting Europe, Asia, and North America. They have plump bodies, strong, well-feathered legs, and usually mottled plumage. The group includes the ptarmigans (Lagopus), having feathered feet.

Grubbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Grub

Grunter (n.) One of several American marine fishes. See Sea robin, and Grunt, n., 2.

Guacharo (n.) A nocturnal bird of South America and Trinidad (Steatornis Caripensis, or S. steatornis); -- called also oilbird.

Guacho (n.) One of the mixed-blood (Spanish-Indian) inhabitants of the pampas of South America; a mestizo.

Guaco (n.) A plant (Aristolochia anguicida) of Carthagena, used as an antidote to serpent bites.

Guan (n.) Any one of many species of large gallinaceous birds of Central and South America, belonging to Penelope, Pipile, Ortalis, and allied genera. Several of the species are often domesticated.

Guanaco (n.) A South American mammal (Auchenia huanaco), allied to the llama, but of larger size and more graceful form, inhabiting the southern Andes and Patagonia. It is supposed by some to be the llama in a wild state.

Guanidine (n.) A strongly alkaline base, CN3H5, formed by the oxidation of guanin, and also obtained combined with methyl in the decomposition of creatin. Boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, it yields urea and ammonia.

Guara (n.) The scarlet ibis. See Ibis.

Guarana (n.) A preparation from the seeds of Paullinia sorbilis, a woody climber of Brazil, used in making an astringent drink, and also in the cure of headache.

Guarantee (n.) One who binds himself to see an undertaking of another performed; a guarantor.

Guard (n.) To fasten by binding; to gird.

Gudgeon (n.) A small European freshwater fish (Gobio fluviatilis), allied to the carp. It is easily caught and often used for food and for bait. In America the killifishes or minnows are often called gudgeons.

Guide (v. t.) A person who leads or directs another in his way or course, as in a strange land; one who exhibits points of interest to strangers; a conductor; also, that which guides; a guidebook.

Guidguid (n.) A South American ant bird of the genus Hylactes; -- called also barking bird.

Guillemot (n.) One of several northern sea birds, allied to the auks. They have short legs, placed far back, and are expert divers and swimmers.

Guitguit (n.) One of several species of small tropical American birds of the family Coerebidae, allied to the creepers; -- called also quit. See Quit.

Gulaund (n.) An arctic sea bird.

Gull (n.) One of many species of long-winged sea birds of the genus Larus and allied genera.

Gum (n.) A vegetable secretion of many trees or plants that hardens when it exudes, but is soluble in water; as, gum arabic; gum tragacanth; the gum of the cherry tree. Also, with less propriety, exudations that are not soluble in water; as, gum copal and gum sandarac, which are really resins.

Gum (n.) A hive made of a section of a hollow gum tree; hence, any roughly made hive; also, a vessel or bin made of a hollow log.

Gun (n.) A weapon which throws or propels a missile to a distance; any firearm or instrument for throwing projectiles by the explosion of gunpowder, consisting of a tube or barrel closed at one end, in which the projectile is placed, with an explosive charge behind, which is ignited by various means. Muskets, rifles, carbines, and fowling pieces are smaller guns, for hand use, and are called small arms. Larger guns are called cannon, ordnance, fieldpieces, carronades, howitzers, etc. See these terms in the Vocabulary.

Gurnet (n.) One ofseveral European marine fishes, of the genus Trigla and allied genera, having a large and spiny head, with mailed cheeks. Some of the species are highly esteemed for food. The name is sometimes applied to the American sea robins.

Gush (v. i.) To make a sentimental or untimely exhibition of affection; to display enthusiasm in a silly, demonstrative manner.

Gush (v. t.) A sudden and violent issue of a fluid from an inclosed plase; an emission of a liquid in a large quantity, and with force; the fluid thus emitted; a rapid outpouring of anything; as, a gush of song from a bird.

Gush (v. t.) A sentimental exhibition of affection or enthusiasm, etc.; effusive display of sentiment.

Guttatrap (n.) The inspissated juice of a tree of the genus Artocarpus (A. incisa, or breadfruit tree), sometimes used in making birdlime, on account of its glutinous quality.

Gutturo- () A combining form denoting relation to the throat; as, gutturo-nasal, having both a guttural and a nasal character; gutturo-palatal.

Gybing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Gybe

Gymnopaedic (a.) Having young that are naked when hatched; psilopaedic; -- said of certain birds.

Gymnophiona (n. pl.) An order of Amphibia, having a long, annulated, snakelike body. See Ophiomorpha.

Gymnorhinal (a.) Having unfeathered nostrils, as certain birds.

Gynephobia (n.) Hatred of women; repugnance to the society of women.

Gypsyism (n.) The arts and practices or habits of gypsies; deception; cheating; flattery.

Gypsywort (n.) A labiate plant (the Lycopus Europaeus). Gypsies are said to stain their skin with its juice.

Habilatory (a.) Of or pertaining to clothing; wearing clothes.

Habile (a.) Fit; qualified; also, apt.

Habiliment (n.) A garment; an article of clothing.

Habiliment (n.) Dress, in general.

Habilimented (a.) Clothed. Taylor (1630).

Habilitate (a.) Qualified or entitled.

Habilitate (v. t.) To fit out; to equip; to qualify; to entitle.

Habilitation (n.) Equipment; qualification.

Hability (n.) Ability; aptitude.

Habit (n.) The usual condition or state of a person or thing, either natural or acquired, regarded as something had, possessed, and firmly retained; as, a religious habit; his habit is morose; elms have a spreading habit; esp., physical temperament or constitution; as, a full habit of body.

Habit (n.) The general appearance and manner of life of a living organism.

Habit (n.) Fixed or established custom; ordinary course of conduct; practice; usage; hence, prominently, the involuntary tendency or aptitude to perform certain actions which is acquired by their frequent repetition; as, habit is second nature; also, peculiar ways of acting; characteristic forms of behavior.

Habit (n.) Outward appearance; attire; dress; hence, a garment; esp., a closely fitting garment or dress worn by ladies; as, a riding habit.

Habited (imp. & p. p.) of Habit

Habiting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Habit

Habit (n.) To inhabit.

Habit (n.) To dress; to clothe; to array.

Habit (n.) To accustom; to habituate. [Obs.] Chapman.

Habitability (n.) Habitableness.

Habitable (a.) Capable of being inhabited; that may be inhabited or dwelt in; as, the habitable world.

Habitakle (v.) A dwelling place.

Habitan (n.) Same as Habitant, 2.

Habitance (n.) Dwelling; abode; residence.

Habiitancy (n.) Same as Inhabitancy.

Habitant (v. t.) An inhabitant; a dweller.

Habitant (v. t.) An inhabitant or resident; -- a name applied to and denoting farmers of French descent or origin in Canada, especially in the Province of Quebec; -- usually in plural.

Habitat (v. t.) The natural abode, locality or region of an animal or plant.

Habitat (v. t.) Place where anything is commonly found.

Habitation (n.) The act of inhabiting; state of inhabiting or dwelling, or of being inhabited; occupancy.

Habitation (n.) Place of abode; settled dwelling; residence; house.

Habitator (n.) A dweller; an inhabitant.

Habited (p. p. & a.) Clothed; arrayed; dressed; as, he was habited like a shepherd.

Habited (p. p. & a.) Fixed by habit; accustomed.

Habited (p. p. & a.) Inhabited.

Habitual (n.) Formed or acquired by habit or use.

Habitual (n.) According to habit; established by habit; customary; constant; as, the habiual practice of sin.

Habituated (imp. & p. p.) of Habituate

Habituating (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Habituate

Habituate (v. t.) To make accustomed; to accustom; to familiarize.

Habituate (v. t.) To settle as an inhabitant.

Habituate (a.) Firmly established by custom; formed by habit; habitual.

Habituation (n.) The act of habituating, or accustoming; the state of being habituated.

Habitude (n.) Habitual attitude; usual or accustomed state with reference to something else; established or usual relations.

Habitude (n.) Habitual association, intercourse, or familiarity.

Habitude (n.) Habit of body or of action.

Habitue (n.) One who habitually frequents a place; as, an habitue of a theater.

Habiture (n.) Habitude.

Habitus (n.) Habitude; mode of life; general appearance.

Hable (a.) See Habile.

Haddock (n.) A marine food fish (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), allied to the cod, inhabiting the northern coasts of Europe and America. It has a dark lateral line and a black spot on each side of the body, just back of the gills. Galled also haddie, and dickie.

Hadrosaurus (n.) An American herbivorous dinosaur of great size, allied to the iguanodon. It is found in the Cretaceous formation.

Haemo- () Combining forms indicating relation or resemblance to blood, association with blood; as, haemapod, haematogenesis, haemoscope.

Haematoglobulin (n.) Same as Hematoglobin.

Haematozoon (n.) A parasite inhabiting the blood

Haematozoon (n.) The trematode, Bilharzia haematobia, which infests the inhabitants of Egypt and other parts of Africa, often causing death.

Haemochromogen (n.) A body obtained from hemoglobin, by the action of reducing agents in the absence of oxygen.

Haemochromometer (n.) An apparatus for measuring the amount of hemoglobin in a fluid, by comparing it with a solution of known strength and of normal color.

Haemoglobin (n.) Same as Hemoglobin.

Haemoglobinometer (n.) Same as Hemochromometer.

Hag (n.) An eel-like marine marsipobranch (Myxine glutinosa), allied to the lamprey. It has a suctorial mouth, with labial appendages, and a single pair of gill openings. It is the type of the order Hyperotpeta. Called also hagfish, borer, slime eel, sucker, and sleepmarken.

Hagberry (n.) A plant of the genus Prunus (P. Padus); the bird cherry.

Hagdon (n.) One of several species of sea birds of the genus Puffinus; esp., P. major, the greater shearwarter, and P. Stricklandi, the black hagdon or sooty shearwater; -- called also hagdown, haglin, and hag. See Shearwater.

Hairbird (n.) The chipping sparrow.

Hairstreak (n.) A butterfly of the genus Thecla; as, the green hairstreak (T. rubi).

Haye (n.) The Egyptian asp or cobra (Naja haje.) It is related to the cobra of India, and like the latter has the power of inflating its neck into a hood. Its bite is very venomous. It is supposed to be the snake by means of whose bite Cleopatra committed suicide, and hence is sometimes called Cleopatra's snake or asp. See Asp.

Hake (n.) One of several species of marine gadoid fishes, of the genera Phycis, Merlucius, and allies. The common European hake is M. vulgaris; the American silver hake or whiting is M. bilinearis. Two American species (Phycis chuss and P. tenius) are important food fishes, and are also valued for their oil and sounds. Called also squirrel hake, and codling.

Halcyon (n.) A kingfisher. By modern ornithologists restricted to a genus including a limited number of species having omnivorous habits, as the sacred kingfisher (Halcyon sancta) of Australia.

Hallier (n.) A kind of net for catching birds.

Hallux (n.) The first, or preaxial, digit of the hind limb, corresponding to the pollux in the fore limb; the great toe; the hind toe of birds.

Halogen (n.) An electro-negative element or radical, which, by combination with a metal, forms a haloid salt; especially, chlorine, bromine, and iodine; sometimes, also, fluorine and cyanogen. See Chlorine family, under Chlorine.

Haloid (a.) Resembling salt; -- said of certain binary compounds consisting of a metal united to a negative element or radical, and now chiefly applied to the chlorides, bromides, iodides, and sometimes also to the fluorides and cyanides.

Halones (n. pl.) Alternating transparent and opaque white rings which are seen outside the blastoderm, on the surface of the developing egg of the hen and other birds.

Haloscope (n.) An instrument for exhibition or illustration of the phenomena of halos, parhelia, and the like.

Hammerkop (n.) A bird of the Heron family; the umber.

Hamshackle (v. t.) To fasten (an animal) by a rope binding the head to one of the fore legs; as, to hamshackle a horse or cow; hence, to bind or restrain; to curb.

Hamulus (n.) A hooked barbicel of a feather.

Hand (n.) Power of performance; means of execution; ability; skill; dexterity.

Handbill (n.) A loose, printed sheet, to be distributed by hand.

Handbill (n.) A pruning hook.

Handfast (v. t.) To pledge; to bind; to betroth by joining hands, in order to cohabitation, before the celebration of marriage.

Hangbird (n.) The Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula); -- so called because its nest is suspended from the limb of a tree. See Baltimore oriole.

Hang-bies (pl. ) of Hang-by

Hangdog (n.) A base, degraded person; a sneak; a gallows bird.

Hangnest (n.) A bird which builds such a nest; a hangbird.

Hanoverian (n.) A native or naturalized inhabitant of Hanover; one of the House of Hanover.

Harbinger (n.) One who provides lodgings; especially, the officer of the English royal household who formerly preceded the court when traveling, to provide and prepare lodgings.

Harbinger (n.) A forerunner; a precursor; a messenger.

Harbingered (imp. & p. p.) of Harbinger

Harbingering (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Harbinger

Harbinger (v. t.) To usher in; to be a harbinger of.

Harbor (v. i.) To lodge, or abide for a time; to take shelter, as in a harbor.

Hard (superl.) Abrupt or explosive in utterance; not aspirated, sibilated, or pronounced with a gradual change of the organs from one position to another; -- said of certain consonants, as c in came, and g in go, as distinguished from the same letters in center, general, etc.

Harderian (a.) A term applied to a lachrymal gland on the inner side of the orbit of many animals which have a third eyelid, or nictitating membrane. See Nictitating membrane, under Nictitate.

Hardiness (n.) Capability of endurance.

Hard-mouthed (a.) Not sensible to the bit; not easily governed; as, a hard-mouthed horse.

Hardness (n.) The peculiar quality exhibited by water which has mineral salts dissolved in it. Such water forms an insoluble compound with soap, and is hence unfit for washing purposes.

Hard-tack (n.) A name given by soldiers and sailors to a kind of hard biscuit or sea bread.

Harem (n.) The family of wives and concubines belonging to one man, in Mohammedan countries; a seraglio.

Harlot (n.) A churl; a common man; a person, male or female, of low birth.

Harlotry (n.) The trade or practice of prostitution; habitual or customary lewdness.

Harmaline (n.) An alkaloid found in the plant Peganum harmala. It forms bitter, yellow salts.

Harmony (n.) The just adaptation of parts to each other, in any system or combination of things, or in things, or things intended to form a connected whole; such an agreement between the different parts of a design or composition as to produce unity of effect; as, the harmony of the universe.

Harrier (n.) One of several species of hawks or buzzards of the genus Circus which fly low and harry small animals or birds, -- as the European marsh harrier (Circus aerunginosus), and the hen harrier (C. cyaneus).

Harsh (a.) Unpleasant and repulsive to the sensibilities; austere; crabbed; morose; abusive; abusive; severe; rough.

Hash (n.) A new mixture of old matter; a second preparation or exhibition.

Hashish (n.) A slightly acrid gum resin produced by the common hemp (Cannabis saltiva), of the variety Indica, when cultivated in a warm climate; also, the tops of the plant, from which the resinous product is obtained. It is narcotic, and has long been used in the East for its intoxicating effect. See Bhang, and Ganja.

Hatch (v. i.) To produce young; -- said of eggs; to come forth from the egg; -- said of the young of birds, fishes, insects, etc.

Haunt (v. t.) To inhabit or frequent as a specter; to visit as a ghost or apparition.

Haunt (v. t.) To accustom; to habituate.

Haunt (n.) The habit of resorting to a place.

Haunted (a.) Inhabited by, or subject to the visits of, apparitions; frequented by a ghost.

Hautein (a.) High; -- said of the voice or flight of birds.

Havanese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant, or the people, of Havana.

Hawk (n.) One of numerous species and genera of rapacious birds of the family Falconidae. They differ from the true falcons in lacking the prominent tooth and notch of the bill, and in having shorter and less pointed wings. Many are of large size and grade into the eagles. Some, as the goshawk, were formerly trained like falcons. In a more general sense the word is not infrequently applied, also, to true falcons, as the sparrow hawk, pigeon hawk, duck hawk, and prairie hawk.

Hawk (v. i.) To catch, or attempt to catch, birds by means of hawks trained for the purpose, and let loose on the prey; to practice falconry.

Hawkbill (n.) A sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), which yields the best quality of tortoise shell; -- called also caret.

Hawkbit (n.) The fall dandelion (Leontodon autumnale).

Hawked (a.) Curved like a hawk's bill; crooked.

Hawk moth () Any moth of the family Sphingidae, of which there are numerous genera and species. They are large, handsome moths, which fly mostly at twilight and hover about flowers like a humming bird, sucking the honey by means of a long, slender proboscis. The larvae are large, hairless caterpillars ornamented with green and other bright colors, and often with a caudal spine. See Sphinx, also Tobacco worm, and Tomato worm.

Hawkweed (n.) A plant of the genus Hieracium; -- so called from the ancient belief that birds of prey used its juice to strengthen their vision.

Hay (n.) A net set around the haunt of an animal, especially of a rabbit.

Hay (v. i.) To lay snares for rabbits.

Haybird (n.) The European spotted flycatcher.

Haybird (n.) The European blackcap.

Header (n.) A fall or plunge headforemost, as while riding a bicycle, or in bathing; as, to take a header.

Heam (n.) The afterbirth or secundines of a beast.

Hearse (n.) A bier or handbarrow for conveying the dead to the grave.

Hearsecloth (n.) A cloth for covering a coffin when on a bier; a pall.

Heart (n.) The seat of the affections or sensibilities, collectively or separately, as love, hate, joy, grief, courage, and the like; rarely, the seat of the understanding or will; -- usually in a good sense, when no epithet is expressed; the better or lovelier part of our nature; the spring of all our actions and purposes; the seat of moral life and character; the moral affections and character itself; the individual disposition and character; as, a good, tender, loving, bad, hard, or selfish heart.

Heart-robbing (a.) Depriving of thought; ecstatic.

Heart-robbing (a.) Stealing the heart or affections; winning.

Heartseed (n.) A climbing plant of the genus Cardiospermum, having round seeds which are marked with a spot like a heart.

Hearty (superl.) Exhibiting strength; sound; healthy; firm; not weak; as, a hearty timber.

Heat (n.) A force in nature which is recognized in various effects, but especially in the phenomena of fusion and evaporation, and which, as manifested in fire, the sun's rays, mechanical action, chemical combination, etc., becomes directly known to us through the sense of feeling. In its nature heat is a mode if motion, being in general a form of molecular disturbance or vibration. It was formerly supposed to be a subtile, imponderable fluid, to which was given the name caloric.

Heave (v. i.) To rise and fall with alternate motions, as the lungs in heavy breathing, as waves in a heavy sea, as ships on the billows, as the earth when broken up by frost, etc.; to swell; to dilate; to expand; to distend; hence, to labor; to struggle.

Heavenly (a.) Pertaining to, resembling, or inhabiting heaven; celestial; not earthly; as, heavenly regions; heavenly music.

Hebridian (n.) A native or inhabitant of the Hebrides.

Heck (n.) An apparatus for separating the threads of warps into sets, as they are wound upon the reel from the bobbins, in a warping machine.

Hectic (a.) Habitual; constitutional; pertaining especially to slow waste of animal tissue, as in consumption; as, a hectic type in disease; a hectic flush.

Hectolitre (n.) A measure of liquids, containing a hundred liters; equal to a tenth of a cubic meter, nearly 26/ gallons of wine measure, or 22.0097 imperial gallons. As a dry measure, it contains ten decaliters, or about 2/ Winchester bushels.

Hectostere (n.) A measure of solidity, containing one hundred cubic meters, and equivalent to 3531.66 English or 3531.05 United States cubic feet.

Hedge (v. i.) To shelter one's self from danger, risk, duty, responsibility, etc., as if by hiding in or behind a hedge; to skulk; to slink; to shirk obligations.

Hedgeborn (a.) Born under a hedge; of low birth.

Hedgehog (n.) A small European insectivore (Erinaceus Europaeus), and other allied species of Asia and Africa, having the hair on the upper part of its body mixed with prickles or spines. It is able to roll itself into a ball so as to present the spines outwardly in every direction. It is nocturnal in its habits, feeding chiefly upon insects.

Hedging bill () A hedge bill. See under Hedge.

Helenin (n.) A neutral organic substance found in the root of the elecampane (Inula helenium), and extracted as a white crystalline or oily material, with a slightly bitter taste.

Helio- () A combining form from Gr. "h`lios the sun.

Heliolatry (n.) Sun worship. See Sabianism.

Helleborein (n.) A poisonous glucoside accompanying helleborin in several species of hellebore, and extracted as a white crystalline substance with a bittersweet taste. It has a strong action on the heart, resembling digitalin.

Hellenic (a.) Of or pertaining to the Hellenes, or inhabitants of Greece; Greek; Grecian.

Helmet (n.) A naked shield or protuberance on the top or fore part of the head of a bird.

Helvetic (a.) Of or pertaining to the Helvetii, the ancient inhabitant of the Alps, now Switzerland, or to the modern states and inhabitant of the Alpine regions; as, the Helvetic confederacy; Helvetic states.

Hematin (n.) A bluish black, amorphous substance containing iron and obtained from blood. It exists the red blood corpuscles united with globulin, and the form of hemoglobin or oxyhemoglobin gives to the blood its red color.

Hematinometer (n.) A form of hemoglobinometer.

Hematinometric (a.) Relating to the measurement of the amount of hematin or hemoglobin contained in blood, or other fluids.

Hematocrya (n. pl.) The cold-blooded vertebrates, that is, all but the mammals and birds; -- the antithesis to Hematotherma.

Hematocrystallin (n.) See Hemoglobin.

Hematoidin (n.) A crystalline or amorphous pigment, free from iron, formed from hematin in old blood stains, and in old hemorrhages in the body. It resembles bilirubin. When present in the corpora lutea it is called haemolutein.

Hematotherma (n. pl.) The warm-blooded vertebrates, comprising the mammals and birds; -- the antithesis to hematocrya.

Hemerobian (n.) A neuropterous insect of the genus Hemerobius, and allied genera.

Hemerobid (a.) Of relating to the hemerobians.

Hemipode (n.) Any bird of the genus Turnix. Various species inhabit Asia, Africa, and Australia.

Hemisphere (n.) The people who inhabit a hemisphere.

Hemlock (n.) The name of several poisonous umbelliferous herbs having finely cut leaves and small white flowers, as the Cicuta maculata, bulbifera, and virosa, and the Conium maculatum. See Conium.

Hemlock (n.) An evergreen tree common in North America (Abies, / Tsuga, Canadensis); hemlock spruce.

Hemoglobin (n.) The normal coloring matter of the red blood corpuscles of vertebrate animals. It is composed of hematin and globulin, and is also called haematoglobulin. In arterial blood, it is always combined with oxygen, and is then called oxyhemoglobin. It crystallizes under different forms from different animals, and when crystallized, is called haematocrystallin. See Blood crystal, under Blood.

Hemoglobinometer (n.) Same as Haemochromometer.

Hemp (n.) A plant of the genus Cannabis (C. sativa), the fibrous skin or bark of which is used for making cloth and cordage. The name is also applied to various other plants yielding fiber.

Hen (n.) The female of the domestic fowl; also, the female of grouse, pheasants, or any kind of birds; as, the heath hen; the gray hen.

Henbit (n.) A weed of the genus Lamium (L. amplexicaule) with deeply crenate leaves.

Hendecasyllabic (a.) Pertaining to a line of eleven syllables.

Henfish (n.) A young bib. See Bib, n., 2.

Hepta () A combining form from Gr. "epta`, seven.

Heptad (n.) An atom which has a valence of seven, and which can be theoretically combined with, substituted for, or replaced by, seven monad atoms or radicals; as, iodine is a heptad in iodic acid. Also used as an adjective.

Herald (n.) A forerunner; a a precursor; a harbinger.

Herbergeour (n.) A harbinger.

Herbid (a.) Covered with herbs.

Herbiferous (a.) Bearing herbs or vegetation.

Herbist (n.) A herbalist.

Herbivora (n. pl.) An extensive division of Mammalia. It formerly included the Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Perissodactyla, and Artiodactyla, but by later writers it is generally restricted to the two latter groups (Ungulata). They feed almost exclusively upon vegetation.

Herbivore (n.) One of the Herbivora.

Herbivorous (a.) Eating plants; of or pertaining to the Herbivora.

Hercogamous (a.) Not capable of self-fertilization; -- said of hermaphrodite flowers in which some structural obstacle forbids autogamy.

Hercynian (a.) Of or pertaining to an extensive forest in Germany, of which there are still portions in Swabia and the Hartz mountains.

Hereditability (n.) State of being hereditable.

Heredity (n.) Hereditary transmission of the physical and psychical qualities of parents to their offspring; the biological law by which living beings tend to repeat their characteristics in their descendants. See Pangenesis.

Heritability (n.) The state of being heritable.

Hermaphroditism (n.) The union of the two sexes in the same individual, or the combination of some of their characteristics or organs in one individual.

Hermitage (n.) The habitation of a hermit; a secluded residence.

Herodiones (n. pl.) A division of wading birds, including the herons, storks, and allied forms. Called also Herodii.

Heroicomical (a.) Combining the heroic and the ludicrous; denoting high burlesque; as, a heroicomic poem.

Heron (n.) Any wading bird of the genus Ardea and allied genera, of the family Ardeidae. The herons have a long, sharp bill, and long legs and toes, with the claw of the middle toe toothed. The common European heron (Ardea cinerea) is remarkable for its directly ascending flight, and was formerly hunted with the larger falcons.

Herpetology (n.) The natural history of reptiles; that branch of zoology which relates to reptiles, including their structure, classification, and habits.

Hesperian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of a western country.

Hesperornis (n.) A genus of large, extinct, wingless birds from the Cretaceous deposits of Kansas, belonging to the Odontornithes. They had teeth, and were essentially carnivorous swimming ostriches. Several species are known. See Illust. in Append.

Hessian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Hesse.

Hetero- () A combining form signifying other, other than usual, different; as, heteroclite, heterodox, heterogamous.

Heterodactylae (n. pl.) A group of birds including the trogons.

Heterogenesis (n.) That method of reproduction in which the successive generations differ from each other, the parent organism producing offspring different in habit and structure from itself, the original form, however, reappearing after one or more generations; -- opposed to homogenesis, or gamogenesis.

Heteromerous (a.) Having the femoral artery developed as the principal artery of the leg; -- said of certain birds, as the cotingas and pipras.

Heteromyaria (n. pl.) A division of bivalve shells, including the marine mussels, in which the two adductor muscles are very unequal. See Dreissena, and Illust. under Byssus.

Heteropathy (n.) That mode of treating diseases, by which a morbid condition is removed by inducing an opposite morbid condition to supplant it; allopathy.

Heteropelmous (a.) Having each of the two flexor tendons of the toes bifid, the branches of one going to the first and second toes; those of the other, to the third and fourth toes. See Illust. in Append.

Hexa () A prefix or combining form, used to denote six, sixth, etc.; as, hexatomic, hexabasic.

Hexad (n.) An atom whose valence is six, and which can be theoretically combined with, substituted for, or replaced by, six monad atoms or radicals; as, sulphur is a hexad in sulphuric acid. Also used as an adjective.

Hibernaculum (n.) Winter home or abiding place.

Hibernian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Ireland.

Hibiscus (n.) A genus of plants (herbs, shrubs, or trees), some species of which have large, showy flowers. Some species are cultivated in India for their fiber, which is used as a substitute for hemp. See Althea, Hollyhock, and Manoe.

Hickory (n.) An American tree of the genus Carya, of which there are several species. The shagbark is the C. alba, and has a very rough bark; it affords the hickory nut of the markets. The pignut, or brown hickory, is the C. glabra. The swamp hickory is C. amara, having a nut whose shell is very thin and the kernel bitter.

Hidebound (a.) Untractable; bigoted; obstinately and blindly or stupidly conservative.

Hierarchy (n.) A form of government administered in the church by patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, bishops, and, in an inferior degree, by priests.

High (superl.) Of noble birth; illustrious; as, of high family.

Highbinder (n.) A ruffian; one who hounds, or spies upon, another; app. esp. to the members of certain alleged societies among the Chinese.

Highborn (a.) Of noble birth.

Highflying (a.) Extravagant in opinions or ambition.

High-handed (a.) Overbearing; oppressive; arbitrary; violent; as, a high-handed act.

Highlander (n.) An inhabitant of highlands, especially of the Highlands of Scotland.

High-reaching (a.) Reaching high or upward; hence, ambitious; aspiring.

Himyaritic (a.) Pertaining to Himyar, an ancient king of Yemen, in Arabia, or to his successors or people; as, the Himjaritic characters, language, etc.; applied esp. to certain ancient inscriptions showing the primitive type of the oldest form of the Arabic, still spoken in Southern Arabia.

Hindu (n.) A native inhabitant of Hindostan. As an ethnical term it is confined to the Dravidian and Aryan races; as a religious name it is restricted to followers of the Veda.

Hindustani (n.) The language of Hindostan; the name given by Europeans to the most generally spoken of the modern Aryan languages of India. It is Hindi with the addition of Persian and Arabic words.

Hippopotamus (n.) A large, amphibious, herbivorous mammal (Hippopotamus amphibius), common in the rivers of Africa. It is allied to the hogs, and has a very thick, naked skin, a thick and square head, a very large muzzle, small eyes and ears, thick and heavy body, and short legs. It is supposed to be the behemoth of the Bible. Called also zeekoe, and river horse. A smaller species (H. Liberiencis) inhabits Western Africa.

Hippurite (n.) A fossil bivalve mollusk of the genus Hippurites, of many species, having a conical, cup-shaped under valve, with a flattish upper valve or lid. Hippurites are found only in the Cretaceous rocks.

Hirsute (a.) Covered with hairlike feathers, as the feet of certain birds.

Hirundo (n.) A genus of birds including the swallows and martins.

Hiss (v. i.) To make a similar noise by any means; to pass with a sibilant sound; as, the arrow hissed as it flew.

Histology (n.) That branch of biological science, which treats of the minute (microscopic) structure of animal and vegetable tissues; -- called also histiology.

History (n.) A learning or knowing by inquiry; the knowledge of facts and events, so obtained; hence, a formal statement of such information; a narrative; a description; a written record; as, the history of a patient's case; the history of a legislative bill.

History (n.) A systematic, written account of events, particularly of those affecting a nation, institution, science, or art, and usually connected with a philosophical explanation of their causes; a true story, as distinguished from a romance; -- distinguished also from annals, which relate simply the facts and events of each year, in strict chronological order; from biography, which is the record of an individual's life; and from memoir, which is history composed from personal experience, observation, and memory.

Hive (n.) A box, basket, or other structure, for the reception and habitation of a swarm of honeybees.

Hoazin (n.) A remarkable South American bird (Opisthocomus cristatus); the crested touraco. By some zoologists it is made the type of a distinct order (Opisthocomi).

Hobbism (n.) The philosophical system of Thomas Hobbes, an English materialist (1588-1679); esp., his political theory that the most perfect form of civil government is an absolute monarchy with despotic control over everything relating to law, morals, and religion.

Hobbist (n.) One who accepts the doctrines of Thomas Hobbes.

Hobbies (pl. ) of Hobby

Hobgoblin (n.) A frightful goblin; an imp; a bugaboo; also, a name formerly given to the household spirit, Robin Goodfellow.

Hobiler (n.) A light horseman. See 2d Hobbler.

Hobit (n.) A small mortar on a gun carriage, in use before the howitzer.

Hornobbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Hobnob

Hough (n.) The joint in the hind limb of quadrupeds between the leg and shank, or tibia and tarsus, and corresponding to the ankle in man.

Hockey (n.) A game in which two parties of players, armed with sticks curved or hooked at the end, attempt to drive any small object (as a ball or a bit of wood) toward opposite goals.

Hodgkin's disease () A morbid condition characterized by progressive anaemia and enlargement of the lymphatic glands; -- first described by Dr. Hodgkin, an English physician.

Hog (n.) A rough, flat scrubbing broom for scrubbing a ship's bottom under water.

Hog (v. t.) To scrub with a hog, or scrubbing broom.

Holaspidean (a.) Having a single series of large scutes on the posterior side of the tarsus; -- said of certain birds.

Hold (v. t.) To impose restraint upon; to limit in motion or action; to bind legally or morally; to confine; to restrain.

Hold (n. i.) Not to fail or be found wanting; to continue; to last; to endure a test or trial; to abide; to persist.

Holder (n.) The payee of a bill of exchange or a promissory note, or the one who owns or holds it.

Holding (n.) That which holds, binds, or influences.

Hole (n.) An excavation in the ground, made by an animal to live in, or a natural cavity inhabited by an animal; hence, a low, narrow, or dark lodging or place; a mean habitation.

Hole (n.) To drive into a hole, as an animal, or a billiard ball.

Holo- () A combining form fr. Gr. "o`los whole.

Holostraca (n. pl.) A division of phyllopod Crustacea, including those that are entirely covered by a bivalve shell.

Holystone (n.) A stone used by seamen for scrubbing the decks of ships.

Home (n.) One's own dwelling place; the house in which one lives; esp., the house in which one lives with his family; the habitual abode of one's family; also, one's birthplace.

Home (n.) The abiding place of the affections, especially of the domestic affections.

Home (n.) The locality where a thing is usually found, or was first found, or where it is naturally abundant; habitat; seat; as, the home of the pine.

Homer (n.) A carrier pigeon remarkable for its ability to return home from a distance.

Homo- () A combining form from Gr. "omo`s, one and the same, common, joint.

Homoeomerous (a.) Having the main artery of the leg parallel with the sciatic nerve; -- said of certain birds.

Homogeny (n.) The correspondence of common descent; -- a term used to supersede homology by Lankester, who also used homoplasy to denote any superinduced correspondence of position and structure in parts embryonically distinct (other writers using the term homoplasmy). Thus, there is homogeny between the fore limb of a mammal and the wing of a bird; but the right and left ventricles of the heart in both are only in homoplasy with each other, these having arisen independently since the divergence of both groups from a univentricular ancestor.

Homology (n.) Correspondence or relation in type of structure in contradistinction to similarity of function; as, the relation in structure between the leg and arm of a man; or that between the arm of a man, the fore leg of a horse, the wing of a bird, and the fin of a fish, all these organs being modifications of one type of structure.

Homonymous (a.) Having the same name or designation, but different meaning or relation; hence, equivocal; ambiguous.

Homonymously (adv.) Equivocally; ambiguously.

Homonymy (n.) Sameness of name or designation of things or persons which are different; ambiguity.

Homophonous (a.) Expressing the same sound by a different combination of letters; as, bay and bey.

Homoplasmy (n.) Resemblance between different plants or animals, in external shape, in general habit, or in organs, which is not due to descent from a common ancestor, but to similar surrounding circumstances.

Homopolic (a.) In promorphology, pertaining to or exhibiting that kind of organic form, in which the stereometric ground form is a pyramid, with similar poles. See Promorphology.

Honesty (a.) The quality or state of being honest; probity; fairness and straightforwardness of conduct, speech, etc.; integrity; sincerity; truthfulness; freedom from fraud or guile.

Honesty (a.) Satin flower; the name of two cruciferous herbs having large flat pods, the round shining partitions of which are more beautiful than the blossom; -- called also lunary and moonwort. Lunaria biennis is common honesty; L. rediva is perennial honesty.

Honeybee (n.) Any bee of the genus Apis, which lives in communities and collects honey, esp. the common domesticated hive bee (Apis mellifica), the Italian bee (A. ligustica), and the Arabiab bee (A. fasciata). The two latter are by many entomologists considered only varieties of the common hive bee. Each swarm of bees consists of a large number of workers (barren females), with, ordinarily, one queen or fertile female, but in the swarming season several young queens, and a number of males or drones, are produced.

Honeybird (n.) The honey guide.

Honor (n.) To accept and pay when due; as, to honora bill of exchange.

Honorable (a.) High-minded; actuated by principles of honor, or a scrupulous regard to probity, rectitude, or reputation.

Honorableness (n.) Conformity to the principles of honor, probity, or moral rectitude; fairness; uprightness; reputableness.

Hooded (a.) Having the head conspicuously different in color from the rest of the plumage; -- said of birds.

Hook (n.) An implement for cutting grass or grain; a sickle; an instrument for cutting or lopping; a billhook.

Hook-billed (a.) Having a strongly curved bill.

Hooked (a.) Having the form of a hook; curvated; as, the hooked bill of a bird.

Hoop (n.) A circle, or combination of circles, of thin whalebone, metal, or other elastic material, used for expanding the skirts of ladies' dresses; crinoline; -- used chiefly in the plural.

Hoop (v. t.) To bind or fasten with hoops; as, to hoop a barrel or puncheon.

Hoopoo (n.) A European bird of the genus Upupa (U. epops), having a beautiful crest, which it can erect or depress at pleasure. Called also hoop, whoop. The name is also applied to several other species of the same genus and allied genera.

Hoosier (n.) A nickname given to an inhabitant of the State of Indiana.

Hop (v. i.) To move by successive leaps, as toads do; to spring or jump on one foot; to skip, as birds do.

Hop (n.) A climbing plant (Humulus Lupulus), having a long, twining, annual stalk. It is cultivated for its fruit (hops).

Hop (n.) The catkin or strobilaceous fruit of the hop, much used in brewing to give a bitter taste.

Hopbine (n.) Alt. of Hopbind

Hopbind (n.) The climbing stem of the hop.

Hope (v. t.) To desire with expectation or with belief in the possibility or prospect of obtaining; to look forward to as a thing desirable, with the expectation of obtaining it; to cherish hopes of.

Horehound (n.) A plant of the genus Marrubium (M. vulgare), which has a bitter taste, and is a weak tonic, used as a household remedy for colds, coughing, etc.

Horn (n.) Any natural projection or excrescence from an animal, resembling or thought to resemble a horn in substance or form; esp.: (a) A projection from the beak of a bird, as in the hornbill. (b) A tuft of feathers on the head of a bird, as in the horned owl. (c) A hornlike projection from the head or thorax of an insect, or the head of a reptile, or fish. (d) A sharp spine in front of the fins of a fish, as in the horned pout.

Hornbill (n.) Any bird of the family Bucerotidae, of which about sixty species are known, belonging to numerous genera. They inhabit the tropical parts of Asia, Africa, and the East Indies, and are remarkable for having a more or less horn-like protuberance, which is usually large and hollow and is situated on the upper side of the beak. The size of the hornbill varies from that of a pigeon to that of a raven, or even larger. They feed chiefly upon fruit, but some species eat dead animals.

Hornet (n.) A large, strong wasp. The European species (Vespa crabro) is of a dark brown and yellow color. It is very pugnacious, and its sting is very severe. Its nest is constructed of a paperlike material, and the layers of comb are hung together by columns. The American white-faced hornet (V. maculata) is larger and has similar habits.

Hornotine (n.) A yearling; a bird of the year.

Hornyhead (n.) Any North American river chub of the genus Hybopsis, esp. H. biguttatus.

Horoscope (n.) The representation made of the aspect of the heavens at the moment of a person's birth, by which the astrologer professed to foretell the events of the person's life; especially, the sign of the zodiac rising above the horizon at such a moment.

Horoscopy (n.) Aspect of the stars at the time of a person's birth.

Horse power () A unit of power, used in stating the power required to drive machinery, and in estimating the capabilities of animals or steam engines and other prime movers for doing work. It is the power required for the performance of work at the rate of 33,000 English units of work per minute; hence, it is the power that must be exerted in lifting 33,000 pounds at the rate of one foot per minute, or 550 pounds at the rate of one foot per second, or 55 pounds at the rate of ten feet per second, etc.

Hospitalism (n.) A vitiated condition of the body, due to long confinement in a hospital, or the morbid condition of the atmosphere of a hospital.

Hospitalize (v. t.) To render (a building) unfit for habitation, by long continued use as a hospital.

Hot (superl.) Acrid; biting; pungent; as, hot as mustard.

Hound's-tongue (n.) A biennial weed (Cynoglossum officinale), with soft tongue-shaped leaves, and an offensive odor. It bears nutlets covered with barbed or hooked prickles. Called also dog's-tongue.

House (n.) A structure intended or used as a habitation or shelter for animals of any kind; but especially, a building or edifice for the habitation of man; a dwelling place, a mansion.

House (n.) The body, as the habitation of the soul.

House (v. i.) To take shelter or lodging; to abide to dwell; to lodge.

Housework (n.) The work belonging to housekeeping; especially, kitchen work, sweeping, scrubbing, bed making, and the like.

Housing (n.) The act of putting or receiving under shelter; the state of dwelling in a habitation.

Howler (n.) Any South American monkey of the genus Mycetes. Many species are known. They are arboreal in their habits, and are noted for the loud, discordant howling in which they indulge at night.

Huchen (n.) A large salmon (Salmo, / Salvelinus, hucho) inhabiting the Danube; -- called also huso, and bull trout.

Hue (n.) A predominant shade in a composition of primary colors; a primary color modified by combination with others.

Huff (v. i.) To remove from the board a man which could have captured a piece but has not done so; -- so called because it was the habit to blow upon the piece.

Huia bird () A New Zealand starling (Heteralocha acutirostris), remarkable for the great difference in the form and length of the bill in the two sexes, that of the male being sharp and straight, that of the female much longer and strongly curved.

Humanitarian (a.) Content with right affections and actions toward man; ethical, as distinguished from religious; believing in the perfectibility of man's nature without supernatural aid.

Humanize (v. t.) To render human or humane; to soften; to make gentle by overcoming cruel dispositions and rude habits; to refine or civilize.

Humbird (n.) Humming bird.

Humin (n.) A bitter, brownish yellow, amorphous substance, extracted from vegetable mold, and also produced by the action of acids on certain sugars and carbohydrates; -- called also humic acid, ulmin, gein, ulmic or geic acid, etc.

Hummer (n.) A humming bird.

Humor (n.) A vitiated or morbid animal fluid, such as often causes an eruption on the skin.

Humor (n.) State of mind, whether habitual or temporary (as formerly supposed to depend on the character or combination of the fluids of the body); disposition; temper; mood; as, good humor; ill humor.

Humpback (n.) Any whale of the genus Megaptera, characterized by a hump or bunch on the back. Several species are known. The most common ones in the North Atlantic are Megaptera longimana of Europe, and M. osphyia of America; that of the California coasts is M. versabilis.

Hundreder (n.) An inhabitant or freeholder of a hundred.

Hunger-bit (a.) Alt. of Hunger-bitten

Hunger-bitten (a.) Pinched or weakened by hunger.

Huso (n.) A large European sturgeon (Acipenser huso), inhabiting the region of the Black and Caspian Seas. It sometimes attains a length of more than twelve feet, and a weight of two thousand pounds. Called also hausen.

Hut (n.) A small house, hivel, or cabin; a mean lodge or dwelling; a slightly built or temporary structure.

Hutch (n.) A chest, box, coffer, bin, coop, or the like, in which things may be stored, or animals kept; as, a grain hutch; a rabbit hutch.

Hydrargochloride (n.) A compound of the bichloride of mercury with another chloride.

Hydrastine (n.) An alkaloid, found in the rootstock of the golden seal (Hydrastis Canadensis), and extracted as a bitter, white, crystalline substance. It is used as a tonic and febrifuge.

Hydrate (v. t.) To form into a hydrate; to combine with water.

Hydrated (a.) Formed into a hydrate; combined with water.

Hydride (n.) A compound of the binary type, in which hydrogen is united with some other element.

Hydriodic (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, hydrogen and iodine; -- said of an acid produced by the combination of these elements.

Hydriodide (n.) A compound of hydriodic acid with a base; -- distinguished from an iodide, in which only the iodine combines with the base.

Hydr- () A combining form from Gr. /, /, water (see Hydra).

Hydr- () A combining form of hydrogen, indicating hydrogen as an ingredient, as hydrochloric; or a reduction product obtained by hydrogen, as hydroquinone.

Hydrobilirubin (n.) A body formed from bilirubin, identical with urobilin.

Hydrocyanic (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from the combination of, hydrogen and cyanogen.

Hydrocyanide (n.) A compound of hydrocyanic acid with a base; -- distinguished from a cyanide, in which only the cyanogen so combines.

Hydrogen (n.) A gaseous element, colorless, tasteless, and odorless, the lightest known substance, being fourteen and a half times lighter than air (hence its use in filling balloons), and over eleven thousand times lighter than water. It is very abundant, being an ingredient of water and of many other substances, especially those of animal or vegetable origin. It may by produced in many ways, but is chiefly obtained by the action of acids (as sulphuric) on metals, as zinc, iron, etc. It is very inflammable, and is an ingredient of coal gas and water gas. It is standard of chemical equivalents or combining weights, and also of valence, being the typical monad. Symbol H. Atomic weight 1.

Hydrogenation (n.) The act of combining with hydrogen, or the state of being so combined.

Hydrogenide (n.) A binary compound containing hydrogen; a hydride. [R.] See Hydride.

Hydrogenize (v. t.) To combine with hydrogen; to treat with, or subject to the action of, hydrogen; to reduce; -- contrasted with oxidize.

Hydrography (n.) The art of measuring and describing the sea, lakes, rivers, and other waters, with their phenomena.

Hydrography (n.) That branch of surveying which embraces the determination of the contour of the bottom of a harbor or other sheet of water, the depth of soundings, the position of channels and shoals, with the construction of charts exhibiting these particulars.

Hydrophobia (n.) An abnormal dread of water, said to be a symptom of canine madness; hence:

Hydrophobia (n.) The disease caused by a bite form, or inoculation with the saliva of, a rabid creature, of which the chief symptoms are, a sense of dryness and construction in the throat, causing difficulty in deglutition, and a marked heightening of reflex excitability, producing convulsions whenever the patient attempts to swallow, or is disturbed in any way, as by the sight or sound of water; rabies; canine madness.

Hydrophobic (a.) Of or pertaining to hydrophobia; producing or caused by rabies; as, hydrophobic symptoms; the hydrophobic poison.

Hydrophoby (n.) See Hydrophobia.

Hydrosalt (n.) A hydrous salt; a salt combined with water of hydration or crystallization.

Hydrosorbic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid obtained from sorbic acid when this takes up hydrogen; as, hydrosorbic acid.

Hydrosulphureted (a.) Combined with hydrogen sulphide.

Hydroxide (n.) A hydrate; a substance containing hydrogen and oxygen, made by combining water with an oxide, and yielding water by elimination. The hydroxides are regarded as compounds of hydroxyl, united usually with basic element or radical; as, calcium hydroxide ethyl hydroxide.

Hydroxy- () A combining form, also used adjectively, indicating hydroxyl as an ingredient.

Hydruret (n.) A binary compound of hydrogen; a hydride.

Hyena (n.) Any carnivorous mammal of the family Hyaenidae, of which three living species are known. They are large and strong, but cowardly. They feed chiefly on carrion, and are nocturnal in their habits.

Hygrometrical (a.) Readily absorbing and retaining moisture; as, hygrometric substances, like potash.

Hygroscopic (a.) Having the property of readily inbibing moisture from the atmosphere, or of the becoming coated with a thin film of moisture, as glass, etc.

Hygroscopicity (n.) The property possessed by vegetable tissues of absorbing or discharging moisture according to circumstances.

Hyperaesthesia (n.) A state of exalted or morbidly increased sensibility of the body, or of a part of it.

Hyperborean (a.) Of or pertaining to the region beyond the North wind, or to its inhabitants.

Hyperborean (a.) Northern; belonging to, or inhabiting, a region in very far north; most northern; hence, very cold; fright, as, a hyperborean coast or atmosphere.

Hyperborean (n.) An inhabitant of the most northern regions.

Hypercarbureted (a.) Having an excessive proportion of carbonic acid; -- said of bicarbonates or acid carbonates.

Hypermyriorama (n.) A show or exhibition having a great number of scenes or views.

Hyperoxygenized (a.) Combined with a relatively large amount of oxygen; -- said of higher oxides.

Hypersecretion (n.) Morbid or excessive secretion, as in catarrh.

Hypersensibility (n.) See Hyperaesthesia.

Hypersthene (n.) An orthorhombic mineral of the pyroxene group, of a grayish or greenish black color, often with a peculiar bronzelike luster (schiller) on the cleavage surface.

Hypnotic (n.) A person who exhibits the phenomena of, or is subject to, hypnotism.

Hypocleidium (n.) A median process on the furculum, or merrythought, of many birds, where it is connected with the sternum.

Hypodicrotous (a.) Exhibiting retarded dicrotism; as, a hypodicrotic pulse curve.

Hyponastic (a.) Exhibiting a downward convexity caused by unequal growth. Cf. Epinastic.

Hypoptilum (n.) An accessory plume arising from the posterior side of the stem of the contour feathers of many birds; -- called also aftershaft. See Illust. of Feather.

Hypostoma (n.) The lower lip of trilobites, crustaceans, etc.

Hypotarsus (n.) A process on the posterior side of the tarsometatarsus of many birds; the calcaneal process.

Hypothecate (v. t.) To subject, as property, to liability for a debt or engagement without delivery of possession or transfer of title; to pledge without delivery of possession; to mortgage, as ships, or other personal property; to make a contract by bottomry. See Hypothecation, Bottomry.

Hysteria (n.) A nervous affection, occurring almost exclusively in women, in which the emotional and reflex excitability is exaggerated, and the will power correspondingly diminished, so that the patient loses control over the emotions, becomes the victim of imaginary sensations, and often falls into paroxism or fits.

I () I, the ninth letter of the English alphabet, takes its form from the Phoenician, through the Latin and the Greek. The Phoenician letter was probably of Egyptian origin. Its original value was nearly the same as that of the Italian I, or long e as in mete. Etymologically I is most closely related to e, y, j, g; as in dint, dent, beverage, L. bibere; E. kin, AS. cynn; E. thin, AS. /ynne; E. dominion, donjon, dungeon.

Iamb (n.) An iambus or iambic.

Iambic (a.) Consisting of a short syllable followed by a long one, or of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented; as, an iambic foot.

Iambic (a.) Pertaining to, or composed of, iambics; as, an iambic verse; iambic meter. See Lambus.

Iambic (n.) An iambic foot; an iambus.

Iambic (n.) A verse composed of iambic feet.

Iambic (n.) A satirical poem (such poems having been anciently written in iambic verse); a satire; a lampoon.

Iambical (a.) Iambic.

Iambically (adv.) In a iambic manner; after the manner of iambics.

Iambize (v. t.) To satirize in iambics; to lampoon.

Iambi (pl. ) of Iambus

Iambus (n.) A foot consisting of a short syllable followed by a long one, as in /mans, or of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented one, as invent; an iambic. See the Couplet under Iambic, n.

Ibices (pl. ) of Ibex

Ibidem (adv.) In the same place; -- abbreviated ibid. or ib.

Ibis (n.) Any bird of the genus Ibis and several allied genera, of the family Ibidae, inhabiting both the Old World and the New. Numerous species are known. They are large, wading birds, having a long, curved beak, and feed largely on reptiles.

Icebird (n.) An Arctic sea bird, as the Arctic fulmar.

Ichneumon (n.) Any carnivorous mammal of the genus Herpestes, and family Viverridae. Numerous species are found in Asia and Africa. The Egyptian species(H. ichneumon), which ranges to Spain and Palestine, is noted for destroying the eggs and young of the crocodile as well as various snakes and lizards, and hence was considered sacred by the ancient Egyptians. The common species of India (H. griseus), known as the mongoose, has similar habits and is often domesticated. It is noted for killing the cobra.

Ichnographical (a.) Of or pertaining to ichonography; describing a ground plot.

Ichthus (n.) In early Christian and eccesiastical art, an emblematic fish, or the Greek word for fish, which combined the initials of the Greek words /, /, / /, /, Jesus, Christ, Son of God, Savior.

Ichthyoidal (a.) Somewhat like a fish; having some of the characteristics of fishes; -- said of some amphibians.

Ichthyology (n.) The natural history of fishes; that branch of zoology which relates to fishes, including their structure, classification, and habits.

Ichthyopsida (n. pl.) A grand division of the Vertebrata, including the Amphibia and Fishes.

Ichthyornis (n.) An extinct genus of toothed birds found in the American Cretaceous formation. It is remarkable for having biconcave vertebrae, and sharp, conical teeth set in sockets. Its wings were well developed. It is the type of the order Odontotormae.

Ichthyosaurus (n.) An extinct genus of marine reptiles; -- so named from their short, biconcave vertebrae, resembling those of fishes. Several species, varying in length from ten to thirty feet, are known from the Liassic, Oolitic, and Cretaceous formations.

-ide () A suffix used to denote: (a) The nonmetallic, or negative, element or radical in a binary compound; as, oxide, sulphide, chloride. (b) A compound which is an anhydride; as, glycolide, phthalide. (c) Any one of a series of derivatives; as, indogenide, glucoside, etc.

Identify (v. t.) To make to be the same; to unite or combine in such a manner as to make one; to treat as being one or having the same purpose or effect; to consider as the same in any relation.

Ideo- () A combining form from the Gr. /, an idea.

Idio- () A combining form from the Greek /, meaning private, personal, peculiar, distinct.

Idiopathy (n.) A morbid state or condition not preceded or occasioned by any other disease; a primary disease.

Idiophanous (a.) Exhibiting interference figures without the aid of a polariscope, as certain crystals.

Idiosyncrasy (n.) A peculiarity of physical or mental constitution or temperament; a characteristic belonging to, and distinguishing, an individual; characteristic susceptibility; idiocrasy; eccentricity.

Idiot (n.) A human being destitute of the ordinary intellectual powers, whether congenital, developmental, or accidental; commonly, a person without understanding from birth; a natural fool; a natural; an innocent.

Idorgan (n.) A morphological unit, consisting of two or more plastids, which does not possess the positive character of the person or stock, in distinction from the physiological organ or biorgan. See Morphon.

Idrialite (n.) A bituminous substance obtained from the mercury mines of Idria, where it occurs mixed with cinnabar.

Idumean (n.) An inhabitant of Idumea, an Edomite.

Ignobility (n.) Ignobleness.

Ignoble (a.) Of low birth or family; not noble; not illustrious; plebeian; common; humble.

Ignoramus (n.) We are ignorant; we ignore; -- being the word formerly written on a bill of indictment by a grand jury when there was not sufficient evidence to warrant them in finding it a true bill. The phrase now used is, "No bill," "No true bill," or "Not found," though in some jurisdictions "Ignored" is still used.

Ignore (v. t.) To throw out or reject as false or ungrounded; -- said of a bill rejected by a grand jury for want of evidence. See Ignoramus.

Iguana (n.) Any species of the genus Iguana, a genus of large American lizards of the family Iguanidae. They are arboreal in their habits, usually green in color, and feed chiefly upon fruits.

Iguanodon (n.) A genus of gigantic herbivorous dinosaurs having a birdlike pelvis and large hind legs with three-toed feet capable of supporting the entire body. Its teeth resemble those of the iguana, whence its name. Several species are known, mostly from the Wealden of England and Europe. See Illustration in Appendix.

Ileus (n.) A morbid condition due to intestinal obstruction. It is characterized by complete constipation, with griping pains in the abdomen, which is greatly distended, and in the later stages by vomiting of fecal matter. Called also ileac, / iliac, passion.

Ilicin (n.) The bitter principle of the holly.

Ilio- () A combining form used in anatomy to denote connection with, or relation to, the ilium; as, ilio-femoral, ilio-lumbar, ilio-psoas, etc.

Illabile (a.) Incapable of falling or erring; infalliable.

Illegibility (n.) The state or quality of being illegible.

Illicit (a.) Not permitted or allowed; prohibited; unlawful; as, illicit trade; illicit intercourse; illicit pleasure.

Illinition (n.) A smearing or rubbing in or on; also, that which is smeared or rubbed on, as ointment or liniment.

Illiteracy (n.) The state of being illiterate, or uneducated; want of learning, or knowledge; ignorance; specifically, inability to read and write; as, the illiteracy shown by the last census.

Ill-natured (a.) Of habitual bad temper; peevish; fractious; cross; crabbed; surly; as, an ill-natured person.

Illuminati (v. t.) Members of a sect which sprung up in Spain about the year 1575. Their principal doctrine was, that, by means of prayer, they had attained to so perfect a state as to have no need of ordinances, sacraments, good works, etc.; -- called also Alumbrados, Perfectibilists, etc.

Illuminati (v. t.) Members of certain associations in Modern Europe, who combined to promote social reforms, by which they expected to raise men and society to perfection, esp. of one originated in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, professor of canon law at Ingolstadt, which spread rapidly for a time, but ceased after a few years.

Illustrate (v. t.) To set in a clear light; to exhibit distinctly or conspicuously.

Im- () A form of the prefix in- not, and in- in. See In-. Im- also occurs in composition with some words not of Latin origin; as, imbank, imbitter.

Imaginability (n.) Capacity for imagination.

Imagination (n.) The representative power; the power to reconstruct or recombine the materials furnished by direct apprehension; the complex faculty usually termed the plastic or creative power; the fancy.

Imagination (n.) The power to recombine the materials furnished by experience or memory, for the accomplishment of an elevated purpose; the power of conceiving and expressing the ideal.

Imbibed (imp. & p. p.) of Imbibe

Imbibing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Imbibe

Imbibe (v. t.) To drink in; to absorb; to suck or take in; to receive as by drinking; as, a person imbibes drink, or a sponge imbibes moisture.

Imbibe (v. t.) To receive or absorb into the mind and retain; as, to imbibe principles; to imbibe errors.

Imbibe (v. t.) To saturate; to imbue.

Imbiber (n.) One who, or that which, imbibes.

Imbibition (n.) The act or process of imbibing, or absorbing; as, the post-mortem imbibition of poisons.

Imbittered (imp. & p. p.) of Imbitter

Imbittering (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Imbitter

Imbitter (v. t.) To make bitter; hence, to make distressing or more distressing; to make sad, morose, sour, or malignant.

Imbitterer (n.) One who, or that which, imbitters.

Imbitterment (n.) The act of imbittering; bitter feeling; embitterment.

Imide (n.) A compound with, or derivative of, the imido group; specif., a compound of one or more acid radicals with the imido group, or with a monamine; hence, also, a derivative of ammonia, in which two atoms of hydrogen have been replaced by divalent basic or acid radicals; -- frequently used as a combining form; as, succinimide.

Imido (a.) Pertaining to, containing, or combined with, the radical NH, which is called the imido group.

Imitability (n.) The quality of being imitable.

Imitate (v. t.) To resemble (another species of animal, or a plant, or inanimate object) in form, color, ornamentation, or instinctive habits, so as to derive an advantage thereby; sa, when a harmless snake imitates a venomous one in color and manner, or when an odorless insect imitates, in color, one having secretion offensive to birds.

Imitative (a.) Inclined to imitate, copy, or follow; imitating; exhibiting some of the qualities or characteristics of a pattern or model; dependent on example; not original; as, man is an imitative being; painting is an imitative art.

Imitative (a.) Designed to imitate another species of animal, or a plant, or inanimate object, for some useful purpose, such as protection from enemies; having resamblance to something else; as, imitative colors; imitative habits; dendritic and mammillary forms of minerals are imitative.

Immanent (a.) Remaining within; inherent; indwelling; abiding; intrinsic; internal or subjective; hence, limited in activity, agency, or effect, to the subject or associated acts; -- opposed to emanant, transitory, transitive, or objective.

Immeability (n.) Want of power to pass, or to permit passage; impassableness.

Immeasurability (n.) The quality of being immeasurable; immensurability.

Immensurability (n.) The quality of being immensurable.

Immiscibility (n.) Incapability of being mixed, or mingled.

Immobile (a.) Incapable of being moved; immovable; fixed; stable.

Immobility (n.) The condition or quality of being immobile; fixedness in place or state.

Immobilize (v. t.) To make immovable; in surgery, to make immovable (a naturally mobile part, as a joint) by the use of splints, or stiffened bandages.

Immoble (a.) See Immobile.

Immortal (a.) Not mortal; exempt from liability to die; undying; imperishable; lasting forever; having unlimited, or eternal, existance.

Immortal (a.) Connected with, or pertaining to immortability.

Immortal (a.) Destined to live in all ages of this world; abiding; exempt from oblivion; imperishable; as, immortal fame.

Immovability (n.) The quality or state of being immovable; fixedness; steadfastness; as, immovability of a heavy body; immovability of purpose.

Immutability (n.) The state or quality of being immutable; immutableness.

Imp (n.) Something added to, or united with, another, to lengthen it out or repair it, -- as, an addition to a beehive; a feather inserted in a broken wing of a bird; a length of twisted hair in a fishing line.

Impalpability (n.) The quality of being impalpable.

Imparisyllabic (a.) Not consisting of an equal number of syllables; as, an imparisyllabic noun, one which has not the same number of syllables in all the cases; as, lapis, lapidis; mens, mentis.

Imparity (n.) Indivisibility into equal parts; oddness.

Impartial (a.) Not partial; not favoring one more than another; treating all alike; unprejudiced; unbiased; disinterested; equitable; fair; just.

Impartiality (n.) The quality of being impartial; freedom from bias or favoritism; disinterestedness; equitableness; fairness; as, impartiality of judgment, of treatment, etc.

Impartibility (n.) The quality of being impartible; communicability.

Impartibility (n.) The quality of being incapable of division into parts; indivisibility.

Impassibility (a.) The quality or condition of being impassible; insusceptibility of injury from external things.

Impassibleness (n.) Impassibility.

Impastation (n.) The act of making into paste; that which is formed into a paste or mixture; specifically, a combination of different substances by means of cements.

Impatient (a.) Prompted by, or exhibiting, impatience; as, impatient speeches or replies.

Impeach (v. t.) To challenge or discredit the credibility of, as of a witness, or the validity of, as of commercial paper.

Impeachment (n.) A calling in question as to purity of motives, rectitude of conduct, credibility, etc.; accusation; reproach; as, an impeachment of motives.

Impeccability (n.) the quality of being impeccable; exemption from sin, error, or offense.

Impeccable (a.) Not liable to sin; exempt from the possibility of doing wrong.

Impecunious (a.) Not having money; habitually without money; poor.

Impenetrability (n.) Quality of being impenetrable.

Impenetrability (n.) That property in virtue of which two portions of matter can not at the same time occupy the same portion of space.

Impenetrability (n.) Insusceptibility of intellectual or emotional impression; obtuseness; stupidity; coldness.

Impenetrableness (n.) The quality of being impenetrable; impenetrability.

Impennes (n. pl.) An order of birds, including only the penguins, in which the wings are without quills, and not suited for flight.

Imperative (a.) Not to be avoided or evaded; obligatory; binding; compulsory; as, an imperative duty or order.

Imperceptibility (n.) The state or quality of being imperceptible.

Imperdibility (n.) The state or quality of being imperdible.

Imperfectibility (n.) The state or quality of being imperfectible.

Imperishability (n.) The quality of being imperishable: indstructibility.

Impermeability (n.) The quality of being impermeable.

Imperspicuity (n.) Want of perspicuity or clearness; vaguness; ambiguity.

Impertransibility (n.) The quality or state of being impertransible.

Imperviability (n.) The quality of being imperviable.

Implacability (n.) The quality or state of being implacable.

Implacable (a.) Incapable of ebign relieved or assuaged; inextinguishable.

Implacableness (n.) The quality of being implacable; implacability.

Implausibility (n.) Want of plausibility; the quality of being implausible.

Implausible (a.) Not plausible; not wearing the appearance of truth or credibility, and not likely to be believed.

Impluvium (n.) In Roman dwellings, a cistern or tank, set in the atrium or peristyle to recieve the water from the roof, by means of the compluvium; generally made ornamental with flowers and works of art around its birm.

Impoison (v. t.) To poison; to imbitter; to impair.

Imponderability (n.) The quality or state of being imponderable; imponderableness.

Imposition (n.) An excessive, arbitrary, or unlawful exaction; hence, a trick or deception put on laid on others; cheating; fraud; delusion; imposture.

Impossibilities (pl. ) of Impossibility

Impossibility (n.) The quality of being impossible; impracticability.

Impossibility (n.) An impossible thing; that which can not be thought, done, or endured.

Impossibility (n.) Inability; helplessness.

Impossible (n.) An impossibility.

Impotency (n.) The quality or condition of being impotent; want of strength or power, animal, intellectual, or moral; weakness; feebleness; inability; imbecility.

Impotency (n.) Want of procreative power; inability to copulate, or beget children; also, sometimes, sterility; barrenness.

Impracticabilities (pl. ) of Impracticability

Impracticability (n.) The state or quality of being impracticable; infeasibility.

Impracticability (n.) An impracticable thing.

Impracticability (n.) Intractableness; stubbornness.

Impracticableness (n.) The state or quality of being impracticable; impracticability.

Impregnability (n.) The quality or state of being impregnable; invincibility.

Imprescriptibility (n.) The quality of being imprescriptible.

Impressibility (n.) The quality of being impressible; susceptibility.

Impressionability (n.) The quality of being impressionable.

Impressive (a.) Making, or tending to make, an impression; having power to impress; adapted to excite attention and feeling, to touch the sensibilities, or affect the conscience; as, an impressive discourse; an impressive scene.

Impreventability (n.) The state or quality of being impreventable.

Improbabilities (pl. ) of Improbability

Improbability (n.) The quality or state of being improbable; unlikelihood; also, that which is improbable; an improbable event or result.

Improbity (n.) Lack of probity; want of integrity or rectitude; dishonesty.

Improvability (n.) The state or quality of being improvable; improvableness.

Impuberty (n.) The condition of not having reached puberty, or the age of ability to reproduce one's species; want of age at which the marriage contract can be legally entered into.

Impuissance (n.) Lack of power; inability.

Imputability (n.) The quality of being imputable; imputableness.

In- (prep.) A prefix from Eng. prep. in, also from Lat. prep. in, meaning in, into, on, among; as, inbred, inborn, inroad; incline, inject, intrude. In words from the Latin, in- regularly becomes il- before l, ir- before r, and im- before a labial; as, illusion, irruption, imblue, immigrate, impart. In- is sometimes used with an simple intensive force.

In- () An inseparable prefix, or particle, meaning not, non-, un- as, inactive, incapable, inapt. In- regularly becomes il- before l, ir- before r, and im- before a labial.

In (adv.) Not out; within; inside. In, the preposition, becomes an adverb by omission of its object, leaving it as the representative of an adverbial phrase, the context indicating what the omitted object is; as, he takes in the situation (i. e., he comprehends it in his mind); the Republicans were in (i. e., in office); in at one ear and out at the other (i. e., in or into the head); his side was in (i. e., in the turn at the bat); he came in (i. e., into the house).

Inability (n.) The quality or state of being unable; lack of ability; want of sufficient power, strength, resources, or capacity.

Inaccessibility (n.) The quality or state of being inaccessible; inaccessibleness.

Inactive (a.) Not active; inert; esp., not exhibiting any action or activity on polarized light; optically neutral; -- said of isomeric forms of certain substances, in distinction from other forms which are optically active; as, racemic acid is an inactive tartaric acid.

Inactivity (n.) Idleness; habitual indisposition to action or exertion; want of energy; sluggishness.

Inadmissibility (n.) The state or quality of being inadmissible, or not to be received.

Inaffability (n.) Want of affability or sociability; reticence.

Inalienability (n.) The quality or state of being inalienable.

Inalienable (a.) Incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred to another; not alienable; as, in inalienable birthright.

Inalienableness (n.) The quality or state of being inalienable; inalienability.

Inalienably (adv.) In a manner that forbids alienation; as, rights inalienably vested.

Inalterability (n.) The quality of being unalterable or unchangeable; permanence.

Inapathy (n.) Sensibility; feeling; -- opposed to apathy.

Inappellability (n.) The quality of being inappellable; finality.

Inapplicability (n.) The quality of being inapplicable; unfitness; inapplicableness.

Inattentive (a.) Not attentive; not fixing the mind on an object; heedless; careless; negligent; regardless; as, an inattentive spectator or hearer; an inattentive habit.

Inaudibility (n.) The quality of being inaudible; inaudibleness.

Inbind (v. t.) To inclose.

Incalculability (n.) The quality or state of being incalculable.

Incapability (n.) The quality of being incapable; incapacity.

Incapability (n.) Want of legal qualifications, or of legal power; as, incapability of holding an office.

Incapable (a.) Wanting in ability or qualification for the purpose or end in view; not large enough to contain or hold; deficient in physical strength, mental or moral power, etc.; not capable; as, incapable of holding a certain quantity of liquid; incapable of endurance, of comprehension, of perseverance, of reform, etc.

Incapableness (n.) The quality or state of being incapable; incapability.

Incapacitate (v. t.) To deprive of legal or constitutional requisites, or of ability or competency for the performance of certain civil acts; to disqualify.

Incapacity (n.) Want of capacity; lack of physical or intellectual power; inability.

Incapacity (n.) Want of legal ability or competency to do, give, transmit, or receive something; inability; disqualification; as, the inacapacity of minors to make binding contracts, etc.

Incest (n.) The crime of cohabitation or sexual commerce between persons related within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by law.

Inchangeability (n.) Unchangeableness.

Incisive (a.) Having the quality of incising, cutting, or penetrating, as with a sharp instrument; cutting; hence, sharp; acute; sarcastic; biting.

Inclusa (n. pl.) A tribe of bivalve mollusks, characterized by the closed state of the mantle which envelops the body. The ship borer (Teredo navalis) is an example.

Incombine (v. i.) To be incapable of combining; to disagree; to differ.

Incombustibility (n.) The quality of being incombustible.

Incommensurability (n.) The quality or state of being incommensurable.

Incommunicability (n.) The quality or state of being incommunicable, or incapable of being imparted.

Incommutability (n.) The quality or state of being incommutable.

-ties (pl. ) of Incompatibility

Incompatibility (n.) The quality or state of being incompatible; inconsistency; irreconcilableness.

Incompatible (a.) Not compatible; so differing as to be incapable of harmonious combination or coexistence; inconsistent in thought or being; irreconcilably disagreeing; as, persons of incompatible tempers; incompatible colors, desires, ambition.

Incompatibleness (n.) The quality or state of being incompatible; incompatibility.

Incompetency (n.) The quality or state of being incompetent; want of physical, intellectual, or moral ability; insufficiency; inadequacy; as, the incompetency of a child hard labor, or of an idiot for intellectual efforts.

Incompetibility (n.) See Incompatibility.

Incomprehensibility (n.) The quality of being incomprehensible, or beyond the reach of human intellect; incomprehensibleness; inconceivability; inexplicability.

Incompressibility (n.) The quality of being incompressible, or incapable of reduction in volume by pressure; -- formerly supposed to be a property of liquids.

Inconceivability (n.) The quality of being inconceivable; inconceivableness.

Inconclusive (a.) Not conclusive; leading to no conclusion; not closing or settling a point in debate, or a doubtful question; as, evidence is inconclusive when it does not exhibit the truth of a disputed case in such a manner as to satisfy the mind, and put an end to debate or doubt.

Incondensability (n.) Alt. of Incondensibility

Incondensibility (n.) The quality or state of being incondensable.

Inconsequent (a.) Not following from the premises; not regularly inferred; invalid; not characterized by logical method; illogical; arbitrary; inconsistent; of no consequence.

Inconsistency (n.) The quality or state of being inconsistent; discordance in respect to sentiment or action; such contrariety between two things that both can not exist or be true together; disagreement; incompatibility.

Inconsistency (n.) Absurdity in argument ore narration; incoherence or irreconcilability in the parts of a statement, argument, or narration; that which is inconsistent.

Inconsistency (n.) Want of stability or uniformity; unsteadiness; changeableness; variableness.

Inconsistent (a.) Not exhibiting uniformity of sentiment, steadiness to principle, etc.; unequal; fickle; changeable.

Inconsolable (a.) Not consolable; incapable of being consoled; grieved beyond susceptibility of comfort; disconsolate.

Inconstancy (n.) The quality or state of being inconstant; want of constancy; mutability; fickleness; variableness.

Incontestability (n.) The quality or state of being incontestable.

Incontinency (n.) The inability of any of the animal organs to restrain the natural evacuations, so that the discharges are involuntary; as, incontinence of urine.

Incontrovertibility (n.) The state or condition of being incontrovertible.

Inconvertibility (n.) The quality or state of being inconvertible; not capable of being exchanged for, or converted into, something else; as, the inconvertibility of an irredeemable currency, or of lead, into gold.

Inconvertibleness (n.) Inconvertibility.

Incorporate (a.) Corporate; incorporated; made one body, or united in one body; associated; mixed together; combined; embodied.

Incorporate (v. t.) To form into a body; to combine, as different ingredients. into one consistent mass.

Incorporate (v. t.) To unite intimately; to blend; to assimilate; to combine into a structure or organization, whether material or mental; as, to incorporate provinces into the realm; to incorporate another's ideas into one's work.

Incorporate (v. t.) To form into a legal body, or body politic; to constitute into a corporation recognized by law, with special functions, rights, duties and liabilities; as, to incorporate a bank, a railroad company, a city or town, etc.

Incorporation (n.) The union of different ingredients in one mass; mixture; combination; synthesis.

Incorrigibility (n.) The state or quality of being incorrigible.

Incorrigibleness (n.) Incorrigibility.

Incorruptibility (n.) The quality of being incorruptible; incapability of corruption.

Incorruptness (n.) Probity; integrity; honesty.

Incredibility (n.) The quality or state of being incredible; incredibleness.

Incredibility (n.) That which is incredible.

Incredibleness (n.) Incredibility.

Incubiture (n.) Incubation.

Incubi (pl. ) of Incubus

Incumbency (n.) That which is morally incumbent, or is imposed, as a rule, a duty, obligation, or responsibility.

Incumbent (a.) Bent downwards so that the ends touch, or rest on, something else; as, the incumbent toe of a bird.

Incumbition (n.) Incubation.

Incur (v. t.) To meet or fall in with, as something inconvenient, harmful, or onerous; to put one's self in the way of; to expose one's self to; to become liable or subject to; to bring down upon one's self; to encounter; to contract; as, to incur debt, danger, displeasure/ penalty, responsibility, etc.

Incurability (n.) The state of being uncurable; irremediableness.

Incurableness (n.) The state of being incurable; incurability.

Incurrence (n.) The act of incurring, bringing on, or subjecting one's self to (something troublesome or burdensome); as, the incurrence of guilt, debt, responsibility, etc.

Indecomposableness (n.) Incapableness of decomposition; stability; permanence; durability.

Indefatigability (n.) The state of being indefatigable.

Indefeasibility (n.) The quality of being undefeasible.

Indefectibility (n.) The quality of being indefectible.

Indefensibility (n.) The quality or state of not being defensible.

Indelibility (n.) The quality of being indelible.

Indemonstrability (n.) The quality of being indemonstrable.

Indent (v. t.) To bind out by indenture or contract; to indenture; to apprentice; as, to indent a young man to a shoemaker; to indent a servant.

Indented (a.) Notched along the margin with a different color, as the feathers of some birds.

Indenture (v. t.) To bind by indentures or written contract; as, to indenture an apprentice.

Independent (a.) Not subject to bias or influence; not obsequious; self-directing; as, a man of an independent mind.

Indestructibility (n.) The quality of being indestructible.

Indian (n.) A native or inhabitant of India.

Indian (n.) One of the aboriginal inhabitants of America; -- so called originally from the supposed identity of America with India.

Indican (n.) A glucoside obtained from woad (indigo plant) and other plants, as a yellow or light brown sirup. It has a nauseous bitter taste, a decomposes or drying. By the action of acids, ferments, etc., it breaks down into sugar and indigo. It is the source of natural indigo.

Indicator (n.) Any bird of the genus Indicator and allied genera. See Honey guide, under Honey.

Indicavit (n.) A writ of prohibition against proceeding in the spiritual court in certain cases, when the suit belongs to the common-law courts.

Indifference (n.) Impartiality; freedom from prejudice, prepossession, or bias.

Indifferent (a.) Free from bias or prejudice; impartial; unbiased; disinterested.

Indigestibility (n.) The state or quality of being indigestible; indigestibleness.

Indigrubin (n.) Same as Urrhodin.

Indirubin (n.) A substance isomeric with, and resembling, indigo blue, and accompanying it as a side product, in its artificial production.

Indiscerpibility (n.) Alt. of Indiscerptibility

Indiscerptibility (n.) The state or quality of being indiscerpible.

Indispensability (n.) Indispensableness.

Indisposition (n.) The state of being indisposed; disinclination; as, the indisposition of two substances to combine.

Indisputability (n.) Indisputableness.

Indisdolubility (n.) The quality or state of being indissoluble.

Indissoluble (a.) Incapable of being rightfully broken or dissolved; perpetually binding or obligatory; firm; stable, as, an indissoluble league or covenant.

Indissolubleness (n.) Indissolubility.

Indissolvable (a.) Not dissolvable; incapable of being dissolved or separated; incapable o/ separation; perpetually firm and binding; indissoluble; as, an indissolvable bond of union.

Indivisibility (n.) The state or property of being indivisible or inseparable; inseparability.

Indivisibleness (n.) The state of being indivisible; indivisibility.

Indocibility (n.) The state of being indocible; indocibleness; indocility.

Indol (n.) A white, crystalline substance, C8H7N, obtained from blue indigo, and almost all indigo derivatives, by a process of reduction. It is also formed from albuminous matter, together with skatol, by putrefaction, and by fusion with caustic potash, and is present in human excrement, as well as in the intestinal canal of some herbivora.

Indolence (n.) The quality or condition of being indolent; inaction, or want of exertion of body or mind, proceeding from love of ease or aversion to toil; habitual idleness; indisposition to labor; laziness; sloth; inactivity.

Indolent (a.) Indulging in ease; avoiding labor and exertion; habitually idle; lazy; inactive; as, an indolent man.

Indoles (n.) Natural disposition; natural quality or abilities.

Indorsee (n.) The person to whom a note or bill is indorsed, or assigned by indorsement.

Indorsement (n.) The act of writing on the back of a note, bill, or other written instrument.

Indorsement (n.) That which is written on the back of a note, bill, or other paper, as a name, an order for, or a receipt of, payment, or the return of an officer, etc.; a writing, usually upon the back, but sometimes on the face, of a negotiable instrument, by which the property therein is assigned and transferred.

Indubious (a.) Not dubious or doubtful; certain.

Indubious (a.) Not doubting; unsuspecting.

Indubitable (a.) Not dubitable or doubtful; too evident to admit of doubt; unquestionable; evident; apparently certain; as, an indubitable conclusion.

Indubitable (n.) That which is indubitable.

Indubitableness (n.) The state or quality of being indubitable.

Indubitably (adv.) Undoubtedly; unquestionably; in a manner to remove all doubt.

Indubitate (a.) Not questioned or doubtful; evident; certain.

Indubitate (v. t.) To bring into doubt; to cause to be doubted.

Indulge (v. i.) To indulge one's self; to gratify one's tastes or desires; esp., to give one's self up (to); to practice a forbidden or questionable act without restraint; -- followed by in, but formerly, also, by to.

Indurate (a.) Without sensibility; unfeeling; obdurate.

Indurate (v. t.) To make unfeeling; to deprive of sensibility; to render obdurate.

Induration (n.) Hardness of character, manner, sensibility, etc.; obduracy; stiffness; want of pliancy or feeling.

Industrious (a.) Given to industry; characterized by diligence; constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied; busy; assiduous; not slothful or idle; -- commonly implying devotion to lawful and useful labor.

Industry (n.) Habitual diligence in any employment or pursuit, either bodily or mental; steady attention to business; assiduity; -- opposed to sloth and idleness; as, industry pays debts, while idleness or despair will increase them.

Indwell (v. t. & i.) To dwell in; to abide within; to remain in possession.

Indweller (n.) An inhabitant.

Inebriate (a.) Intoxicated; drunk; habitually given to drink; stupefied.

Inebriate (n.) One who is drunk or intoxicated; esp., an habitual drunkard; as, an asylum fro inebriates.

Ineffability (n.) The quality or state of being ineffable; ineffableness; unspeakableness.

Ineffervescibility (n.) The quality of being ineffervescible.

Inefficient (a.) Incapable of, or indisposed to, effective action; habitually slack or remiss; effecting little or nothing; as, inefficient workmen; an inefficient administrator.

Ineligibility (n.) The state or quality of being ineligible.

Inequality (n.) Variableness; changeableness; inconstancy; lack of smoothness or equability; deviation; unsteadiness, as of the weather, feelings, etc.

Inerrability (n.) Freedom or exemption from error; infallibility.

Inerrableness (n.) Exemption from error; inerrability; infallibility.

Inertness (n.) Want of activity or exertion; habitual indisposition to action or motion; sluggishness; apathy; insensibility.

Inevitability (n.) Impossibility to be avoided or shunned; inevitableness.

Inevitably (adv.) Without possibility of escape or evasion; unavoidably; certainly.

Inexcitability (n.) The quality of being inexcitable; insusceptibility to excitement.

Inexhaustibility (n.) The state or quality of being inexhaustible; abundance.

Inexorability (n.) The quality of being inexorable, or unyielding to entreaty.

Inexplicability (n.) The quality or state of being inexplicable.

Inexplicableness (n.) A state of being inexplicable; inexplicability.

Infallibilist (n.) One who accepts or maintains the dogma of papal infallibility.

Infallibility (n.) The quality or state of being infallible, or exempt from error; inerrability.

Infallible (a.) Not fallible; not capable of erring; entirely exempt from liability to mistake; unerring; inerrable.

Infallible (a.) Not liable to fail, deceive, or disappoint; indubitable; sure; certain; as, infallible evidence; infallible success; an infallible remedy.

Infallible (a.) Incapable of error in defining doctrines touching faith or morals. See Papal infallibility, under Infallibility.

Infallibleness (n.) The state or quality of being infallible; infallibility.

Infant (n.) A child in the first period of life, beginning at his birth; a young babe; sometimes, a child several years of age.

Infeasibility (n.) The state of being infeasible; impracticability.

Infeasibleness (n.) The state of quality of being infeasible; infeasibility.

Infect (v. t.) To taint with morbid matter or any pestilential or noxious substance or effluvium by which disease is produced; as, to infect a lancet; to infect an apartment.

Infection (n.) The state of being infected; contamination by morbific particles; the result of infecting influence; a prevailing disease; epidemic.

Infer (v. t.) To derive by deduction or by induction; to conclude or surmise from facts or premises; to accept or derive, as a consequence, conclusion, or probability; to imply; as, I inferred his determination from his silence.

Infernal (a.) Of or pertaining to or suitable for the lower regions, inhabited, according to the ancients, by the dead; pertaining to Pluto's realm of the dead, the Tartarus of the ancients.

Infernal (a.) Of or pertaining to, resembling, or inhabiting, hell; suitable for hell, or to the character of the inhabitants of hell; hellish; diabolical; as, infernal spirits, or conduct.

Infernal (n.) An inhabitant of the infernal regions; also, the place itself.

Infirmity (a.) The state of being infirm; feebleness; an imperfection or weakness; esp., an unsound, unhealthy, or debilitated state; a disease; a malady; as, infirmity of body or mind.

Inflame (v. t.) To put in a state of inflammation; to produce morbid heat, congestion, or swelling, of; as, to inflame the eyes by overwork.

Inflame (v. i.) To grow morbidly hot, congested, or painful; to become angry or incensed.

Inflammabillty (n.) Susceptibility of taking fire readily; the state or quality of being inflammable.

Inflammableness (n.) The quality or state of being inflammable; inflammability.

Inflammation (n.) A morbid condition of any part of the body, consisting in congestion of the blood vessels, with obstruction of the blood current, and growth of morbid tissue. It is manifested outwardly by redness and swelling, attended with heat and pain.

Inflexibility (n.) The quality or state of being inflexible, or not capable of being bent or changed; unyielding stiffness; inflexibleness; rigidity; firmness of will or purpose; unbending pertinacity; steadfastness; resoluteness; unchangeableness; obstinacy.

Inflexibleness (n.) The quality or state of being inflexible; inflexibility; rigidity; firmness.

Influence (v. t.) To control or move by power, physical or moral; to affect by gentle action; to exert an influence upon; to modify, bias, or sway; to move; to persuade; to induce.

Infralabial (a.) Below the lower lip; -- said of certain scales of reptiles and fishes.

Infrangibility (n.) The quality or state of being infrangible; infrangibleness.

Infrangibleness (n.) The state or quality of being infrangible; infrangibility.

Infraorbital (a.) Below the orbit; as, the infraorbital foramen; the infraorbital nerve.

Infurcation (n.) A forked exlpansion or divergence; a bifurcation; a branching.

Infusibility (n.) Capability of being infused, pouredin, or instilled.

Infusibility (n.) Incapability or difficulty of being fused, melted, or dissolved; as, the infusibility of carbon.

Infusibleness (n.) Infusibility.

Infusionism (n.) The doctrine that the soul is preexistent to the body, and is infused into it at conception or birth; -- opposed to tradicianism and creationism.

Ingenerabillty (n.) Incapacity of being engendered or produced.

Ingenious (a.) Possessed of genius, or the faculty of invention; skillful or promp to invent; having an aptitude to contrive, or to form new combinations; as, an ingenious author, mechanic.

Ingenuity (n.) The quality or power of ready invention; quickness or acuteness in forming new combinations; ingeniousness; skill in devising or combining.

Ingenuous (a.) Of honorable extraction; freeborn; noble; as, ingenuous blood of birth.

Ingeny (n.) Natural gift or talent; ability; wit; ingenuity.

Ingluvial (a.) Of or pertaining to the indulges or crop of birds.

Ingluvies (n.) The crop, or craw, of birds.

Ingratitude (n.) Want of gratitude; insensibility to, forgetfulness of, or ill return for, kindness or favors received; unthankfulness; ungratefulness.

Ingredient (n.) That which enters into a compound, or is a component part of any combination or mixture; an element; a constituent.

Ingress (n.) Power or liberty of entrance or access; means of entering; as, all ingress was prohibited.

Inhabile (a.) Not apt or fit; unfit; not convenient; inappropriate; unsuitable; as, inhabile matter.

Inhabile (a.) Unskilled; unready; awkward; incompetent; unqualified; -- said of person.

Inhability (n.) Unsuitableness; unaptness; unfitness; inability.

Inhabited (imp. & p. p.) of Inhabit

Inhabiting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Inhabit

Inhabit (v. t.) To live or dwell in; to occupy, as a place of settled residence; as, wild beasts inhabit the forest; men inhabit cities and houses.

Inhabit (v. i.) To have residence in a place; to dwell; to live; to abide.

Inhabitable (a.) Capable of being inhabited; habitable.

Inhabitable (a.) Not habitable; not suitable to be inhabited.

Inhabitance (n.) Alt. of Inhabitancy

Inhabitancy (n.) The act of inhabiting, or the state of being inhabited; the condition of an inhabitant; residence; occupancy.

Inhabitancy (n.) The state of having legal right to claim the privileges of a recognized inhabitant; especially, the right to support in case of poverty, acquired by residence in a town; habitancy.

Inhabitant (n.) One who dwells or resides permanently in a place, as distinguished from a transient lodger or visitor; as, an inhabitant of a house, a town, a city, county, or state.

Inhabitant (n.) One who has a legal settlement in a town, city, or parish; a permanent resident.

Inhabitate (v. t.) To inhabit.

Inhabitation (n.) The act of inhabiting, or the state of being inhabited; indwelling.

Inhabitation (n.) Abode; place of dwelling; residence.

Inhabitation (n.) Population; inhabitants.

Inhabitativeness (n.) A tendency or propensity to permanent residence in a place or abode; love of home and country.

Inhabited (a.) Uninhabited.

Inhabiter (n.) An inhabitant.

Inhabitiveness (n.) See Inhabitativeness.

Inhabitress (n.) A female inhabitant.

Inherit (v. t.) To receive or take by birth; to have by nature; to derive or acquire from ancestors, as mental or physical qualities; as, he inherits a strong constitution, a tendency to disease, etc.

Inheritability (n.) The quality of being inheritable or descendible to heirs.

Inhibited (imp. & p. p.) of Inhibit

Inhibiting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Inhibit

Inhibit (v. t.) To check; to hold back; to restrain; to hinder.

Inhibit (v. t.) To forbid; to prohibit; to interdict.

Inhibition (n.) The act of inhibiting, or the state of being inhibited; restraint; prohibition; embargo.

Inhibition (n.) A stopping or checking of an already present action; a restraining of the function of an organ, or an agent, as a digestive fluid or ferment, etc.; as, the inhibition of the respiratory center by the pneumogastric nerve; the inhibition of reflexes, etc.

Inhibition (n.) A writ from a higher court forbidding an inferior judge from further proceedings in a cause before; esp., a writ issuing from a higher ecclesiastical court to an inferior one, on appeal.

Inhibitor (n.) That which causes inhibitory action; esp., an inhibitory nerve.

Inhibitory (a.) Of or pertaining to, or producing, inhibition; consisting in inhibition; tending or serving to inhibit; as, the inhibitory action of the pneumogastric on the respiratory center.

Inhibitory-motor (a.) A term applied to certain nerve centers which govern or restrain subsidiary centers, from which motor impressions issue.

Inholder (n.) An inhabitant.

Inimitability (n.) The quality or state of being inimitable; inimitableness.

Initiative (n.) The right or power to introduce a new measure or course of action, as in legislation; as, the initiative in respect to revenue bills is in the House of Representatives.

Injunction (n.) The act of enjoining; the act of directing, commanding, or prohibiting.

Injure (v. t.) To do harm to; to impair the excellence and value of; to hurt; to damage; -- used in a variety of senses; as: (a) To hurt or wound, as the person; to impair soundness, as of health. (b) To damage or lessen the value of, as goods or estate. (c) To slander, tarnish, or impair, as reputation or character. (d) To impair or diminish, as happiness or virtue. (e) To give pain to, as the sensibilities or the feelings; to grieve; to annoy. (f) To impair, as the intellect or mind.

Inknot (v. t.) To fasten or bind, as with a knot; to knot together.

Inland (a.) Confined to a country or state; domestic; not foreing; as, an inland bill of exchange. See Exchange.

Inleague (v. t.) To ally, or form an alliance witgh; to unite; to combine.

Inn (n.) A place of shelter; hence, dwelling; habitation; residence; abode.

Innodate (v. t.) To bind up,as in a knot; to include.

Innubilous (a.) Cloudless.

Innumerability (n.) State of being innumerable.

Inoceramus (n.) An extinct genus of large, fossil, bivalve shells,allied to the mussels. The genus is characteristic of the Cretaceous period.

Inoculability (n.) The qual ity or state of being inoculable.

Inoculate (v. t.) To communicate a disease to ( a person ) by inserting infectious matter in the skin or flesh; as, to inoculate a person with the virus of smallpox,rabies, etc. See Vaccinate.

Inoffensive (a.) Not obstructing; presenting no interruption bindrance.

In posse () In possibility; possible, although not yet in existence or come to pass; -- contradistinguished from in esse.

Insanability (n.) The state of being insanable or incurable; insanableness.

Insanableness (n.) The state of being insanable; insanability; incurableness.

Insane (a.) Exhibiting unsoundness or disorded of mind; not sane; mad; deranged in mind; delirious; distracted. See Insanity, 2.

Insanity (n.) Such a mental condition, as, either from the existence of delusions, or from incapacity to distinguish between right and wrong, with regard to any matter under action, does away with individual responsibility.

Insatiability (n.) The state or quality of being insatiable; insatiableness.

Insatiableness (n.) Greediness of appetite that can not be satisfied or appeased; insatiability.

Inscribing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Inscribe

Inscription (n.) The act or process of inscribing.

Inscrutability (n.) The quality or state of being inscrutable; inscrutableness.

Inscrutableness (n.) The quality or state of being inscrutable; inscrutability.

Insecta (n.) In the most general sense, the Hexapoda, Myriapoda, and Arachnoidea, combined.

Insectivorous (a.) the Insectivora, and to many bats, birds, and reptiles.

Insensate (a.) Wanting sensibility; destitute of sense; stupid; foolish.

Insensibility (n.) The state or quality of being insensible; want of sensibility; torpor; unconsciousness; as, the insensibility produced by a fall, or by opiates.

Insensibility (n.) Want of tenderness or susceptibility of emotion or passion; dullness; stupidity.

Insensible (a.) Destitute of the power of feeling or perceiving; wanting bodily sensibility.

Insensibleness (n.) Insensibility.

Insensitive (a.) Not sensitive; wanting sensation, or wanting acute sensibility.

Inseparability (n.) The quality or state of being inseparable; inseparableness.

Inseparableness (n.) The quality or state of being inseparable; inseparability.

Insessor (n.) One of the Insessores. The group includes most of the common singing birds.

Insessores (n. pl.) An order of birds, formerly established to include the perching birds, but now generally regarded as an artificial group.

Insessorial (a.) Pertaining to, or having the character of, perching birds.

Inset (n.) One or more separate leaves inserted in a volume before binding; as: (a) A portion of the printed sheet in certain sizes of books which is cut off before folding, and set into the middle of the folded sheet to complete the succession of paging; -- also called offcut. (b) A page or pages of advertisements inserted.

Insociability (n.) The quality of being insociable; want of sociability; unsociability.

Insolubility (n.) The quality or state of being insoluble or not dissolvable, as in a fluid.

Insolubility (n.) The quality of being inexplicable or insolvable.

Insolubleness (n.) The quality or state of being insoluble; insolubility.

Insomnia (n.) Want of sleep; inability to sleep; wakefulness; sleeplessness.

Instabilities (pl. ) of Instability

Instability (n.) The quality or condition of being unstable; want of stability, firmness, or steadiness; liability to give way or to fail; insecurity; precariousness; as, the instability of a building.

Instability (n.) Lack of determination of fixedness; inconstancy; fickleness; mutability; changeableness; as, instability of character, temper, custom, etc.

Instableness (n.) Instability; unstableness.

Instill (v. t.) To drop in; to pour in drop by drop; hence, to impart gradually; to infuse slowly; to cause to be imbibed.

Instinct (a.) Urged or stimulated from within; naturally moved or impelled; imbued; animated; alive; quick; as, birds instinct with life.

Institute (a.) That which is instituted, established, or fixed, as a law, habit, or custom.

Institution (n.) Anything forming a characteristic and persistent feature in social or national life or habits.

Institutor (n.) A presbyter appointed by the bishop to institute a rector or assistant minister over a parish church.

Instrumentation (n.) The act of using or adapting as an instrument; a series or combination of instruments; means; agency.

Insuetude (n.) The state or quality of being unaccustomed; absence of use or habit.

Insufficiency (n.) Want of power or skill; inability; incapacity; incompetency; as, the insufficiency of a man for an office.

Insufficient (a.) Wanting in strength, power, ability, capacity, or skill; incompetent; incapable; unfit; as, a person insufficient to discharge the duties of an office.

Insular (a.) Of or pertaining to the people of an island; narrow; circumscribed; illiberal; contracted; as, insular habits, opinions, or prejudices.

Insuperability (n.) The quality or state of being insuperable; insuperableness.

Insurmountability (n.) The state or quality of being insurmountable.

Insurmountableness (n.) The state or quality of being insurmountable; insurmountability.

Insusceptibility (n.) Want of susceptibility, or of capacity to feel or perceive.

Intangibilities (pl. ) of Intangibility

Intangibility (n.) The quality or state of being intangible; intangibleness.

Integrability (n.) The quality of being integrable.

Integropallial (a.) Having the pallial line entire, or without a sinus, as certain bivalve shells.

Intelligibility () The quality or state of being intelligible; clearness; perspicuity; definiteness.

Intelligibleness (n.) The quality or state of being intelligible; intelligibility.

Intemperance (n.) Specifically: Habitual or excessive indulgence in alcoholic liquors.

Intemperate (a.) Specifically, addicted to an excessive or habitual use of alcoholic liquors.

Intense (a.) Extreme in degree; excessive; immoderate; as: (a) Ardent; fervent; as, intense heat. (b) Keen; biting; as, intense cold. (c) Vehement; earnest; exceedingly strong; as, intense passion or hate. (d) Very severe; violent; as, intense pain or anguish. (e) Deep; strong; brilliant; as, intense color or light.

Intercessor (n.) A bishop, who, during a vacancy of the see, administers the bishopric till a successor is installed.

Interchangeability (n.) The state or quality of being interchangeable; interchangeableness.

Intercommon (v. t.) To graze cattle promiscuously in the commons of each other, as the inhabitants of adjoining townships, manors, etc.

Interdict (n.) To forbid; to prohibit or debar; as, to interdict intercourse with foreign nations.

Interdict (n.) A prohibitory order or decree; a prohibition.

Interdict (n.) A prohibition of the pope, by which the clergy or laymen are restrained from performing, or from attending, divine service, or from administering the offices or enjoying the privileges of the church.

Interdiction (n.) The act of interdicting; prohibition; prohibiting decree; curse; interdict.

Interdictive (a.) Having the power to prohibit; as, an interdictive sentence.

Interdictory (a.) Belonging to an interdiction; prohibitory.

Interest (n.) Participation in advantage, profit, and responsibility; share; portion; part; as, an interest in a brewery; he has parted with his interest in the stocks.

Interleave (v. t.) To insert a leaf or leaves in; to bind with blank leaves inserted between the others; as, to interleave a book.

Interlude (n.) A short entertainment exhibited on the stage between the acts of a play, or between the play and the afterpiece, to relieve the tedium of waiting.

Intermedium (n.) The bone or cartilage between the radiale and ulnare in the carpus, and between the tibiale and fibulare in the tarsus. It corresponds to the lunar in the carpus, and to a part of the astragalus in the tarsus of man and most mammals.

Intermobility (n.) Capacity of things to move among each other; as, the intermobility of fluid particles.

Interorbital (a.) Between the orbits; as, the interorbital septum.

Interpubic (a.) Between the pubic bones or cartilages; as, the interpubic disk.

Interscapulars (n. pl.) The interscapular feathers of a bird.

Interscribing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Interscribe

Intertex (v. t.) To intertwine; to weave or bind together.

Intertrigo (n.) A rubbing or chafing of the skin; especially, an abrasion or excoriation of the skin between folds, as in fat or neglected children.

Intimation (n.) A hint; an obscure or indirect suggestion or notice; a remote or ambiguous reference; as, he had given only intimations of his design.

Intolerability (n.) The quality of being intolerable; intolerableness.

Intolerance (n.) The quality of being intolerant; refusal to allow to others the enjoyment of their opinions, chosen modes of worship, and the like; want of patience and forbearance; illiberality; bigotry; as, intolerance shown toward a religious sect.

Intolerant (a.) Not tolerating difference of opinion or sentiment, especially in religious matters; refusing to allow others the enjoyment of their opinions, rights, or worship; unjustly impatient of the opinion of those disagree with us; not tolerant; unforbearing; bigoted.

Intolerant (n.) An intolerant person; a bigot.

Intombing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Intomb

Intractability (n.) The quality of being intractable; intractableness.

Intransitive (a.) Not transitive; not passing over to an object; expressing an action or state that is limited to the agent or subject, or, in other words, an action which does not require an object to complete the sense; as, an intransitive verb, e. g., the bird flies; the dog runs.

Intransmutability (n.) The quality of being intransmutable.

Inturbidated (imp. & p. p.) of Inturbidate

Inturbidating (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Inturbidate

Inturbidate (v. t.) To render turbid; to darken; to confuse.

Inunction (n.) The act of anointing, or the state of being anointed; unction; specifically (Med.), the rubbing of ointments into the pores of the skin, by which medicinal agents contained in them, such as mercury, iodide of potash, etc., are absorbed.

Inundate (v. t.) To fill with an overflowing abundance or superfluity; as, the country was inundated with bills of credit.

Inure (v. t.) To apply in use; to train; to discipline; to use or accustom till use gives little or no pain or inconvenience; to harden; to habituate; to practice habitually.

Inurement (n.) Use; practice; discipline; habit; custom.

Invariability (n.) The quality of being invariable; invariableness; constancy; uniformity.

Inveigh (v. i.) To declaim or rail (against some person or thing); to utter censorious and bitter language; to attack with harsh criticism or reproach, either spoken or written; to use invectives; -- with against; as, to inveigh against character, conduct, manners, customs, morals, a law, an abuse.

Invendibility (n.) The quality of being invendible; invendibleness; unsalableness.

Inverisimilitude (n.) Want of verisimilitude or likelihood; improbability.

Inveteracy (n.) Firm establishment by long continuance; firmness or deep-rooted obstinacy of any quality or state acquired by time; as, the inveteracy of custom, habit, or disease; -- usually in a bad sense; as, the inveteracy of prejudice or of error.

Inveterate (a.) Having habits fixed by long continuance; confirmed; habitual; as, an inveterate idler or smoker.

Invincibility (n.) The quality or state of being invincible; invincibleness.

Inviolability (n.) The quality or state of being inviolable; inviolableness.

Inviscate (v. t.) To daub or catch with glue or birdlime; to entangle with glutinous matter.

Invisibilities (pl. ) of Invisibility

Invisibility (n.) The state or quality of being invisible; also, that which is invisible.

Invisible (n.) One of those (as in the 16th century) who denied the visibility of the church.

Invisibleness (n.) The quality or state of being invisible; invisibility.

Invite (v. t.) To ask; to request; to bid; to summon; to ask to do some act, or go to some place; esp., to ask to an entertainment or visit; to request the company of; as, to invite to dinner, or a wedding, or an excursion.

Invulnerability (n.) Quality or state of being invulnerable.

Invulnerableness (n.) Invulnerability.

Iodide (n.) A binary compound of iodine, or one which may be regarded as binary; as, potassium iodide.

Iodine (n.) A nonmetallic element, of the halogen group, occurring always in combination, as in the iodides. When isolated it is in the form of dark gray metallic scales, resembling plumbago, soft but brittle, and emitting a chlorinelike odor. Symbol I. Atomic weight 126.5. If heated, iodine volatilizes in beautiful violet vapors.

Iodism (n.) A morbid state produced by the use of iodine and its compounds, and characterized by palpitation, depression, and general emaciation, with a pustular eruption upon the skin.

Iod- () A prefix, or combining from, indicating iodine as an ingredient; as, iodoform.

I O U () A paper having on it these letters, with a sum named, and duly signed; -- in use in England as an acknowledgment of a debt, and taken as evidence thereof, but not amounting to a promissory note; a due bill.

Ipecacuanha (n.) The root of a Brazilian rubiaceous herb (Cephaelis Ipecacuanha), largely employed as an emetic; also, the plant itself; also, a medicinal extract of the root. Many other plants are used as a substitutes; among them are the black or Peruvian ipecac (Psychotria emetica), the white ipecac (Ionidium Ipecacuanha), the bastard or wild ipecac (Asclepias Curassavica), and the undulated ipecac (Richardsonia scabra).

Irascibility (n.) The quality or state of being irascible; irritability of temper; irascibleness.

Iridescence (n.) Exhibition of colors like those of the rainbow; the quality or state of being iridescent; a prismatic play of color; as, the iridescence of mother-of-pearl.

Iridescent (a.) Having colors like the rainbow; exhibiting a play of changeable colors; nacreous; prismatic; as, iridescent glass.

Irisated (a.) Exhibiting the prismatic colors; irised; iridescent.

Iriscope (n.) A philosophical toy for exhibiting the prismatic tints by means of thin films.

Irish (a.) Of or pertaining to Ireland or to its inhabitants; produced in Ireland.

Irish (n. sing. & pl.) The natives or inhabitants of Ireland, esp. the Celtic natives or their descendants.

Iron (n.) Strength; power; firmness; inflexibility; as, to rule with a rod of iron.

Iron (n.) Like iron in hardness, strength, impenetrability, power of endurance, insensibility, etc.;

Iron (n.) Not to be broken; holding or binding fast; tenacious.

Ironsmith (n.) An East Indian barbet (Megalaima faber), inhabiting the Island of Hainan. The name alludes to its note, which resembles the sounds made by a smith.

Iroquois (n. sing. & pl.) A powerful and warlike confederacy of Indian tribes, formerly inhabiting Central New York and constituting most of the Five Nations. Also, any Indian of the Iroquois tribes.

Irreconcilability (n.) The quality or state of being irreconcilable; irreconcilableness.

Irredeemability (n.) The state or quality of being irredeemable; irredeemableness.

Irreducibility (n.) The state or quality of being irreducible.

Irrefragability (n.) The quality or state of being irrefragable; incapability of being refuted.

Irrefrangibility (n.) The quality or state of being irrefrangible; irrefrangibleness.

Irremobability (n.) The quality or state of being irremovable; immovableness.

Irreparability (n.) The quality or state of being irreparable; irreparableness.

Irrepealability (n.) The quality or state of being irrepealable.

Irresistibility (n.) The quality or state of being irrestible, irresistibleness.

Irresolubleness (n.) The state or quality of being irresoluble; insolubility.

Irresolvability (n.) The quality of being irresolvable; irresolvableness.

Irresolvableness (n.) The quality or state of being irresolvable; irresolvability.

Irrespective (a.) Without regard for conditions, circumstances, or consequences; unbiased; independent; impartial; as, an irrespective judgment.

Irresponsibility (n.) Want of, or freedom from, responsibility or accountability.

Irreversibility (n.) The state or quality of being irreversible; irreversibleness.

Irrevocability (n.) The state or quality of being irrevocable; irrevocableness.

Irritability (n.) The state or quality of being irritable; quick excitability; petulance; fretfulness; as, irritability of temper.

Irritability (n.) A natural susceptibility, characteristic of all living organisms, tissues, and cells, to the influence of certain stimuli, response being manifested in a variety of ways, -- as that quality in plants by which they exhibit motion under suitable stimulation; esp., the property which living muscle processes, of responding either to a direct stimulus of its substance, or to the stimulating influence of its nerve fibers, the response being indicated by a change of form, or contraction; contractility.

Irritability (n.) A condition of morbid excitability of an organ or part of the body; undue susceptibility to the influence of stimuli. See Irritation, n., 3.

Irritable (a.) Endowed with irritability; susceptible of irritation; capable of being excited to action by the application of certain stimuli.

Irritableness (n.) Irritability.

Irritate (n.) To make morbidly excitable, or oversensitive; to fret; as, the skin is irritated by friction; to irritate a wound by a coarse bandage.

Irritation (n.) A condition of morbid excitability or oversensitiveness of an organ or part of the body; a state in which the application of ordinary stimuli produces pain or excessive or vitiated action.

Islander (n.) An inhabitant of an island.

Is- () A prefix or combining form, indicating identity, or equality; the same numerical value; as in isopod, isomorphous, isochromatic.

Isometrical (a.) Noting, or conforming to, that system of crystallization in which the three axes are of equal length and at right angles to each other; monometric; regular; cubic. Cf. Crystallization.

Isonitroso- () A combining from (also used adjectively), signifying: Pertaining to, or designating, the characteristic, nitrogenous radical, NOH, called the isonitroso group.

Isothermal (a.) Having reference to the geographical distribution of temperature, as exhibited by means of isotherms; as, an isothermal line; an isothermal chart.

Italian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Italy.

Itch (n.) A sensation in the skin occasioned (or resembling that occasioned) by the itch eruption; -- called also scabies, psora, etc.

Item (n.) An article; a separate particular in an account; as, the items in a bill.

Itinerate (v. i.) To wander without a settled habitation; to travel from place or on a circuit, particularly for the purpose of preaching, lecturing, etc.

Ivory-bill (n.) A large, handsome, North American woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), having a large, sharp, ivory-colored beak. Its general color is glossy black, with white secondaries, and a white dorsal stripe. The male has a large, scarlet crest. It is now rare, and found only in the Gulf States.

Jaal goat () A species of wild goat (Capra Nubiana) found in the mountains of Abyssinia, Upper Egypt, and Arabia; -- called also beden, and jaela.

Jabiru (n.) One of several large wading birds of the genera Mycteria and Xenorhynchus, allied to the storks in form and habits.

Jacamar (n.) Any one of numerous species of tropical American birds of the genus Galbula and allied genera. They are allied to the kingfishers, but climb on tree trunks like nuthatches, and feed upon insects. Their colors are often brilliant.

Jacana (n.) Any of several wading birds belonging to the genus Jacana and several allied genera, all of which have spurs on the wings. They are able to run about over floating water weeds by means of their very long, spreading toes. Called also surgeon bird.

Jacaranda (n.) A genus of bignoniaceous Brazilian trees with showy trumpet-shaped flowers.

Jack (n.) A large tree, the Artocarpus integrifolia, common in the East Indies, closely allied to the breadfruit, from which it differs in having its leaves entire. The fruit is of great size, weighing from thirty to forty pounds, and through its soft fibrous matter are scattered the seeds, which are roasted and eaten. The wood is of a yellow color, fine grain, and rather heavy, and is much used in cabinetwork. It is also used for dyeing a brilliant yellow.

Jack (n.) A portable machine variously constructed, for exerting great pressure, or lifting or moving a heavy body through a small distance. It consists of a lever, screw, rack and pinion, hydraulic press, or any simple combination of mechanical powers, working in a compact pedestal or support and operated by a lever, crank, capstan bar, etc. The name is often given to a jackscrew, which is a kind of jack.

Jackal (n.) Any one of several species of carnivorous animals inhabiting Africa and Asia, related to the dog and wolf. They are cowardly, nocturnal, and gregarious. They feed largely on carrion, and are noted for their piercing and dismal howling.

Jackstraw (n.) One of a set of straws of strips of ivory, bone, wood, etc., for playing a child's game, the jackstraws being thrown confusedly together on a table, to be gathered up singly by a hooked instrument, without touching or disturbing the rest of the pile. See Spilikin.

Jackwood (n.) Wood of the jack (Artocarpus integrifolia), used in cabinetwork.

Jacobean (a.) Alt. of Jacobian

Jacobian (a.) Of or pertaining to a style of architecture and decoration in the time of James the First, of England.

Jacobin (n.) A Dominican friar; -- so named because, before the French Revolution, that order had a convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris.

Jacobin (n.) One of a society of violent agitators in France, during the revolution of 1789, who held secret meetings in the Jacobin convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris, and concerted measures to control the proceedings of the National Assembly. Hence: A plotter against an existing government; a turbulent demagogue.

Jacobin (n.) A fancy pigeon, in which the feathers of the neck form a hood, -- whence the name. The wings and tail are long, and the beak moderately short.

Jacobin (a.) Same as Jacobinic.

Jacobine (n.) A Jacobin.

Jacobinic (a.) Alt. of Jacobinical

Jacobinical (a.) Of or pertaining to the Jacobins of France; revolutionary; of the nature of, or characterized by, Jacobinism.

Jacobinism (n.) The principles of the Jacobins; violent and factious opposition to legitimate government.

Jacobinized (imp. & p. p.) of Jacobinize

Jacobinizing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Jacobinize

Jacobinize (v. t.) To taint with, or convert to, Jacobinism.

Jacobite (n.) A partisan or adherent of James the Second, after his abdication, or of his descendants, an opposer of the revolution in 1688 in favor of William and Mary.

Jacobite (n.) One of the sect of Syrian Monophysites. The sect is named after Jacob Baradaeus, its leader in the sixth century.

Jacobite (a.) Of or pertaining to the Jacobites.

Jacobitic (a.) Alt. of Jacobitical

Jacobitical (a.) Of or pertaining to the Jacobites; characterized by Jacobitism.

Jacobitism (n.) The principles of the Jacobites.

Jager (n.) Any species of gull of the genus Stercorarius. Three species occur on the Atlantic coast. The jagers pursue other species of gulls and force them to disgorge their prey. The two middle tail feathers are usually decidedly longer than the rest. Called also boatswain, and marline-spike bird. The name is also applied to the skua, or Arctic gull (Megalestris skua).

Jaguar (n.) A large and powerful feline animal (Felis onca), ranging from Texas and Mexico to Patagonia. It is usually brownish yellow, with large, dark, somewhat angular rings, each generally inclosing one or two dark spots. It is chiefly arboreal in its habits. Called also the American tiger.

Jaguarondi (n.) A South American wild cat (Felis jaguarondi), having a long, slim body and very short legs. Its color is grayish brown, varied with a blackish hue. It is arboreal in its habits and feeds mostly on birds.

Jainism (n.) The heterodox Hindoo religion, of which the most striking features are the exaltation of saints or holy mortals, called jins, above the ordinary Hindoo gods, and the denial of the divine origin and infallibility of the Vedas. It is intermediate between Brahmanism and Buddhism, having some things in common with each.

Jako (n.) An African parrot (Psittacus erithacus), very commonly kept as a cage bird; -- called also gray parrot.

Jamaican (n.) A native or inhabitant of Jamaica.

Jansenist (n.) A follower of Cornelius Jansen, a Roman Catholic bishop of Ypres, in Flanders, in the 17th century, who taught certain doctrines denying free will and the possibility of resisting divine grace.

Japanese (a.) Of or pertaining to Japan, or its inhabitants.

Japanese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Japan; collectively, the people of Japan.

Jarring (a.) Shaking; disturbing; discordant.

Jasmine (n.) A shrubby plant of the genus Jasminum, bearing flowers of a peculiarly fragrant odor. The J. officinale, common in the south of Europe, bears white flowers. The Arabian jasmine is J. Sambac, and, with J. angustifolia, comes from the East Indies. The yellow false jasmine in the Gelseminum sempervirens (see Gelsemium). Several other plants are called jasmine in the West Indies, as species of Calotropis and Faramea.

Jaundice (n.) A morbid condition, characterized by yellowness of the eyes, skin, and urine, whiteness of the faeces, constipation, uneasiness in the region of the stomach, loss of appetite, and general languor and lassitude. It is caused usually by obstruction of the biliary passages and consequent damming up, in the liver, of the bile, which is then absorbed into the blood.

Jay (n.) Any one of the numerous species of birds belonging to Garrulus, Cyanocitta, and allied genera. They are allied to the crows, but are smaller, more graceful in form, often handsomely colored, and usually have a crest.

Jealous (a.) Disposed to suspect rivalry in matters of interest and affection; apprehensive regarding the motives of possible rivals, or the fidelity of friends; distrustful; having morbid fear of rivalry in love or preference given to another; painfully suspicious of the faithfulness of husband, wife, or lover.

Jeer (n.) An assemblage or combination of tackles, for hoisting or lowering the lower yards of a ship.

Jeer (n.) A railing remark or reflection; a scoff; a taunt; a biting jest; a flout; a jibe; mockery.

Jerker (n.) A North American river chub (Hybopsis biguttatus).

Jewbush (n.) A euphorbiaceous shrub of the genus Pedilanthus (P. tithymaloides), found in the West Indies, and possessing powerful emetic and drastic qualities.

Jewry (n.) Judea; also, a district inhabited by Jews; a Jews' quarter.

Jharal (n.) A wild goat (Capra Jemlaica) which inhabits the loftiest mountains of India. It has long, coarse hair, forming a thick mane on its head and neck.

Jibing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Jibe

Jobbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Job

Jobbery (n.) The act or practice of jobbing.

Jobbing (a.) Doing chance work or add jobs; as, a jobbing carpenter.

Jobbing (a.) Using opportunities of public service for private gain; as, a jobbing politician.

Johnson grass () A tall perennial grass (Sorghum Halepense), valuable in the Southern and Western States for pasture and hay. The rootstocks are large and juicy and are eagerly sought by swine. Called also Cuba grass, Means grass, Evergreen millet, and Arabian millet.

Join (v. t.) To bring together, literally or figuratively; to place in contact; to connect; to couple; to unite; to combine; to associate; to add; to append.

Joint (a.) Joined; united; combined; concerted; as joint action.

Joint (v. t.) To join; to connect; to unite; to combine.

Joist (n.) A piece of timber laid horizontally, or nearly so, to which the planks of the floor, or the laths or furring strips of a ceiling, are nailed; -- called, according to its position or use, binding joist, bridging joist, ceiling joist, trimming joist, etc. See Illust. of Double-framed floor, under Double, a.

Joseph (n.) An outer garment worn in the 18th century; esp., a woman's riding habit, buttoned down the front.

Joy (n.) The sign or exhibition of joy; gayety; mirth; merriment; festivity.

Jubilant (a.) Uttering songs of triumph; shouting with joy; triumphant; exulting.

Jubilantly (adv.) In a jubilant manner.

Jubilar (a.) Pertaining to, or having the character of, a jubilee.

Jubilate (n.) The third Sunday after Easter; -- so called because the introit is the 66th Psalm, which, in the Latin version, begins with the words, "Jubilate Deo."

Jubilate (n.) A name of the 100th Psalm; -- so called from its opening word in the Latin version.

Jubilate (v. i.) To exult; to rejoice.

Jubilation (n.) A triumphant shouting; rejoicing; exultation.

Jubilee (n.) Every fiftieth year, being the year following the completion of each seventh sabbath of years, at which time all the slaves of Hebrew blood were liberated, and all lands which had been alienated during the whole period reverted to their former owners.

Jubilee (n.) The joyful commemoration held on the fiftieth anniversary of any event; as, the jubilee of Queen Victoria's reign; the jubilee of the American Board of Missions.

Jubilee (n.) A church solemnity or ceremony celebrated at Rome, at stated intervals, originally of one hundred years, but latterly of twenty-five; a plenary and extraordinary indulgence grated by the sovereign pontiff to the universal church. One invariable condition of granting this indulgence is the confession of sins and receiving of the eucharist.

Jubilee (n.) A season of general joy.

Jubilee (n.) A state of joy or exultation.

Jug (v. i.) To utter a sound resembling this word, as certain birds do, especially the nightingale.

Juggler (n.) One who practices or exhibits tricks by sleight of hand; one skilled in legerdemain; a conjurer.

Juke (n.) The neck of a bird.

Juke (v. i.) To perch on anything, as birds do.

Junco (n.) Any bird of the genus Junco, which includes several species of North American finches; -- called also snowbird, or blue snowbird.

Junction (n.) The act of joining, or the state of being joined; union; combination; coalition; as, the junction of two armies or detachments; the junction of paths.

Junto (n.) A secret council to deliberate on affairs of government or politics; a number of men combined for party intrigue; a faction; a cabal; as, a junto of ministers; a junto of politicians.

Jurat (n.) The memorandum or certificate at the end of an asffidavit, or a bill or answer in chancery, showing when, before whom, and (in English practice), where, it was sworn or affirmed.

Jury (a.) A committee for determining relative merit or awarding prizes at an exhibition or competition; as, the art jury gave him the first prize.

Jutlander (n.) A native or inhabitant of Jutland in Denmark.

Kafal (n.) The Arabian name of two trees of the genus Balsamodendron, which yield a gum resin and a red aromatic wood.

Kafir (n.) One of a race which, with the Hottentots and Bushmen, inhabit South Africa. They inhabit the country north of Cape Colony, the name being now specifically applied to the tribes living between Cape Colony and Natal; but the Zulus of Natal are true Kaffirs.

Kafir (n.) One of a race inhabiting Kafiristan in Central Asia.

Kagu (n.) A singular, crested, grallatorial bird (Rhinochetos jubatus), native of New Caledonia. It is gray above, paler beneath, and the feathers of the wings and tail are handsomely barred with brown, black, and gray. It is allied to the sun bittern.

Kalasie (n.) A long-tailed monkey of Borneo (Semnopithecus rubicundus). It has a tuft of long hair on the head.

Kaleidoscope (n.) An instrument invented by Sir David Brewster, which contains loose fragments of colored glass, etc., and reflecting surfaces so arranged that changes of position exhibit its contents in an endless variety of beautiful colors and symmetrical forms. It has been much employed in arts of design.

Kamichi (n.) A curious South American bird (Anhima, / Palamedea, cornuta), often domesticated by the natives and kept with poultry, which it defends against birds of prey. It has a long, slender, hornlike ornament on its head, and two sharp spurs on each wing. Although its beak, feet, and legs resemble those of gallinaceous birds, it is related in anatomical characters to the ducks and geese (Anseres). Called also horned screamer. The name is sometimes applied also to the chaja. See Chaja, and Screamer.

Kamtschadales (n. pl.) An aboriginal tribe inhabiting the southern part of Kamtschatka.

Kanchil (n.) A small chevrotain of the genus Tragulus, esp. T. pygmaeus, or T. kanchil, inhabiting Java, Sumatra, and adjacent islands; a deerlet. It is noted for its agility and cunning.

Kangaroo (n.) Any one of numerous species of jumping marsupials of the family Macropodidae. They inhabit Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands, They have long and strong hind legs and a large tail, while the fore legs are comparatively short and feeble. The giant kangaroo (Macropus major) is the largest species, sometimes becoming twelve or fourteen feet in total length. The tree kangaroos, belonging to the genus Dendrolagus, live in trees; the rock kangaroos, of the genus Petrogale, inhabit rocky situations; and the brush kangaroos, of the genus Halmaturus, inhabit wooded districts. See Wallaby.

Kansas (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians allied to the Winnebagoes and Osages. They formerly inhabited the region which is now the State of Kansas, but were removed to the Indian Territory.

Karaite (n.) A sect of Jews who adhere closely to the letter of the Scriptures, rejecting the oral law, and allowing the Talmud no binding authority; -- opposed to the Rabbinists.

Kat (n.) An Arabian shrub Catha edulis) the leaves of which are used as tea by the Arabs.

Katabolic (a.) Of or pertaining to katabolism; as, katabolic processes, which give rise to substances (katastates) of decreasing complexity and increasing stability.

Kattinumdoo (n.) A caoutchouc like substance obtained from the milky juice of the East Indian Euphorbia Kattimundoo. It is used as a cement.

Katydid (n.) A large, green, arboreal, orthopterous insect (Cyrtophyllus concavus) of the family Locustidae, common in the United States. The males have stridulating organs at the bases of the front wings. During the summer and autumn, in the evening, the males make a peculiar, loud, shrill sound, resembling the combination Katy-did, whence the name.

Keel (n.) A longitudinal timber, or series of timbers scarfed together, extending from stem to stern along the bottom of a vessel. It is the principal timber of the vessel, and, by means of the ribs attached on each side, supports the vessel's frame. In an iron vessel, a combination of plates supplies the place of the keel of a wooden ship. See Illust. of Keelson.

Keelson (n.) A piece of timber in a ship laid on the middle of the floor timbers over the keel, and binding the floor timbers to the keel; in iron vessels, a structure of plates, situated like the keelson of a timber ship.

Keep (v. t.) To have habitually in stock for sale.

Keep (v. i.) To remain in any position or state; to continue; to abide; to stay; as, to keep at a distance; to keep aloft; to keep near; to keep in the house; to keep before or behind; to keep in favor; to keep out of company, or out reach.

Kembing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Kemb

Keratin (n.) A nitrogenous substance, or mixture of substances, containing sulphur in a loose state of combination, and forming the chemical basis of epidermal tissues, such as horn, hair, feathers, and the like. It is an insoluble substance, and, unlike elastin, is not dissolved even by gastric or pancreatic juice. By decomposition with sulphuric acid it yields leucin and tyrosin, as does albumin. Called also epidermose.

Kerite (n.) A compound in which tar or asphaltum combined with animal or vegetable oils is vulcanized by sulphur, the product closely resembling rubber; -- used principally as an insulating material in telegraphy.

Kerosene (n.) An oil used for illuminating purposes, formerly obtained from the distillation of mineral wax, bituminous shale, etc., and hence called also coal oil. It is now produced in immense quantities, chiefly by the distillation and purification of petroleum. It consists chiefly of several hydrocarbons of the methane series.

Ketmie (n.) The name of certain African species of Hibiscus, cultivated for the acid of their mucilage.

Kibitkas (pl. ) of Kibitka

Kibitka (n.) A tent used by the Kirghiz Tartars.

Kibitka (n.) A rude kind of Russian vehicle, on wheels or on runners, sometimes covered with cloth or leather, and often used as a movable habitation.

Kick (v. i.) To thrust out the foot or feet with violence; to strike out with the foot or feet, as in defense or in bad temper; esp., to strike backward, as a horse does, or to have a habit of doing so. Hence, figuratively: To show ugly resistance, opposition, or hostility; to spurn.

Kickshaws (n.) A fancy dish; a titbit; a delicacy.

Kidney (n.) Habit; disposition; sort; kind.

Kilogramme (n.) A measure of weight, being a thousand grams, equal to 2.2046 pounds avoirdupois (15,432.34 grains). It is equal to the weight of a cubic decimeter of distilled water at the temperature of maximum density, or 39¡ Fahrenheit.

Kilolitre (n.) A measure of capacity equal to a cubic meter, or a thousand liters. It is equivalent to 35.315 cubic feet, and to 220.04 imperial gallons, or 264.18 American gallons of 321 cubic inches.

Kilostere (n.) A cubic measure containing 1000 cubic meters, and equivalent to 35,315 cubic feet.

Kin (n.) Relationship, consanguinity, or affinity; connection by birth or marriage; kindred; near connection or alliance, as of those having common descent.

Kindred (n.) Relationship by birth or marriage; consanguinity; affinity; kin.

Kinetogenesis (n.) An instrument for producing curves by the combination of circular movements; -- called also kinescope.

Kingbird (n.) A small American bird (Tyrannus tyrannus, or T. Carolinensis), noted for its courage in attacking larger birds, even hawks and eagles, especially when they approach its nest in the breeding season. It is a typical tyrant flycatcher, taking various insects upon the wing. It is dark ash above, and blackish on the head and tail. The quills and wing coverts are whitish at the edges. It is white beneath, with a white terminal band on the tail. The feathers on the head of the adults show a bright orange basal spot when erected. Called also bee bird, and bee martin. Several Southern and Western species of Tyrannus are also called king birds.

Kingbird (n.) The king tody. See under King.

Kingfisher (n.) Any one of numerous species of birds constituting the family Alcedinidae. Most of them feed upon fishes which they capture by diving and seizing then with the beak; others feed only upon reptiles, insects, etc. About one hundred and fifty species are known. They are found in nearly all parts of the world, but are particularly abundant in the East Indies.

Kinglet (n.) Any one of several species of small singing birds of the genus Regulus and family Sylviidae.

Kioways (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians distantly related to the Shoshones. They formerly inhabited the region about the head waters of the North Platte.

Kirmess (n.) In Europe, particularly in Belgium and Holland, and outdoor festival and fair; in the United States, generally an indoor entertainment and fair combined.

Kirumbo (n.) A bird of Madagascar (Leptosomus discolor), the only living type of a family allied to the rollers. It has a pair of loral plumes. The male is glossy green above, with metallic reflections; the female is spotted with brown and black.

Kite (n.) Any raptorial bird of the subfamily Milvinae, of which many species are known. They have long wings, adapted for soaring, and usually a forked tail.

Kite (n.) Fictitious commercial paper used for raising money or to sustain credit, as a check which represents no deposit in bank, or a bill of exchange not sanctioned by sale of goods; an accommodation check or bill.

Kittiwake (n.) A northern gull (Rissa tridactyla), inhabiting the coasts of Europe and America. It is white, with black tips to the wings, and has but three toes.

Kleptomania (n.) A propensity to steal, claimed to be irresistible. This does not constitute legal irresponsibility.

Klipdachs (n.) A small mammal (Hyrax Capensis), found in South Africa. It is of about the size of a rabbit, and closely resembles the daman. Called also rock rabbit.

Knabbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Knab

Knabble (v. i.) To bite or nibble.

Knap (v. t.) To bite; to bite off; to break short.

Knapple (v.) To break off with an abrupt, sharp noise; to bite; to nibble.

Knight-errant (n.) A wandering knight; a knight who traveled in search of adventures, for the purpose of exhibiting military skill, prowess, and generosity.

Knobbing (n.) Rough dressing by knocking off knobs or projections.

Kobellite (n.) A blackish gray mineral, a sulphide of antimony, bismuth, and lead.

Kobold (n.) A kind of domestic spirit in German mythology, corresponding to the Scottish brownie and the English Robin Goodfellow.

Koel (n.) Any one of several species of cuckoos of the genus Eudynamys, found in India, the East Indies, and Australia. They deposit their eggs in the nests of other birds.

Kohl-rabies (pl. ) of Kohl-rabi

Kohl-rabi (n.) A variety of cabbage, in which the edible part is a large, turnip-shaped swelling of the stem, above the surface of the ground.

Koklass (n.) Any pheasant of the genus Pucrasia. The birds of this genus inhabit India and China, and are distinguished by having a long central and two lateral crests on the head. Called also pucras.

Kolarian (n.) An individual of one of the races of aboriginal inhabitants which survive in Hindostan.

Koulan (n.) A wild horse (Equus, / Asinus, onager) inhabiting the plants of Central Asia; -- called also gour, khur, and onager.

Kurd (n.) A native or inhabitant of a mountainous region of Western Asia belonging to the Turkish and Persian monarchies.

Kurilian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of the Kurile Islands.

Labia (n. pl.) See Labium.

Labial (a.) Of or pertaining to the lips or labia; as, labial veins.

Labial (a.) Furnished with lips; as, a labial organ pipe.

Labial (a.) Articulated, as a consonant, mainly by the lips, as b, p, m, w.

Labial (a.) Modified, as a vowel, by contraction of the lip opening, as / (f/d), / (/ld), etc., and as eu and u in French, and o, u in German. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 11, 178.

Labial (a.) Of or pertaining to the labium; as, the labial palpi of insects. See Labium.

Labial (n.) A letter or character representing an articulation or sound formed or uttered chiefly with the lips, as b, p, w.

Labial (n.) An organ pipe that is furnished with lips; a flue pipe.

Labial (n.) One of the scales which border the mouth of a fish or reptile.

Labialism (n.) The quality of being labial; as, the labialism of an articulation; conversion into a labial, as of a sound which is different in another language.

Labialization (n.) The modification of an articulation by contraction of the lip opening.

Labialize (v. t.) To modify by contraction of the lip opening.

Labially (adv.) In a labial manner; with, or by means of, the lips.

Labiate (v. t.) To labialize.

Labiate (a.) Having the limb of a tubular corolla or calyx divided into two unequal parts, one projecting over the other like the lips of a mouth, as in the snapdragon, sage, and catnip.

Labiate (a.) Belonging to a natural order of plants (Labiatae), of which the mint, sage, and catnip are examples. They are mostly aromatic herbs.

Labiate (n.) A plant of the order Labiatae.

Labiated (a.) Same as Labiate, a. (a).

Labiatifloral (a.) Alt. of Labiatifloral

Labiatifloral (a.) Having labiate flowers, as the snapdragon.

Labidometer (n.) A forceps with a measuring attachment for ascertaining the size of the fetal head.

Labile (a.) Liable to slip, err, fall, or apostatize.

Lability (n.) Liability to lapse, err, or apostatize.

Labimeter (n.) See Labidometer.

Labiodental (a.) Formed or pronounced by the cooperation of the lips and teeth, as f and v.

Labiodental (n.) A labiodental sound or letter.

Labionasal (a.) Formed by the lips and the nose.

Labionasal (n.) A labionasal sound or letter.

Labiose (a.) Having the appearance of being labiate; -- said of certain polypetalous corollas.

Labipalpi (pl. ) of Labipalpus

Labipalpus (n.) One of the labial palpi of an insect. See Illust. under Labium.

Labia (pl. ) of Labium

Labiums (pl. ) of Labium

Labium (n.) A lip, or liplike organ.

Labium (n.) The lip of an organ pipe.

Labium (n.) The folds of integument at the opening of the vulva.

Labium (n.) The organ of insects which covers the mouth beneath, and serves as an under lip. It consists of the second pair of maxillae, usually closely united in the middle line, but bearing a pair of palpi in most insects. It often consists of a thin anterior part (ligula or palpiger) and a firmer posterior plate (mentum).

Labium (n.) Inner margin of the aperture of a shell.

Labor (n.) Travail; the pangs and efforts of childbirth.

Labor (n.) To be in travail; to suffer the pangs of childbirth.

Laboratory (n.) The workroom of a chemist; also, a place devoted to experiments in any branch of natural science; as, a chemical, physical, or biological laboratory. Hence, by extension, a place where something is prepared, or some operation is performed; as, the liver is the laboratory of the bile.

Labyrinthici (n. pl.) An order of teleostean fishes, including the Anabas, or climbing perch, and other allied fishes.

Labyrinthodon (n.) A genus of very large fossil amphibians, of the Triassic period, having bony plates on the under side of the body. It is the type of the order Labyrinthodonta. Called also Mastodonsaurus.

Labyrinthodonta (n. pl.) An extinct order of Amphibia, including the typical genus Labyrinthodon, and many other allied forms, from the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic formations. By recent writers they are divided into two or more orders. See Stegocephala.

Lace (n.) That which binds or holds, especially by being interwoven; a string, cord, or band, usually one passing through eyelet or other holes, and used in drawing and holding together parts of a garment, of a shoe, of a machine belt, etc.

Laconian (n.) An inhabitant of Laconia; esp., a Spartan.

Lactucin (n.) A white, crystalline substance, having a bitter taste and a neutral reaction, and forming one of the essential ingredients of lactucarium.

Ladybird (n.) Any one of numerous species of small beetles of the genus Coccinella and allied genera (family Coccinellidae); -- called also ladybug, ladyclock, lady cow, lady fly, and lady beetle. Coccinella seplempunctata in one of the common European species. See Coccinella.

Ladybug (n.) Same as Ladybird.

Lady's bower () A climbing plant with fragrant blossoms (Clematis vitalba).

Lady's laces () A slender climbing plant; dodder.

Laelaps (n.) A genus of huge, carnivorous, dinosaurian reptiles from the Cretaceous formation of the United States. They had very large hind legs and tail, and are supposed to have been bipedal. Some of the species were about eighteen feet high.

Lagena (n.) The terminal part of the cochlea in birds and most reptiles; an appendage of the sacculus, corresponding to the cochlea, in fishes and amphibians.

Lagophthalmos (n.) A morbid condition in which the eye stands wide open, giving a peculiar staring appearance.

Lake (n.) A pigment formed by combining some coloring matter, usually by precipitation, with a metallic oxide or earth, esp. with aluminium hydrate; as, madder lake; Florentine lake; yellow lake, etc.

Lambing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Lamb

Lambdacism (n.) A defect in pronunciation of the letter l when doubled, which consists in giving it a sound as if followed by y, similar to that of the letters lli in billion.

Lamellibranchiata (n. pl.) A class of Mollusca including all those that have bivalve shells, as the clams, oysters, mussels, etc.

Lamellirostral (a.) Having a lamellate bill, as ducks and geese.

Lamellirostres (n. pl.) A group of birds embracing the Anseres and flamingoes, in which the bill is lamellate.

Lames (n. pl.) Small steel plates combined together so as to slide one upon the other and form a piece of armor.

Laminability (n.) The quality or state of being laminable.

Laminiplantar (a.) Having the tarsus covered behind with a horny sheath continuous on both sides, as in most singing birds, except the larks.

Lammergeier (n.) A very large vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), which inhabits the mountains of Southern Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. When full-grown it is nine or ten feet in extent of wings. It is brownish black above, with the under parts and neck rusty yellow; the forehead and crown white; the sides of the head and beard black. It feeds partly on carrion and partly on small animals, which it kills. It has the habit of carrying tortoises and marrow bones to a great height, and dropping them on stones to obtain the contents, and is therefore called bonebreaker and ossifrage. It is supposed to be the ossifrage of the Bible. Called also bearded vulture and bearded eagle.

Lance fish () A slender marine fish of the genus Ammodytes, especially Ammodytes tobianus of the English coast; -- called also sand lance.

Lancegaye (n.) A kind of spear anciently used. Its use was prohibited by a statute of Richard II.

Land (n.) The inhabitants of a nation or people.

Langarey (n.) One of numerous species of long-winged, shrikelike birds of Australia and the East Indies, of the genus Artamus, and allied genera; called also wood swallow.

Lant (n.) Any one of several species of small, slender, marine fishes of the genus Ammedytes. The common European species (A. tobianus) and the American species (A. Americanus) live on sandy shores, buried in the sand, and are caught in large quantities for bait. Called also launce, and sand eel.

Lanugo (n.) The soft woolly hair which covers most parts of the mammal fetus, and in man is shed before or soon after birth.

Laplander (n.) A native or inhabitant of Lapland; -- called also Lapp.

Lapwing (n.) A small European bird of the Plover family (Vanellus cristatus, or V. vanellus). It has long and broad wings, and is noted for its rapid, irregular fight, upwards, downwards, and in circles. Its back is coppery or greenish bronze. Its eggs are the "plover's eggs" of the London market, esteemed a delicacy. It is called also peewit, dastard plover, and wype. The gray lapwing is the Squatarola cinerea.

Lardoon (n.) A bit of fat pork or bacon used in larding.

Large (superl.) Exceeding most other things of like kind in bulk, capacity, quantity, superficial dimensions, or number of constituent units; big; great; capacious; extensive; -- opposed to small; as, a large horse; a large house or room; a large lake or pool; a large jug or spoon; a large vineyard; a large army; a large city.

Larget (n.) A sport piece of bar iron for rolling into a sheet; a small billet.

Lark (n.) Any one numerous species of singing birds of the genus Alauda and allied genera (family Alaudidae). They mostly belong to Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. In America they are represented by the shore larks, or horned by the shore larks, or horned larks, of the genus Otocoris. The true larks have holaspidean tarsi, very long hind claws, and usually, dull, sandy brown colors.

Larva (n.) Any young insect from the time that it hatches from the egg until it becomes a pupa, or chrysalis. During this time it usually molts several times, and may change its form or color each time. The larvae of many insects are much like the adults in form and habits, but have no trace of wings, the rudimentary wings appearing only in the pupa stage. In other groups of insects the larvae are totally unlike the parents in structure and habits, and are called caterpillars, grubs, maggots, etc.

Laserwort (n.) Any plant of the umbelliferous genus Laserpitium, of several species (as L. glabrum, and L. siler), the root of which yields a resinous substance of a bitter taste. The genus is mostly European.

Lash (n.) To bind with a rope, cord, thong, or chain, so as to fasten; as, to lash something to a spar; to lash a pack on a horse's back.

Lasher (n.) A piece of rope for binding or making fast one thing to another; -- called also lashing.

Lassitude (n.) A condition of the body, or mind, when its voluntary functions are performed with difficulty, and only by a strong exertion of the will; languor; debility; weariness.

Late (v.) Existing or holding some position not long ago, but not now; lately deceased, departed, or gone out of office; as, the late bishop of London; the late administration.

Lates (n.) A genus of large percoid fishes, of which one species (Lates Niloticus) inhabits the Nile, and another (L. calcarifer) is found in the Ganges and other Indian rivers. They are valued as food fishes.

Latex (n.) A milky or colored juice in certain plants in cavities (called latex cells or latex tubes). It contains the peculiar principles of the plants, whether aromatic, bitter, or acid, and in many instances yields caoutchouc upon coagulation.

Latin (n.) A native or inhabitant of Latium; a Roman.

Latirostres (n. pl.) The broad-billed singing birds, such as the swallows, and their allies.

Laudability (n.) Laudableness; praiseworthiness.

Laudable (v. i.) Worthy of being lauded; praiseworthy; commendable; as, laudable motives; laudable actions; laudable ambition.

Laudator (n.) An arbitrator.

Laurel (n.) An evergreen shrub, of the genus Laurus (L. nobilis), having aromatic leaves of a lanceolate shape, with clusters of small, yellowish white flowers in their axils; -- called also sweet bay.

Lauric (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, the European bay or laurel (Laurus nobilis).

Laurin (n.) A white crystalline substance extracted from the fruit of the bay (Laurus nobilis), and consisting of a complex mixture of glycerin ethers of several organic acids.

Laurus (n.) A genus of trees including, according to modern authors, only the true laurel (Laurus nobilis), and the larger L. Canariensis of Madeira and the Canary Islands. Formerly the sassafras, the camphor tree, the cinnamon tree, and several other aromatic trees and shrubs, were also referred to the genus Laurus.

Law-abiding (a.) Abiding the law; waiting for the operation of law for the enforcement of rights; also, abiding by the law; obedient to the law; as, law-abiding people.

Lawm (n.) A very fine linen (or sometimes cotton) fabric with a rather open texture. Lawn is used for the sleeves of a bishop's official dress in the English Church, and, figuratively, stands for the office itself.

Laystall (n.) A place where rubbish, dung, etc., are laid or deposited.

Leach (n.) A quantity of wood ashes, through which water passes, and thus imbibes the alkali.

Lead (v. t.) To go or to be in advance of; to precede; hence, to be foremost or chief among; as, the big sloop led the fleet of yachts; the Guards led the attack; Demosthenes leads the orators of all ages.

League (n.) An alliance or combination of two or more nations, parties, or persons, for the accomplishment of a purpose which requires a continued course of action, as for mutual defense, or for furtherance of commercial, religious, or political interests, etc.

League (v. i.) To unite in a league or confederacy; to combine for mutual support; to confederate.

League (v. t.) To join in a league; to cause to combine for a joint purpose; to combine; to unite; as, common interests will league heterogeneous elements.

Leatherhead (n.) The friar bird.

Leatherneck (n.) The sordid friar bird of Australia (Tropidorhynchus sordidus).

Leave (v.) To put; to place; to deposit; to deliver; to commit; to submit -- with a sense of withdrawing one's self from; as, leave your hat in the hall; we left our cards; to leave the matter to arbitrators.

Leaved (a.) Bearing, or having, a leaf or leaves; having folds; -- used in combination; as, a four-leaved clover; a two-leaved gate; long-leaved.

Ledger (n.) A book in which a summary of accounts is laid up or preserved; the final book of record in business transactions, in which all debits and credits from the journal, etc., are placed under appropriate heads.

Leg (n.) A limb or member of an animal used for supporting the body, and in running, climbing, and swimming; esp., that part of the limb between the knee and foot.

Legal (a.) Created by, permitted by, in conformity with, or relating to, law; as, a legal obligation; a legal standard or test; a legal procedure; a legal claim; a legal trade; anything is legal which the laws do not forbid.

Legibility (n.) The quality of being legible; legibleness.

Legitimate (a.) Conforming to known principles, or accepted rules; as, legitimate reasoning; a legitimate standard, or method; a legitimate combination of colors.

Legitimation (n.) Lawful birth.

Leipoa (n.) A genus of Australian gallinaceous birds including but a single species (Leipoa ocellata), about the size of a turkey. Its color is variegated, brown, black, white, and gray. Called also native pheasant.

Lemur (n.) One of a family (Lemuridae) of nocturnal mammals allied to the monkeys, but of small size, and having a sharp and foxlike muzzle, and large eyes. They feed upon birds, insects, and fruit, and are mostly natives of Madagascar and the neighboring islands, one genus (Galago) occurring in Africa. The slow lemur or kukang of the East Indies is Nycticebus tardigradus. See Galago, Indris, and Colugo.

Length (a.) The quality or state of being long, in space or time; extent; duration; as, some sea birds are remarkable for the length of their wings; he was tired by the length of the sermon, and the length of his walk.

Lenitude (n.) The quality or habit of being lenient; lenity.

Lens (n.) A piece of glass, or other transparent substance, ground with two opposite regular surfaces, either both curved, or one curved and the other plane, and commonly used, either singly or combined, in optical instruments, for changing the direction of rays of light, and thus magnifying objects, or otherwise modifying vision. In practice, the curved surfaces are usually spherical, though rarely cylindrical, or of some other figure.

Lepidosiren (n.) An eel-shaped ganoid fish of the order Dipnoi, having both gills and lungs. It inhabits the rivers of South America. The name is also applied to a related African species (Protopterus annectens). The lepidosirens grow to a length of from four to six feet. Called also doko.

Leptodactyl (n.) A bird or other animal having slender toes.

Lesbian (a.) Of or pertaining to the island anciently called Lesbos, now Mitylene, in the Grecian Archipelago.

Lesion (n.) Any morbid change in the exercise of functions or the texture of organs.

Lethargical (a.) Pertaining to, affected with, or resembling, lethargy; morbidly drowsy; dull; heavy.

Lethargy (n.) Morbid drowsiness; continued or profound sleep, from which a person can scarcely be awaked.

Letts (n. pl.) An Indo-European people, allied to the Lithuanians and Old Prussians, and inhabiting a part of the Baltic provinces of Russia.

Leuc- () A combining form signifying white, colorless; specif. (Chem.), denoting an extensive series of colorless organic compounds, obtained by reduction from certain other colored compounds; as, leucaniline, leucaurin, etc.

Leucoethiopic (a.) White and black; -- said of a white animal of a black species, or the albino of the negro race.

Leucoethiops (n.) An albino.

Leucopathy (n.) The state of an albino, or of a white child of black parents.

Leucophlegmacy (n.) A dropsical habit of body, or the commencement of anasarca; paleness, with viscid juices and cold sweats.

Leucophlegmatic (a.) Having a dropsical habit of body, with a white bloated skin.

Leucous (a.) White; -- applied to albinos, from the whiteness of their skin and hair.

Levantine (n.) A native or inhabitant of the Levant.

Levigate (v. t.) Technically, to make smooth by rubbing in a moist condition between hard surfaces, as in grinding pigments.

Levirostres (n. pl.) A group of birds, including the hornbills, kingfishers, and related forms.

Lewd (superl.) Given to the promiscuous indulgence of lust; dissolute; lustful; libidinous.

Liabilities (pl. ) of Liability

Liability (n.) The state of being liable; as, the liability of an insurer; liability to accidents; liability to the law.

Liability (n.) That which one is under obligation to pay, or for which one is liable.

Liability (n.) the sum of one's pecuniary obligations; -- opposed to assets.

Liableness (n.) Quality of being liable; liability.

Liana (n.) A luxuriant woody plant, climbing high trees and having ropelike stems. The grapevine often has the habit of a liane. Lianes are abundant in the forests of the Amazon region.

Libel (n.) A brief writing of any kind, esp. a declaration, bill, certificate, request, supplication, etc.

Liberal (a.) Free by birth; hence, befitting a freeman or gentleman; refined; noble; independent; free; not servile or mean; as, a liberal ancestry; a liberal spirit; liberal arts or studies.

Liberty (n.) A curve or arch in a bit to afford room for the tongue of the horse.

Libethenite (n.) A mineral of an olive-green color, commonly in orthorhombic crystals. It is a hydrous phosphate of copper.

Libidinist (n.) One given to lewdness.

Libidinosity (n.) The state or quality of being libidinous; libidinousness.

Libidinous (a.) Having lustful desires; characterized by lewdness; sensual; lascivious.

Libration point (n.) any one of five points in the plane of a system of two large astronomical bodies orbiting each other, as the Earth-moon system, where the gravitational pull of the two bodies on an object are approximately equal, and in opposite directions. A solid object moving in the same velocity and direction as such a libration point will remain in gravitational equilibrium with the two bodies of the system and not fall toward either body.

Licitation (n.) The act of offering for sale to the highest bidder.

Lie (adj.) To abide; to remain for a longer or shorter time; to be in a certain state or condition; as, to lie waste; to lie fallow; to lie open; to lie hid; to lie grieving; to lie under one's displeasure; to lie at the mercy of the waves; the paper does not lie smooth on the wall.

Lie (adj.) To be or exist; to belong or pertain; to have an abiding place; to consist; -- with in.

Life (n.) The state of being which begins with generation, birth, or germination, and ends with death; also, the time during which this state continues; that state of an animal or plant in which all or any of its organs are capable of performing all or any of their functions; -- used of all animal and vegetable organisms.

Life (n.) A history of the acts and events of a life; a biography; as, Johnson wrote the life of Milton.

Lifeless (a.) Destitute of life, or deprived of life; not containing, or inhabited by, living beings or vegetation; dead, or apparently dead; spiritless; powerless; dull; as, a lifeless carcass; lifeless matter; a lifeless desert; a lifeless wine; a lifeless story.

Ligamentous (a.) Composing a ligament; of the nature of a ligament; binding; as, a strong ligamentous membrane.

Ligate (v. t.) To tie with a ligature; to bind around; to bandage.

Ligation (n.) The act of binding, or the state of being bound.

Ligation (n.) That which binds; bond; connection.

Ligature (n.) The act of binding.

Ligature (n.) Anything that binds; a band or bandage.

Light (v. i.) To descend from flight, and rest, perch, or settle, as a bird or insect.

Light-o'-love (n.) An old tune of a dance, the name of which made it a proverbial expression of levity, especially in love matters.

Lights (n. pl.) The lungs of an animal or bird; -- sometimes coarsely applied to the lungs of a human being.

Lignite (n.) Mineral coal retaining the texture of the wood from which it was formed, and burning with an empyreumatic odor. It is of more recent origin than the anthracite and bituminous coal of the proper coal series. Called also brown coal, wood coal.

Ligula (n.) The central process, or front edge, of the labium of insects. It sometimes serves as a tongue or proboscis, as in bees.

Ligustrin (n.) A bitter principle found in the bark of the privet (Ligustrum vulgare), and extracted as a white crystalline substance with a warm, bitter taste; -- called also ligustron.

Like (superl.) Having probability; affording probability; probable; likely.

Likelihood (n.) Appearance of truth or reality; probability; verisimilitude.

Likeliness (n.) Likelihood; probability.

Likely (a.) Having probability; having or giving reason to expect; -- followed by the infinitive; as, it is likely to rain.

Likely (adv.) In all probability; probably.

Lilliputian (a.) Of or pertaining to the imaginary island of Lilliput described by Swift, or to its inhabitants.

Limbec (n.) An alembic; a still.

Lime (v. t.) To smear with a viscous substance, as birdlime.

Limenean (a.) Of or pertaining to Lima, or to the inhabitants of Lima, in Peru.

Limenean (n.) A native or inhabitant of Lima.

Lime-twigged (a.) Beset with snares; insnared, as with birdlime.

Limicolae (n. pl.) A group of shore birds, embracing the plovers, sandpipers, snipe, curlew, etc. ; the Grallae.

Limicoline (a.) Shore-inhabiting; of or pertaining to the Limicolae.

Limit (v. t.) To apply a limit to, or set a limit for; to terminate, circumscribe, or restrict, by a limit or limits; as, to limit the acreage of a crop; to limit the issue of paper money; to limit one's ambitions or aspirations; to limit the meaning of a word.

Limonin (n.) A bitter, white, crystalline substance found in orange and lemon seeds.

Limosis (n.) A ravenous appetite caused by disease; excessive and morbid hunger.

Limpkin (n.) Either one of two species of wading birds of the genus Aramus, intermediate between the cranes and rails. The limpkins are remarkable for the great length of the toes. One species (A. giganteus) inhabits Florida and the West Indies; the other (A. scolopaceus) is found in South America. Called also courlan, and crying bird.

Line (n.) A linen thread or string; a slender, strong cord; also, a cord of any thickness; a rope; a hawser; as, a fishing line; a line for snaring birds; a clothesline; a towline.

-ling () An adverbial suffix; as, darkling, flatling.

Ling (a.) A New Zealand food fish of the genus Genypterus. The name is also locally applied to other fishes, as the cultus cod, the mutton fish, and the cobia.

Ling-bird (n.) The European meadow pipit; -- called also titling.

Lingua (n.) A median process of the labium, at the under side of the mouth in insects, and serving as a tongue.

Link (n.) Hence: Anything, whether material or not, which binds together, or connects, separate things; a part of a connected series; a tie; a bond.

Linnet (n.) Any one of several species of fringilline birds of the genera Linota, Acanthis, and allied genera, esp. the common European species (L. cannabina), which, in full summer plumage, is chestnut brown above, with the breast more or less crimson. The feathers of its head are grayish brown, tipped with crimson. Called also gray linnet, red linnet, rose linnet, brown linnet, lintie, lintwhite, gorse thatcher, linnet finch, and greater redpoll. The American redpoll linnet (Acanthis linaria) often has the crown and throat rosy. See Redpoll, and Twite.

Linoleic (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, linoleum, or linseed oil; specifically (Chem.), designating an organic acid, a thin yellow oil, found combined as a salt of glycerin in oils of linseed, poppy, hemp, and certain nuts.

Linsang (n.) Any viverrine mammal of the genus Prionodon, inhabiting the East Indies and Southern Asia. The common East Indian linsang (P. gracilis) is white, crossed by broad, black bands. The Guinea linsang (Porana Richardsonii) is brown with black spots.

Lion's tail () A genus of labiate plants (Leonurus); -- so called from a fancied resemblance of its flower spikes to the tuft of a lion's tail. L. Cardiaca is the common motherwort.

Lip (n.) One of the two opposite divisions of a labiate corolla.

Lipans (n. pl.) A tribe of North American Indians, inhabiting the northern part of Mexico. They belong to the Tinneh stock, and are closely related to the Apaches.

Lipped (a.) Labiate.

Lisp (v. i.) To pronounce the sibilant letter s imperfectly; to give s and z the sound of th; -- a defect common among children.

Lisp (n.) The habit or act of lisping. See Lisp, v. i., 1.

Litre (n.) A measure of capacity in the metric system, being a cubic decimeter, equal to 61.022 cubic inches, or 2.113 American pints, or 1.76 English pints.

-lite () Combining forms fr. Gr. li`qos a stone; -- used chiefly in naming minerals and rocks.

Litheness (n.) The quality or state of being lithe; flexibility; limberness.

Litho () A combining form from Gr. li`qos, stone.

Lithobilic (a.) Pertaining to or designating an organic acid of the tartaric acid series, distinct from lithofellic acid, but, like it, obtained from certain bile products, as bezoar stones.

Lithodome (n.) Any one of several species of bivalves, which form holes in limestone, in which they live; esp., any species of the genus Lithodomus.

Lithodomus (n.) A genus of elongated bivalve shells, allied to the mussels, and remarkable for their ability to bore holes for shelter, in solid limestone, shells, etc. Called also Lithophagus.

Lithofellic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, a crystalline, organic acid, resembling cholic acid, found in the biliary intestinal concretions (bezoar stones) common in certain species of antelope.

Lithophagous (a.) Eating or destroying stone; -- applied to various animals which make burrows in stone, as many bivalve mollusks, certain sponges, annelids, and sea urchins. See Lithodomus.

Litigate (v. t.) To make the subject of a lawsuit; to contest in law; to prosecute or defend by pleadings, exhibition of evidence, and judicial debate in a court; as, to litigate a cause.

Litter (n.) Things lying scattered about in a manner indicating slovenliness; scattered rubbish.

Litter (n.) Disorder or untidiness resulting from scattered rubbish, or from thongs lying about uncared for; as, a room in a state of litter.

Litter (v. t.) To give birth to; to bear; -- said of brutes, esp. those which produce more than one at a birth, and also of human beings, in abhorrence or contempt.

Little (a.) Small in size or extent; not big; diminutive; -- opposed to big or large; as, a little body; a little animal; a little piece of ground; a little hill; a little distance; a little child.

Littoral (a.) Inhabiting the seashore, esp. the zone between high-water and low-water mark.

Live (v. i.) To pass one's time; to pass life or time in a certain manner, as to habits, conduct, or circumstances; as, to live in ease or affluence; to live happily or usefully.

Live (v. i.) To make one's abiding place or home; to abide; to dwell; to reside.

Live (v. t.) To spend, as one's life; to pass; to maintain; to continue in, constantly or habitually; as, to live an idle or a useful life.

Live (v. t.) To act habitually in conformity with; to practice.

Livelong (a.) Whole; entire; long in passing; -- used of time, as day or night, in adverbial phrases, and usually with a sense of tediousness.

Liver (n.) The glossy ibis (Ibis falcinellus); -- said to have given its name to the city of Liverpool.

Livinian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Livonia; the language (allied to the Finnish) of the Livonians.

Llanero (n.) One of the inhabitants of the llanos of South America.

Loach (n.) Any one of several small, fresh-water, cyprinoid fishes of the genera Cobitis, Nemachilus, and allied genera, having six or more barbules around the mouth. They are found in Europe and Asia. The common European species (N. barbatulus) is used as a food fish.

Lobbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Lob

Lobbish (a.) Like a lob; consisting of lobs.

Lobbies (pl. ) of Lobby

Lobby (n.) An apartment or passageway in the fore part of an old-fashioned cabin under the quarter-deck.

Lobbied (imp. & p. p.) of Lobby

Lobby (v. t.) To urge the adoption or passage of by soliciting members of a legislative body; as, to lobby a bill.

Lobe (n.) A membranous flap on the sides of the toes of certain birds, as the coot.

Lobefoot (n.) A bird having lobate toes; esp., a phalarope.

Lobe-footed (a.) Lobiped.

Lobiped (a.) Having lobate toes, as a coot.

Lobscouse (n.) A combination of meat with vegetables, bread, etc., usually stewed, sometimes baked; an olio.

Locality (n.) The perceptive faculty concerned with the ability to remember the relative positions of places.

Lochia (n. pl.) The discharge from the womb and vagina which follows childbirth.

Locust (n.) Any one of numerous species of long-winged, migratory, orthopterous insects, of the family Acrididae, allied to the grasshoppers; esp., (Edipoda, / Pachytylus, migratoria, and Acridium perigrinum, of Southern Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the United States the related species with similar habits are usually called grasshoppers. See Grasshopper.

Locust tree () A large North American tree of the genus Robinia (R. Pseudacacia), producing large slender racemes of white, fragrant, papilionaceous flowers, and often cultivated as an ornamental tree. In England it is called acacia.

Lodge (n.) A shelter in which one may rest; as: (a) A shed; a rude cabin; a hut; as, an Indian's lodge.

Lodge (v. i.) To rest or remain a lodge house, or other shelter; to rest; to stay; to abide; esp., to sleep at night; as, to lodge in York Street.

Lodging (n.) A place of rest, or of temporary habitation; esp., a sleeping apartment; -- often in the plural with a singular meaning.

Lodging (n.) Abiding place; harbor; cover.

Loge (n.) A lodge; a habitation.

Loggerhead (n.) An American shrike (Lanius Ludovicianus), similar to the butcher bird, but smaller. See Shrike.

Logogriph (n.) A sort of riddle in which it is required to discover a chosen word from various combinations of its letters, or of some of its letters, which form other words; -- thus, to discover the chosen word chatter form cat, hat, rat, hate, rate, etc.

Logrolling (n.) The act or process of rolling logs from the place where they were felled to the stream which floats them to the sawmill or to market. In this labor neighboring camps of loggers combine to assist each other in turn.

Logrolling (n.) Hence: A combining to assist another in consideration of receiving assistance in return; -- sometimes used of a disreputable mode of accomplishing political schemes or ends.

-logy () A combining form denoting a discourse, treatise, doctrine, theory, science; as, theology, geology, biology, mineralogy.

Lombard (a.) Of or pertaining to Lombardy, or the inhabitants of Lombardy.

Lombard (n.) A native or inhabitant of Lombardy.

Londoner (n.) A native or inhabitant of London.

Long (a.) To feel a strong or morbid desire or craving; to wish for something with eagerness; -- followed by an infinitive, or by after or for.

Longbeak (n.) The American redbellied snipe (Macrorhamphus scolopaceus); -- called also long-billed dowitcher.

Longing (n.) An eager desire; a craving; a morbid appetite; an earnest wish; an aspiration.

Longipennes (n. pl.) A group of longwinged sea birds, including the gulls, petrels, etc.

Longirostral (a.) Having a long bill; of or pertaining to the Longirostres.

Longirostres (n. pl.) A group of birds characterized by having long slender bills, as the sandpipers, curlews, and ibises. It is now regarded as an artificial division.

Longspur (n.) Any one of several species of fringilline birds of the genus Calcarius (or Plectrophanes), and allied genera. The Lapland longspur (C. Lapponicus), the chestnut-colored longspur (C. ornatus), and other species, inhabit the United States.

Loobily (a.) Loobylike; awkward.

Loobily (adv.) Awkwardly.

Loobies (pl. ) of Looby

Loof (n.) The spongelike fibers of the fruit of a cucurbitaceous plant (Luffa Aegyptiaca); called also vegetable sponge.

Lookout (n.) Object or duty of forethought and care; responsibility.

Loom (n.) See Loon, the bird.

Loon (n.) Any one of several aquatic, wed-footed, northern birds of the genus Urinator (formerly Colymbus), noted for their expertness in diving and swimming under water. The common loon, or great northern diver (Urinator imber, or Colymbus torquatus), and the red-throated loon or diver (U. septentrionalis), are the best known species. See Diver.

Loop (n.) A fold or doubling of a thread, cord, rope, etc., through which another thread, cord, etc., can be passed, or which a hook can be hooked into; an eye, as of metal; a staple; a noose; a bight.

Loose (superl.) Free from constraint or obligation; not bound by duty, habit, etc. ; -- with from or of.

Loose (a.) To untie or unbind; to free from any fastening; to remove the shackles or fastenings of; to set free; to relieve.

Lophosteon (n.) The central keel-bearing part of the sternum in birds.

Loquacity (n.) The habit or practice of talking continually or excessively; inclination to talk too much; talkativeness; garrulity.

Lord (n.) A titled nobleman., whether a peer of the realm or not; a bishop, as a member of the House of Lords; by courtesy; the son of a duke or marquis, or the eldest son of an earl; in a restricted sense, a boron, as opposed to noblemen of higher rank.

Lord (v. i.) To play the lord; to domineer; to rule with arbitrary or despotic sway; -- sometimes with over; and sometimes with it in the manner of a transitive verb.

Lords and Ladies () The European wake-robin (Arum maculatum), -- those with purplish spadix the lords, and those with pale spadix the ladies.

Lordship (n.) The state or condition of being a lord; hence (with his or your), a title applied to a lord (except an archbishop or duke, who is called Grace) or a judge (in Great Britain), etc.

Lore (n.) The space between the eye and bill, in birds, and the corresponding region in reptiles and fishes.

Loral (a.) Of or pertaining to the lore; -- said of certain feathers of birds, scales of reptiles, etc.

Lorikeet (n.) Any one numerous species of small brush-tongued parrots or lories, found mostly in Australia, New Guinea and the adjacent islands, with some forms in the East Indies. They are arboreal in their habits and feed largely upon the honey of flowers. They belong to Trichoglossus, Loriculus, and several allied genera.

Loriner (n.) A maker of bits, spurs, and metal mounting for bridles and saddles; hence, a saddler.

Loris (n.) Any one of several species of small lemurs of the genus Stenops. They have long, slender limbs and large eyes, and are arboreal in their habits. The slender loris (S. gracilis), of Ceylon, in one of the best known species.

Lorry (n.) A small cart or wagon, as those used on the tramways in mines to carry coal or rubbish; also, a barrow or truck for shifting baggage, as at railway stations.

Lost (v. t.) Hardened beyond sensibility or recovery; alienated; insensible; as, lost to shame; lost to all sense of honor.

Lotus (n.) A name of several kinds of water lilies; as Nelumbium speciosum, used in religious ceremonies, anciently in Egypt, and to this day in Asia; Nelumbium luteum, the American lotus; and Nymphaea Lotus and N. caerulea, the respectively white-flowered and blue-flowered lotus of modern Egypt, which, with Nelumbium speciosum, are figured on its ancient monuments.

Louchettes (n. pl.) Goggles intended to rectify strabismus by permitting vision only directly in front.

Louse (n.) Any one of numerous species of small, wingless, suctorial, parasitic insects belonging to a tribe (Pediculina), now usually regarded as degraded Hemiptera. To this group belong of the lice of man and other mammals; as, the head louse of man (Pediculus capitis), the body louse (P. vestimenti), and the crab louse (Phthirius pubis), and many others. See Crab louse, Dog louse, Cattle louse, etc., under Crab, Dog, etc.

Louse (n.) Any one of numerous small mandibulate insects, mostly parasitic on birds, and feeding on the feathers. They are known as Mallophaga, or bird lice, though some occur on the hair of mammals. They are usually regarded as degraded Pseudoneuroptera. See Mallophaga.

Love (n.) A climbing species of Clematis (C. Vitalba).

Lowbell (n.) A bell used in fowling at night, to frighten birds, and, with a sudden light, to make them fly into a net.

Lower (a.) To depress as to direction; as, to lower the aim of a gun; to make less elevated as to object; as, to lower one's ambition, aspirations, or hopes.

Lowlander (n.) A native or inhabitant of the Lowlands, especially of the Lowlands of Scotland, as distinguished from Highlander.

Lubricity (n.) Slipperiness; instability; as, the lubricity of fortune.

Lucchese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Lucca, in Tuscany; in the plural, the people of Lucca.

Luciferian (n.) One of the followers of Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, in the fourth century, who separated from the orthodox churches because they would not go as far as he did in opposing the Arians.

Luck (n.) That which happens to a person; an event, good or ill, affecting one's interests or happiness, and which is deemed casual; a course or series of such events regarded as occurring by chance; chance; hap; fate; fortune; often, one's habitual or characteristic fortune; as, good, bad, ill, or hard luck. Luck is often used for good luck; as, luck is better than skill.

Lunacy (n.) A morbid suspension of good sense or judgment, as through fanaticism.

Lunarian (n.) An inhabitant of the moon.

Lungwort (n.) Any plant of the genus Mertensia (esp. M. Virginica and M. Sibirica) plants nearly related to Pulmonaria. The American lungwort is Mertensia Virginica, Virginia cowslip.

Lunule (n.) A special area in front of the beak of many bivalve shells. It sometimes has the shape of a double crescent, but is oftener heart-shaped. See Illust. of Bivalve.

Lupinine (n.) An alkaloid found in several species of lupine (Lupinus luteus, L. albus, etc.), and extracted as a bitter crystalline substance.

Lupulin (n.) A bitter principle extracted from hops.

Lupulin (n.) The fine yellow resinous powder found upon the strobiles or fruit of hops, and containing this bitter principle.

Lurchline (n.) The line by which a fowling net was pulled over so as to inclose the birds.

Lure (n.) A contrivance somewhat resembling a bird, and often baited with raw meat; -- used by falconers in recalling hawks.

Lurg (n.) A large marine annelid (Nephthys caeca), inhabiting the sandy shores of Europe and America. It is whitish, with a pearly luster, and grows to the length of eight or ten inches.

Lusty (superl.) Exhibiting lust or vigor; stout; strong; vigorous; robust; healthful; able of body.

Lusty (superl.) Of large size; big. [Obs.] " Three lusty vessels." Evelyn. Hence, sometimes, pregnant.

Luteic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid resembling luteolin, but obtained from the flowers of Euphorbia cyparissias.

Luteo- () A combining form signifying orange yellow or brownish yellow.

Lutulent (a.) Muddy; turbid; thick.

Luz (n.) A bone of the human body which was supposed by certain Rabbinical writers to be indestructible. Its location was a matter of dispute.

Lychnobite (n.) One who labors at night and sleeps in the day.

Lydian (a.) Of or pertaining to Lydia, a country of Asia Minor, or to its inhabitants; hence, soft; effeminate; -- said especially of one of the ancient Greek modes or keys, the music in which was of a soft, pathetic, or voluptuous character.

Lygodium (n.) A genus of ferns with twining or climbing fronds, bearing stalked and variously-lobed divisions in pairs.

Lying-in (n.) The state attending, and consequent to, childbirth; confinement.

Lymph (n.) A fibrinous material exuded from the blood vessels in inflammation. In the process of healing it is either absorbed, or is converted into connective tissue binding the inflamed surfaces together.

Lyrated (a.) Shaped like a lyre, as the tail of the blackcock, or that of the lyre bird.

Lyre bird () Any one of two or three species of Australian birds of the genus Menura. The male is remarkable for having the sixteen tail feathers very long and, when spread, arranged in the form of a lyre. The common lyre bird (Menura superba), inhabiting New South Wales, is about the size of a grouse. Its general color is brown, with rufous color on the throat, wings, tail coverts and tail. Called also lyre pheasant and lyre-tail.

Lyssa (n.) Hydrophobia.

M () M, the thirteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant, and from the manner of its formation, is called the labio-nasal consonant. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 178-180, 242.

Macaw (n.) Any parrot of the genus Sittace, or Macrocercus. About eighteen species are known, all of them American. They are large and have a very long tail, a strong hooked bill, and a naked space around the eyes. The voice is harsh, and the colors are brilliant and strongly contrasted.

Mace (n.) A rod for playing billiards, having one end suited to resting on the table and pushed with one hand.

Macedonian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Macedonia.

Machete (n.) A large heavy knife resembling a broadsword, often two or three feet in length, -- used by the inhabitants of Spanish America as a hatchet to cut their way through thickets, and for various other purposes.

Machiavelianism (n.) The supposed principles of Machiavel, or practice in conformity to them; political artifice, intended to favor arbitrary power.

Machine (n.) In general, any combination of bodies so connected that their relative motions are constrained, and by means of which force and motion may be transmitted and modified, as a screw and its nut, or a lever arranged to turn about a fulcrum or a pulley about its pivot, etc.; especially, a construction, more or less complex, consisting of a combination of moving parts, or simple mechanical elements, as wheels, levers, cams, etc., with their supports and connecting framework, calculated to constitute a prime mover, or to receive force and motion from a prime mover or from another machine, and transmit, modify, and apply them to the production of some desired mechanical effect or work, as weaving by a loom, or the excitation of electricity by an electrical machine.

Machine (n.) Any mechanical contrivance, as the wooden horse with which the Greeks entered Troy; a coach; a bicycle.

Machine (n.) A combination of persons acting together for a common purpose, with the agencies which they use; as, the social machine.

Macro- () A combining form signifying long, large, great; as macrodiagonal, macrospore.

Macrobiotic (a.) Long-lived.

Macrobiotics (n.) The art of prolonging life.

Macrochires (n. pl.) A division of birds including the swifts and humming birds. So called from the length of the distal part of the wing.

Macrodactyl (n.) One of a group of wading birds (Macrodactyli) having very long toes.

Macrodiagonal (n.) The longer of two diagonals, as of a rhombic prism. See Crystallization.

Macrodome (n.) A dome parallel to the longer lateral axis of an orthorhombic crystal. See Dome, n., 4.

Macropinacoid (n.) One of the two planes of an orthorhombic crystal which are parallel to the vertical and longer lateral (macrodiagonal) axes.

Macroprism (n.) A prism of an orthorhombic crystal between the macropinacoid and the unit prism; the corresponding pyramids are called macropyramids.

Macropteres (n. pl.) A division of birds; the Longipennes.

Mactra (n.) Any marine bivalve shell of the genus Mactra, and allied genera. Many species are known. Some of them are used as food, as Mactra stultorum, of Europe. See Surf clam, under Surf.

Mad (superl.) Furious with rage, terror, or disease; -- said of the lower animals; as, a mad bull; esp., having hydrophobia; rabid; as, a mad dog.

Madder (n.) A plant of the Rubia (R. tinctorum). The root is much used in dyeing red, and formerly was used in medicine. It is cultivated in France and Holland. See Rubiaceous.

Madderwort (n.) A name proposed for any plant of the same natural order (Rubiaceae) as the madder.

Madecassee (n.) A native or inhabitant of Madagascar, or Madecassee; the language of the natives of Madagascar. See Malagasy.

Madecassee (a.) Of or pertaining to Madagascar or its inhabitants.

Madrilenian (a.) Of or pertaining to Madrid in Spain, or to its inhabitants.

Madrilenian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Madrid.

Magistery (n.) A precipitate; a fine substance deposited by precipitation; -- applied in old chemistry to certain white precipitates from metallic solutions; as, magistery of bismuth.

Magistrality (n.) Magisterialness; arbitrary dogmatism.

Magnanimity (n.) The quality of being magnanimous; greatness of mind; elevation or dignity of soul; that quality or combination of qualities, in character, which enables one to encounter danger and trouble with tranquility and firmness, to disdain injustice, meanness and revenge, and to act and sacrifice for noble objects.

Magnanimous (a.) Dictated by or exhibiting nobleness of soul; honorable; noble; not selfish.

Magnate () One of the nobility, or certain high officers of state belonging to the noble estate in the national representation of Hungary, and formerly of Poland.

Magnetomotor (n.) A voltaic series of two or more large plates, producing a great quantity of electricity of low tension, and hence adapted to the exhibition of electro-magnetic phenomena.

Magnificent (a.) Grand in appearance; exhibiting grandeur or splendor; splendid' pompous.

Mahaled (n.) A cherry tree (Prunus Mahaleb) of Southern Europe. The wood is prized by cabinetmakers, the twigs are used for pipe stems, the flowers and leaves yield a perfume, and from the fruit a violet dye and a fermented liquor (like kirschwasser) are prepared.

Mahoe (n.) A name given to several malvaceous trees (species of Hibiscus, Ochroma, etc.), and to their strong fibrous inner bark, which is used for strings and cordage.

Mahori (n.) One of the dark race inhabiting principally the islands of Eastern Polynesia. Also used adjectively.

Mahratta (n.) One of a numerous people inhabiting the southwestern part of India. Also, the language of the Mahrattas; Mahrati. It is closely allied to Sanskrit.

Maieutical (a.) Serving to assist childbirth.

Maieutics (n.) The art of giving birth (i. e., clearness and conviction) to ideas, which are conceived as struggling for birth.

Mail (n.) A contrivance of interlinked rings, for rubbing off the loose hemp on lines and white cordage.

Majestic (a.) Possessing or exhibiting majesty; of august dignity, stateliness, or imposing grandeur; lofty; noble; grand.

Majorcan (n.) A native or inhabitant of Majorca.

Make (v. t.) To bring about; to bring forward; to be the cause or agent of; to effect, do, perform, or execute; -- often used with a noun to form a phrase equivalent to the simple verb that corresponds to such noun; as, to make complaint, for to complain; to make record of, for to record; to make abode, for to abide, etc.

Make (v. t.) To execute with the requisite formalities; as, to make a bill, note, will, deed, etc.

Malacobdella (n.) A genus of nemertean worms, parasitic in the gill cavity of clams and other bivalves. They have a large posterior sucker, like that of a leech. See Illust. of Bdellomorpha.

Malacology (n.) The science which relates to the structure and habits of mollusks.

Malady (n.) Any disease of the human body; a distemper, disorder, or indisposition, proceeding from impaired, defective, or morbid organic functions; especially, a lingering or deep-seated disorder.

Malar (n.) The cheek bone, which forms a part of the lower edge of the orbit.

Malaria (n.) A morbid condition produced by exhalations from decaying vegetable matter in contact with moisture, giving rise to fever and ague and many other symptoms characterized by their tendency to recur at definite and usually uniform intervals.

Maleo (n.) A bird of Celebes (megacephalon maleo), allied to the brush turkey. It makes mounds in which to lay its eggs.

Malignancy (n.) The state or quality of being malignant; extreme malevolence; bitter enmity; malice; as, malignancy of heart.

Malinger (v. i.) To act the part of a malingerer; to feign illness or inability.

Malingerer (n.) In the army, a soldier who feigns himself sick, or who induces or protracts an illness, in order to avoid doing his duty; hence, in general, one who shirks his duty by pretending illness or inability.

Malkin (n.) A mop or sponge attached to a jointed staff for swabbing out a cannon.

Mallard (a.) A large wild duck (Anas boschas) inhabiting both America and Europe. The domestic duck has descended from this species. Called also greenhead.

Malleability (n.) The quality or state of being malleable; -- opposed to friability and brittleness.

Mallee bird () The leipoa. See Leipoa.

Malleolus (n.) A projection at the distal end of each bone of the leg at the ankle joint. The malleolus of the tibia is the internal projection, that of the fibula the external.

Malleus (n.) A genus of bivalve shells; the hammer shell.

Mallophaga (n. pl.) An extensive group of insects which are parasitic on birds and mammals, and feed on the feathers and hair; -- called also bird lice. See Bird louse, under Bird.

Malma (n.) A spotted trout (Salvelinus malma), inhabiting Northern America, west of the Rocky Mountains; -- called also Dolly Varden trout, bull trout, red-spotted trout, and golet.

Malpighiaceous (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of tropical trees and shrubs (Malpighiaceae), some of them climbing plants, and their stems forming many of the curious lianes of South American forests.

Maltese (a.) Of or pertaining to Malta or to its inhabitants.

Maltese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Malta; the people of Malta.

Maltha (n.) A variety of bitumen, viscid and tenacious, like pitch, unctuous to the touch, and exhaling a bituminous odor.

Mamzer (n.) A person born of relations between whom marriage was forbidden by the Mosaic law; a bastard.

Manageability (n.) The state or quality of being manageable; manageableness.

Manakin (n.) Any one of numerous small birds belonging to Pipra, Manacus, and other genera of the family Pipridae. They are mostly natives of Central and South America. some are bright-colored, and others have the wings and tail curiously ornamented. The name is sometimes applied to related birds of other families.

Manchineel (n.) A euphorbiaceous tree (Hippomane Mancinella) of tropical America, having a poisonous and blistering milky juice, and poisonous acrid fruit somewhat resembling an apple.

Manchu (a.) Of or pertaining to Manchuria or its inhabitants.

Manchu (n.) A native or inhabitant of Manchuria; also, the language spoken by the Manchus.

Mancipate (v. t.) To enslave; to bind; to restrict.

-mancy () A combining form denoting divination; as, aleuromancy, chiromancy, necromancy, etc.

Mandarin (n.) A small orange, with easily separable rind. It is thought to be of Chinese origin, and is counted a distinct species (Citrus nobilis)mandarin orange; tangerine --.

Mandible (n.) The bone, or principal bone, of the lower jaw; the inferior maxilla; -- also applied to either the upper or the lower jaw in the beak of birds.

Mandible (n.) The anterior pair of mouth organs of insects, crustaceaus, and related animals, whether adapted for biting or not. See Illust. of Diptera.

Mandibulated (a.) Provided with mandibles adapted for biting, as many insects.

Mandibuliform (a.) Having the form of a mandible; -- said especially of the maxillae of an insect when hard and adapted for biting.

Mandragorite (n.) One who habitually intoxicates himself with a narcotic obtained from mandrake.

Man-eater (n.) One who, or that which, has an appetite for human flesh; specifically, one of certain large sharks (esp. Carcharodon Rondeleti); also, a lion or a tiger which has acquired the habit of feeding upon human flesh.

Mangily (adv.) In a mangy manner; scabbily.

Mangonize (v. t.) To furbish up for sale; to set off to advantage.

Mangrove (n.) The name of one or two trees of the genus Rhizophora (R. Mangle, and R. mucronata, the last doubtfully distinct) inhabiting muddy shores of tropical regions, where they spread by emitting aerial roots, which fasten in the saline mire and eventually become new stems. The seeds also send down a strong root while yet attached to the parent plant.

Manifest (a.) A list or invoice of a ship's cargo, containing a description by marks, numbers, etc., of each package of goods, to be exhibited at the customhouse.

Manifest (v. t.) To show plainly; to make to appear distinctly, -- usually to the mind; to put beyond question or doubt; to display; to exhibit.

Manifest (v. t.) To exhibit the manifests or prepared invoices of; to declare at the customhouse.

Manifestation (n.) The act of manifesting or disclosing, or the state of being manifested; discovery to the eye or to the understanding; also, that which manifests; exhibition; display; revelation; as, the manifestation of God's power in creation.

Manifold (a.) Exhibited at divers times or in various ways; -- used to qualify nouns in the singular number.

Manikin (n.) A model of the human body, made of papier-mache or other material, commonly in detachable pieces, for exhibiting the different parts and organs, their relative position, etc.

Manis (n.) A genus of edentates, covered with large, hard, triangular scales, with sharp edges that overlap each other like tiles on a roof. They inhabit the warmest parts of Asia and Africa, and feed on ants. Called also Scaly anteater. See Pangolin.

Manna (n.) The food supplied to the Israelites in their journey through the wilderness of Arabia; hence, divinely supplied food.

Manna (n.) A name given to lichens of the genus Lecanora, sometimes blown into heaps in the deserts of Arabia and Africa, and gathered and used as food.

Manner (n.) Characteristic mode of acting, conducting, carrying one's self, or the like; bearing; habitual style.

Manner (n.) Customary method of acting; habit.

Mantle (n.) The back of a bird together with the folded wings.

Mantuan (n.) A native or inhabitant of Mantua.

Manubial (a.) Belonging to spoils; taken in war.

Manucode (n.) Any bird of the genus Manucodia, of Australia and New Guinea. They are related to the bird of paradise.

Manx (a.) Of or pertaining to the Isle of Man, or its inhabitants; as, the Manx language.

Manx (n.) The language of the inhabitants of the Isle of Man, a dialect of the Celtic.

Maori (n.) One of the aboriginal inhabitants of New Zealand; also, the original language of New Zealand.

Marabou (n.) A large stork of the genus Leptoptilos (formerly Ciconia), esp. the African species (L. crumenifer), which furnishes plumes worn as ornaments. The Asiatic species (L. dubius, or L. argala) is the adjutant. See Adjutant.

Marbling (n.) Distinct markings resembling the variegations of marble, as on birds and insects.

Marcato (a.) In a marked emphatic manner; -- used adverbially as a direction.

Marchpane (n.) A kind of sweet bread or biscuit; a cake of pounded almonds and sugar.

Margarin (n.) A fatty substance, extracted from animal fats and certain vegetable oils, formerly supposed to be a definite compound of glycerin and margaric acid, but now known to be simply a mixture or combination of tristearin and teipalmitin.

Margosa (n.) A large tree of genus Melia (M. Azadirachta) found in India. Its bark is bitter, and used as a tonic. A valuable oil is expressed from its seeds, and a tenacious gum exudes from its trunk. The M. Azedarach is a much more showy tree, and is cultivated in the Southern United States, where it is known as Pride of India, Pride of China, or bead tree. Various parts of the tree are considered anthelmintic.

Margrave (n.) The English equivalent of the German title of nobility, markgraf; a marquis.

Mark (n.) One of the bits of leather or colored bunting which are placed upon a sounding line at intervals of from two to five fathoms. The unmarked fathoms are called "deeps."

Mark (v. t.) To keep account of; to enumerate and register; as, to mark the points in a game of billiards or cards.

Marker (n.) One who keeps account of a game played, as of billiards.

Markhoor (n.) A large wild goat (Capra megaceros), having huge flattened spiral horns. It inhabits the mountains of Northern India and Cashmere.

Marking (n.) The act of one who, or that which, marks; the mark or marks made; arrangement or disposition of marks or coloring; as, the marking of a bird's plumage.

Marmot (n.) Any rodent of the genus Arctomys. The common European marmot (A. marmotta) is about the size of a rabbit, and inhabits the higher regions of the Alps and Pyrenees. The bobac is another European species. The common American species (A. monax) is the woodchuck.

Maronite (n.) One of a body of nominal Christians, who speak the Arabic language, and reside on Mount Lebanon and in different parts of Syria. They take their name from one Maron of the 6th century.

Marriageability (n.) The quality or state of being marriageable.

Marrried (a.) Of or pertaining to marriage; connubial; as, the married state.

Marrot (n.) The razor-billed auk. See Auk.

Marrubium (n.) A genus of bitter aromatic plants, sometimes used in medicine; hoarhound.

Marry (v. i.) To enter into the conjugal or connubial state; to take a husband or a wife.

Marseillaise (a. f.) Of or pertaining to Marseilles, in France, or to its inhabitants.

Marseillaise (n. f.) A native or inhabitant of Marseilles.

Marshal (n.) One who goes before a prince to declare his coming and provide entertainment; a harbinger; a pursuivant.

Marshaling (n.) The arrangement of an escutcheon to exhibit the alliances of the owner.

Marsupialia (n. pl.) A subclass of Mammalia, including nearly all the mammals of Australia and the adjacent islands, together with the opossums of America. They differ from ordinary mammals in having the corpus callosum very small, in being implacental, and in having their young born while very immature. The female generally carries the young for some time after birth in an external pouch, or marsupium. Called also Marsupiata.

Marsupium (n.) The pecten in the eye of birds and reptiles. See Pecten.

Marten (n.) A bird. See Martin.

Martingal (n.) A strap fastened to a horse's girth, passing between his fore legs, and fastened to the bit, or now more commonly ending in two rings, through which the reins pass. It is intended to hold down the head of the horse, and prevent him from rearing.

Martingal (n.) The act of doubling, at each stake, that which has been lost on the preceding stake; also, the sum so risked; -- metaphorically derived from the bifurcation of the martingale of a harness.

Martlet (n.) A bird without beak or feet; -- generally assumed to represent a martin. As a mark of cadency it denotes the fourth son.

Masked (a.) Having the anterior part of the head differing decidedly in color from the rest of the plumage; -- said of birds.

Masora (n.) A Jewish critical work on the text of the Hebrew Scriptures, composed by several learned rabbis of the school of Tiberias, in the eighth and ninth centuries.

Massage (n.) A rubbing or kneading of the body, especially when performed as a hygienic or remedial measure.

Mastax (n.) The lore of a bird.

Masterful (a.) Inclined to play the master; domineering; imperious; arbitrary.

Masterliness (n.) The quality or state of being masterly; ability to control wisely or skillfully.

Masterly (a.) Imperious; domineering; arbitrary.

Mastersinger (n.) One of a class of poets which flourished in Nuremberg and some other cities of Germany in the 15th and 16th centuries. They bound themselves to observe certain arbitrary laws of rhythm.

Masticador (n.) A part of a bridle, the slavering bit.

Mastigure (n.) Any one of several large spiny-tailed lizards of the genus Uromastix. They inhabit Southern Asia and North Africa.

Matagasse (n.) A shrike or butcher bird; -- called also mattages.

Match (v.) Suitable combination or bringing together; that which corresponds or harmonizes with something else; as, the carpet and curtains are a match.

Mate (n.) The Paraguay tea, being the dried leaf of the Brazilian holly (Ilex Paraguensis). The infusion has a pleasant odor, with an agreeable bitter taste, and is much used for tea in South America.

Mate (n.) One who customarily associates with another; a companion; an associate; any object which is associated or combined with a similar object.

Mate (v. i.) To be or become a mate or mates, especially in sexual companionship; as, some birds mate for life; this bird will not mate with that one.

Matrimonial (a.) Of or pertaining to marriage; derived from marriage; connubial; nuptial; hymeneal; as, matrimonial rights or duties.

Mattages (n.) A shrike or butcher bird; -- written also matagasse.

Mattock (n.) An implement for digging and grubbing. The head has two long steel blades, one like an adz and the other like a narrow ax or the point of a pickax.

Mattowacca (n.) An American clupeoid fish (Clupea mediocris), similar to the shad in habits and appearance, but smaller and less esteemed for food; -- called also hickory shad, tailor shad, fall herring, and shad herring.

Matweed (n.) A name of several maritime grasses, as the sea sand-reed (Ammophila arundinacea) which is used in Holland to bind the sand of the seacoast dikes (see Beach grass, under Beach); also, the Lygeum Spartum, a Mediterranean grass of similar habit.

Maw (n.) A stomach; the receptacle into which food is taken by swallowing; in birds, the craw; -- now used only of the lower animals, exept humorously or in contempt.

Maxilloturbinal (a.) Pertaining to the maxillary and turbinal regions of the skull.

Maxilloturbinal (n.) The maxillo-turbinal, or inferior turbinate, bone.

May (v.) An auxiliary verb qualifyng the meaning of another verb, by expressing: (a) Ability, competency, or possibility; -- now oftener expressed by can.

Maybe (n.) Possibility; uncertainty.

Maybird (n.) The whimbrel; -- called also May fowl, May curlew, and May whaap.

Maybird (n.) The knot.

Maybird (n.) The bobolink.

Mazame (n.) A goatlike antelope (Haplocerus montanus) which inhabits the Rocky Mountains, frequenting the highest parts; -- called also mountain goat.

Measure (n.) Determined extent, not to be exceeded; limit; allotted share, as of action, influence, ability, or the like; due proportion.

Measure (a.) The manner of ordering and combining the quantities, or long and short syllables; meter; rhythm; hence, a foot; as, a poem in iambic measure.

Meccawee (a.) Of or pertaining to Mecca, in Arabia.

Meccawee (n.) A native or inhabitant of Mecca.

Mechanical (a.) Done as if by a machine; uninfluenced by will or emotion; proceeding automatically, or by habit, without special intention or reflection; as, mechanical singing; mechanical verses; mechanical service.

Mechanism (n.) An ideal machine; a combination of movable bodies constituting a machine, but considered only with regard to relative movements.

Mede (n.) A native or inhabitant of Media in Asia.

Median (a.) Situated in the middle; lying in a plane dividing a bilateral animal into right and left halves; -- said of unpaired organs and parts; as, median coverts.

Megalo- () Combining forms signifying: (a) Great, extended, powerful; as, megascope, megacosm.

Megalethoscope (n.) An optical apparatus in which pictures are viewed through a large lens with stereoptical effects. It is often combined with the stereoscope.

Megapode (n.) Any one of several species of large-footed, gallinaceous birds of the genera Megapodius and Leipoa, inhabiting Australia and other Pacific islands. See Jungle fowl (b) under Jungle, and Leipoa.

Megaseme (a.) Having the orbital index relatively large; having the orbits narrow transversely; -- opposed to microseme.

Melanaemia (n.) A morbid condition in which the blood contains black pigment either floating freely or imbedded in the white blood corpuscles.

Melanagogue (n.) A medicine supposed to expel black bile or choler.

Melanin (n.) A black pigment found in the pigment-bearing cells of the skin (particularly in the skin of the negro), in the epithelial cells of the external layer of the retina (then called fuscin), in the outer layer of the choroid, and elsewhere. It is supposed to be derived from the decomposition of hemoglobin.

Melanism (n.) An undue development of dark-colored pigment in the skin or its appendages; -- the opposite of albinism.

Melanoscope (n.) An instrument containing a combination of colored glasses such that they transmit only red light, so that objects of other colors, as green leaves, appear black when seen through it. It is used for viewing colored flames, to detect the presence of potassium, lithium, etc., by the red light which they emit.

Melanosis () The morbid deposition of black matter, often of a malignant character, causing pigmented tumors.

Meleagris (n.) A genus of American gallinaceous birds, including the common and the wild turkeys.

Meliphagan (n.) Any bird of the genus Meliphaga and allied genera; a honey eater; -- called also meliphagidan.

Melissa (n.) A genus of labiate herbs, including the balm, or bee balm (Melissa officinalis).

Melluco (n.) A climbing plant (Ullucus officinalis) of the Andes, having tuberous roots which are used as a substitute for potatoes.

Melon (n.) The juicy fruit of certain cucurbitaceous plants, as the muskmelon, watermelon, and citron melon; also, the plant that produces the fruit.

Membered (a.) Having legs of a different tincture from that of the body; -- said of a bird in heraldic representations.

Membrane (n.) A thin layer or fold of tissue, usually supported by a fibrous network, serving to cover or line some part or organ, and often secreting or absorbing certain fluids.

Memoirs (n.) A memorial of any individual; a biography; often, a biography written without special regard to method and completeness.

Memorabilia (n. pl.) Things remarkable and worthy of remembrance or record; also, the record of them.

Memorability (n.) The quality or state of being memorable.

Menagerie (n.) A collection of wild or exotic animals, kept for exhibition.

Mendacity (n.) The quality or state of being mendacious; a habit of lying.

Meniere's disease () A disease characterized by deafness and vertigo, resulting in incoordination of movement. It is supposed to depend upon a morbid condition of the semicircular canals of the internal ear. Named after Meniere, a French physician.

Meniscus (n.) An interarticular synovial cartilage or membrane; esp., one of the intervertebral synovial disks in some parts of the vertebral column of birds.

Menispermaceous (a.) Pertaining to a natural order (Menispermace/) of climbing plants of which moonseed (Menispermum) is the type.

Mensurability (n.) The quality of being mensurable.

Mentum (n.) The front median plate of the labium in insects. See Labium.

Menu (n.) The details of a banquet; a bill of fare.

Mercurify (v. t.) To combine or mingle mercury with; to impregnate with mercury; to mercurialize.

Mercury (n.) Sprightly or mercurial quality; spirit; mutability; fickleness.

-mere () A combining form meaning part, portion; as, blastomere, epimere.

Merganser (n.) Any bird of the genus Merganser, and allied genera. They are allied to the ducks, but have a sharply serrated bill.

Merle (n.) The European blackbird. See Blackbird.

Meropidan (n.) One of a family of birds (Meropidae), including the bee-eaters.

Merostomata (n. pl.) A class of Arthropoda, allied to the Crustacea. It includes the trilobites, Eurypteroidea, and Limuloidea. All are extinct except the horseshoe crabs of the last group. See Limulus.

Merulidan (n.) A bird of the Thrush family.

Mes- () A combining form denoting in the middle, intermediate;

Mesogastrium (n.) The umbilical region.

Mesomyodian (n.) A bird having a mesomyodous larynx.

Mesoseme (a.) Having a medium orbital index; having orbits neither broad nor narrow; between megaseme and microseme.

Messinese (a.) Of or pertaining to Messina, or its inhabitans.

Met- () Other; duplicate, corresponding to; resembling; hence, metameric; as, meta-arabinic, metaldehyde.

Metagnathous (a.) Cross-billed; -- said of certain birds, as the crossbill.

Metal (n.) An elementary substance, as sodium, calcium, or copper, whose oxide or hydroxide has basic rather than acid properties, as contrasted with the nonmetals, or metalloids. No sharp line can be drawn between the metals and nonmetals, and certain elements partake of both acid and basic qualities, as chromium, manganese, bismuth, etc.

Metamorphic (a.) Pertaining to, produced by, or exhibiting, certain changes which minerals or rocks may have undergone since their original deposition; -- especially applied to the recrystallization which sedimentary rocks have undergone through the influence of heat and pressure, after which they are called metamorphic rocks.

Metathesis (n.) A mere change in place of a morbid substance, without removal from the body.

Metempsychosis (n.) The passage of the soul, as an immortal essence, at the death of the animal body it had inhabited, into another living body, whether of a brute or a human being; transmigration of souls.

Metemptosis (n.) The suppression of a day in the calendar to prevent the date of the new moon being set a day too late, or the suppression of the bissextile day once in 134 years. The opposite to this is the proemptosis, or the addition of a day every 330 years, and another every 2,400 years.

Methaemoglobin (n.) A stable crystalline compound obtained by the decomposition of hemoglobin. It is found in old blood stains.

Methide (n.) A binary compound of methyl with some element; as, aluminium methide, Al2(CH3)6.

Method (n.) Orderly arrangement, elucidation, development, or classification; clear and lucid exhibition; systematic arrangement peculiar to an individual.

Metosteon (n.) The postero-lateral ossification in the sternum of birds; also, the part resulting from such ossification.

Metropolitan (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a metropolitan or the presiding bishop of a country or province, his office, or his dignity; as, metropolitan authority.

Metropolitan (n.) The superior or presiding bishop of a country or province.

Metropolitan (n.) An archbishop.

Metropolitan (n.) A bishop whose see is civil metropolis. His rank is intermediate between that of an archbishop and a patriarch.

Metropolitanate (n.) The see of a metropolitan bishop.

Mexican (n.) A native or inhabitant of Mexico.

Miascite (n.) A granitoid rock containing feldspar, biotite, elaeolite, and sodalite.

Micmacs (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians inhabiting Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

Mico (n.) A small South American monkey (Mico melanurus), allied to the marmoset. The name was originally applied to an albino variety.

Micr- () A combining form

Microbe (n.) Alt. of Microbion

Microbion (n.) A microscopic organism; -- particularly applied to bacteria and especially to pathogenic forms; as, the microbe of fowl cholera.

Microbian (a.) Of, pertaining to, or caused by, microbes; as, the microbian theory; a microbian disease.

Microbic (a.) Of or pertaining to a microbe.

Microbicide (n.) Any agent detrimental to, or destructive of, the life of microbes or bacterial organisms.

Micronesians (n. pl.) A dark race inhabiting the Micronesian Islands. They are supposed to be a mixed race, derived from Polynesians and Papuans.

Microphotograph (n.) An enlarged representation of a microscopic object, produced by throwing upon a sensitive plate the magnified image of an object formed by a microscope or other suitable combination of lenses.

Microscope (n.) An optical instrument, consisting of a lens, or combination of lenses, for making an enlarged image of an object which is too minute to be viewed by the naked eye.

Microseme (a.) Having the orbital index relatively small; having the orbits broad transversely; -- opposed to megaseme.

Micturition (n.) The act of voiding urine; also, a morbidly frequent passing of the urine, in consequence of disease.

Midas's ear () A pulmonate mollusk (Auricula, / Ellobium, aurismidae); -- so called from resemblance to a human ear.

Middlings (n. pl.) A combination of the coarser parts of ground wheat the finest bran, separated from the fine flour and coarse bran in bolting; -- formerly regarded as valuable only for feed; but now, after separation of the bran, used for making the best quality of flour. Middlings contain a large proportion of gluten.

Midge (n.) Any one of many small, delicate, long-legged flies of the Chironomus, and allied genera, which do not bite. Their larvae are usually aquatic.

Midge (n.) A very small fly, abundant in many parts of the United States and Canada, noted for the irritating quality of its bite.

Midgut (n.) The middle part of the alimentary canal from the stomach, or entrance of the bile duct, to, or including, the large intestine.

Midland (a.) Being in the interior country; distant from the coast or seashore; as, midland towns or inhabitants.

Midwife (n.) A woman who assists other women in childbirth; a female practitioner of the obstetric art.

Midwife (v. t.) To assist in childbirth.

Midwifery (n.) The art or practice of assisting women in childbirth; obstetrics.

Midwifery (n.) Assistance at childbirth; help or cooperation in production.

Might (v.) Force or power of any kind, whether of body or mind; energy or intensity of purpose, feeling, or action; means or resources to effect an object; strength; force; power; ability; capacity.

Migrant (n.) A migratory bird or other animal.

Migrate (v. i.) To pass periodically from one region or climate to another for feeding or breeding; -- said of certain birds, fishes, and quadrupeds.

Migratory (a.) Removing regularly or occasionally from one region or climate to another; as, migratory birds.

Migratory (a.) Hence, roving; wandering; nomad; as, migratory habits; a migratory life.

Milanese (a.) Of or pertaining to Milan in Italy, or to its inhabitants.

Milanese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Milan; people of Milan.

Milesian (a.) Of or pertaining to Miletus, a city of Asia Minor, or to its inhabitants.

Milesian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Miletus.

Milesian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Ireland.

Milky (a.) Like, or somewhat like, milk; whitish and turbid; as, the water is milky. "Milky juice."

Mill (n.) A machine for grinding or comminuting any substance, as grain, by rubbing and crushing it between two hard, rough, or intented surfaces; as, a gristmill, a coffee mill; a bone mill.

Mill (n.) A machine used for expelling the juice, sap, etc., from vegetable tissues by pressure, or by pressure in combination with a grinding, or cutting process; as, a cider mill; a cane mill.

Milliard (n.) A thousand millions; -- called also billion. See Billion.

Milligramme (n.) A measure of weight, in the metric system, being the thousandth part of a gram, equal to the weight of a cubic millimeter of water, or .01543 of a grain avoirdupois.

Millilitre (n.) A measure of capacity in the metric system, containing the thousandth part of a liter. It is a cubic centimeter, and is equal to .061 of an English cubic inch, or to .0338 of an American fluid ounce.

Millistere (n.) A liter, or cubic decimeter.

Milvine (a.) Of or resembling birds of the kite kind.

Milvine (n.) A bird related to the kite.

Milvus (n.) A genus of raptorial birds, including the European kite.

Mimicker (n.) An animal which imitates something else, in form or habits.

Mimicry (n.) Protective resemblance; the resemblance which certain animals and plants exhibit to other animals and plants or to the natural objects among which they live, -- a characteristic which serves as their chief means of protection against enemies; imitation; mimesis; mimetism.

Mineralization (n.) The process of mineralizing, or forming a mineral by combination of a metal with another element; also, the process of converting into a mineral, as a bone or a plant.

Mineralizer (n.) An element which is combined with a metal, thus forming an ore. Thus, in galena, or lead ore, sulphur is a mineralizer; in hematite, oxygen is a mineralizer.

Minge (n.) A small biting fly; a midge.

Mingle (v. t.) To mix; intermix; to combine or join, as an individual or part, with other parts, but commonly so as to be distinguishable in the product; to confuse; to confound.

Minivet (n.) A singing bird of India of the family Campephagidae.

Minnesinger (n.) A love-singer; specifically, one of a class of German poets and musicians who flourished from about the middle of the twelfth to the middle of the fourteenth century. They were chiefly of noble birth, and made love and beauty the subjects of their verses.

Mino bird () An Asiatic bird (Gracula musica), allied to the starlings. It is black, with a white spot on the wings, and a pair of flat yellow wattles on the head. It is often tamed and taught to pronounce words.

Mint (n.) The name of several aromatic labiate plants, mostly of the genus Mentha, yielding odoriferous essential oils by distillation. See Mentha.

Mirabilaries (pl. ) of Mirabilary

Mirabilary (n.) One who, or a work which, narrates wonderful things; one who writes of wonders.

Mirabilis (n.) A genus of plants. See Four-o'clock.

Mirabilite (n.) Native sodium sulphate; Glauber's salt.

Mis- () A prefix used adjectively and adverbially in the sense of amiss, wrong, ill, wrongly, unsuitably; as, misdeed, mislead, mischief, miscreant.

Misbileve (n.) Misbelief; unbelief; suspicion.

Miscarriage (n.) The act of bringing forth before the time; premature birth.

Miscibility (n.) Capability of being mixed.

Miscue (n.) A false stroke with a billiard cue, the cue slipping from the ball struck without impelling it as desired.

Mistletoe (n.) A parasitic evergreen plant of Europe (Viscum album), bearing a glutinous fruit. When found upon the oak, where it is rare, it was an object of superstitious regard among the Druids. A bird lime is prepared from its fruit.

Mistress (n.) A woman filling the place, but without the rights, of a wife; a concubine; a loose woman with whom one consorts habitually.

Mitre (v. t.) To match together, as two pieces of molding or brass rule on a line bisecting the angle of junction; to bevel the ends or edges of, for the purpose of matching together at an angle.

Mitre (v. i.) To meet and match together, as two pieces of molding, on a line bisecting the angle of junction.

Miterwort (n.) Any plant of the genus Mitella, -- slender, perennial herbs with a pod slightly resembling a bishop's miter; bishop's cap.

Mitraille (n.) Shot or bits of iron used sometimes in loading cannon.

Mixture (n.) An organ stop, comprising from two to five ranges of pipes, used only in combination with the foundation and compound stops; -- called also furniture stop. It consists of high harmonics, or overtones, of the ground tone.

Moa (n.) Any one of several very large extinct species of wingless birds belonging to Dinornis, and other related genera, of the suborder Dinornithes, found in New Zealand. They are allied to the apteryx and the ostrich. They were probably exterminated by the natives before New Zealand was discovered by Europeans. Some species were much larger than the ostrich.

Moabite (n.) One of the posterity of Moab, the son of Lot. (Gen. xix. 37.) Also used adjectively.

Moabitess (n.) A female Moabite.

Moabitish (a.) Moabite.

Moate (v. i.) To void the excrement, as a bird; to mute.

Mobbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Mob

Mobbish (a.) Like a mob; tumultuous; lawless; as, a mobbish act.

Mobile (a.) Capable of being moved; not fixed in place or condition; movable.

Mobile (a.) Characterized by an extreme degree of fluidity; moving or flowing with great freedom; as, benzine and mercury are mobile liquids; -- opposed to viscous, viscoidal, or oily.

Mobile (a.) Easily moved in feeling, purpose, or direction; excitable; changeable; fickle.

Mobile (a.) Changing in appearance and expression under the influence of the mind; as, mobile features.

Mobile (a.) Capable of being moved, aroused, or excited; capable of spontaneous movement.

Mobile (a.) The mob; the populace.

Mobility (n.) The quality or state of being mobile; as, the mobility of a liquid, of an army, of the populace, of features, of a muscle.

Mobility (n.) The mob; the lower classes.

Mobilization (n.) The act of mobilizing.

Mobilized (imp. & p. p.) of Mobilize

Mobilizing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Mobilize

Mobilize (v. t.) To put in a state of readiness for active service in war, as an army corps.

Mocha (n.) A seaport town of Arabia, on the Red Sea.

Mockbird (n.) The European sedge warbler (Acrocephalus phragmitis).

Mocker (n.) A mocking bird.

Mode (n.) Any combination of qualities or relations, considered apart from the substance to which they belong, and treated as entities; more generally, condition, or state of being; manner or form of arrangement or manifestation; form, as opposed to matter.

Modenese (a.) Of or pertaining to Modena or its inhabitants.

Modenese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Modena; the people of Modena.

Moderate (a.) Limited as to the degree in which a quality, principle, or faculty appears; as, an infusion of moderate strength; a man of moderate abilities.

Modifiability (n.) Capability of being modified; state or quality of being modifiable.

Modocs (n. pl.) A tribe of warlike Indians formerly inhabiting Northern California. They are nearly extinct.

Mohawk (n.) One of a tribe of Indians who formed part of the Five Nations. They formerly inhabited the valley of the Mohawk River.

Mohicans (n. pl.) A tribe of Lenni-Lenape Indians who formerly inhabited Western Connecticut and Eastern New York.

Moho (n.) A gallinule (Notornis Mantelli) formerly inhabiting New Zealand, but now supposed to be extinct. It was incapable of flight. See Notornis.

Mould (n.) A group of moldings; as, the arch mold of a porch or doorway; the pier mold of a Gothic pier, meaning the whole profile, section, or combination of parts.

Molecule (n.) A group of atoms so united and combined by chemical affinity that they form a complete, integrated whole, being the smallest portion of any particular compound that can exist in a free state; as, a molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Cf. Atom.

Mollusca (n. pl.) One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom, including the classes Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, PteropodaScaphopoda, and Lamellibranchiata, or Conchifera. These animals have an unsegmented bilateral body, with most of the organs and parts paired, but not repeated longitudinally. Most of them develop a mantle, which incloses either a branchial or a pulmonary cavity. They are generally more or less covered and protected by a calcareous shell, which may be univalve, bivalve, or multivalve.

Moult (v. t.) To shed or cast the hair, feathers, skin, horns, or the like, as an animal or a bird.

Monad (n.) An atom or radical whose valence is one, or which can combine with, be replaced by, or exchanged for, one atom of hydrogen.

Mongolians (n. pl.) One of the great races of man, including the greater part of the inhabitants of China, Japan, and the interior of Asia, with branches in Northern Europe and other parts of the world. By some American Indians are considered a branch of the Mongols. In a more restricted sense, the inhabitants of Mongolia and adjacent countries, including the Burats and the Kalmuks.

Monk (n.) A man who retires from the ordinary temporal concerns of the world, and devotes himself to religion; one of a religious community of men inhabiting a monastery, and bound by vows to a life of chastity, obedience, and poverty.

Monocardian (a.) Having a single heart, as fishes and amphibians.

Monocondyla (n. pl.) A group of vertebrates, including the birds and reptiles, or those that have only one occipital condyle; the Sauropsida.

Monogamous (a.) Mating with but one of the opposite sex; -- said of birds and mammals.

Monogram (n.) A character or cipher composed of two or more letters interwoven or combined so as to represent a name, or a part of it (usually the initials). Monograms are often used on seals, ornamental pins, rings, buttons, and by painters, engravers, etc., to distinguish their works.

Monogram (n.) An arbitrary sign for a word.

Monology (n.) The habit of soliloquizing, or of monopolizing conversation.

Monometallist (n.) One who believes in monometallism as opposed to bimetallism, etc.

Monomphalus (n.) A form of double monster, in which two individuals are united by a common umbilicus.

Monopathy (n.) Suffering or sensibility in a single organ or function.

Monophthong (n.) A combination of two written vowels pronounced as one; a digraph.

Monopodial (a.) Having a monopodium or a single and continuous axis, as a birchen twig or a cornstalk.

Monopoly (n.) The exclusive power, or privilege of selling a commodity; the exclusive power, right, or privilege of dealing in some article, or of trading in some market; sole command of the traffic in anything, however obtained; as, the proprietor of a patented article is given a monopoly of its sale for a limited time; chartered trading companies have sometimes had a monopoly of trade with remote regions; a combination of traders may get a monopoly of a particular product.

Monopolylogue (n.) An exhibition in which an actor sustains many characters.

Monosyllabic (a.) Being a monosyllable, or composed of monosyllables; as, a monosyllabic word; a monosyllabic language.

Monosyllabism (n.) The state of consisting of monosyllables, or having a monosyllabic form; frequent occurrence of monosyllables.

Monotremata (n. pl.) A subclass of Mammalia, having a cloaca in which the ducts of the urinary, genital, and alimentary systems terminate, as in birds. The female lays eggs like a bird. See Duck mole, under Duck, and Echidna.

Monseigneur (n.) My lord; -- a title in France of a person of high birth or rank; as, Monseigneur the Prince, or Monseigneur the Archibishop. It was given, specifically, to the dauphin, before the Revolution of 1789. (Abbrev. Mgr.)

Monstrous (a.) Having the qualities of a monster; deviating greatly from the natural form or character; abnormal; as, a monstrous birth.

Moodiness (n.) The quality or state of being moody; specifically, liability to strange or violent moods.

Moon (n.) The time occupied by the moon in making one revolution in her orbit; a month.

Moonseed (n.) A climbing plant of the genus Menispermum; -- so called from the crescentlike form of the seeds.

Moor (n.) One of a mixed race inhabiting Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli, chiefly along the coast and in towns.

Mooruk (n.) A species of cassowary (Casuarius Bennetti) found in New Britain, and noted for its agility in running and leaping. It is smaller and has stouter legs than the common cassowary. Its crest is biloted; the neck and breast are black; the back, rufous mixed with black; and the naked skin of the neck, blue.

Moral (a.) Supported by reason or probability; practically sufficient; -- opposed to legal or demonstrable; as, a moral evidence; a moral certainty.

Morality (n.) A kind of allegorical play, so termed because it consisted of discourses in praise of morality between actors representing such characters as Charity, Faith, Death, Vice, etc. Such plays were occasionally exhibited as late as the reign of Henry VIII.

Morally (adv.) In a manner calculated to serve as the basis of action; according to the usual course of things and human judgment; according to reason and probability.

Morbid (a.) Not sound and healthful; induced by a diseased or abnormal condition; diseased; sickly; as, morbid humors; a morbid constitution; a morbid state of the juices of a plant.

Morbid (a.) Of or pertaining to disease or diseased parts; as, morbid anatomy.

Morbidezza (n.) Delicacy or softness in the representation of flesh.

Morbidezza (n.) A term used as a direction in execution, signifying, with extreme delicacy.

Morbidity (n.) The quality or state of being morbid.

Morbidity (n.) Morbid quality; disease; sickness.

Morbidity (n.) Amount of disease; sick rate.

Morbidly (adv.) In a morbid manner.

Morbidness (n.) The quality or state of being morbid; morbidity.

Morbific (a.) Alt. of Morbifical

Morbifical (a.) Causing disease; generating a sickly state; as, a morbific matter.

Morbillous (a.) Pertaining to the measles; partaking of the nature of measels, or resembling the eruptions of that disease; measly.

Morbose (a.) Proceeding from disease; morbid; unhealthy.

Morceau (n.) A bit; a morsel.

Mordacious (a.) Biting; given to biting; hence, figuratively, sarcastic; severe; scathing.

Mordacity (n.) The quality of being mordacious; biting severity, or sarcastic quality.

Mordant (n.) Any substance, as alum or copperas, which, having a twofold attraction for organic fibers and coloring matter, serves as a bond of union, and thus gives fixity to, or bites in, the dyes.

Mordicancy (n.) A biting quality; corrosiveness.

Mordication (n.) The act of biting or corroding; corrosion.

Morepork (n.) The Australian crested goatsucker (Aegotheles Novae-Hollandiae). Also applied to other allied birds, as Podargus Cuveiri.

Morinda (n.) A genus of rubiaceous trees and shrubs, mostly East Indian, many species of which yield valuable red and yellow dyes. The wood is hard and beautiful, and used for gunstocks.

Mormon (n.) A genus of sea birds, having a large, thick bill; the puffin.

Mormondom (n.) The country inhabited by the Mormons; the Mormon people.

Morning-glory (n.) A climbing plant (Ipomoea purpurea) having handsome, funnel-shaped flowers, usually red, pink, purple, white, or variegated, sometimes pale blue. See Dextrorsal.

Moroccan (a.) Of or pertaining to Morocco, or its inhabitants.

Morosaurus (n.) An extinct genus of large herbivorous dinosaurs, found in Jurassic strata in America.

Morphine (n.) A bitter white crystalline alkaloid found in opium, possessing strong narcotic properties, and much used as an anodyne; -- called also morphia, and morphina.

Morphinism (n.) A morbid condition produced by the excessive or prolonged use of morphine.

Morphology (n.) That branch of biology which deals with the structure of animals and plants, treating of the forms of organs and describing their varieties, homologies, and metamorphoses. See Tectology, and Promorphology.

Morphon (n.) A morphological individual, characterized by definiteness of form bion, a physiological individual. See Tectology.

-morphous () A combining form denoting form, shape; as, isomorphous.

Morris (n.) A dance formerly common in England, often performed in pagenats, processions, and May games. The dancers, grotesquely dressed and ornamented, took the parts of Robin Hood, Maidmarian, and other fictious characters.

Morsel (n.) A little bite or bit of food.

Morsitation (n.) The act of biting or gnawing.

Morsure (n.) The act of biting.

Mosquito (n.) Any one of various species of gnats of the genus Culex and allied genera. The females have a proboscis containing, within the sheathlike labium, six fine, sharp, needlelike organs with which they puncture the skin of man and animals to suck the blood. These bites, when numerous, cause, in many persons, considerable irritation and swelling, with some pain. The larvae and pupae, called wigglers, are aquatic.

Motacil (n.) Any singing bird of the genus Motacilla; a wagtail.

Mote (n.) A small particle, as of floating dust; anything proverbially small; a speck.

Mother (n.) That which has produced or nurtured anything; source of birth or origin; generatrix.

Mother (a.) Received by birth or from ancestors; native, natural; as, mother language; also acting the part, or having the place of a mother; producing others; originating.

Motherwort (n.) A labiate herb (Leonurus Cardiaca), of a bitter taste, used popularly in medicine; lion's tail.

Motility (n.) Capability of motion; contractility.

Motley (n.) A combination of distinct colors; esp., the party-colored cloth, or clothing, worn by the professional fool.

Motmot (n.) Any one of several species of long-tailed, passerine birds of the genus Momotus, having a strong serrated beak. In most of the species the two long middle tail feathers are racket-shaped at the tip, when mature. The bird itself is said by some writers to trim them into this shape. They feed on insects, reptiles, and fruit, and are found from Mexico to Brazil. The name is derived from its note.

Mouflon (n.) A wild sheep (Ovis musimon), inhabiting the mountains of Sardinia, Corsica, etc. Its horns are very large, with a triangular base and rounded angles. It is supposed by some to be the original of the domestic sheep. Called also musimon or musmon.

Mountaineer (n.) An inhabitant of a mountain; one who lives among mountains.

Mountainous (a.) Inhabiting mountains.

Mouth (n.) The crosspiece of a bridle bit, which enters the mouth of an animal.

Mouth (v. t.) To utter with a voice affectedly big or swelling; to speak in a strained or unnaturally sonorous manner.

Movability (n.) Movableness.

Movableness (n.) The quality or state of being movable; mobility; susceptibility of motion.

Mozarab () Alt. of Mozarabic

Mozarabic () Same as Muzarab, Muzarabic.

Mud (v. t.) To make muddy or turbid.

Mudarin (n.) A brown, amorphous, bitter substance having a strong emetic action, extracted from the root of the mudar.

Muddily (adv.) In a muddy manner; turbidly; without mixture; cloudily; obscurely; confusedly.

Muddiness (n.) The condition or quality of being muddy; turbidness; foulness caused by mud, dirt, or sediment; as, the muddiness of a stream.

Muddle (v. t.) To make turbid, or muddy, as water.

Muddle (n.) A state of being turbid or confused; hence, intellectual cloudiness or dullness.

Muddy (superl.) Turbid with mud; as, muddy water.

Muddy (superl.) Confused, as if turbid with mud; cloudy in mind; dull; stupid; also, immethodical; incoherent; vague.

Muddy (v. t.) To soil with mud; to dirty; to render turbid.

Mull (n.) Dirt; rubbish.

Mullock (n.) Rubbish; refuse; dirt.

Multifariousness (n.) The fault of improperly uniting in one bill distinct and independent matters, and thereby confounding them.

Multiparous (a.) Producing many, or more than one, at a birth.

Mumble (v. t.) To chew or bite gently, as one without teeth.

Mummy (n.) A brown color obtained from bitumen. See Mummy brown (below).

Munjistin (n.) An orange-red coloring substance resembling alizarin, found in the root of an East Indian species of madder (Rubia munjista).

Muriated (a.) Combined or impregnated with muriatic or hydrochloric acid.

Murrayin (n.) A glucoside found in the flowers of a plant (Murraya exotica) of South Asia, and extracted as a white amorphous slightly bitter substance.

Murre (n.) Any one of several species of sea birds of the genus Uria, or Catarractes; a guillemot.

Murrelet (n.) One of several species of sea birds of the genera Synthliboramphus and Brachyramphus, inhabiting the North Pacific. They are closely related to the murres.

Murza (n.) One of the hereditary nobility among the Tatars, esp. one of the second class.

Muscicapine (a.) Of or pertaining to the Muscicapidae, a family of birds that includes the true flycatchers.

Muscling (n.) Exhibition or representation of the muscles.

Muscovite (n.) A native or inhabitant of Muscovy or ancient Russia; hence, a Russian.

Muse (n.) Contemplation which abstracts the mind from passing scenes; absorbing thought; hence, absence of mind; a brown study.

Mushroom (n.) An edible fungus (Agaricus campestris), having a white stalk which bears a convex or oven flattish expanded portion called the pileus. This is whitish and silky or somewhat scaly above, and bears on the under side radiating gills which are at first flesh-colored, but gradually become brown. The plant grows in rich pastures and is proverbial for rapidity of growth and shortness of duration. It has a pleasant smell, and is largely used as food. It is also cultivated from spawn.

Music (n.) The science and the art of tones, or musical sounds, i. e., sounds of higher or lower pitch, begotten of uniform and synchronous vibrations, as of a string at various degrees of tension; the science of harmonical tones which treats of the principles of harmony, or the properties, dependences, and relations of tones to each other; the art of combining tones in a manner to please the ear.

Music (n.) Harmony; an accordant combination of simultaneous tones.

Musk (n.) A substance of a reddish brown color, and when fresh of the consistence of honey, obtained from a bag being behind the navel of the male musk deer. It has a slightly bitter taste, but is specially remarkable for its powerful and enduring odor. It is used in medicine as a stimulant antispasmodic. The term is also applied to secretions of various other animals, having a similar odor.

Musk (n.) A plant of the genus Erodium (E. moschatum); -- called also musky heron's-bill.

Muskellunge (n.) A large American pike (Esox nobilitor) found in the Great Lakes, and other Northern lakes, and in the St. Lawrence River. It is valued as a food fish.

Muskrat (n.) A North American aquatic fur-bearing rodent (Fiber zibethicus). It resembles a rat in color and having a long scaly tail, but the tail is compressed, the bind feet are webbed, and the ears are concealed in the fur. It has scent glands which secrete a substance having a strong odor of musk. Called also musquash, musk beaver, and ondatra.

Muskwood (n.) The wood of an Australian tree (Eurybia argophylla).

Mussel (n.) Any one of many species of marine bivalve shells of the genus Mytilus, and related genera, of the family Mytidae. The common mussel (Mytilus edulis; see Illust. under Byssus), and the larger, or horse, mussel (Modiola modiolus), inhabiting the shores both of Europe and America, are edible. The former is extensively used as food in Europe.

Mustache (n.) Any conspicuous stripe of color on the side of the head, beneath the eye of a bird.

Mutability (n.) The quality of being mutable, or subject to change or alteration, either in form, state, or essential character; susceptibility of change; changeableness; inconstancy; variation.

Mute (v. t. & i.) To eject the contents of the bowels; -- said of birds.

Mute (n.) The dung of birds.

Mute (n.) One who does not speak, whether from physical inability, unwillingness, or other cause.

Muting (n.) Dung of birds.

Mutism (n.) The condition, state, or habit of being mute, or without speech.

Muzarabic (a.) Of or pertaining to Muzarabs; as, the Muzarabic liturgy.

Muzzle (v. i.) A fastening or covering (as a band or cage) for the mouth of an animal, to prevent eating or vicious biting.

Muzzle (v. t.) To bind the mouth of; to fasten the mouth of, so as to prevent biting or eating; hence, figuratively, to bind; to sheathe; to restrain from speech or action.

Mya (n.) A genus of bivalve mollusks, including the common long, or soft-shelled, clam.

Myaria (n. pl.) A division of bivalve mollusks of which the common clam (Mya) is the type.

Mygale (n.) A genus of very large hairy spiders having four lungs and only four spinnerets. They do not spin webs, but usually construct tubes in the earth, which are often furnished with a trapdoor. The South American bird spider (Mygale avicularia), and the crab spider, or matoutou (M. cancerides) are among the largest species. Some of the species are erroneously called tarantulas, as the Texas tarantula (M. Hentzii).

Myna (n.) Any one of numerous species of Asiatic starlings of the genera Acridotheres, Sturnopastor, Sturnia, Gracula, and allied genera. In habits they resemble the European starlings, and like them are often caged and taught to talk. See Hill myna, under Hill, and Mino bird.

Myo- () A combining form of Gr. /, /, a muscle; as, myograph, myochrome.

Myochrome (n.) A colored albuminous substance in the serum from red-colored muscles. It is identical with hemoglobin.

Myohaematin (n.) A red-colored respiratory pigment found associated with hemoglobin in the muscle tissue of a large number of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate.

Myriorama (n.) A picture made up of several smaller pictures, drawn upon separate pieces in such a manner as to admit of combination in many different ways, thus producing a great variety of scenes or landscapes.

Myrmotherine (a.) Feeding upon ants; -- said of certain birds.

Myrrh (n.) A gum resin, usually of a yellowish brown or amber color, of an aromatic odor, and a bitter, slightly pungent taste. It is valued for its odor and for its medicinal properties. It exudes from the bark of a shrub of Abyssinia and Arabia, the Balsamodendron Myrrha. The myrrh of the Bible is supposed to have been partly the gum above named, and partly the exudation of species of Cistus, or rockrose.

Mysis (n.) A genus of small schizopod shrimps found both in fresh and salt water; the opossum shrimps. One species inhabits the Great Lakes of North America, and is largely eaten by the whitefish. The marine species form part of the food of right whales.

Mytilus (n.) A genus of marine bivalve shells, including the common mussel. See Illust. under Byssus.

Myxa (n.) The distal end of the mandibles of a bird.

Myxoma (n.) A tumor made up of a gelatinous tissue resembling that found in the umbilical cord.

Nabbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Nab

Nabit (n.) Pulverized sugar candy.

Navus (n.) A spot or mark on the skin of children when born; a birthmark; -- usually applied to vascular tumors, i. e., those consisting mainly of blood vessels, as dilated arteries, veins, or capillaries.

Nag (v. t. & i.) To tease in a petty way; to scold habitually; to annoy; to fret pertinaciously.

Naiad (n.) Any species of a tribe (Naiades) of freshwater bivalves, including Unio, Anodonta, and numerous allied genera; a river mussel.

Nail (n.) The terminal horny plate on the beak of ducks, and other allied birds.

Nail (n.) To fasten, as with a nail; to bind or hold, as to a bargain or to acquiescence in an argument or assertion; hence, to catch; to trap.

Naked (a.) Not having the full complement of tones; -- said of a chord of only two tones, which requires a third tone to be sounded with them to make the combination pleasing to the ear; as, a naked fourth or fifth.

Nandine (n.) An African carnivore (Nandinia binotata), allied to the civets. It is spotted with black.

Nape-crest (n.) An African bird of the genus Schizorhis, related to the plantain eaters.

Naphthalene (n.) A white crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon, C10H8, analogous to benzene, and obtained by the distillation of certain bituminous materials, such as the heavy oil of coal tar. It is the type and basis of a large number of derivatives among organic compounds. Formerly called also naphthaline.

Narceine (n.) An alkaloid found in small quantities in opium, and extracted as a white crystalline substance of a bitter astringent taste. It is a narcotic. Called also narceia.

Narcotic (n.) A drug which, in medicinal doses, generally allays morbid susceptibility, relieves pain, and produces sleep; but which, in poisonous doses, produces stupor, coma, or convulsions, and, when given in sufficient quantity, causes death. The best examples are opium (with morphine), belladonna (with atropine), and conium.

Narragansetts (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians who formerly inhabited the shores of Narragansett Bay.

Narrow (superl.) Contracted; of limited scope; illiberal; bigoted; as, a narrow mind; narrow views.

Nascency (n.) State of being nascent; birth; beginning; origin.

Naso- () A combining form denoting pertaining to, or connected with, the nose; as, nasofrontal.

Nasoturbinal (a.) Connected with, or near, both the turbinal and the nasal bones; as, the nasalturbinal bone, made up of the uppermost lammelae of the ethmoturbinal, and sometimes united with the nasal.

Nasoturbinal (n.) The nasoturbinal bone.

Nasturtium (n.) A genus of cruciferous plants, having white or yellowish flowers, including several species of cress. They are found chiefly in wet or damp grounds, and have a pungent biting taste.

Nasturtium (n.) Any plant of the genus Tropaeolum, geraniaceous herbs, having mostly climbing stems, peltate leaves, and spurred flowers, and including the common Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus), the canary-bird flower (T. peregrinum), and about thirty more species, all natives of South America. The whole plant has a warm pungent flavor, and the fleshy fruits are used as a substitute for capers, while the leaves and flowers are sometimes used in salads.

Natal (a.) Of or pertaining to one's birth; accompying or dating from one's birth; native.

Natalitious (a.) Of or pertaining to one's birth or birthday, or one's nativity.

Nataloin (n.) A bitter crystalline substance constituting the essential principle of Natal aloes. Cf. Aloon.

Natal plum () The drupaceous fruit of two South African shrubs of the genus Arduina (A. bispinosa and A. grandiflora).

Natals (n. pl.) One's birth, or the circumstances attending it.

Natatores (n. pl.) The swimming birds.

Natatorial (a.) Inclined or adapted to swim; swimming; as, natatorial birds.

Nates (n. pl.) The umbones of a bivalve shell.

Nation (n.) The body of inhabitants of a country, united under an independent government of their own.

Nationality (n.) A race or people, as determined by common language and character, and not by political bias or divisions; a nation.

Nationalize (v. t.) To make national; to make a nation of; to endow with the character and habits of a nation, or the peculiar sentiments and attachment of citizens of a nation.

Native (a.) Arising by birth; having an origin; born.

Native (a.) Of or pertaining to one's birth; natal; belonging to the place or the circumstances in which one is born; -- opposed to foreign; as, native land, language, color, etc.

Native (a.) Born in the region in which one lives; as, a native inhabitant, race; grown or originating in the region where used or sold; not foreign or imported; as, native oysters, or strawberries.

Native (a.) Conferred by birth; derived from origin; born with one; inherent; inborn; not acquired; as, native genius, cheerfulness, simplicity, rights, etc.

Native (a.) Found in nature uncombined with other elements; as, native silver.

Native (n.) One who, or that which, is born in a place or country referred to; a denizen by birth; an animal, a fruit, or vegetable, produced in a certain region; as, a native of France.

Nativism (n.) The disposition to favor the native inhabitants of a country, in preference to immigrants from foreign countries.

Nativity (n.) The coming into life or into the world; birth; also, the circumstances attending birth, as time, place, manner, etc.

Nativity (n.) A representation of the positions of the heavenly bodies as the moment of one's birth, supposed to indicate his future destinies; a horoscope.

Naturalize (v. t.) To adapt; to accustom; to habituate; to acclimate; to cause to grow as under natural conditions.

Naumachy (n.) A show or spectacle representing a sea fight; also, a place for such exhibitions.

Navajoes (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians inhabiting New Mexico and Arizona, allied to the Apaches. They are now largely engaged in agriculture.

Navarrese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Navarre; the people of Navarre.

Navel (n.) A mark or depression in the middle of the abdomen; the umbilicus. See Umbilicus.

Navel-string (n.) The umbilical cord.

Navelwort (n.) A European perennial succulent herb (Cotyledon umbilicus), having round, peltate leaves with a central depression; -- also called pennywort, and kidneywort.

Navicular (a.) Shaped like a boat; cymbiform; scaphoid; as, the navicular glumes of most grasses; the navicular bone.

Navigability (n.) The quality or condition of being navigable; navigableness.

Nazarene (n.) A native or inhabitant of Nazareth; -- a term of contempt applied to Christ and the early Christians.

Nearctic (a.) Of or pertaining to a region of the earth's surface including all of temperate and arctic North America and Greenland. In the geographical distribution of animals, this region is marked off as the habitat certain species.

Neb (n.) The nose; the snout; the mouth; the beak of a bird; a nib, as of a pen.

Necrobiosis (n.) The death of a part by molecular disintegration and without loss of continuity, as in the processes of degeneration and atrophy.

Necrobiotic (a.) Of or pertaining to necrobiosis; as, a necrobiotic metamorphosis.

Necrology (n.) An account of deaths, or of the dead; a register of deaths; a collection of obituary notices.

Necrophobia (n.) An exaggerated fear of death or horror of dead bodies.

Nectary (n.) That part of a blossom which secretes nectar, usually the base of the corolla or petals; also, the spur of such flowers as the larkspur and columbine, whether nectariferous or not. See the Illustration of Nasturtium.

Nee (p. p., fem.) Born; -- a term sometimes used in introducing the name of the family to which a married woman belongs by birth; as, Madame de Stael, nee Necker.

Needlework (n.) The combination of timber and plaster making the outside framework of some houses.

Ne exeat () A writ to restrain a person from leaving the country, or the jurisdiction of the court. The writ was originally applicable to purposes of state, but is now an ordinary process of courts of equity, resorted to for the purpose of obtaining bail, or security to abide a decree.

Nefasch (n.) Any fish of the genus Distichodus. Several large species inhabit the Nile.

Negative (n.) A proposition by which something is denied or forbidden; a conception or term formed by prefixing the negative particle to one which is positive; an opposite or contradictory term or conception.

Negative (v. t.) To reject by vote; to refuse to enact or sanction; as, the Senate negatived the bill.

Neglect (v.) Habitual carelessness; negligence.

Negligence (n.) The quality or state of being negligent; lack of due diligence or care; omission of duty; habitual neglect; heedlessness.

Negligence (n.) The omission of the care usual under the circumstances, being convertible with the Roman culpa. A specialist is bound to higher skill and diligence in his specialty than one who is not a specialist, and liability for negligence varies acordingly.

Negotiability (n.) The quality of being negotiable or transferable by indorsement.

Negotiable (a.) Capable of being negotiated; transferable by assigment or indorsement to another person; as, a negotiable note or bill of exchange.

Negritos (n. pl.) A degraded Papuan race, inhabiting Luzon and some of the other east Indian Islands. They resemble negroes, but are smaller in size. They are mostly nomads.

Negro (n.) A black man; especially, one of a race of black or very dark persons who inhabit the greater part of tropical Africa, and are distinguished by crisped or curly hair, flat noses, and thick protruding lips; also, any black person of unmixed African blood, wherever found.

Neighbor (n.) One entitled to, or exhibiting, neighborly kindness; hence, one of the human race; a fellow being.

Neighborhood (n.) A place near; vicinity; adjoining district; a region the inhabitants of which may be counted as neighbors; as, he lives in my neighborhood.

Neighborhood (n.) The inhabitants who live in the vicinity of each other; as, the fire alarmed all the neiborhood.

Nemato- () A combining form from Gr. nh^ma, nh`matos, a thread.

Neogen (n.) An alloy resembling silver, and consisting chiefly of copper, zinc, and nickel, with small proportions of tin, aluminium, and bismuth.

Neoplasm (n.) A new formation or tissue, the product of morbid action.

Neossine (n.) The substance constituting the edible bird's nest.

Neossology (n.) The study of young birds.

Nepenthes (n.) A genus of climbing plants found in India, Malaya, etc., which have the leaves prolonged into a kind of stout tendril terminating in a pitcherlike appendage, whence the plants are often called pitcher plants and monkey-cups. There are about thirty species, of which the best known is Nepenthes distillatoria. See Pitcher plant.

Nepeta (n.) A genus of labiate plants, including the catnip and ground ivy.

Neptunium (n.) A new metallic element, of doubtful genuineness and uncertain indentification, said to exist in certain minerals, as columbite.

Neritina (n.) A genus including numerous species of shells resembling Nerita in form. They mostly inhabit brackish water, and are often delicately tinted.

Nest (n.) A snug, comfortable, or cozy residence or situation; a retreat, or place of habitual resort; hence, those who occupy a nest, frequent a haunt, or are associated in the same pursuit; as, a nest of traitors; a nest of bugs.

Nestle (v. i.) To lie close and snug, as a bird in her nest; to cuddle up; to settle, as in a nest; to harbor; to take shelter.

Nestle (v. i.) To move about in one's place, like a bird when shaping the interior of her nest or a young bird getting close to the parent; as, a child nestles.

Nestle (v. t.) To cherish, as a bird her young.

Nestling (n.) A young bird which has not abandoned the nest.

Ney (n.) A fabric of twine, thread, or the like, wrought or woven into meshes, and used for catching fish, birds, butterflies, etc.

Nettlebird (n.) the European whitethroat.

Neurasthenia (n.) A condition of nervous debility supposed to be dependent upon impairment in the functions of the spinal cord.

Neurine (n.) A poisonous organic base (a ptomaine) formed in the decomposition of protagon with boiling baryta water, and in the putrefraction of proteid matter. It was for a long time considered identical with choline, a crystalline body originally obtained from bile. Chemically, however, choline is oxyethyl-trimethyl-ammonium hydroxide, while neurine is vinyl-trimethyl-ammonium hydroxide.

Neuro- () A combining denoting a nerve, of / pertaining to a nerve / the nervous system.

Neutrality (a.) Those who are neutral; a combination of neutral powers or states.

Neutralization (n.) The act or process by which an acid and a base are combined in such proportions that the resulting compound is neutral. See Neutral, a., 4.

New (superl.) Not habituated; not familiar; unaccustomed.

Nez Perces () A tribe of Indians, mostly inhabiting Idaho.

Nib (n.) The bill or beak of a bird; the neb.

Nibbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Nib

Nibble (v. t.) To bite by little at a time; to seize gently with the mouth; to eat slowly or in small bits.

Nibble (v. t.) To bite upon something gently or cautiously; to eat a little of a thing, as by taking small bits cautiously; as, fishes nibble at the bait.

Nibble (n.) A small or cautious bite.

Nickel (n.) A bright silver-white metallic element. It is of the iron group, and is hard, malleable, and ductile. It occurs combined with sulphur in millerite, with arsenic in the mineral niccolite, and with arsenic and sulphur in nickel glance. Symbol Ni. Atomic weight 58.6.

Nicker (v. t.) The cutting lip which projects downward at the edge of a boring bit and cuts a circular groove in the wood to limit the size of the hole that is bored.

Nicotianine (n.) A white waxy substance having a hot, bitter taste, extracted from tobacco leaves and called also tobacco camphor.

Nidulant (a.) Nestling, as a bird in itss nest.

Nidulate (v. i.) To make a nest, as a bird.

Nidus (n.) A nest: a repository for the eggs of birds, insects, etc.; a breeding place; esp., the place or substance where parasites or the germs of a disease effect lodgment or are developed.

Nightingale (n.) A small, plain, brown and gray European song bird (Luscinia luscinia). It sings at night, and is celebrated for the sweetness of its song.

Nightingale (n.) A larger species (Lucinia philomela), of Eastern Europe, having similar habits; the thrush nightingale. The name is also applied to other allied species.

Nightmare (n.) A condition in sleep usually caused by improper eating or by digestive or nervous troubles, and characterized by a sense of extreme uneasiness or discomfort (as of weight on the chest or stomach, impossibility of motion or speech, etc.), or by frightful or oppressive dreams, from which one wakes after extreme anxiety, in a troubled state of mind; incubus.

Nimbiferous (a.) Serving to bring clouds or stormy weather.

Nimbi (pl. ) of Nimbus

Nine-killer (n.) The northern butcher bird.

Niobic (a.) Same as Columbic.

Niobite (n.) Same as Columbite.

Niobium (n.) A later name of columbium. See Columbium.

Nip (v. t.) To remove by pinching, biting, or cutting with two meeting edges of anything; to clip.

Nip (n.) A biting sarcasm; a taunt.

Nipper (n.) A European crab (Polybius Henslowii).

Nisan (n.) The first month of the jewish ecclesiastical year, formerly answering nearly to the month of April, now to March, of the Christian calendar. See Abib.

Nitrated (a.) Combined, or impregnated, with nitric acid, or some of its compounds.

Nitride (n.) A binary compound of nitrogen with a more metallic element or radical; as, boric nitride.

Nitrification (n.) The act, process, or result of combining with nitrogen or some of its compounds.

Nitrify (v. t.) To combine or impregnate with nitrogen; to convert, by oxidation, into nitrous or nitric acid; to subject to, or produce by, nitrification.

Nitro- () A combining form or an adjective denoting the presence of niter.

Nitro- () A combining form (used also adjectively) designating certain compounds of nitrogen or of its acids, as nitrohydrochloric, nitrocalcite; also, designating the group or radical NO2, or its compounds, as nitrobenzene.

Nitrobenzene (n.) A yellow aromatic liquid (C6H5.NO2), produced by the action of nitric acid on benzene, and called from its odor imitation oil of bitter almonds, or essence of mirbane. It is used in perfumery, and is manufactured in large quantities in the preparation of aniline. Fornerly called also nitrobenzol.

Nitrogenize (v. t.) To combine, or impregnate, with nitrogen or its compounds.

Nitromethane (n.) A nitro derivative of methane obtained as a mobile liquid; -- called also nitrocarbol.

Nobbily (adv.) In a nobby manner.

Nobiliary (a.) Of or pertaining to the nobility.

Nobiliary (n.) A history of noble families.

Nobilify (v. t.) To make noble; to nobiliate.

Nobilitate (v. t.) To make noble; to ennoble; to exalt.

Nobilitation (n.) The act of making noble.

Nobility (n.) The quality or state of being noble; superiority of mind or of character; commanding excellence; eminence.

Nobility (n.) The state of being of high rank or noble birth; patrician dignity; antiquity of family; distinction by rank, station, or title, whether inherited or conferred.

Nobility (n.) Those who are noble; the collictive body of nobles or titled persons in a stste; the aristocratic and patrician class; the peerage; as, the English nobility.

Noble (superl.) Of exalted rank; of or pertaining to the nobility; distinguished from the masses by birth, station, or title; highborn; as, noble blood; a noble personage.

Nobleman (n.) One of the nobility; a noble; a peer; one who enjoys rank above a commoner, either by virtue of birth, by office, or by patent.

Nobleness (n.) The quality or state of being noble; greatness; dignity; magnanimity; elevation of mind, character, or station; nobility; grandeur; stateliness.

Noblesse (n.) Dignity; greatness; noble birth or condition.

Noblesse (n.) The nobility; persons of noble rank collectively, including males and females.

Nobley (n.) The body of nobles; the nobility.

Nobley (n.) Noble birth; nobility; dignity.

Nocturnal (a.) Having a habit of seeking food or moving about at night; as, nocturnal birds and insects.

Noddy (n.) The arctic fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). Sometimes also applied to other sea birds.

Node (n.) One of the two points where the orbit of a planet, or comet, intersects the ecliptic, or the orbit of a satellite intersects the plane of the orbit of its primary.

Noils (n. pl.) Waste and knots of wool removed by the comb; combings.

Nomopelmous (a.) Having a separate and simple tendon to flex the first toe, or hallux, as do passerine birds.

Nonability (n.) Want of ability.

Nonability (n.) An exception taken against a plaintiff in a cause, when he is unable legally to commence a suit.

Nonaerobiotic (a.) Capable of living without atmospheric oxygen; anaerobiotic.

Nonbituminous (a.) Containing no bitumen; not bituminous.

Noninhabitant (n.) One who is not an inhabitant; a stranger; a foreigner; a nonresident.

Nonintervention (n.) The state or habit of not intervening or interfering; as, the nonintervention of one state in the affairs of another.

Nonjuror (n.) One of those adherents of James II. who refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary, or to their successors, after the revolution of 1688; a Jacobite.

Nonpareil (a.) Any other similar bird of the same genus.

Nonphotobiotic (a.) Capable of living without light; as, nonphotobiotic plant cells, or cells which habitually live in darkness.

Nonplus (n.) A state or condition which daffles reason or confounds judgment; insuperable difficalty; inability to proceed or decide; puzzle; quandary.

Nonproduction (n.) A failure to produce or exhibit.

Nonsolvency (n.) Inability to pay debts; insolvency.

Noose (n.) A running knot, or loop, which binds the closer the more it is drawn.

Noria (n.) A large water wheel, turned by the action of a stream against its floats, and carrying at its circumference buckets, by which water is raised and discharged into a trough; used in Arabia, China, and elsewhere for irrigating land; a Persian wheel.

Normal (a.) Denoting a solution of such strength that every cubic centimeter contains the same number of milligrams of the element in question as the number of its molecular weight.

Norman (n.) A native or inhabitant of Normandy; originally, one of the Northmen or Scandinavians who conquered Normandy in the 10th century; afterwards, one of the mixed (Norman-French) race which conquered England, under William the Conqueror.

Norse (a.) Of or pertaining to ancient Scandinavia, or to the language spoken by its inhabitants.

Northerner (n.) A native or inhabitant of the Northern States; -- contradistinguished from Southerner.

Northman (n.) One of the inhabitants of the north of Europe; esp., one of the ancient Scandinavians; a Norseman.

Northumbrian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Northumberland.

Norwegian (a.) Of or pertaining to Norway, its inhabitants, or its language.

Not (adv.) A word used to express negation, prohibition, denial, or refusal.

Notabilia (n. pl.) Things worthy of notice.

Notabilities (pl. ) of Notability

Notability (n.) Quality of being notable.

Notability (n.) A notable, or remarkable, person or thing; a person of note.

Notability (n.) A notable saying.

Notaeum (n.) The back or upper surface, as of a bird.

Note (n.) A short informal letter; a billet.

Notelet (n.) A little or short note; a billet.

Notornis (n.) A genus of birds allied to the gallinules, but having rudimentary wings and incapable of flight. Notornis Mantelli was first known as a fossil bird of New Zealand, but subsequently a few individuals were found living on the southern island. It is supposed to be now nearly or quite extinct.

Nototherium (n.) An extinct genus of gigantic herbivorous marsupials, found in the Pliocene formation of Australia.

Novel (a.) A fictitious tale or narrative, professing to be conformed to real life; esp., one intended to exhibit the operation of the passions, and particularly of love.

Nowel (n.) Christmas; also, a shout of joy at Christmas for the birth of the Savior.

Noyau (n.) A cordial of brandy, etc., flavored with the kernel of the bitter almond, or of the peach stone, etc.

Nubbin (n.) A small or imperfect ear of maize.

Nubia (n.) A light fabric of wool, worn on the head by women; a cloud.

Nubian (a.) Of or pertaining to Nubia in Eastern Africa.

Nubian (n.) A native of Nubia.

Nubiferous (a.) Bringing, or producing, clouds.

Nubigenous (a.) Born of, or produced from, clouds.

Nubilate (v. t.) To cloud.

Nubile (a.) Of an age suitable for marriage; marriageable.

Nubility (n.) The state of being marriageable.

Nubilose (a.) Alt. of Nubilous

Nubilous (a.) Cloudy.

Nucleus (n.) A body, usually spheroidal, in a cell or a protozoan, distinguished from the surrounding protoplasm by a difference in refrangibility and in behavior towards chemical reagents. It is more or less protoplasmic, and consists of a clear fluid (achromatin) through which extends a network of fibers (chromatin) in which may be suspended a second rounded body, the nucleolus (see Nucleoplasm). See Cell division, under Division.

Nucleus (n.) The tip, or earliest part, of a univalve or bivalve shell.

Nucula (n.) A genus of small marine bivalve shells, having a pearly interior.

Null (a.) Of no legal or binding force or validity; of no efficacy; invalid; void; nugatory; useless.

Nullibiety (n.) The state or condition of being nowhere.

Numb (a.) Producing numbness; benumbing; as, the numb, cold night.

Numbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Numb

Numeral (n.) A figure or character used to express a number; as, the Arabic numerals, 1, 2, 3, etc.; the Roman numerals, I, V, X, L, etc.

Numeration (n.) The act or art of reading numbers when expressed by means of numerals. The term is almost exclusively applied to the art of reading numbers written in the scale of tens, by the Arabic method.

Nutcracker (n.) A European bird (Nucifraga caryocatactes), allied to the magpie and crow. Its color is dark brown, spotted with white. It feeds on nuts, seeds, and insects.

Nutcracker (n.) The American, or Clarke's, nutcracker (Picicorvus Columbianus) of Western North America.

Nuthatch (n.) Any one of several species of birds of the genus Sitta, as the European species (Sitta Europaea). The white-breasted nuthatch (S. Carolinensis), the red-breasted nuthatch (S. Canadensis), the pygmy nuthatch (S. pygmaea), and others, are American.

Nyctibune (n.) A South American bird of the genus Nyctibius, allied to the goatsuckers.

Nympha (n.) Two folds of mucous membrane, within the labia, at the opening of the vulva.

Nymphean (a.) Of, pertaining to, or appropriate to, nymphs; inhabited by nymphs; as, a nymphean cave.

Nymphomania (n.) Morbid and uncontrollable sexual desire in women, constituting a true disease.

Abasia (n.) Inability to coordinate muscular actions properly in walking.

-nemia (n.) A morbid condition characterized by the presence of acetone in the blood, as in diabetes.

Actinomycosis (n.) A chronic infectious disease of cattle and man due to the presence of Actinomyces bovis. It causes local suppurating tumors, esp. about the jaw. Called also lumpy jaw or big jaw.

Adenoma (n.) A benign tumor of a glandlike structure; morbid enlargement of a gland.

Aerial sickness () A sickness felt by aeronauts due to high speed of flights and rapidity in changing altitudes, combining some symptoms of mountain sickness and some of seasickness.

Aerobic (a.) Growing or thriving only in the presence of oxygen; also, pertaining to, or induced by, aerobies; as, aerobic fermentation.

Aerofoil (n.) A plane or arched surface for sustaining bodies by its movement through the air; a spread wing, as of a bird.

Aerophone (n.) A form of combined speaking and ear trumpet.

Aeroplane (n.) A light rigid plane used in aerial navigation to oppose sudden upward or downward movement in the air, as in gliding machines; specif., such a plane slightly inclined and driven forward as a lifting device in some flying machines; hence, a flying machine using such a device. These machines are called monoplanes, biplanes, triplanes, or quadruplanes, according to the number of main supporting planes used in their constraction. Being heavier than air they depend for their levitation on motion imparted by one or more propellers actuated by a gasoline engine. They start from the ground by a run on small wheels or runners, and are guided by a steering apparatus consisting of horizontal and vertical movable planes. There are many varieties of form and construction, which in some cases are known by the names of their inventors.

Aerotaxis (n.) The positive or negative stimulus exerted by oxygen on aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Affricate (n.) A combination of a stop, or explosive, with an immediately following fricative or spirant of corresponding organic position, as pf in german Pfeffer, pepper, z (= ts) in German Zeit, time.

Aileron (n.) A small plane or surface capable of being manipulated by the pilot of a flying machine to preserve or destroy lateral balance; a hinged wing tip; a lateral stabilizing or balancing plane.

Airmanship (n.) Art, skill, or ability in the practice of aerial navigation.

Airol (n.) A grayish green antiseptic powder, consisting of a basic iodide and gallate of bismuth, sometimes used in place of iodoform.

Alalia (n.) Inability to utter articulate sounds, due either to paralysis of the larynx or to that form of aphasia, called motor, or ataxis, aphasia, due to loss of control of the muscles of speech.

Albert ware () A soft ornamental terra-cotta pottery, sold in the biscuit state for decorating.

Albuminosis (n.) A morbid condition due to excessive increase of albuminous elements in the blood.

Alexia (n.) As used by some, inability to read aloud, due to brain disease.

Alexia (n.) More commonly, inability, due to brain disease, to understand written or printed symbols although they can be seen, as in case of word blindness.

Allelomorph (n.) One of the pure unit characters commonly existing singly or in pairs in the germ cells of Mendelian hybrids, and exhibited in varying proportion among the organisms themselves. Allelomorphs which under certain circumstances are themselves compound are called hypallelomorphs. See Mendel's law.

Ambary hemp () A valuable East Indian fiber plant (Hibiscus cannabinus), or its fiber, which is used throughout India for making ropes, cordage, and a coarse canvas and sackcloth; -- called also brown Indian hemp.

Anaerobia (n. pl.) Alt. of Anaerobes

Anaerobes (n. pl.) Anaerobic bacteria. They are called facultative anaerobia when able to live either in the presence or absence of free oxygen; obligate, or obligatory, anaerobia when they thrive only in its absence.

Anaerobic (a.) Not requiring air or oxygen for life; -- applied especially to those microbes to which free oxygen is unnecessary; anaerobiotic; -- opposed to aerobic.

Anchor space () In the balk-line game, any of eight spaces, 7 inches by 3/, lying along a cushion and bisected transversely by a balk line. Object balls in an anchor space are treated as in balk.

Anopheles (n.) A genus of mosquitoes which are secondary hosts of the malaria parasites, and whose bite is the usual, if not the only, means of infecting human beings with malaria. Several species are found in the United States. They may be distinguished from the ordinary mosquitoes of the genus Culex by the long slender palpi, nearly equaling the beak in length, while those of the female Culex are very short. They also assume different positions when resting, Culex usually holding the body parallel to the surface on which it rests and keeping the head and beak bent at an angle, while Anopheles holds the body at an angle with the surface and the head and beak in line with it. Unless they become themselves infected by previously biting a subject affected with malaria, the insects cannot transmit the disease.

Anthracnose (n.) Any one of several fungus diseases, caused by parasitic species of the series Melanconiales, attacking the bean, grape, melon, cotton, and other plants. In the case of the grape, brown concave spots are formed on the stem and fruit, and the disease is called bird's-eye rot.

Appui (n.) The mutual bearing or support of the hand of the rider and the mouth of the horse through the bit and bridle.

Araroba (n.) A fabaceous tree of Brazil (Centrolobium robustum) having handsomely striped wood; -- called also zebrawood.

Arnaout (n.) An inhabitant of Albania and neighboring mountainous regions, specif. one serving as a soldier in the Turkish army.

Artillery wheel () A kind of heavily built dished wheel with a long axle box, used on gun carriages, usually having 14 spokes and 7 felloes; hence, a wheel of similar construction for use on automobiles, etc.

Assemble (v. t.) To collect and put together the parts of; as, to assemble a bicycle, watch, gun, or other manufactured article.

Sauce aux hatelets () A sauce (such as egg and bread crumbs) used for covering bits of meat, small birds, or fish, strung on skewers for frying.

Athrepsia (n.) Profound debility of children due to lack of food and to unhygienic surroundings.

Auction bridge () A variety of the game of bridge in which the players, beginning with the dealer, bid for the privilege of naming the trump and playing with the dummy for that deal, there being heavy penalties for a player's failure to make good his bid. The score value of each trick more than six taken by the successful bidder is as follows: when the trump is spades, 2; clubs, 6; diamonds, 7; hearts, 8; royal spades (lilies), 9; and when the deal is played with no trump, 10.

Auction pitch () A game of cards in which the players bid for the privilege of determining or "pitching" the trump suit.

Auto- () An abbrev. of automobile, used as a prefix with the meaning of self-moving, self-propelling; as, an autocar, an autocarriage, an autotruck, etc., an automobile car, carriage, truck, etc.

Automixte system () A system (devised by Henri Pieper, a Belgian) of driving automobiles employing a gasoline engine and an auxiliary reversible dynamo. When there is an excess of power the dynamo is driven by the engine so as to charge a small storage battery; when there is a deficiency of power the dynamo reverses and acts as an auxiliary motor. Sometimes called Pieper system.

Automobile (n.) An automobile vehicle or mechanism; esp., a self-propelled vehicle suitable for use on a street or roadway. Automobiles are usually propelled by internal combustion engines (using volatile inflammable liquids, as gasoline or petrol, alcohol, naphtha, etc.), steam engines, or electric motors. The power of the driving motor varies from about 4 to 50 H. P. for ordinary vehicles, ranging from the run-about to the touring car, up to as high as 200 H. P. for specially built racing cars. Automobiles are also commonly, and generally in British usage, called motor cars.

Automobilism (n.) The use of automobiles, or the practices, methods, or the like, of those who use them.

Autostability (n.) Automatic stability; also, inherent stability. An aeroplane is inherently stable if it keeps in steady poise by virtue of its shape and proportions alone; it is automatically stable if it keeps in steady poise by means of self-operative mechanism.

Bab (n.) Lit., gate; -- a title given to the founder of Babism, and taken from that of Bab-ud-Din, assumed by him.

Babism (n.) Alt. of Babiism

Babiism (n.) The doctrine of a modern religious pantheistical sect in Persia, which was founded, about 1844, by Mirza Ali Mohammed ibn Rabhik (1820 -- 1850), who assumed the title of Bab-ed-Din (Per., Gate of the Faith). Babism is a mixture of Mohammedan, Christian, Jewish, and Parsi elements. This doctrine forbids concubinage and polygamy, and frees women from many of the degradations imposed upon them among the orthodox Mohammedans. Mendicancy, the use of intoxicating liquors and drugs, and slave dealing, are forbidden; asceticism is discountenanced.

Babool (n.) Any one of several species of Acacia, esp. A. Arabica, which yelds a gum used as a substitute for true gum arabic.

Bahai (n.) A member of the sect of the Babis consisting of the adherents of Baha (Mirza Husain Ali, entitled "Baha 'u 'llah," or, "the Splendor of God"), the elder half brother of Mirza Yahya of Nur, who succeeded the Bab as the head of the Babists. Baha in 1863 declared himself the supreme prophet of the sect, and became its recognized head. There are upwards of 20,000 Bahais in the United States.

-ni (pl. ) of Bambino

Bambino (n.) A child or baby; specif., a representation in art of the infant Christ.

Bank discount () A sum equal to the interest at a given rate on the principal (face) of a bill or note from the time of discounting until it becomes due.

Bantu (n.) A member of one of the great family of Negroid tribes occupying equatorial and southern Africa. These tribes include, as important divisions, the Kafirs, Damaras, Bechuanas, and many tribes whose names begin with Aba-, Ama-, Ba-, Ma-, Wa-, variants of the Bantu plural personal prefix Aba-, as in Ba-ntu, or Aba-ntu, itself a combination of this prefix with the syllable -ntu, a person.

Barbizon () Alt. of school

Barbison () Alt. of school

school () A French school of the middle of the 19th century centering in the village of Barbizon near the forest of Fontainebleau. Its members went straight to nature in disregard of academic tradition, treating their subjects faithfully and with poetic feeling for color, light, and atmosphere. It is exemplified, esp. in landscapes, by Corot, Rousseau, Daubigny, Jules Dupre, and Diaz. Associated with them are certain painters of animals, as Troyon and Jaque, and of peasant life, as Millet and Jules Breton.

Bear State () Arkansas; -- a nickname, from the many bears once inhabiting its forests.

Begohm (n.) A unit of resistance equal to one billion ohms, or one thousand megohms.

Bejuco (n.) Any climbing woody vine of the tropics with the habit of a liane; in the Philippines, esp. any of various species of Calamus, the cane or rattan palm.

Belgian block () A nearly cubical block of some tough stone, esp. granite, used as a material for street pavements. Its usual diameter is 5 to 7 inches.

Bergstock (n.) A long pole with a spike at the end, used in climbing mountains; an alpenstock.

Bering Sea Controversy () A controversy (1886 -- 93) between Great Britain and the United States as to the right of Canadians not licensed by the United States to carry on seal fishing in the Bering Sea, over which the United States claimed jurisdiction as a mare clausum. A court of arbitration, meeting in Paris in 1893, decided against the claim of the United States, but established regulations for the preservation of the fur seal.

Betacismus (n.) Excessive or extended use of the b sound in speech, due to conversion of other sounds into it, as through inability to distinguish them from b, or because of difficulty in pronouncing them.

Biela's comet () A periodic coment, discovered by Biela in 1826, which revolves around the sun in 6.6 years. The November meteors (Andromedes or Bielids) move in its orbit, and may be fragments of the comet.

Billet (n.) Quarters or place to which one is assigned, as by a billet or ticket; berth; position. Also used fig.

Bimetallic (a.) Composed of two different metals; formed of two parts, each of a different metal; as, bimetallic wire; bimetallic thermometer, etc.

Bimolecular (a.) Pertaining to, or formed from, two molecules; as, a bimolecular reaction (a reaction between two molecules).

Binding screw () A set screw used to bind parts together, esp. one for making a connection in an electrical circuit.

Biodynamical (a.) Of or pertaining to biodynamics, or the doctrine of vital forces or energy.

Biodynamics (n.) The branch of biology which treats of the active vital phenomena of organisms; -- opposed to biostatics.

Biogeography (n.) The branch of biology which deals with the geographical distribution of animals and plants. It includes both zoogeography and phytogeography.

Biograph (n.) A biographical sketch.

Biophotophone (n.) An instrument combining a cinematograph and a phonograph so that the moving figures on the screen are accompanied by the appropriate sounds.

Biplane (a.) Having, or consisting of, two superposed planes, aerocurves, or the like; of or pertaining to a biplane; as, a biplane rudder.

Biprism (n.) A combination of two short rectangular glass prisms cemented together at their diagonal faces so as to form a cube; -- called also optical cube. It is used in one form of photometer.

Bitumen process () Any process in which advantage is taken of the fact that prepared bitumen is rendered insoluble by exposure to light, as in photolithography.

Blackbird (n.) Among slavers and pirates, a negro or Polynesian.

Blackbird (n.) A native of any of the islands near Queensland; -- called also Kanaka.

Blackbirder (n.) A slave ship; a slaver.

Blackbirding (n.) The kidnaping of negroes or Polynesians to be sold as slaves.

Blackbirding (n.) The act or practice of collecting natives of the islands near Queensland for service on the Queensland sugar plantations.

Block chain () A chain in which the alternate links are broad blocks connected by thin side links pivoted to the ends of the blocks, used with sprocket wheels to transmit power, as in a bicycle.

Block system () A system by which the track is divided into short sections, as of three or four miles, and trains are so run by the guidance of electric, or combined electric and pneumatic, signals that no train enters a section or block until the preceding train has left it, as in absolute blocking, or that a train may be allowed to follow another into a block as long as it proceeds with excessive caution, as in permissive blocking.

Blolly (n.) The rubiaceous shrub Chicocca racemosa, of the same region.

Boswellian (a.) Relating to, or characteristic of, Dr. Johnson's biographer, James Boswell, whose hero worship made his narrative a faithful but often uncritical record of details.

Bromide (n.) A person who is conventional and commonplace in his habits of thought and conversation. [Slang]

Bulbil (n.) A small or secondary bulb; hence, now almost exclusively: An aerial bulb or deciduous bud, produced in the leaf axils, as in the tiger lily, or relpacing the flowers, as in some onions, and capable, when separated, of propagating the plant; -- called also bulblet and brood bud.

Bulbil (n.) A small hollow bulb, such as an enlargement in a small vessel or tube.

Cahenslyism (n.) A plan proposed to the Pope in 1891 by P. P. Cahensly, a member of the German parliament, to divide the foreign-born population of the United States, for ecclesiastical purposes, according to European nationalities, and to appoint bishops and priests of like race and speaking the same language as the majority of the members of a diocese or congregation. This plan was successfully opposed by the American party in the Church.

Candlenut (n.) The fruit of a euphorbiaceous tree or shrub (Aleurites moluccana), native of some of the Pacific islands. It is used by the natives as a candle. The oil from the nut ( candlenut, / kekune, oil) has many uses.

Carbon process () A printing process depending on the effect of light on bichromatized gelatin. Paper coated with a mixture of the gelatin and a pigment is called carbon paper or carbon tissue. This is exposed under a negative and the film is transferred from the paper to some other support and developed by washing (the unexposed portions being dissolved away). If the process stops here it is called single transfer; if the image is afterward transferred in order to give an unreversed print, the method is called double transfer.

Carborundum () A beautiful crystalline compound, SiC, consisting of carbon and silicon in combination; carbon silicide. It is made by heating carbon and sand together in an electric furnace. The commercial article is dark-colored and iridescent. It is harder than emery, and is used as an abrasive.

Cash register () A device for recording the amount of cash received, usually having an automatic adding machine and a money drawer and exhibiting the amount of the sale.

Cataplexy (n.) A morbid condition caused by an overwhelming shock or extreme fear and marked by rigidity of the muscles.

Chassis (n.) The under part of an automobile, consisting of the frame (on which the body is mounted) with the wheels and machinery.

Chauffeur (n.) One who manages the running of an automobile; esp., the paid operator of a motor vehicle.

Chautauqua system (of education) () The system of home study established in connection with the summer schools assembled at Chautauqua, N. Y., by the Methodist Episcopal bishop, J. H. Vincent.

Chemiotaxis () The sensitiveness exhibited by small free-swimming organisms, as bacteria, zoospores of algae, etc., to chemical substances held in solution. They may be attracted (positive chemotaxis) or repelled (negative chemotaxis).

Child study () A scientific study of children, undertaken for the purpose of discovering the laws of development of the body and the mind from birth to manhood.

Chinese Exclusion Act () Any of several acts forbidding the immigration of Chinese laborers into the United States, originally from 1882 to 1892 by act of May 6, 1882, then from 1892 to 1902 by act May 5, 1892. By act of April 29, 1902, all existing legislation on the subject was reenacted and continued, and made applicable to the insular possessions of the United States.

Chippendale (a.) Designating furniture designed, or like that designed, by Thomas Chippendale, an English cabinetmaker of the 18th century. Chippendale furniture was generally of simple but graceful outline with delicately carved rococo ornamentation, sculptured either in the solid wood or, in the cheaper specimens, separately and glued on. In the more elaborate pieces three types are recognized: French Chippendale, having much detail, like Louis Quatorze and Louis Quinze; Chinese Chippendale, marked by latticework and pagodalike pediments; and Gothic Chippendale, attempting to adapt medieval details. The forms, as of the cabriole and chairbacks, often resemble Queen Anne. In chairs, the seat is widened at the front, and the back toward the top widened and bent backward, except in Chinese Chippendale, in which the backs are usually rectangular.

Chirm (n.) Noise; din; esp.; confused noise, clamor, or hum of many voices, notes of birds, or the like.

Chloroplast (n.) A plastid containing chlorophyll, developed only in cells exposed to the light. Chloroplasts are minute flattened granules, usually occurring in great numbers in the cytoplasm near the cell wall, and consist of a colorless ground substance saturated with chlorophyll pigments. Under light of varying intensity they exhibit phototactic movements. In animals chloroplasts occur only in certain low forms.

Chortle (v. t. & i.) A word coined by Lewis Carroll (Charles L. Dodgson), and usually explained as a combination of chuckle and snort.

Christian Era () The era in use in all Christian countries, which was intended to commence with the birth of Christ. The era as now established was first used by Dionysius Exiguus (died about 540), who placed the birth of Christ on the 25th of December in the year of Rome 754, which year he counted as 1 a. d. This date for Christ's birth is now generally thought to be about four years too late.

Christian Socialism () Any theory or system that aims to combine the teachings of Christ with the teachings of socialism in their applications to life; Christianized socialism; esp., the principles of this nature advocated by F. D. Maurice, Charles Kingsley, and others in England about 1850.

Chrome (n.) To treat with a solution of potassium bichromate, as in dyeing.

Chronophotograph (n.) One of a set of photographs of a moving object, taken for the purpose of recording and exhibiting successive phases of the motion.

Churr (n.) A vibrant or whirring noise such as that made by some insects, as the cockchafer, or by some birds, as the nightjar, the partridge, etc.

Cinematograph (n.) A machine, combining magic lantern and kinetoscope features, for projecting on a screen a series of pictures, moved rapidly (25 to 50 a second) and intermittently before an objective lens, and producing by persistence of vision the illusion of continuous motion; a moving-picture machine; also, any of several other machines or devices producing moving pictorial effects. Other common names for the cinematograph are animatograph, biograph, bioscope, electrograph, electroscope, kinematograph, kinetoscope, veriscope, vitagraph, vitascope, zoogyroscope, zoopraxiscope, etc.

Cinematograph (n.) A camera for taking chronophotographs for exhibition by the instrument described above.

Cinematographer (n.) One who exhibits moving pictures or who takes chronophotographs by the cinematograph.

Clairaudience (n.) Act of hearing, or the ability to hear, sounds not normally audible; -- usually claimed as a special faculty of spiritualistic mediums, or the like.

Cocainism (n.) A morbid condition produced by the habitual and excessive use of cocaine.

Cockyolly () Alt. of Cockyoly, bird

Cockyoly, bird () A pet name for any small bird.

Cola seed () The bitter fruit of Cola acuminata, which is nearly as large as a chestnut, and furnishes a stimulant, which is used in medicine.

Colluvies (n.) A collection or gathering, as of pus, or rubbish, or odds and ends.

Commandeer (v. t.) To take arbitrary or forcible possession of.

Commutation ticket () A ticket for transportation at a reduced rate in consideration of some special circumstance, as increase of travel; specif., a ticket for a certain number of, or for daily, trips between neighboring places at a reduced rate, such as are commonly used by those doing business in a city and living in a suburb. Commutation tickets are excepted from the prohibition against special rates contained in the Interstate Commerce Act of Feb. 4, 1887 (24 Stat. 379), and in 145 U. S. 263 it was held that party tickets were also excepted as being "obviously within the commuting principle."

Compo (n.) A composition for billiard balls.

Condor (n.) A gold coin of Colombia equivalent to about $9.65. It is no longer coined.

Coneflower (n.) Any plant of the genus Rudbeckia; -- so called from the cone-shaped disk of the flower head. Also, any plant of the related genera Ratibida and Brauneria, the latter usually known as purple coneflower.

Cone-nose (n.) A large hemipterous insect of the family Reduviidae, often found in houses, esp. in the southern and western United States. It bites severely, and is one of the species called kissing bugs. It is also called big bedbug.

Consol (n.) A consolidated annuity (see Consols); -- chiefly in combination or attributively.

Contagious disease () A disease communicable by contact with a patient suffering from it, or with some secretion of, or object touched by, such a patient. Most such diseases have already been proved to be germ diseases, and their communicability depends on the transmission of the living germs. Many germ diseases are not contagious, some special method of transmission or inoculation of the germs being required.

Controller (n.) A lever controlling the speed of an engine; -- applied esp. to the lever governing a throttle valve, as of a steam or gasoline engine, esp. on an automobile.

Corps (n.) In some countries of Europe, a form of students' social society binding the members to strict adherence to certain student customs and its code of honor; -- Ger. spelling usually korps.

Cosmos (n.) A genus of composite plants closely related to Bidens, usually with very showy flowers, some with yellow, others with red, scarlet, purple, white, or lilac rays. They are natives of the warmer parts of America, and many species are cultivated. Cosmos bipinnatus and C. diversifolius are among the best-known species; C. caudatus, of the West Indies, is widely naturalized.

C Q D () In radiotelegraphy, the letters signified by the code call formerly used (cf. S O S) by ships in distress, formed by combining the code call C Q (formerly used as a general call for all stations) with D for distress.

Crackajack (n.) An individual of marked ability or excellence, esp. in some sport; as, he is a crackajack at tennis.

Crackajack (a.) Of marked ability or excellence.

Crease (n.) The combination of four lines forming a rectangle inclosing either goal, or the inclosed space itself, within which no attacking player is allowed unless the ball is there; -- called also goal crease.

Crookneck (n.) Either of two varieties of squash, distinguished by their tapering, recurved necks. The summer crookneck is botanically a variety of the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and matures early in the season. It is pale yellow in color, with warty excrescences. The winter crookneck belongs to a distinct species (C. moschata) and is smooth and often striped.

Cubism (n.) A movement or phase in post-impressionism (which see, below).

Cultch (n.) Rubbish; debris; refuse.

Cushion tire () A thick solid-rubber tire, as for a bicycle, with a hollow groove running lengthwise on the inside.

Cutin (n.) A waxy substance which, combined with cellulose, forms a substance nearly impervious to water and constituting the cuticle in plants.

Cymometer (n.) An instrument for exhibiting and measuring wave motion

Decadent (n.) One that is decadent, or deteriorating; esp., one characterized by, or exhibiting, the qualities of those who are degenerating to a lower type; -- specif. applied to a certain school of modern French writers.

Deck (n.) A main aeroplane surface, esp. of a biplane or multiplane.

Demountable () Capable of being dismounted; -- said of a form of rim, for an automobile wheel, which can be removed with its tire from the wheel.

Diamond anniversary () Alt. of jubilee

jubilee () One celebrated upon the completion of sixty, or, according to some, seventy-five, years from the beginning of the thing commemorated.

Dickey () Any small bird; -- called also dickey bird.

Dobell's solution () An aqueous solution of carbolic acid, borax, sodium bicarbonate, and glycerin, used as a spray in diseases of the nose and throat.

Doffer (n.) A worker who replaces full bobbins by empty ones on the throstle or ring frames.

Double-decker (n.) A biplane aeroplane or kite.

Doublure (n.) The reflexed margin of the trilobite carapace.

Dreadnought (n.) A British battleship, completed in 1906 -- 1907, having an armament consisting of ten 12-inch guns, and of twenty-four 12-pound quick-fire guns for protection against torpedo boats. This was the first battleship of the type characterized by a main armament of big guns all of the same caliber. She has a displacement of 17,900 tons at load draft, and a speed of 21 knots per hour.

Dreadnought (n.) Any battleship having its main armament entirely of big guns all of one caliber. Since the Dreadnought was built, the caliber of the heaviest guns has increased from 12 in. to 13/ in., 14 in., and 15 in., and the displacement of the largest batteships from 18,000 tons to 30,000 tons and upwards. The term superdreadnought is popularly applied to battleships with such increased displacement and gun caliber.

Eastern Church () That portion of the Christian church which prevails in the countries once comprised in the Eastern Roman Empire and the countries converted to Christianity by missionaries from them. Its full official title is The Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Eastern Church. It became estranged from the Western, or Roman, Church over the question of papal supremacy and the doctrine of the filioque, and a separation, begun in the latter part of the 9th century, became final in 1054. The Eastern Church consists of twelve (thirteen if the Bulgarian Church be included) mutually independent churches (including among these the Hellenic Church, or Church of Greece, and the Russian Church), using the vernacular (or some ancient form of it) in divine service and varying in many points of detail, but standing in full communion with each other and united as equals in a great federation. The highest five authorities are the patriarch of Constantinople, or ecumenical patriarch (whose position is not one of supremacy, but of precedence), the patriarch of Alexandria, the patriarch of Jerusalem, the patriarch of Antioch, and the Holy Synod of Russia. The Eastern Church accepts the first seven ecumenical councils (and is hence styled only schismatic, not heretical, by the Roman Catholic Church), has as its creed the Niceno-Constantinopolitan (without the later addition of the filioque, which, with the doctrine it represents, the church decisively rejects), baptizes infants with trine immersion, makes confirmation follow immediately upon baptism, administers the Communion in both kinds (using leavened bread) and to infants as well as adults, permits its secular clergy to marry before ordination and to keep their wives afterward, but not to marry a second time, selects its bishops from the monastic clergy only, recognizes the offices of bishop, priest, and deacon as the three necessary degrees of orders, venerates relics and icons, and has an elaborate ritual.

Echopathy (n.) A morbid condition characterized by automatic and purposeless repetition of words or imitation of actions.

Electropoion fluid () An exciting and depolarizing acid solution used in certain cells or batteries, as the Grenet battery. Electropoion is best prepared by mixing one gallon of concentrated sulphuric acid diluted with three gallons of water, with a solution of six pounds of potassium bichromate in two gallons of boiling water. It should be used cold.

Enface (v. t.) To write or print on the face of (a draft, bill, etc.); as, to enface drafts with memoranda.

Enface (v. t.) To write or print (a memorandum, direction, or the like) on the face of a draft, bill, etc.; as, to enface the words "Payable in Calcutta" upon the face of a draft.

Epworth League () A religious organization of Methodist young people, founded in 1889 at Cleveland, Ohio, and taking its name from John Wesley's birthplace, Epworth, Lincolnshire, England.

Equalizer (n.) A device, as a bar, for operating two brakes, esp. a pair of hub brakes for an automobile, with equal force.

Equalizer (n.) A sliding panel to preserve the lateral stability of an aeroplane.

Erbium (n.) A metallic element of the rare earth group, found in gadolinite and some other minerals. Symbol, Er; at. wt. 167.4. Its salts are rose-colored and give characteristic spectra.

Eurafrican (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the continents of Europe and Africa combined.

Eutectic (a.) Of maximum fusibility; -- said of an alloy or mixture which has the lowest melting point which it is possible to obtain by the combination of the given components.

Eutexia (n.) The principle or process of forming from given components the eutectic alloy, or alloy of maximum fusibility.

Fabian (n.) A member of, or sympathizer with, the Fabian Society.

Fabian (a.) Of or pertaining to the Roman gens Fabia.

Fabian (a.) Designating, or pertaining to, a society of socialists, organized in England in 1884 to spread socialistic principles gradually without violent agitation.

Fast (a.) In such a condition, as to resilience, etc., as to make possible unusual rapidity of play or action; as, a fast racket, or tennis court; a fast track; a fast billiard table, etc.

Feng-hwang (n.) A pheasantlike bird of rich plumage and graceful form and movement, fabled to appear in the land on the accession of a sage to the throne, or when right principles are about to prevail. It is often represented on porcelains and other works of art.

Ferris wheel () An amusement device consisting of a giant power-driven steel wheel, revolvable on its stationary axle, and carrying a number of balanced passenger cars around its rim; -- so called after G. W. G. Ferris, American engineer, who erected the first of its kind for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.

Filarial (a.) Straight, as if in a line; as, the filarial flight of birds.

Fin (n.) A fixed stabilizing surface, usually vertical, similar in purpose to a bilge keel on a ship.

Flag (n.) One of the wing feathers next the body of a bird; -- called also flag feather.

Flash boiler () A variety of water-tube boiler, used chiefly in steam automobiles, consisting of a nest of strong tubes with very little water space, kept nearly red hot so that the water as it trickles drop by drop into the tubes is immediately flashed into steam and superheated.

Fluke (v. t. & i.) To get or score by a fluke; as, to fluke a play in billiards.

Follow (n.) The art or process of following; specif., in some games, as billiards, a stroke causing a ball to follow another ball after hitting it. Also used adjectively; as, follow shot.

Fourchette (n.) The combination of the card immediately above and the one immediately below a given card.

Frapping (n.) A lashing binding a thing tightly or binding things together.

Fumet (n.) A high-flavored substance, such as extract of game, for flavoring dishes of food; less properly, a ragout of partridge and rabbit braised in wine.

Fuze (n.) A wire, bar, or strip of fusible metal inserted for safety in an electric circuit. When the current increases beyond a certain safe strength, the metal melts, interrupting the circuit and thereby preventing possibility of damage.

Gag law () A law or ruling prohibiting proper or free debate, as in closure.

Gallium (n.) A rare metallic element, found combined in certain zinc ores. It is white, hard, and malleable, resembling aluminium, and remarkable for its low melting point (86¡ F., 30¡ C.). Symbol, Ga; at. wt., 69.9. Gallium is chiefly trivalent, resembling aluminium and indium. It was predicted with most of its properties, under the name eka-aluminium, by Mendelyeev on the basis of the periodic law. This prediction was verified in its discovery (in 1875) by its characteristic spectrum (two violet lines).

Gap (n.) The vertical distance between two superposed surfaces, esp. in a biplane.

Garage (n.) A place for housing automobiles.

Genip tree () The West Indian sapindaceous tree Melicocca bijuga, which yields the honeyberry; also, the related trees Exothea paniculata and E. trifoliata.

Gentlemen's agreement () An agreement binding only as a matter of honor; often, specif., such an agreement among the heads of industrial or merchantile enterprises, the terms of which could not be included and enforced in a legal contract.

Germ theory () The theory that living organisms can be produced only by the development of living germs. Cf. Biogenesis, Abiogenesis.

Griffon (n.) One of a European breed of rough-coated dogs, somewhat taller than the setter and of a grizzly liver color. They are used in hunt game birds. The Brussels griffon is a very small, wiry-coated, short-nosed pet dog of Belgian origin.

Grobian (a.) A rude or clownish person; boor; lout.

Grolier (n.) The name by which Jean Grolier de Servier (1479-1565), a French bibliophile, is commonly known; -- used in naming a certain style of binding, a design, etc.

Haematolysis (n.) Dissolution of the red blood corpuscles with diminished coagulability of the blood; haemolysis.

Hague Tribunal () The permanent court of arbitration created by the "International Convention for the Pacific Settle of International Disputes.", adopted by the International Peace Conference of 1899. It is composed of persons of known competency in questions of international law, nominated by the signatory powers. From these persons an arbitration tribunal is chosen by the parties to a difference submitted to the court. On the failure of the parties to agree directly on the arbitrators, each chooses two arbitrators, an umpire is selected by them, by a third power, or by two powers selected by the parties.

Hand (n.) A gambling game played by American Indians, consisting of guessing the whereabouts of bits of ivory or the like, which are passed rapidly from hand to hand.

Haphtarah (n.) One of the lessons from the Nebiim (or Prophets) read in the Jewish synagogue on Sabbaths, feast days, fasts, and the ninth of Ab, at the end of the service, after the parashoth, or lessons from the Law. Such a practice is evidenced in Luke iv.17 and Acts xiii.15.

Hematinic (n.) Any substance, such as an iron salt or organic compound containing iron, which when ingested tends to increase the hemoglobin contents of the blood.

Herzog (n.) A member of the highest rank of nobility in Germany and Austria, corresponding to the British duke.

Hetaira (n.) A female paramour; a mistress, concubine, or harlot.

Hire and purchase agreement () A contract (more fully called contract of hire with an option of purchase) in which a person hires goods for a specified period and at a fixed rent, with the added condition that if he shall retain the goods for the full period and pay all the installments of rent as they become due the contract shall determine and the title vest absolutely in him, and that if he chooses he may at any time during the term surrender the goods and be quit of any liability for future installments upon the contract. In the United States such a contract is generally treated as a conditional sale, and the term hire purchase is also sometimes applied to a contract in which the hirer is not free to avoid future liability by surrender of the goods. In England, however, if the hirer does not have this right the contract is a sale.

Hittorf tube () A highly exhausted glass tube with metallic electrodes nearly in contact so as to exhibit the insulating effects of a vacuum. It was used by the German physicist W. Hittorf (b. 1824).

Honeyberry (n.) The fruit of either of two trees having sweetish berries: (a) An Old World hackberry (Celtis australis). (b) In the West Indies, the genip (Melicocca bijuga).

Horse (n.) A translation or other illegitimate aid in study or examination; -- called also trot, pony, Dobbin.

Houstonia (n.) A genus of small rubiaceous herbs, having tetramerous salveform blue or white flower. There are about twenty species, natives of North America. Also, a plant of this genus.

Hunt (v. i.) To be in a state of instability of movement or forced oscillation, as a governor which has a large movement of the balls for small change of load, an arc-lamp clutch mechanism which moves rapidly up and down with variations of current, or the like; also, to seesaw, as a pair of alternators working in parallel.

Hydrobiplane (n.) A hydro-aeroplane having two supporting planes.

Hypnoscope (n.) An instrument for ascertaining the susceptibility of a person to hypnotic influences.

Ichthyol (n.) An oily substance prepared by the dry distillation of a bituminous mineral containing fossil fishes. It is used in medicine as a remedy in some forms of skin diseases.

Idealism (n.) The practice or habit of giving or attributing ideal form or character to things; treatment of things in art or literature according to ideal standards or patterns; -- opposed to realism.

Ido (n.) An artificial international language, selected by the "Delegation for the Adoption of an Auxillary International Language" (founded at Paris in 1901), made public in 1907, and subsequently greatly revised and extended by a permanent committee or "Academy." It combines systematically the advantages of previous schemes with a thoroughly logical word formation, and has neither accented constants nor arbitrarily coined pronominal words. For each idea that root is selected which is already most international, on the principle of the "greatest facility for the greatest number of people." The word "Ido" means in the language itself "offspring." The official name is: "Linguo Internaciona di la Delegitaro (Sistema Ido)."

Imperial (n.) A game at cards differing from piquet in some minor details, and in having a trump; also, any one of several combinations of cards which score in this game.

Incubator (n.) An apparatus for rearing prematurely born babies.

Infarct (n.) The morbid condition of a limited area resulting from such obstruction; as, a hemorrhagic infarct.

Inswept (a.) Narrowed at the forward end; -- said of an automobile frame when the side members are closer together at the forward end than at the rear.

Internal-combustion (a.) Designating, or pertaining to, any engine (called an Internal-combustion engine) in which the heat or pressure energy necessary to produce motion is developed in the engine cylinder, as by the explosion of a gas, and not in a separate chamber, as in a steam-engine boiler. The gas used may be a fixed gas, or one derived from alcohol, ether, gasoline (petrol), naphtha, oil (petroleum), etc. There are three main classes: (1) gas engines proper, using fixed gases, as coal, blast-furnace, or producer gas; (2) engines using the vapor of a volatile fluid, as the typical gasoline (petrol) engine; (3) oil engines, using either an atomized spray or the vapor (produced by heat) of a comparatively heavy oil, as petroleum or kerosene. In all of these the gas is mixed with a definite amount of air, the charge is composed in the cylinder and is then exploded either by a flame of gas (flame ignition -- now little used), by a hot tube (tube ignition) or the like, by an electric spark (electric ignition, the usual method is gasoline engines, or by the heat of compression, as in the Diesel engine. Gas and oil engines are chiefly of the stationary type. Gasoline engines are largely used for automobile vehicles, boats, etc. Most internal-combustion engines use the Otto (four-stroke) cycle, though many use the two-stroke cycle. They are almost universally trunk engines and single-acting. Because of the intense heat produced by the frequent explosions, the cylinders must be cooled by a water jacket (water-cooled) or by air currents (air cooled) to give the maximum thermodynamic efficiency and to avoid excessive friction or seizing.

Iroquoian (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, one of the principal linguistic stocks of the North American Indians. The territory of the northern Iroquoian tribes, of whom the Five Nations, or Iroquois proper, were the chief, extended from the shores of the St. Lawrence and of Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Erie south, through eastern Pennsylvania, to Maryland; that of the southern tribes, of whom the Cherokees were chief, formed part of Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. All of the tribes were agricultural, and they were noted for large, communal houses, palisaded towns, and ability to organize, as well as for skill in war.

Irreversible steering gear () A steering gear, esp. for an automobile, not affected by the road wheels, as when they strike an obstacle side ways, but easily controlled by the hand wheel or steering lever.

Isodrome (n.) A method of moving a fleet from one formation to another, the direction usually being changed eight points (90¡), by means of paths of equal length for each ship. It is prohibited in the United States navy.

Isomorphic (a.) Alike in form; exhibiting isomorphism.

Jacal (n.) In Mexico and the south western United States, a kind of plastered house or hut, usually made by planting poles or timber in the geound, filling in between them with screen work or wickerwork, and daubing one or both sides with mud or adobe mortar; also, this method of construction.

Jeunesse doree () Lit., gilded youth; young people of wealth and fashion, esp. if given to prodigal living; -- in the French Revolution, applied to young men of the upper classes who aided in suppressing the Jacobins after the Reign of Terror.

Jibbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Jib

Jehad (n.) A religious war against infidels or Mohammedan heretics; also, any bitter war or crusade for a principle or belief.

Jumelle (a.) Twin; paired; -- said of various objects made or formed in pairs, as a binocular opera glass, a pair of gimmal rings, etc.

Kea (n.) A large New Zealand parrot (Nestor notabilis), notorious for having acquired the habit of killing sheep; -- called also mountain parrot.

Keel (n.) In a dirigible, a construction similar in form and use to a ship's keel; in an aeroplane, a fin or fixed surface employed to increase stability and to hold the machine to its course.

Kilo- () A combining form used to signify thousand in forming the names of units of measurement; as, kilogram, kilometer, kilowatt, etc.

Kinetograph (n.) A combined animated-picture machine and phonograph in which sounds appropriate to the scene are automatically uttered by the latter instrument.

Kinetophone (n.) A machine combining a kinetoscope and a phonograph synchronized so as to reproduce a scene and its accompanying sounds.

Kissing bug () Any one of several species of blood-sucking, venomous Hemiptera that sometimes bite the lip or other parts of the human body, causing painful sores, as the cone-nose (Conorhinus sanguisuga).

Kitchenette (n.) A room combining a very small kitchen and a pantry, with the kitchen conveniences compactly arranged, sometimes so that they fold up out of sight and allow the kitchen to be made a part of the adjoining room by opening folding doors.

Knock (v. i.) To practice evil speaking or fault-finding; to criticize habitually or captiously.

Kolinsky (n.) Among furriers, any of several Asiatic minks; esp., Putorius sibiricus, the yellowish brown pelt of which is valued, esp. for the tail, used for making artists' brushes. Trade names for the fur are red sable and Tatar sable.

Labioplasty (n.) A plastic operation for making a new lip, or for replacing a lost tissue of a lip.

Labipalp (n.) A labial palp.

Laker (n.) One that is connected with a lake or lakes, as in habitation, toil, etc.:

Land League () In Ireland, a combination of tenant farmers and other, organized, with Charles Stewart Parnell as president, in 1879 with a view to the reduction of farm rents and a reconstruction of the land laws.

Land of Steady Habits () Connecticut; -- a nickname alluding to the moral character of its inhabitants, implied by the rigid laws (see Blue laws) of the early period.

Layshaft (n.) A secondary shaft, as in a sliding change gear for an automobile; a cam shaft operated by a two-to-one gear in an internal-combustion engine. It is generally a shaft moving more or less independently of the other parts of a machine, as, in some marine engines, a shaft, driven by a small auxiliary engine, for independently operating the valves of the main engine to insure uniform motion.

Lesbian (a.) Amatory; erotic; -- in allusion to the reputed sensuality of the Lesbian people and literature; as, Lesbian novels.

Lesbianism (n.) Unnatural sexual relations between women.

Lesbian love () See Lesbianism.

Lightweight (n.) A person of small impotance or mental ability.

Limousine (n.) An automobile body with seats and permanent top like a coupe, and with the top projecting over the driver and a projecting front; also, an automobile with such a body.

Lithosphere (n.) The outer part of the solid earth, the portion undergoing change through the gradual transfer of material by volcanic eruption, the circulation of underground water, and the process of erosion and deposition. It is, therefore, regarded as a third mobile envelope comparable with the hydrosphere and atmosphere.

Lob (n.) The act of lobbing; specif., an (often gentle) stroke which sends a ball up into the air, as in tennis to avoid a player at the net.

Luffa (n.) A small genus of tropical cucurbitaceous plants having white flowers, the staminate borne in racemes, and large fruits with a dry fibrous pericarp. The fruit of several species and the species themselves, esp. L. Aegyptiaca, are called dishcloth gourds.

Lutecium (n.) A metallic element separated from ytterbium in 1907, by Urbain in Paris and by von Welsbach in Vienna. Symbol, Lu; at. wt. 174.0.

Madeira vine () A herbaceous climbing vine (Boussingaultia baselloides) very popular in cultivation, having shining entire leaves and racemens of small fragrant white flowers.

Malaria parasite () Any of several minute protozoans of the genus Plasmodium (syn. Haematozoon) which in their adult condition live in the tissues of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (which see) and when transferred to the blood of man, by the bite of the mosquito, produce malaria.

Manbird (n.) An aviator.

Mantelletta (n.) A silk or woolen vestment without sleeves worn by cardinals, bishops, abbots, and the prelates of the Roman court. It has a low collar, is fastened in front, and reaches almost to the knees.

Manzanilla (n.) A kind of small roundish olive with a small freestone pit, a fine skin, and a peculiar bitterish flavor. Manzanillas are commonly pitted and stuffed with Spanish pimientos.

Marriage (n.) In bezique, penuchle, and similar games at cards, the combination of a king and queen of the same suit. If of the trump suit, it is called a royal marriage.

Martian (n.) An inhabitant of the planet Mars.

Mattoir (n.) A kind of coarse punch with a rasplike face, used for making a rough surface on etching ground, or on the naked copper, the effect after biting being very similar to stippled lines.

Meld (n.) Any combination or score which may be declared, or melded, in pinochle.

Mercurialism (n.) The morbid condition produced by the excessive use of mercury, or by exposure to its fumes, as in mining or smelting.

Microbiology (n.) The study of minute organisms, or microbes, as the bacteria.

Mixer (n.) A person who has social intercourse with others of many sorts; a person viewed as to his casual sociability; -- commonly used with some characterizing adjective; as, a good mixer; a bad mixer.

Moabite stone () A block of black basalt, found at Dibon in Moab by Rev. F. A. Klein, Aug. 19, 1868, which bears an inscription of thirty-four lines, dating from the 9th century b. c., and written in the Moabite alphabet, the oldest Phoenician type of the Semitic alphabet. It records the victories of Mesha, king of Moab, esp. those over Israel (2 Kings iii. 4, 5, 27).

Mon (n.) The badge of a family, esp. of a family of the ancient feudal nobility. The most frequent form of the mon is circular, and it commonly consists of conventionalized forms from nature, flowers, birds, insects, the lightnings, the waves of the sea, or of geometrical symbolic figures; color is only a secondary character. It appears on lacquer and pottery, and embroidered on, or woven in, fabrics. The imperial chrysanthemum, the mon of the reigning family, is used as a national emblem. Formerly the mon of the shoguns of the Tokugawa family was so used.

Moratory (a.) Of or pertaining to delay; esp., designating a law passed, as in a time of financial panic, to postpone or delay for a period the time at which notes, bills of exchange, and other obligations, shall mature or become due.

Mores (n. pl.) Customs; habits; esp., customs conformity to which is more or less obligatory; customary law.

Motile (a.) Exhibiting, or capable of, spontaneous movement; as, motile cilia, motile spores, etc.

Motor (n.) A motor car; an automobile.

Motorcar (n.) An automobile, locomobile, or locomotive designed to run and be steered on a street or roadway; esp., an automobile specially designed for passengers.

Motorcycle (n.) A bicycle having a motor attached so as to be self-propelled. In Great Britain the term motor cycle is treated by statute (3 Ed VII. c. 36) as limited to motor cars (self-propelled vehicles) designed to travel on not more than three wheels, and weighing unladen (that is, without water, fuel, or accumulators necessary for propulsion) not more than three hundred weight (336 lbs.).

Motor generator () The combination consisting of a generator and a driving motor mechanically connected, usually on a common bedplate and with the two shafts directly coupled or combined into a single shaft.

Motoring (n.) Act or recreation of riding in or driving a motor car or automobile.

Motoring (a.) Pertaining to motor cars or automobiles, or to the technology of such; addicted to riding in or driving automobiles; as, motoring parlance; my motoring friend.

Motorize (v. t.) To substitute motor-driven vehicles, or automobiles, for the horses and horse-drawn vehicles of (a fire department, city, etc.).

Muckrake (v. i.) To seek for, expose, or charge, esp. habitually, corruption, real or alleged, on the part of public men and corporations. On April 14, 1906, President Roosevelt delivered a speech on "The Man with the Muck Rake," in which he deprecated sweeping and unjust charges of corruption against public men and corporations. The phrase was taken up by the press, and the verb to muck"rake`, in the above sense, and the noun muck"rak`er (/), to designate one so engaged, were speedily coined and obtained wide currency. The original allusion was to a character in Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" so intent on raking up muck that he could not see a celestial crown held above him.

Muffler (n.) Any of various devices to deaden the noise of escaping gases or vapors, as a tube filled with obstructions, through which the exhaust gases of an internal-combustion engine, as on an automobile, are passed (called also silencer).

Multigraph (n.) A combined rotary type-setting and printing machine for office use. The type is transferred semi-automatically by means of keys from a type-supply drum to a printing drum. The printing may be done by means of an inked ribbon to print "typewritten" letters, or directly from inked type or a stereotype plate, as in a printing press.

Mutoscope (n.) A simple form of moving-picture machine in which the series of views, exhibiting the successive phases of a scene, are printed on paper and mounted around the periphery of a wheel. The rotation of the wheel brings them rapidly into sight, one after another, and the blended effect gives a semblance of motion.

Myrmecophyte (n.) A plant that affords shelter and food to certain species of ants which live in symbiotic relations with it. Special adaptations for this purpose exist; thus, Acacia spadicigera has large hollows thorns, and species of Cecropia have stem cavities.

Napoleon (n.) A game in which each player holds five cards, the eldest hand stating the number of tricks he will bid to take, any subsequent player having the right to overbid him or a previous bidder, the highest bidder naming the trump and winning a number of points equal to his bid if he makes so many tricks, or losing the same number of points if he fails to make them.

Napoleon (n.) A bid to take five tricks at napoleon. It is ordinarily the highest bid; but sometimes bids are allowed of wellington, or of blucher, to take five tricks, or pay double, or treble, if unsuccessful.

Neanderthal (a.) Of, pertaining to, or named from, the Neanderthal, a valley in the Rhine Province, in which were found parts of a skeleton of an early type of man. The skull is characterized by extreme dolichocephaly, flat, retreating forehead, with closed frontal sutures, and enormous superciliary ridges. The cranial capacity is estimated at about 1,220 cubic centimeters, being about midway between that of the Pithecanthropus and modern man. Hence, designating the Neanderthal race, / man, a species supposed to have been widespread in paleolithic Europe.

Neodymium (n.) A rare metallic element occurring in combination with cerium, lanthanum, and other rare metals, and forming amethyst-colored salts. It was separated in 1885 by von Welsbach from praseodymium, the two having previously been regarded as a single element (didymium). It is chiefly trivalent. Symbol Nd; at. wt. 144.3.

Neo-Lamarckism (n.) Lamarckism as revived, modified, and expounded by recent biologists, esp. as maintaining that the offspring inherits characters acquired by the parent from change of environment, use or disuse of parts, etc.; -- opposed of Neo-Darwinism (which see, above).

Neo-Malthusian (a.) Designating, or pertaining to, a group of modern economists who hold to the Malthusianism doctrine that permanent betterment of the general standard of living is impossible without decrease of competition by limitation of the number of births.

Ne plus ultra () A prohibition against proceeding further; an insuperable obstacle or limiting condition.

Ne Temere () A decree of the Congregation of the Council declaring invalid [so far as the laws of the Roman Catholic Church are concerned] any marriage of a Roman Catholic, or of a person who has ever been a Roman Catholic, if not contracted before a duty qualified priest (or the bishop of the diocese) and at least two witnesses. The decree was issued Aug. 2, 1907, and took effect on Easter Apr. 19, 1908. The decree by its terms does not affect mixed marriages (those between Roman Catholics and persons of another faith) in Germany.

Nickelodeon (n.) A place of entertainment, as for moving picture exhibition, charging a fee or admission price of five cents.

Nickel steel () A kind of cast steel containing nickel, which greatly increases its strength. It is used for armor plate, bicycle tubing, propeller shafts, etc.

Nicotinism (n.) The morbid condition produced by the excessive use of tobacco.

Niepce's process () A process, now no longer used, invented by J. N. Niepce, a French chemist, in 1829. It depends upon the action of light in rendering a thin layer of bitumen, with which the plate is coated, insoluble.

Nisus (n.) The periodic procreative desire manifested in the spring by birds, etc.

Nobili's rings () Colored rings formed upon a metal plate by the electrolytic disposition of copper, lead peroxide, etc. They may be produced by touching with a pointed zinc rod a silver plate on which is a solution of copper sulphate.

Noil (n.) A short or waste piece or knot of wool separated from the longer staple by combing; also, a similar piece or shred of waste silk.

Norfolk dumpling () A native or inhabitant of Norfolk.

Nosophobia (n.) Morbid dread of disease.

Obi (n.) A sash, esp. the long broad sash of soft material worn by women.

Obiism (n.) Belief in, or the practice of, the obi superstitions and rites.

Ooze leather () Leather made from sheep and calf skins by mechanically forcing ooze through them; esp., such leather with a soft, finely granulated finish (called sometimes velvet finish) put on the flesh side for special purposes. Ordinary ooze leather is used for shoe uppers, in bookbinding, etc. Hence Ooze calf, Ooze finish, etc.

Ouananiche (n.) A small landlocked variety of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar ounaniche) of Lake St. John, Canada, and neighboring waters, noted for its vigor and activity, and habit of leaping from the water when hooked.

Outre (a.) Out of the common course or limits; extravagant; bizarre; as, an outre costume.

Overman (n.) An arbiter.

Packer (n.) A ring of packing or a special device to render gas-tight and water-tight the space between the tubing and bore of an oil well.

Palolo worm () A polystome worm (Palolo viridis) that burrows in the coral reefs of certain of the Pacific Islands. A little before the last quarter of the moon in October and November, they swarm in vast numbers at the surface of the sea for breeding, and are gathered and highly esteemed as food by the natives. An allied species inhabits the tropical Atlantic and swarms in June or July.

Panel (n.) A segment of an aeroplane wing. In a biplane the outer panel extends from the wing tip to the next row of posts, and is trussed by oblique stay wires.

Par (n.) The number of strokes required for a hole or a round played without mistake, two strokes being allowed on each hole for putting. Par represents perfect play, whereas bogey makes allowance on some holes for human frailty. Thus if par for a course is 75, bogey is usually put down, arbitrarily, as 81 or 82.

Paralgesia (n.) Disordered sensibility to pain, including absence of sensibility to pain, excessive sensibility to pain, and abnormal painful results of stimuli.

Paranoia (n.) A chronic form of insanity characterized by very gradual impairment of the intellect, systematized delusion, and usually by delusious of persecution or mandatory delusions producing homicidal tendency. In its mild form paranoia may consist in the well-marked crotchetiness exhibited in persons commonly called "cranks." Paranoiacs usually show evidences of bodily and nervous degeneration, and many have hallucinations, esp. of sight and hearing.

Para rubber () The caoutchouc obtained from the South American euphorbiaceous tree Hevea brasiliensis, hence called the Para rubber tree, from the Brazilian river and seaport named Para; also, the similar product of other species of Hevea. It is usually exported in flat round cakes, and is a chief variety of commercial India rubber.

Parcel post () That branch of the post office having to do with the collection, transmission, and delivery of parcels. The British Inland Parcel Post was established in 1883. The present rates, dating from 1897, are 3d. for parcels not exceeding one pound and 1d. for each additional pound up to the limit of 10 pounds. A general parcel post was established in the United States by Act of August 24, 1912, which took effect Jan. 1, 1913. Parcels must not exceed 11 pounds in weight nor 72 inches in length and girth combined. Provision is made from insuring parcels up to $50.00, and also for sending parcels C.O.D. The rates of postage vary with the distance. See Zone, below.

Park (v. t.) To bring together in a park, or compact body; as, to park artillery, wagons, automobiles, etc.

Parkee (n.) An outer garment made of the skins of birds or mammals, worn by Eskimos, etc.

Parure (n.) An ornament or decoration for the person; esp., a decoration consisting of a set of ornaments to be used together; as, a parure of rubies or of embroideries.

Pathological (a.) Morbid; due to disease; abnormal; as, pathological tissue; a pathological condition.

Paymaster-general () In Great Britain, an officer of the Treasury who makes all payments and disbursements, civil as well as military. He is a member of the ministry, but not of the cabinet.

Pele's hair () Glass threads or fibers formed by the wind from bits blown from frothy lava or from the tips of lava jets or from bits of liquid lava thrown into the air. It often collects in thick masses resembling tow.

Pelton wheel () A form of impulse turbine or water wheel, consisting of a row of double cup-shaped buckets arranged round the rim of a wheel and actuated by one or more jets of water playing into the cups at high velocity.

Pentose (n.) Any of a group of sugars of the formula C5H10O5, as arabinose; -- so called from the five carbon atoms in the molecule. They are not fermented by yeast.

Periptery (n.) The region surrounding a moving body, such as the wing of a bird or a gliding aeroplane, within which cyclic or vortical motion of the air occur.

Phase (n.) In certain birds and mammals, one of two or more color variations characteristic of the species, but independent of the ordinary seasonal and sexual differences, and often also of age. Some of the herons which appear in white and colored phases, and certain squirrels which are sometimes uniformly blackish instead of the usual coloration, furnish examples. Color phases occur also in other animals, notably in butterflies.

Phenology (n.) The science of the relations between climate and periodic biological phenomena, as the migrations and breeding of birds, the flowering and fruiting of plants, etc.

Photochromoscope (n.) A combination of three optical lanterns for projecting objects on a screen in the colors of nature. The images of three partial photographs taken through color screens (red, green, and blue, respectively) are superimposed. Each image is given its own primary color, and these colors blend and reproduce the colors of the object.

Photoplay (n.) A play for representation or exhibition by moving pictures; also, the moving-picture representation of a play.

Pi (n.) Specif.: (Math.) The letter /, /, as used to denote the number or quotient approximately expressing the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter; also, the quotient or the ratio itself. The value of the quotient pi, to eight decimal places, is 3.14159265. The quotient pi cannot be expressed as a root of an algebraic equation; and from this fact follows the impossibility of the quadrature of the circle by purely algebraic processes, or by the aid of a ruler and compass.

Pillow lace () Lace made by hand with bobbins on a pillow.

Pipevine (n.) Any climbing species of Aristolochia; esp., the Dutchman's pipe (A. sipho).

Pithecanthropus (n.) A genus consisting of an primate (P. erectus) apparently intermediate between man and the existing anthropoid apes, known from bones of a single individual found in Java (hence called Java man) in 1891-92. These bones include a thigh bone of the human type, two molar teeth intermediate between those of man and the anthropoids, and the calvaria of the skull, indicating a brain capacity of about 900 cubic centimeters, and resembling in form that of the Neanderthal man.

Plasmon (n.) A flourlike food preparation made from skim milk, and consisting essentially of the unaltered proteid of milk. It is also used in making biscuits and crackers, for mixing with cocoa, etc. A mixture of this with butter, water, and salt is called Plasmon butter, and resembles clotted cream in appearance.

Plexus (n.) A network; an intricate or interwoven combination of elements or parts in a coherent structure.

Pneumatic (n.) A vehicle, as a bicycle, the wheels of which are fitted with pneumatic tires.

Pocket (n.) A bin for storing coal, grain, etc.

Pocket (n.) A bight on a lee shore.

Pocket veto () The retention by the President of the United States of a bill unsigned so that it does not become a law, in virtue of the following constitutional provision (Const. Art. I., sec. 7, cl. 2): "If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law." Also, an analogous retention of a bill by a State governor.

Poison bush () Any fabaceous shrub of the genus Gastrolobium, the herbage of which is poisonous to stock; also, any species of several related genera, as Oxylobium, Gompholobium, etc.

Poison bush () The ulmaceous plant Trema cannabina, which, though not poisonous, is injurious to stock because of its large amount of fiber.

Polonium (n.) A supposed new element, a radioactive substance discovered by M. and MMe. Curie in pitchblende. It is closely related chemically to bismuth. It emits only alpha rays and is perhaps identical with radium F.

Poonah painting () A style of painting, popular in England in the 19th century, in which a thick opaque color is applied without background and with scarcely any shading, to thin paper, producing flowers, birds, etc., in imitation of Oriental work.

Post-impressionism (n.) In the broadest sense, the theory or practice of any of several groups of recent painters, or of these groups taken collectively, whose work and theories have in common a tendency to reaction against the scientific and naturalistic character of impressionism and neo-impressionism. In a strict sense the term post-impressionism is used to denote the effort at self-expression, rather than representation, shown in the work of Cezanne, Matisse, etc.; but it is more broadly used to include cubism, the theory or practice of a movement in both painting and sculpture which lays stress upon volume as the important attribute of objects and attempts its expression by the use of geometrical figures or solids only; and futurism, a theory or practice which attempts to place the observer within the picture and to represent simultaneously a number of consecutive movements and impressions. In practice these theories and methods of the post-impressionists change with great rapidity and shade into one another, so that a picture may be both cubist and futurist in character. They tend to, and sometimes reach, a condition in which both representation and traditional decoration are entirely abolished and a work of art becomes a purely subjective expression in an arbitrary and personal language.

Projector (n.) An optical instrument for projecting a picture upon a screen, as by a magic lantern or by an instrument for projecting (by reflection instead of transmission of light) a picture of an opaque object, as photographs, picture post-cards, insects, etc., in the colors of the object itself. In this latter form the projection is accomplished by means of a combination of lenses with a prism and a mirror or reflector. Specific instruments have been called by different names, such as radiopticon, mirrorscope, balopticon, etc.

Punkie (n.) A minute biting fly of the genus Ceratopogon or allied genus of the family Chironomidae, found in swarms in various densely wooded or mountaneous regions.

Quadruplet (n.) A collection or combination of four of a kind.

Quintuplet (n.) A collection or combination of five of a kind.

Race suicide () The voluntary failure of the members of a race or people to have a number of children sufficient to keep the birth rate equal to the death rate.

Radiator (n.) Any of various devices for cooling an internal substance by radiation, as a system og rings on a gun barrel for cooling it, or a nest of tubes with large radiating surface for cooling circulating water, as in an automobile.

Radium (n.) An intensely radioactive metallic element found (combined) in minute quantities in pitchblende, and various other uranium minerals. Symbol, Ra; atomic weight, 226.4. Radium was discovered by M. and Mme. Curie, of Paris, who in 1902 separated compounds of it by a tedious process from pitchblende. Its compounds color flames carmine and give a characteristic spectrum. It resembles barium chemically. Radium preparations are remarkable for maintaining themselves at a higher temperature than their surroundings, and for their radiations, which are of three kinds: alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays (see these terms). By reason of these rays they ionize gases, affect photographic plates, cause sores on the skin, and produce many other striking effects. Their degree of activity depends on the proportion of radium present, but not on its state of chemical combination or on external conditions.The radioactivity of radium is therefore an atomic property, and is explained as result from a disintegration of the atom. This breaking up occurs in at least seven stages; the successive main products have been studied and are called radium emanation or exradio, radium A, radium B, radium C, etc. (The emanation is a heavy gas, the later products are solids.) These products are regarded as unstable elements, each with an atomic weight a little lower than its predecessor. It is possible that lead is the stable end product. At the same time the light gas helium is formed; it probably consists of the expelled alpha particles. The heat effect mentioned above is ascribed to the impacts of these particles. Radium, in turn, is believed to be formed indirectly by an immeasurably slow disintegration of uranium.

Raffle (v.) Refuse; rubbish; raff.

Raiffeisen (a.) Designating, or pertaining to, a form of cooperative bank founded among the German agrarian population by Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (1818-88); as, Raiffeisen banks, the Raiffeisen system, etc. The banks are unlimited-liability institutions making small loans at a low rate of interest, for a designated purpose, to worthy members only.

Railroad (v. t.) To carry or send by railroad; usually fig., to send or put through at high speed or in great haste; to hurry or rush unduly; as, to railroad a bill through Condress.

Raskolnik (n.) The name applied by the Russian government to any subject of the Greek faith who dissents from the established church. The Raskolniki embrace many sects, whose common characteristic is a clinging to antique traditions, habits, and customs. The schism originated in 1667 in an ecclesiastical dispute as to the correctness of the translation of the religious books. The dissenters, who have been continually persecuted, are believed to number about 20,000,000, although the Holy Synod officially puts the number at about 2,000,000. They are officially divided into three groups according to the degree of their variance from orthodox beliefs and observances, as follows: I. "Most obnoxious." the Judaizers; the Molokane, who refuse to recognize civil authority or to take oaths; the Dukhobortsy, or Dukhobors, who are communistic, marry without ceremony, and believe that Christ was human, but that his soul reappears at intervals in living men; the Khlysty, who countenance anthropolatory, are ascetics, practice continual self-flagellation, and reject marriage; the Skoptsy, who practice castration; and a section of the Bezpopovtsy, or priestless sect, which disbelieve in prayers for the Czar and in marriage. II. "Obnoxious:" the Bezpopovtsy, who pray for the Czar and recognize marriage. III. "Least obnoxious:" the Popovtsy, who dissent from the orthodox church in minor points only.

Recidivism (n.) a falling back or relapse into prior criminal habits, esp. after conviction and punishment.

Referendum (n.) The principle or practice of referring measures passed upon by the legislative body to the body of voters, or electorate, for approval or rejection, as in the Swiss cantons (except Freiburg) and in various local governments in the United States, and also in the local option laws, etc.; also, the right to so approve or reject laws, or the vote by which this is done. Referendum is distinguished from the mandate, or instruction of representatives by the people, from direct government by the people, in which they initiate and make the laws by direct action without representation, and from a plebiscite, or popular vote taken on any measure proposed by a person or body having the initiative but not constituting a representative or constituent body.

Reserve (n.) The amount of funds or assets necessary for a company to have at any given time to enable it, with interest and premiums paid as they shall accure, to meet all claims on the insurance then in force as they would mature according to the particular mortality table accepted. The reserve is always reckoned as a liability, and is calculated on net premiums. It is theoretically the difference between the present value of the total insurance and the present value of the future premiums on the insurance. The reserve, being an amount for which another company could, theoretically, afford to take over the insurance, is sometimes called the reinsurance fund or the self-insurance fund. For the first year upon any policy the net premium is called the initial reserve, and the balance left at the end of the year including interest is the terminal reserve. For subsequent years the initial reserve is the net premium, if any, plus the terminal reserve of the previous year. The portion of the reserve to be absorbed from the initial reserve in any year in payment of losses is sometimes called the insurance reserve, and the terminal reserve is then called the investment reserve.

Reserve (n.) In exhibitions, a distinction which indicates that the recipient will get a prize if another should be disqualified.

Resonator (n.) Any of various apparatus for exhibiting or utilizing the effects of resonance in connection with open circuits, as a device having an oscillating circuit which includes a helix of bare copper wire, a variable number of coils of which can be connected in circuit with a condenser and spark gap excited with an induction coil. It is used to create high-frequency electric brush discharges.

Ripper act () Alt. of bill

bill () An act or a bill conferring upon a chief executive, as a governor or mayor, large powers of appointment and removal of heads of departments or other subordinate officials.

Roture (n.) A feudal tenure of lands by one who has no privileges of nobility, but is permitted to discharge all his obligations to his feudal lord or superior by a payment of rent in money or kind and without rendering any personal services.

Roumanian (n.) An inhabitant of Roumania; also, the language of Roumania, one of the Romance or Romanic languages descended from Latin, but containing many words from other languages, as Slavic, Turkish, and Greek.

Royal spade () A spade when spades are trumps under the condition that every trick over six taken by the successful bidder has a score value of 9; -- usually in pl.

Safety (n.) Short for Safety bicycle.

Safety bicycle () A bicycle with equal or nearly equal wheels, usually 28 inches diameter, driven by pedals connected to the rear (driving) wheel by a multiplying gear.

Salon (n.) An apartment for the reception and exhibition of works of art; hence, an annual exhibition of paintings, sculptures, etc., held in Paris by the Society of French Artists; -- sometimes called the Old Salon. New Salon is a popular name for an annual exhibition of paintings, sculptures, etc., held in Paris at the Champs de Mars, by the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts (National Society of Fine Arts), a body of artists who, in 1890, seceded from the Societe des Artistes Francais (Society of French Artists).

Samurai (n. pl. & sing.) In the former feudal system of Japan, the class or a member of the class, of military retainers of the daimios, constituting the gentry or lesser nobility. They possessed power of life and death over the commoners, and wore two swords as their distinguishing mark. Their special rights and privileges were abolished with the fall of feudalism in 1871.

Satinette (n.) One of a breed of fancy frilled pigeons allied to the owls and turbits, having the body white, the shoulders tricolored, and the tail bluish black with a large white spot on each feather.

Scorch (v. i.) To ride or drive at great, usually at excessive, speed; -- applied chiefly to automobilists and bicyclists. [Colloq.]

Scrapple (n.) An article of food made by boiling together bits or scraps of meat, usually pork, and flour or Indian meal.

runner () One that starts from the scratch; hence, one of first-rate ability.

Self-binder (n.) A reaping machine containing mechanism for binding the grain into sheaves.

Self-starter (n.) A mechanism (usually one operated by electricity, compressed air, a spring, or an explosive gas), attached to an internal-combustion engine, as on an automobile, and used as a means of starting the engine without cranking it by hand.

Shack (v. i.) A hut; a shanty; a cabin.

Shade (n.) To undergo or exhibit minute difference or variation, as of color, meaning, expression, etc.; to pass by slight changes; -- used chiefly with a preposition, as into, away, off.

Shasta fir () A Californian fir (Abies shastensis).

Shell (n.) A gouge bit or shell bit.

Shipping note () A document used in shipping goods by sea. In the case of free goods the shipping notes are the receiving note, addressed by the shipper to the chief officer of the vessel, requesting him to receive on board specified goods, and a receipt for the mate to sign, on receiving whose signature it is called the mate's receipt, and is surrendered by the shipper for the bills of lading.

Shoe (n.) The outer cover or tread of a pneumatic tire, esp. for an automobile.

Shot (n.) A stroke or propulsive action in certain games, as in billiards, hockey, curling, etc.; also, a move, as in chess.

Shrine (n.) Short for Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, a secret order professedly originated by one Kalif Alu, a son-in-law of Mohammed, at Mecca, in the year of the Hegira 25 (about 646 a. d.) In the modern order, established in the United States in 1872, only Knights Templars or thirty-second degree Masons are eligible for admission, though the order itself is not Masonic.

Shunting (vb. n.) Arbitrage conducted between certain local markets without the necessity of the exchange involved in foreign arbitrage.

Silundum (n.) A form of silicon carbide, produced in the electric furnace, possessing great hardness, and high electrical resistance, and not subject to oxidation below 2880¡ F., or 1600¡ C.

Silvics (n.) Habit or behavior of a forest tree.

Skat (n.) A three-handed card game played with 32 cards, of which two constitute the skat (sense 2), or widow. The players bid for the privilege of attempting any of several games or tasks, in most of which the player undertaking the game must take tricks counting in aggregate at least 61 (the counting cards being ace 11, ten 10, king 4, queen 3, jack 2). The four jacks are the best trumps, ranking club, spade, heart, diamond, and ten outranks king or queen (but when the player undertakes to lose all the tricks, the cards rank as in whist). The value of hands depends upon the game played, trump suit, points taken, and number of matadores.

Skid (v. i.) To fail to grip the roadway; specif., to slip sideways on the road; to side-slip; -- said esp. of a cycle or automobile.

Slot machine () A machine the operation of which is started by dropping a coin into a slot, for delivering small articles of merchandise, showing one's weight, exhibiting pictures, throwing dice, etc.

Solo (a.) Performing, or performed, alone; uncombined, except with subordinate parts, voices, or instruments; not concerted.

Soubise (n.) A sauce made of white onions and melted butter mixed with veloute sauce.

Soubise (n.) A kind of cravat worn by men in the late 18th century.

Spectrobolometer (n.) A combination of spectroscope and bolometer for determining the distribution of energy in a spectrum.

Spectroheliograph (n.) An apparatus for making spectroheliograms, consisting of a spectroscopic camera used in combination with a telescope, and provided with clockwork for moving the sun's image across the slit.

Spellbound (imp. & p. p.) of Spellbind

Spellbinding (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Spellbind

Spellbind (v. t.) To bind or hold by, or as if by, a spell or charm; to fascinate, esp. by eloquence of speech, as in a political campaign.

Spinifex (n.) A genus of chiefly Australian grasses, the seeds of which bear an elastic spine. S. hirsutus (black grass) and S. longifolius are useful as sand binders. S. paradoxusis a valuable perennial fodder plant. Also, a plant of this genus.

Sporophyte (n.) In plants exhibiting alternation of generations, the generation which bears asexual spores; -- opposed to gametophyte. It is not clearly differentiated in the life cycle of the lower plants.

Spread (n.) An arbitrage transaction operated by buying and selling simultaneously in two separate markets, as Chicago and New York, when there is an abnormal difference in price between the two markets. It is called a back spreadwhen the difference in price is less than the normal one.

Staff (n.) Plaster combined with fibrous and other materials so as to be suitable for sculpture in relief or in the round, or for forming flat plates or boards of considerable size which can be nailed to framework to make the exterior of a larger structure, forming joints which may afterward be repaired and concealed with fresh plaster.

Stator (n.) The case inclosing a turbine wheel; the body of stationary blades or nozzles.

Streamline (a.) Of or pert. to a stream line; designating a motion or flow that is free from turbulence, like that of a particle in a streamline; hence, designating a surface, body, etc., that is designed so as to afford an unbroken flow of a fluid about it, esp. when the resistance to flow is the least possible; as, a streamline body for an automobile or airship.

String (n.) In various indoor games, a score or tally, sometimes, as in American billiard games, marked by buttons threaded on a string or wire.

Sulphite (n.) A person who is spontaneous and original in his habits of thought and conversation.

Sumerian (a.) Of or pertaining to the region of lower Babylonia, which was anciently called Sumer, or its inhabitants or their language.

Surrender (n.) The voluntary cancellation of the legal liability of the company by the insured and beneficiary for a consideration (called the surrender value).

Symbiosis (n.) The living together in more or less imitative association or even close union of two dissimilar organisms. In a broad sense the term includes parasitism, or antagonistic, / antipathetic, symbiosis, in which the association is disadvantageous or destructive to one of the organisms, but ordinarily it is used of cases where the association is advantageous, or often necessary, to one or both, and not harmful to either. When there is bodily union (in extreme cases so close that the two form practically a single body, as in the union of algae and fungi to form lichens, and in the inclusion of algae in radiolarians) it is called conjunctive symbiosis; if there is no actual union of the organisms (as in the association of ants with myrmecophytes), disjunctive symbiosis.

Symbiotic (a.) Pertaining to, or characterized by, or living in, a state of symbiosis.

Syndicate (v. t.) To combine or form into, or manage as, a syndicate.

Tabloid (a.) Compressed or condensed, as into a tabloid; administrated in or as in tabloids, or small condensed bits; as, a tabloid form of imparting information.

Taboo (a.) Set apart or sacred by religious custom among certain races of Polynesia, New Zealand, etc., and forbidden to certain persons or uses; hence, prohibited under severe penalties; interdicted; as, food, places, words, customs, etc., may be taboo.

Tail (n.) In flying machines, a plane or group of planes used at the rear to confer stability.

Tandem (n.) A tandem bicycle or other vehicle.

Tangent spoke () A tension spoke of a bicycle or similar wheel, secured tangentially to the hub.

Tape (v. t.) To furnish with tape; to fasten, tie, bind, or the like, with tape;

Taxis (n.) In technical uses, as in architecture, biology, grammar, etc., arrangement; order; ordonnance.

Tear (n.) A partially vitrified bit of clay in glass.

Telemetrograph (n.) A combination of the camera lucida and telescope for drawing and measuring distant objects.

Telephoto (a.) Telephotographic; specif., designating a lens consisting of a combination of lenses specially designed to give a large image of a distant object in a camera of relatively short focal length.

Thallophyta (n. pl.) A phylum of plants of very diverse habit and structure, including the algae, fungi, and lichens. The simpler forms, as many blue-green algae, yeasts, etc., are unicellular and reproduce vegetatively or by means of asexual spores; in the higher forms the plant body is a thallus, which may be filamentous or may consist of plates of cells; it is commonly undifferentiated into stem, leaves, and roots, and shows no distinct tissue systems; the fronds of many algae, however, are modified to serve many of the functions of the above-named organs. Both asexual and sexual reproduction, often of a complex type, occur in these forms. The Thallophyta exist almost exclusively as gametophytes, the sporophyte being absent or rudimentary. By those who do not separate the Myxophyta from the Tallophyta as a distinct phylum the latter is treated as the lowermost group in the vegetable kingdom.

Theism (n.) The morbid condition resulting from the excessive use of tea.

Thermobarograph (n.) An instrument for recording simultaneously the pressure and temperature of a gas; a combined thermograph and barograph.

Thermoluminescence (n.) Luminescence exhibited by a substance on being moderately heated. It is shown esp. by certain substances that have been exposed to the action of light or to the cathode rays.

Theroid (a.) Resembling a beast in nature or habit; marked by animal characteristics; as, theroid idiocy.

Thrombin (n.) The fibrin ferment which produces the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen.

Tintinnabulum (n.) A bell; also, a set or combination of bells or metal plates used as a musical instrument or as a toy.

Tintometer (n.) An apparatus for the determination of colors by comparison with arbitrary standards; a colorimeter.

Tobie (n.) A kind of inferior cigar of a long slender shape, tapered at one end.

-bies (pl. ) of Toby

Toe drop () A morbid condition of the foot in which the toe is depressed and the heel elevated.

Tolerance (n.) Capability of growth in more or less shade.

Tong (n.) In China, an association, secret society, or organization of any kind; in the United States, usually, a secret association of Chinese such as that of the highbinders.

Tonneau (n.) Orig., the after part of the body with entrance at the rear (as in vehicle in def. 1); now, one with sides closing in the seat or seats and entered by a door usually at the side, also, the entire body of an automobile having such an after part.

Toponym (n.) A name of a place; more broadly, a name, as in the binomial name of a plant, based on, or derived from, a place name, or based on the location of the thing named.

Torpedo (n.) An automobile with a torpedo body.

Torpedo body () An automobile body which is built so that the side surfaces are flush.

Torrens system () A system of registration of titles to land (as distinct from registration of deeds) introduced into South Australia by the Real Property (or Torrens) Act (act 15 of 1857-58), drafted by Sir Robert Torrens (1814-84). Its essential feature is the guaranty by the government of properly registered titles. The system has been generally adopted in Australia and British Columbia, and in its original or a modified form in some other countries, including some States of the United States. Hence Torrens title, etc.

Touring car () An automobile designed for touring; specif., a roomy car, not a limousine, for five or more passengers.

propeller () A propeller screw placed in front of the supporting planes of an aeroplane instead of behind them, so that it exerts a pull instead of a push. Hence, Tractor monoplane, Tractor biplane, etc.

Trade name () An invented or arbitrary adopted name given by a manufacturer or merchant to an article to distinguish it as produced or sold by him.

Tree calf () A bright brown polished calfskin binding of books, stained with a conventional treelike design.

Trembler (n.) Any of certain West Indian birds of the genera Cinclocerthia and Rhamphocinclus, of the family Mimidae.

Trial balance () The testing of a ledger to discover whether the debits and credits balance, by finding whether the sum of the personal credits increased by the difference between the debit and credit sums in the merchandise and other impersonal accounts equals the sum of personal debits. The equality would not show that the items were all correctly posted.

Triger process () A method of sinking through water-bearing ground, in which the shaft is lined with tubbing and provided with an air lock, work being proceeded with under air pressure.

Trust (n.) A business organization or combination consisting of a number of firms or corporations operating, and often united, under an agreement creating a trust (in sense 1), esp. one formed mainly for the purpose of regulating the supply and price of commodities, etc.; often, opprobriously, a combination formed for the purpose of controlling or monopolizing a trade, industry, or business, by doing acts in restraint or trade; as, a sugar trust. A trust may take the form of a corporation or of a body of persons or corporations acting together by mutual arrangement, as under a contract or a so-called gentlemen's agreement. When it consists of corporations it may be effected by putting a majority of their stock either in the hands of a board of trustees (whence the name trust for the combination) or by transferring a majority to a holding company. The advantages of a trust are partly due to the economies made possible in carrying on a large business, as well as the doing away with competition. In the United States severe statutes against trusts have been passed by the Federal government and in many States, with elaborate statutory definitions.

Turbine (n.) A form of steam engine analogous in construction and action to the water turbine. There are practically only two distinct kinds, and they are typified in the de Laval and the Parsons and Curtis turbines. The de Laval turbine is an impulse turbine, in which steam impinges upon revolving blades from a flared nozzle. The flare of the nozzle causes expansion of the steam, and hence changes its pressure energy into kinetic energy. An enormous velocity (30,000 revolutions per minute in the 5 H. P. size) is requisite for high efficiency, and the machine has therefore to be geared down to be of practical use. Some recent development of this type include turbines formed of several de Laval elements compounded as in the ordinary expansion engine. The Parsons turbine is an impulse-and-reaction turbine, usually of the axial type. The steam is constrained to pass successively through alternate rows of fixed and moving blades, being expanded down to a condenser pressure of about 1 lb. per square inch absolute. The Curtis turbine is somewhat simpler than the Parsons, and consists of elements each of which has at least two rows of moving blades and one row of stationary. The bucket velocity is lowered by fractional velocity reduction. Both the Parsons and Curtis turbines are suitable for driving dynamos and steamships directly. In efficiency, lightness, and bulk for a given power, they compare favorably with reciprocating engines.

Turbogenerator (n.) An electric generator or dynamo which is combined on one frame with a turbomotor, by which it is driven.

Tousche () A lithographic drawing or painting material of the same nature as lithographic ink. It is also used as a resistant in the biting-in process.

Twaddell's hydrometer () A form of hydrometer for liquids heavier than water, graduated with an arbitrary scale such that the readings when multiplied by .005 and added to unity give the specific gravity.

Twist (n.) Act of imparting a turning or twisting motion, as to a pitched ball; also, the motion thus imparted; as, the twist of a billiard ball.

Twist (n.) A strong individual tendency, or bent; a marked inclination; a bias; -- often implying a peculiar or unusual tendency; as, a twist toward fanaticism.

Ultragaseous (a.) Having the properties exhibited by gases under very low pressures (one millionth of an atmosphere or less). Matter under this condition, which has been termed the fourth state of matter, is sometimes called radiant matter.

Underhung (a.) Of an automobile body, suspended from the springs in such a manner that the frame of the chassis is below the axles, the object being to lower the center of gravity of the car.

Univariant (a.) Having one degree of freedom or variability.

Vachette clasp () A piece of strong steel wire with the ends curved and pointed, used on toe or quarter cracks to bind the edges together and prevent motion. It is clasped into two notches, one on each side of the crack, burned into the wall with a cautery iron.

Valorization (n.) Act or process of attempting to give an arbitrary market value or price to a commodity by governmental interference, as by maintaining a purchasing fund, making loans to producers to enable them to hold their products, etc.; -- used chiefly of such action by Brazil.

Vargueno (n.) A decorative cabinet, of a form originating in Spain, the body being rectangular and supported on legs or an ornamental framework and the front opening downwards on hinges to serve as a writing desk.

Variety show () A stage entertainment of successive separate performances, usually songs, dances, acrobatic feats, dramatic sketches, exhibitions of trained animals, or any specialties. Often loosely called vaudeville show.

Vatican Council () The council held under Pope Pius IX. in Vatican at Rome, in 1870, which promulgated the dogma of papal infallibility.

-ated (imp. & p. p.) of Verbigerate

-ating (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Verbigerate

Verbigerate (v. i.) To talk; chat.

Verbigerate (v. i.) To repeat a word or sentence, in speaking or writing, without wishing to do so or in spite of efforts to cease.

Vickers-Maxim gun () One of a system of ordnance, including machine, quick-fire, coast, and field guns, of all calibers, manufactured by the combined firms of Vickers' Sons of Sheffield and Maxim of Birmingham and elsewhere, England.

Violet-ear (n.) Any tropical humming bird of the genus Petasophora, having violet or purplish ear tufts.

Vitascope (n.) A form of machine for exhibiting animated pictures.

Volumescope (n.) An instrument consisting essentially of a glass tube provided with a graduated scale, for exhibiting to the eye the changes of volume of a gas or gaseous mixture resulting from chemical action, etc.

Waddywood (n.) An Australian tree (Pittosporum bicolor); also, its wood, used in making waddies.

Wahoo (n.) A dark blue scombroid food fish (Acanthocibium solandri / petus) of Florida and the West Indies.

Wait-a-bit (n.) Any of several plants bearing thorns or stiff hooked appendages, which catch and tear the clothing,

Wait-a-bit (n.) The greenbrier.

Wait-a-bit (n.) Any of various species of hawthorn.

Wait-a-bit (n.) In South Africa, one of numerous acacias and mimosas.

Wait-a-bit (n.) The grapple plant.

Wait-a-bit (n.) The prickly ash.

Wait-a-while (n.) One of the Australian wattle trees (Acacia colletioides), so called from the impenetrability of the thicket which it makes.

Wait-a-while (n.) = Wait-a-bit.

Wallachian (n.) An inhabitant of Wallachia; also, the language of the Wallachians; Roumanian.

Wallflower (n.) In Australia, the desert poison bush (Gastrolobium grandiflorum); -- called also native wallflower.

Washing (n.) The operation of simultaneously buying and selling the same stock for the purpose of manipulating the market. The transaction is fictitious, and is prohibited by stock-exchange rules.

Wash stand () In a stable or garage, a place in the floor prepared so that carriages or automobiles may be washed there and the water run off.

Waxworks (n. pl.) An exhibition of wax figures, or the place of exhibition.

Wealth (n.) Those energies, faculties, and habits directly contributing to make people industrially efficient.

Weismannism (n.) The theories and teachings in regard to heredity propounded by the German biologist August Weismann, esp. in regard to germ plasm as the basis of heredity and the impossibility of transmitting acquired characteristics; -- often called neo-Darwinism.

Whip (n.) A whipping motion; a thrashing about; as, the whip of a tense rope or wire which has suddenly parted; also, the quality of being whiplike or flexible; flexibility; suppleness, as of the shaft of a golf club.

Whipstitch (n.) A small bit; esp., a small interval of time; an instant; a minute.

Wide (a.) Having or showing a wide difference between the highest and lowest price, amount of supply, etc.; as, a wide opening; wide prices, where the prices bid and asked differ by several points.

Young Women's Christian Association () An organization for promoting the spiritual, intellectual, social, and economic welfare of young women, originating in 1855 with Lady Kinnaird's home for young women, and Miss Emma Robert's prayer union for young women,in England, which were combined in the year 1884 as a national association. Now nearly all the civilized countries, and esp. the United States, have local, national, and international organizations.

Zip (n.) A hissing or sibilant sound such as that made by a flying bullet.

Zwieback (n.) A kind of biscuit or rusk first baked in a loaf and afterwards cut and toasted.

Oared (a.) Totipalmate; -- said of the feet of certain birds. See Illust. of Aves.

Ob- () A prefix signifying to, toward, before, against, reversely, etc.; also, as a simple intensive; as in oblige, to bind to; obstacle, something standing before; object, lit., to throw against; obovate, reversely, ovate. Ob- is commonly assimilated before c, f, g, and p, to oc-, of-, og-, and op-.

Obbe (n.) See Obi.

Obeah (n.) Same as Obi.

Obeah (a.) Of or pertaining to obi; as, the obeah man.

Obi (n.) A species of sorcery, probably of African origin, practiced among the negroes of the West Indies.

Obi (n.) A charm or fetich.

Obimbricate (a.) Imbricated, with the overlapping ends directed downward.

Obit (n.) Death; decease; the date of one's death.

Obit (n.) A funeral solemnity or office; obsequies.

Obit (n.) A service for the soul of a deceased person on the anniversary of the day of his death.

Obiter (adv.) In passing; incidentally; by the way.

Obitual (a.) Of or pertaining to obits, or days when obits are celebrated; as, obitual days.

Obituarily (adv.) In the manner of an obituary.

Obiyuary (a.) Of or pertaining to the death of a person or persons; as, an obituary notice; obituary poetry.

Obituaries (pl. ) of Obituary

Obituary (n.) That which pertains to, or is called forth by, the obit or death of a person; esp., an account of a deceased person; a notice of the death of a person, accompanied by a biographical sketch.

Obituary (n.) A list of the dead, or a register of anniversary days when service is performed for the dead.

Objuration (n.) A binding by oath.

Obligate (v. t.) To bind or firmly hold to an act; to compel; to constrain; to bind to any act of duty or courtesy by a formal pledge.

Obligation (n.) That which obligates or constrains; the binding power of a promise, contract, oath, or vow, or of law; that which constitutes legal or moral duty.

Oblige (v. t.) To bind by some favor rendered; to place under a debt; hence, to do a favor to; to please; to gratify; to accommodate.

Obligor (n.) The person who binds himself, or gives his bond to another.

Obnubilate (v. t.) To cloud; to obscure.

Obscene (a/) Offensive to chastity or modesty; expressing of presenting to the mind or view something which delicacy, purity, and decency forbid to be exposed; impure; as, obscene language; obscene pictures.

Observant (a.) Taking notice; viewing or noticing attentively; watchful; attentive; as, an observant spectator; observant habits.

Observer (n.) One who observes, or pays attention to, anything; especially, one engaged in, or trained to habits of, close and exact observation; as, an astronomical observer.

Observing (a.) Giving particular attention; habitually attentive to what passes; as, an observing person; an observing mind.

Obstetricious (a.) Serving to assist childbirth; obstetric; hence, facilitating any bringing forth or deliverance.

Obstetrics (n.) The science of midwifery; the art of assisting women in parturition, or in the trouble incident to childbirth.

Obtunder (n.) That which obtunds or blunts; especially, that which blunts sensibility.

Obtuse (superl.) Not having acute sensibility or perceptions; dull; stupid; as, obtuse senses.

Oby (n.) See Obi.

Occipito- () A combining form denoting relation to, or situation near, the occiput; as, occipito-axial; occipito-mastoid.

Oceanic (a.) Of or pertaining to Oceania or its inhabitants.

Ochlesis (n.) A general morbid condition induced by the crowding together of many persons, esp. sick persons, under one roof.

Octavalent (a.) Having a valence of eight; capable of being combined with, exchanged for, or compared with, eight atoms of hydrogen; -- said of certain atoms or radicals.

Octa- () A combining form meaning eight; as in octodecimal, octodecimal, octolocular.

Octosyllabic (a.) Alt. of Octosyllabical

Octosyllabical (a.) Consisting of or containing eight syllables.

Octosyllable (a.) Octosyllabic.

Oculo- () A combining form from L. oculus the eye.

Oculomotor (a.) Of or pertaining to the movement of the eye; -- applied especially to the common motor nerves (or third pair of cranial nerves) which supply many of the muscles of the orbit.

Odalisque (n.) A female slave or concubine in the harem of the Turkish sultan.

Odds (a.) Difference in favor of one and against another; excess of one of two things or numbers over the other; inequality; advantage; superiority; hence, excess of chances; probability.

Odonto- () A combining form from Gr. 'odoy`s, 'odo`ntos, a tooth.

Odontolcae (n. pl.) An extinct order of ostrichlike aquatic birds having teeth, which are set in a groove in the jaw. It includes Hesperornis, and allied genera. See Hesperornis.

Odontophore (n.) A special structure found in the mouth of most mollusks, except bivalves. It consists of several muscles and a cartilage which supports a chitinous radula, or lingual ribbon, armed with teeth. Also applied to the radula alone. See Radula.

Odontopteryx (n.) An extinct Eocene bird having the jaws strongly serrated, or dentated, but destitute of true teeth. It was found near London.

Odontornithes (n. pl.) A group of Mesozoic birds having the jaws armed with teeth, as in most other vertebrates. They have been divided into three orders: Odontolcae, Odontotormae, and Saururae.

Odontotormae (n.pl.) An order of extinct toothed birds having the teeth in sockets, as in the genus Ichthyornis. See Ichthyornis.

Oecoid (n.) The colorless porous framework, or stroma, of red blood corpuscles from which the zooid, or hemoglobin and other substances of the corpuscles, may be dissolved out.

Offal (n.) That which is thrown away as worthless or unfit for use; refuse; rubbish.

Offer (v. t.) To bid, as a price, reward, or wages; as, to offer a guinea for a ring; to offer a salary or reward.

Offer (v. t.) The act of offering, bringing forward, proposing, or bidding; a proffer; a first advance.

Offer (v. t.) That which is offered or brought forward; a proposal to be accepted or rejected; a sum offered; a bid.

Official (a.) An ecclesiastical judge appointed by a bishop, chapter, archdeacon, etc., with charge of the spiritual jurisdiction.

-oid () A suffix or combining form meaning like, resembling, in the form of; as in anthropoid, asteroid, spheroid.

Oilbird (n.) See Guacharo.

Okra (n.) An annual plant (Abelmoschus, / Hibiscus, esculentus), whose green pods, abounding in nutritious mucilage, are much used for soups, stews, or pickles; gumbo.

-ol () A suffix denoting that the substance in the name of which it appears belongs to the series of alcohols or hydroxyl derivatives, as carbinol, glycerol, etc.

Oleaster (n.) Any species of the genus Elaeagus. See Eleagnus. The small silvery berries of the common species (Elaeagnus hortensis) are called Trebizond dates, and are made into cakes by the Arabs.

Oleic (a.) Pertaining to, derived from, or contained in, oil; as, oleic acid, an acid of the acrylic acid series found combined with glyceryl in the form of olein in certain animal and vegetable fats and oils, such as sperm oil, olive oil, etc. At low temperatures the acid is crystalline, but melts to an oily liquid above 14/ C.

Oleoresin (n.) A natural mixture of a terebinthinate oil and a resin.

Olibene (n.) A colorless mobile liquid of a pleasant aromatic odor obtained by the distillation of olibanum, or frankincense, and regarded as a terpene; -- called also conimene.

Oligo- () A combining form from Gr. /, few, little, small.

Oligomyold (a.) Having few or imperfect syringeal muscles; -- said of some passerine birds (Oligomyodi).

Olivil (n.) A white crystalline substance, obtained from an exudation from the olive, and having a bitter-sweet taste and acid proporties.

Olivin (n.) A complex bitter gum, found on the leaves of the olive tree; -- called also olivite.

-oma () A suffix used in medical terms to denote a morbid condition of some part, usually some kind of tumor; as in fibroma, glaucoma.

Omahas (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians who inhabited the south side of the Missouri River. They are now partly civilized and occupy a reservation in Nebraska.

Ominous (a.) Of or pertaining to an omen or to omens; being or exhibiting an omen; significant; portentous; -- formerly used both in a favorable and unfavorable sense; now chiefly in the latter; foreboding or foreshowing evil; inauspicious; as, an ominous dread.

Omni- () A combining form denoting all, every, everywhere; as in omnipotent, all-powerful; omnipresent.

Omnipotent (a.) Able in every respect and for every work; unlimited in ability; all-powerful; almighty; as, the Being that can create worlds must be omnipotent.

Omnipresence (n.) Presence in every place at the same time; unbounded or universal presence; ubiquity.

Omnipresent (a.) Present in all places at the same time; ubiquitous; as, the omnipresent Jehovah.

Omnivora (n. pl.) A group of ungulate mammals including the hog and the hippopotamus. The term is also sometimes applied to the bears, and to certain passerine birds.

Omo- () A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the shoulder or the scapula.

Omphalic (a.) Of or pertaining to the umbilicus, or navel.

Omphalo- () A combining form indicating connection with, or relation to, the umbilicus, or navel.

Omphalomesenteric (a.) Of or pertaining to the umbilicus and mesentery; omphalomesaraic; as, the omphalomesenteric arteries and veins of a fetus.

Omphalopsychite (n.) A name of the Hesychasts, from their habit of gazing upon the navel.

Onagrarieous (a.) Pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of plants (Onagraceae or Onagrarieae), which includes the fuchsia, the willow-herb (Epilobium), and the evening primrose (/nothera).

Oneidas (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting the region near Oneida Lake in the State of New York, and forming part of the Five Nations. Remnants of the tribe now live in New York, Canada, and Wisconsin.

Onondagas (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting what is now a part of the State of New York. They were the central or head tribe of the Five Nations.

Oo (n.) A beautiful bird (Moho nobilis) of the Hawaiian Islands. It yields the brilliant yellow feathers formerly used in making the royal robes. Called also yellow-tufted honeysucker.

Oop (v. t.) To bind with a thread or cord; to join; to unite.

Oorial (n.) A wild, bearded sheep inhabiting the Ladakh mountains. It is reddish brown, with a dark beard from the chin to the chest.

Opah (n.) A large oceanic fish (Lampris quttatus), inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean. It is remarkable for its brilliant colors, which are red, green, and blue, with tints of purple and gold, covered with round silvery spots. Called also king of the herrings.

Opeidoscope (n.) An instrument, consisting of a tube having one end open and the other end covered with a thin flexible membrance to the center of which is attached a small mirror. It is used for exhibiting upon a screen, by means of rays reflected from the mirror, the vibratory motions caused by sounds produced at the open end of the tube, as by speaking or singing into it.

Openbill (n.) A bird of the genus Anastomus, allied to the stork; -- so called because the two parts of the bill touch only at the base and tip. One species inhabits India, another Africa. Called also open-beak. See Illust. (m), under Beak.

Opera (n.) The house where operas are exhibited.

Operculum (n.) The fold of integument, usually supported by bony plates, which protects the gills of most fishes and some amphibians; the gill cover; the gill lid.

Ophelic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a substance (called ophelic acid) extracted from a plant (Ophelia) of the Gentian family as a bitter yellowish sirup, used in India as a febrifuge and tonic.

Ophiomorpha (n. pl.) An order of tailless amphibians having a slender, wormlike body with regular annulations, and usually with minute scales imbedded in the skin. The limbs are rudimentary or wanting. It includes the caecilians. Called also Gymnophiona and Ophidobatrachia.

Ophiophagous (a.) Feeding on serpents; -- said of certain birds and reptiles.

Ophryon (n.) The supraorbital point.

Ophthalmic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the eye; ocular; as the ophthalmic, or orbitonasal, nerve, a division of the trigeminal, which gives branches to the lachrymal gland, eyelids, nose, and forehead.

Oppidan (n.) An inhabitant of a town.

Opportunity (n.) Fit or convenient time; a time or place favorable for executing a purpose; a suitable combination of conditions; suitable occasion; chance.

Opposability (n.) The condition or quality of being opposable.

Oppose (n.) To place in front of, or over against; to set opposite; to exhibit.

Oppose (n.) To resist or antagonize by physical means, or by arguments, etc.; to contend against; to confront; to resist; to withstand; as, to oppose the king in battle; to oppose a bill in Congress.

Optimacy (n.) Government by the nobility.

Optimacy (n.) Collectively, the nobility.

Optimate (a.) Of or pertaining to the nobility or aristocracy.

Optimates (n. pl.) The nobility or aristocracy of ancient Rome, as opposed to the populares.

Option (n.) A right formerly belonging to an archbishop to select any one dignity or benefice in the gift of a suffragan bishop consecrated or confirmed by him, for bestowal by himself when next vacant; -- annulled by Parliament in 1845.

Oracular (a.) Resembling an oracle in some way, as in solemnity, wisdom, authority, obscurity, ambiguity, dogmatism.

Orang-outang (n.) An arboreal anthropoid ape (Simia satyrus), which inhabits Borneo and Sumatra. Often called simply orang.

Orator (n.) A plaintiff, or complainant, in a bill in chancery.

Orb (n.) A circle; esp., a circle, or nearly circular orbit, described by the revolution of a heavenly body; an orbit.

Orbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Orb

Orbic (a.) Alt. of Orbical

Orbical (a.) Spherical; orbicular; orblike; circular.

Orbicle (n.) A small orb, or sphere.

Orbicula (n.) Same as Discina.

Orbicular (a.) Resembling or having the form of an orb; spherical; circular; orbiculate.

Orbiculate (n.) That which is orbiculate; especially, a solid the vertical section of which is oval, and the horizontal section circular.

Orbiculate (a.) Alt. of Orbiculated

Orbiculated (a.) Made, or being, in the form of an orb; having a circular, or nearly circular, or a spheroidal, outline.

Orbiculation (n.) The state or quality of being orbiculate; orbicularness.

Orbit (n.) The path described by a heavenly body in its periodical revolution around another body; as, the orbit of Jupiter, of the earth, of the moon.

Orbit (n.) An orb or ball.

Orbit (n.) The cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.

Orbit (n.) The skin which surrounds the eye of a bird.

Orbital (a.) Of or pertaining to an orbit.

Orbitar (a.) Orbital.

Orbitary (a.) Situated around the orbit; as, the orbitary feathers of a bird.

Orbitelae (n. pl.) A division of spiders, including those that make geometrical webs, as the garden spider, or Epeira.

Orbitolites (n.) A genus of living Foraminifera, forming broad, thin, circular disks, containing numerous small chambers.

Orbitonasal (a.) Of or pertaining to the orbit and the nose; as, the orbitonasal, or ophthalmic, nerve.

Orbitosphenoid (a.) Of or pertaining to the sphenoid bone and the orbit, or to the orbitosphenoid bone.

Orbitosphenoid (n.) The orbitosphenoid bone, which is situated in the orbit on either side of the presphenoid. It generally forms a part of the sphenoid in the adult.

Orbitosphenoidal (a.) Of or pertaining to the orbitosphenoid bone; orbitosphenoid.

Orbituary (a.) Orbital.

Orbitude (n.) Alt. of Orbity

Orbity (n.) Orbation.

Order (n.) An ecclesiastical grade or rank, as of deacon, priest, or bishop; the office of the Christian ministry; -- often used in the plural; as, to take orders, or to take holy orders, that is, to enter some grade of the ministry.

Ordinability (n.) Capability of being ordained or appointed.

Ordinal (n.) The book of forms for making, ordaining, and consecrating bishops, priests, and deacons.

Ordinary (a.) Of common rank, quality, or ability; not distinguished by superior excellence or beauty; hence, not distinguished in any way; commonplace; inferior; of little merit; as, men of ordinary judgment; an ordinary book.

Ordinary (n.) One who has immediate jurisdiction in matters ecclesiastical; an ecclesiastical judge; also, a deputy of the bishop, or a clergyman appointed to perform divine service for condemned criminals and assist in preparing them for death.

Ore (n.) The native form of a metal, whether free and uncombined, as gold, copper, etc., or combined, as iron, lead, etc. Usually the ores contain the metals combined with oxygen, sulphur, arsenic, etc. (called mineralizers).

Oreodon (n.) A genus of extinct herbivorous mammals, abundant in the Tertiary formation of the Rocky Mountains. It is more or less related to the camel, hog, and deer.

Organic (a.) Of or pertaining to an organ or its functions, or to objects composed of organs; consisting of organs, or containing them; as, the organic structure of animals and plants; exhibiting characters peculiar to living organisms; as, organic bodies, organic life, organic remains. Cf. Inorganic.

Organizability (n.) Quality of being organizable; capability of being organized.

Organo- () A combining form denoting relation to, or connection with, an organ or organs.

Organology (n.) That branch of biology which treats, in particular, of the organs of animals and plants. See Morphology.

Oriental (n.) A native or inhabitant of the Orient or some Eastern part of the world; an Asiatic.

Orientalist (n.) An inhabitant of the Eastern parts of the world; an Oriental.

Origanum (n.) A genus of aromatic labiate plants, including the sweet marjoram (O. Marjorana) and the wild marjoram (O. vulgare).

Origin (n.) The first existence or beginning of anything; the birth.

Original (a.) Having the power to suggest new thoughts or combinations of thought; inventive; as, an original genius.

Oriole (n.) Any one of various species of Old World singing birds of the family Oriolidae. They are usually conspicuously colored with yellow and black. The European or golden oriole (Oriolus galbula, or O. oriolus) has a very musical flutelike note.

Ornithic (a.) Of or pertaining to birds; as, ornithic fossils.

Ornithichnite (n.) The footmark of a bird occurring in strata of stone.

Ornitho- () A combining form fr. Gr. /, /, a bird.

Ornithoidichnite (n.) A fossil track resembling that of a bird.

Ornitholite (n.) The fossil remains of a bird.

Ornitholite (n.) A stone of various colors bearing the figures of birds.

Ornithologist (n.) One skilled in ornithology; a student of ornithology; one who describes birds.

Ornithology (n.) That branch of zoology which treats of the natural history of birds and their classification.

Ornithomancy (n.) Divination by means of birds, their flight, etc.

Ornithopappi (n. pl.) An extinct order of birds. It includes only the Archaeopteryx.

Ornithopoda (n. pl.) An order of herbivorous dinosaurs with birdlike characteristics in the skeleton, esp. in the pelvis and hind legs, which in some genera had only three functional toes, and supported the body in walking as in Iguanodon. See Illust. in Appendix.

Ornithoscelida (n. pl.) A group of extinct Reptilia, intermediate in structure (especially with regard to the pelvis) between reptiles and birds.

Ornithoscopy (n.) Observation of birds and their habits.

Ornithotomy (n.) The anatomy or dissection of birds.

Orrery (n.) An apparatus which illustrates, by the revolution of balls moved by wheelwork, the relative size, periodic motions, positions, orbits, etc., of bodies in the solar system.

Ortho- () A combining form signifying straight, right, upright, correct, regular; as, orthodromy, orthodiagonal, orthodox, orthographic.

Ortho- () A combining form (also used adjectively)

Orthopny (n.) Specifically, a morbid condition in which respiration can be performed only in an erect posture; by extension, any difficulty of breathing.

Orthopoda (n. pl.) An extinct order of reptiles which stood erect on the hind legs, and resembled birds in the structure of the feet, pelvis, and other parts.

Orthorhombic (a.) Noting the system of crystallization which has three unequal axes at right angles to each other; trimetric. See Crystallization.

Ortolan (n.) A European singing bird (Emberiza hortulana), about the size of the lark, with black wings. It is esteemed delicious food when fattened. Called also bunting.

Ortygan (n.) One of several species of East Indian birds of the genera Ortygis and Hemipodius. They resemble quails, but lack the hind toe. See Turnix.

-ory () An adjective suffix meaning of or pertaining to, serving for; as in auditory, pertaining to or serving for hearing; prohibitory, amendatory, etc.

Oryx (n.) A genus of African antelopes which includes the gemsbok, the leucoryx, the bisa antelope (O. beisa), and the beatrix antelope (O. beatrix) of Arabia.

Oscines (n. pl.) Singing birds; a group of the Passeres, having numerous syringeal muscles, conferring musical ability.

Oscinian (n.) One of the Oscines, or singing birds.

Osmund (n.) A fern of the genus Osmunda, or flowering fern. The most remarkable species is the osmund royal, or royal fern (Osmunda regalis), which grows in wet or boggy places, and has large bipinnate fronds, often with a panicle of capsules at the top. The rootstock contains much starch, and has been used in stiffening linen.

Ostend (v. t.) To exhibit; to manifest.

Ostensibility (n.) The quality or state of being ostensible.

Ostensible (a.) Shown; exhibited; declared; avowed; professed; apparent; -- often used as opposed to real or actual; as, an ostensible reason, motive, or aim.

Ostensive (a.) Showing; exhibiting.

Ostentate (v. t.) To make an ambitious display of; to show or exhibit boastingly.

Ostentation (n.) The act of ostentating or of making an ambitious display; unnecessary show; pretentious parade; -- usually in a detractive sense.

Osteo- () A combining form of Gr. / a bone.

Ostracea (n. pl.) A division of bivalve mollusks including the oysters and allied shells.

Ostracean (n.) Any one of a family of bivalves, of which the oyster is the type.

Ostracoidea (n. pl.) An order of Entomostraca possessing hard bivalve shells. They are of small size, and swim freely about.

Ostrea (n.) A genus of bivalve Mollusca which includes the true oysters.

Ostrich (n.) A large bird of the genus Struthio, of which Struthio camelus of Africa is the best known species. It has long and very strong legs, adapted for rapid running; only two toes; a long neck, nearly bare of feathers; and short wings incapable of flight. The adult male is about eight feet high.

Oswego tea () An American aromatic herb (Monarda didyma), with showy, bright red, labiate flowers.

Otheoscope (n.) An instrument for exhibiting the repulsive action produced by light or heat in an exhausted vessel; a modification of the radoimeter.

Otis (n.) A genus of birds including the bustards.

Oto- () A combining form denoting relation to, or situation near or in, the ear.

Otter (n.) Any carnivorous animal of the genus Lutra, and related genera. Several species are described. They have large, flattish heads, short ears, and webbed toes. They are aquatic, and feed on fish. Their fur is soft and valuable. The common otter of Europe is Lutra vulgaris; the American otter is L. Canadensis; other species inhabit South America and Asia.

Ounce (n.) Fig.: A small portion; a bit.

Ounce (n.) A feline quadruped (Felis irbis, / uncia) resembling the leopard in size, and somewhat in color, but it has longer and thicker fur, which forms a short mane on the back. The ounce is pale yellowish gray, with irregular dark spots on the neck and limbs, and dark rings on the body. It inhabits the lofty mountain ranges of Asia. Called also once.

Ourebi (n.) A small, graceful, and swift African antelope, allied to the klipspringer.

Ousel (n.) One of several species of European thrushes, especially the blackbird (Merula merula, or Turdus merula), and the mountain or ring ousel (Turdus torquatus).

Outbid (imp.) of Outbid

Outbade () of Outbid

Outbid (p. p.) of Outbid

Outbidden () of Outbid

Outbidding (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Outbid

Outbid (v. t.) To exceed or surpass in bidding.

Outbidder (n.) One who outbids.

Outbribe (v. t.) To surpass in bribing.

Outbuild (v. t.) To exceed in building, or in durability of building.

Outclimb (v. t.) To climb bevond; to surpass in climbing.

Outgeneral (v. t.) To exceed in generalship; to gain advantage over by superior military skill or executive ability; to outmaneuver.

Outname (v. t.) To exceed in naming or describing.

Outre (a.) Being out of the common course or limits; extravagant; bizarre.

Ovenbird (n.) Any species of the genus Furnarius, allied to the creepers. They inhabit South America and the West Indies, and construct curious oven-shaped nests.

Ovenbird (n.) In the United States, Seiurus aurocapillus; -- called also golden-crowned thrush.

Ovenbird (n.) In England, sometimes applied to the willow warbler, and to the long-tailed titmouse.

Over (prep.) Above in authority or station; -- implying government, direction, care, attention, guard, responsibility, etc.; -- opposed to under.

Over (prep.) Above, implying superiority after a contest; in spite of; notwithstanding; as, he triumphed over difficulties; the bill was passed over the veto.

Overbid (v. t.) To bid or offer beyond, or in excess of.

Overbide (v. t.) To outlive.

Overslaugh (v. t.) To hinder or stop, as by an overslaugh or an impediment; as, to overslaugh a bill in a legislative body; to overslaugh a military officer, that is, to hinder his promotion or employment.

Oversman (n.) An umpire; a third arbiter, appointed when two arbiters, previously selected, disagree.

Owe (v.) Hence: To have or be under an obigation to restore, pay, or render (something) in return or compensation for something received; to be indebted in the sum of; as, the subject owes allegiance; the fortunate owe assistance to the unfortunate.

Owl (n.) Any species of raptorial birds of the family Strigidae. They have large eyes and ears, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye. They are mostly nocturnal in their habits.

Oxbird (n.) The dunlin.

Oxbird (n.) The sanderling.

Oxbird (n.) An African weaver bird (Textor alector).

Oxbiter (n.) The cow blackbird.

Oxidability (n.) Capability of being converted into an oxide.

Oxide (n.) A binary compound of oxygen with an atom or radical, or a compound which is regarded as binary; as, iron oxide, ethyl oxide, nitrogen oxide, etc.

Oxidize (v. t.) To combine with oxygen, or subject to the action of oxygen, or of an oxidizing agent.

Oxidize (v. t.) To combine with oxygen or with more oxygen; to add oxygen to; as, to oxidize nitrous acid so as to form nitric acid.

Oxidizer (n.) An agent employed in oxidation, or which facilitates or brings about combination with oxygen; as, nitric acid, chlorine, bromine, etc., are strong oxidizers.

Oxonic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, a complex nitrogenous acid (C4H5N3O4) not known in the free state, but obtained, in combination with its salts, by a slow oxidation of uric acid, to which it is related.

Oxpecker (n.) An African bird of the genus Buphaga; the beefeater.

Oxychloride (n.) A ternary compound of oxygen and chlorine; as, plumbic oxychloride.

Oxygenate (v. t.) To unite, or cause to combine, with oxygen; to treat with oxygen; to oxidize; as, oxygenated water (hydrogen dioxide).

Oxygenation (n.) The act or process of combining or of treating with oxygen; oxidation.

Oxyhaemoglobin (n.) Alt. of Oxyhemoglobin

Oxyhemoglobin (n.) See Hemoglobin.

Oyster (n.) Any marine bivalve mollusk of the genus Ostrea. They are usually found adhering to rocks or other fixed objects in shallow water along the seacoasts, or in brackish water in the mouth of rivers. The common European oyster (Ostrea edulis), and the American oyster (Ostrea Virginiana), are the most important species.

Pachy- () A combining form meaning thick; as, pachyderm, pachydactyl.

Pachydactyl (n.) A bird or other animal having thick toes.

Pad (n.) The act of robbing on the highway.

Paddlefish (n.) A large ganoid fish (Polyodon spathula) found in the rivers of the Mississippi Valley. It has a long spatula-shaped snout. Called also duck-billed cat, and spoonbill sturgeon.

Paeon (n.) A foot of four syllables, one long and three short, admitting of four combinations, according to the place of the long syllable.

Pageant (n.) A theatrical exhibition; a spectacle.

Pageant (n.) An elaborate exhibition devised for the entertainmeut of a distinguished personage, or of the public; a show, spectacle, or display.

Pageant (v. t.) To exhibit in show; to represent; to mimic.

Pain (n.) Specifically, the throes or travail of childbirth.

Paint (v. t.) To form in colors a figure or likeness of on a flat surface, as upon canvas; to represent by means of colors or hues; to exhibit in a tinted image; to portray with paints; as, to paint a portrait or a landscape.

Paint (v. t.) Fig.: To represent or exhibit to the mind; to describe vividly; to delineate; to image; to depict.

Palace (n.) The official residence of a bishop or other distinguished personage.

Palama (n.) A membrane extending between the toes of a bird, and uniting them more or less closely together.

Palamedeae (n. pl.) An order, or suborder, including the kamichi, and allied South American birds; -- called also screamers. In many anatomical characters they are allied to the Anseres, but they externally resemble the wading birds.

Palapteryx (n.) A large extinct ostrichlike bird of New Zealand.

Palatability (n.) Palatableness.

Palato- () A combining form used in anatomy to indicate relation to, or connection with, the palate; as in palatolingual.

Palea (n.) A pendulous process of the skin on the throat of a bird, as in the turkey; a dewlap.

Paleo- () A combining form meaning old, ancient; as, palearctic, paleontology, paleothere, paleography.

Paleornithology (n.) The branch of paleontology which treats of fossil birds.

Paleotherium (n.) An extinct genus of herbivorous Tertiary mammals, once supposed to have resembled the tapir in form, but now known to have had a more slender form, with a long neck like that of a llama.

Palingenesy (n.) A new birth; a re-creation; a regeneration; a continued existence in different manner or form.

Pallet (n.) One of a pair of shelly plates that protect the siphon tubes of certain bivalves, as the Teredo. See Illust. of Teredo.

Pallial (a.) Of or pretaining to a mantle, especially to the mantle of mollusks; produced by the mantle; as, the pallial line, or impression, which marks the attachment of the mantle on the inner surface of a bivalve shell. See Illust. of Bivalve.

Pallium (n.) The mantle of a bivalve. See Mantle.

Pallium (n.) The mantle of a bird.

Palmar (a.) Of or pertaining to the under side of the wings of birds.

Palmarium (n.) One of the bifurcations of the brachial plates of a crinoid.

Palmated (a.) Having the anterior toes united by a web, as in most swimming birds; webbed.

Palmidactyles (n. pl.) A group of wading birds having the toes webbed, as the avocet.

Palmiped (n.) A swimming bird; a bird having webbed feet.

Palpability (n.) The quality of being palpable, or perceptible by the touch.

Palpiger (n.) That portion of the labium which bears the palpi in insects.

Palpitant (a.) Palpitating; throbbing; trembling.

Palpitation (n.) A rapid pulsation; a throbbing; esp., an abnormal, rapid beating of the heart as when excited by violent exertion, strong emotion, or by disease.

Palpus (n.) A feeler; especially, one of the jointed sense organs attached to the mouth organs of insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and annelids; as, the mandibular palpi, maxillary palpi, and labial palpi. The palpi of male spiders serve as sexual organs. Called also palp. See Illust. of Arthrogastra and Orthoptera.

Palterly (a. & adv.) Paltry; shabby; shabbily; paltrily.

Paludicolae (n. pl.) A division of birds, including the cranes, rails, etc.

Paludicole (a.) Marsh-inhabiting; belonging to the Paludicolae

Paludinal (a.) Inhabiting ponds or swamps.

Paludism (n.) The morbid phenomena produced by dwelling among marshes; malarial disease or disposition.

Pamperos (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians inhabiting the pampas of South America.

Panto- () Combining forms signifying all, every; as, panorama, pantheism, pantagraph, pantograph. Pan- becomes pam- before b or p, as pamprodactylous.

Pancreas (n.) The sweetbread, a gland connected with the intestine of nearly all vertebrates. It is usually elongated and light-colored, and its secretion, called the pancreatic juice, is discharged, often together with the bile, into the upper part of the intestines, and is a powerful aid in digestion. See Illust. of Digestive apparatus.

Panda (n.) A small Asiatic mammal (Ailurus fulgens) having fine soft fur. It is related to the bears, and inhabits the mountains of Northern India.

Pandora (n.) A genus of marine bivalves, in which one valve is flat, the other convex.

Panopticon (n.) A room for the exhibition of novelties.

Panorama (n.) A picture representing scenes too extended to be beheld at once, and so exhibited a part at a time, by being unrolled, and made to pass continuously before the spectator.

Panspermist (n.) A believer in panspermy; one who rejects the theory of spontaneous generation; a biogenist.

Panspermy (n.) The doctrine that all organisms must come from living parents; biogenesis; -- the opposite of spontaneous generation.

Pantaloon (n.) A bifurcated garment for a man, covering the body from the waist downwards, and consisting of breeches and stockings in one.

Pantheism (n.) The doctrine that the universe, taken or conceived of as a whole, is God; the doctrine that there is no God but the combined force and laws which are manifested in the existing universe; cosmotheism.

Pantochronometer (n.) An instrument combining a compass, sundial, and universal time dial.

Pantophagist (n.) A person or an animal that has the habit of eating all kinds of food.

Pantophagy (n.) The habit or power of eating all kinds of food.

Papaphobia (n.) Intense fear or dread of the pope, or of the Roman Catholic Church.

Papboat (n.) A large spiral East Indian marine shell (Turbinella rapha); -- so called because used by native priests to hold the oil for anointing.

Paper (n.) Negotiable evidences of indebtedness; notes; bills of exchange, and the like; as, the bank holds a large amount of his paper.

Paphian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Paphos.

Parabola (n.) One of a group of curves defined by the equation y = axn where n is a positive whole number or a positive fraction. For the cubical parabola n = 3; for the semicubical parabola n = /. See under Cubical, and Semicubical. The parabolas have infinite branches, but no rectilineal asymptotes.

Parade (v. t.) Pompous show; formal display or exhibition.

Parade (v. t.) To exhibit in a showy or ostentatious manner; to show off.

Parade (v. i.) To make an exhibition or spectacle of one's self, as by walking in a public place.

Paradoxides (n.) A genus of large trilobites characteristic of the primordial formations.

Parage (n.) Kindred; family; birth.

Paraglossa (n.) One of a pair of small appendages of the lingua or labium of certain insects. See Illust. under Hymenoptera.

Paragnathous (a.) Having both mandibles of equal length, the tips meeting, as in certain birds.

Para grass () A valuable pasture grass (Panicum barbinode) introduced into the Southern United States from Brazil.

Paraguayan (n.) A native or inhabitant of Paraguay.

Paramorphous (a.) Relating to paramorphism; exhibiting paramorphism.

Parascenium (n.) One of two apartments adjoining the stage, probably used as robing rooms.

Parasite (n.) A plant living on or within an animal, and supported at its expense, as many species of fungi of the genus Torrubia.

Parasite (n.) An animal which habitually uses the nest of another, as the cowbird and the European cuckoo.

Parauque (n.) A bird (Nyctidromus albicollis) ranging from Texas to South America. It is allied to the night hawk and goatsucker.

Parentage (n.) Descent from parents or ancestors; parents or ancestors considered with respect to their rank or character; extraction; birth; as, a man of noble parentage.

Parethmoid (a.) Near or beside the ethmoid bone or cartilage; -- applied especially to a pair of bones in the nasal region of some fishes, and to the ethmoturbinals in some higher animals.

Pari- () A combining form signifying equal; as, paridigitate, paripinnate.

Parian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Paros.

Parian (n.) A ceramic ware, resembling unglazed porcelain biscuit, of which are made statuettes, ornaments, etc.

Parieto- () A combining form used to indicate connection with, or relation to, the parietal bones or the parietal segment of the skull; as, the parieto-mastoid suture.

Parillin (n.) A glucoside resembling saponin, found in the root of sarsaparilla, smilax, etc., and extracted as a bitter white crystalline substance; -- called also smilacin, sarsaparilla saponin, and sarsaparillin.

Parisian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Paris, the capital of France.

Parisology (n.) The use of equivocal or ambiguous words.

Parisyllabic (a.) Alt. of Parisyllabical

Parisyllabical (a.) Having the same number of syllables in all its inflections.

Parnassian (n.) Any one of numerous species of butterflies belonging to the genus Parnassius. They inhabit the mountains, both in the Old World and in America.

Parquetry (n.) A species of joinery or cabinet-work consisting of an inlay of geometric or other patterns, generally of different colors, -- used especially for floors.

Parrot (n.) In a general sense, any bird of the order Psittaci.

Parrot (n.) Any species of Psittacus, Chrysotis, Pionus, and other genera of the family Psittacidae, as distinguished from the parrakeets, macaws, and lories. They have a short rounded or even tail, and often a naked space on the cheeks. The gray parrot, or jako (P. erithacus) of Africa (see Jako), and the species of Amazon, or green, parrots (Chrysotis) of America, are examples. Many species, as cage birds, readily learn to imitate sounds, and to repeat words and phrases.

Parrot's-bill (n.) The glory pea. See under Glory.

Parsimonious (a.) Exhibiting parsimony; sparing in expenditure of money; frugal to excess; penurious; niggardly; stingy.

Parsnip (n.) The aromatic and edible spindle-shaped root of the cultivated form of the Pastinaca sativa, a biennial umbelliferous plant which is very poisonous in its wild state; also, the plant itself.

Parted (a.) Endowed with parts or abilities.

Partiality (n.) The quality or state of being partial; inclination to favor one party, or one side of a question, more than the other; undue bias of mind.

Partially (adv.) In a partial manner; with undue bias of mind; with unjust favor or dislike; as, to judge partially.

Partibility (n.) The quality or state of being partible; divisibility; separability; as, the partibility of an inherttance.

Particle (n.) A minute part or portion of matter; a morsel; a little bit; an atom; a jot; as, a particle of sand, of wood, of dust.

Particular (n.) One of the details or items of grounds of claim; -- usually in the pl.; also, a bill of particulars; a minute account; as, a particular of premises.

Partridge (n.) Any one of numerous species of small gallinaceous birds of the genus Perdix and several related genera of the family Perdicidae, of the Old World. The partridge is noted as a game bird.

Partridge (n.) Any one of several species of quail-like birds belonging to Colinus, and allied genera.

Parturition (n.) The act of bringing forth, or being delivered of, young; the act of giving birth; delivery; childbirth.

Parturition (n.) That which is brought forth; a birth.

Parumbilical (a.) Near the umbilicus; -- applied especially to one or more small veins which, in man, connect the portal vein with the epigastric veins in the front wall of the abdomen.

Pass (v. i.) To advance through all the steps or stages necessary to validity or effectiveness; to be carried through a body that has power to sanction or reject; to receive legislative sanction; to be enacted; as, the resolution passed; the bill passed both houses of Congress.

Pass (v. i.) To decline to take an optional action when it is one's turn, as to decline to bid, or to bet, or to play a card; in euchre, to decline to make the trump.

Pass (v. t.) To go successfully through, as an examination, trail, test, etc.; to obtain the formal sanction of, as a legislative body; as, he passed his examination; the bill passed the senate.

Pass (v. t.) To cause to move or go; to send; to transfer from one person, place, or condition to another; to transmit; to deliver; to hand; to make over; as, the waiter passed bisquit and cheese; the torch was passed from hand to hand.

Pass (v. t.) To cause to advance by stages of progress; to carry on with success through an ordeal, examination, or action; specifically, to give legal or official sanction to; to ratify; to enact; to approve as valid and just; as, he passed the bill through the committee; the senate passed the law.

Passage (v. i.) The act of passing; transit from one place to another; movement from point to point; a going by, over, across, or through; as, the passage of a man or a carriage; the passage of a ship or a bird; the passage of light; the passage of fluids through the pores or channels of the body.

Passage (v. i.) In parliamentary proceedings: (a) The course of a proposition (bill, resolution, etc.) through the several stages of consideration and action; as, during its passage through Congress the bill was amended in both Houses. (b) The advancement of a bill or other proposition from one stage to another by an affirmative vote; esp., the final affirmative action of the body upon a proposition; hence, adoption; enactment; as, the passage of the bill to its third reading was delayed.

Passager (n.) A passenger; a bird or boat of passage.

Passeres (n. pl.) An order, or suborder, of birds, including more that half of all the known species. It embraces all singing birds (Oscines), together with many other small perching birds.

Passibility (n.) The quality or state of being passible; aptness to feel or suffer; sensibility.

Passibleness (n.) Passibility.

Passion (n.) Capacity of being affected by external agents; susceptibility of impressions from external agents.

Passion (n.) The state of the mind when it is powerfully acted upon and influenced by something external to itself; the state of any particular faculty which, under such conditions, becomes extremely sensitive or uncontrollably excited; any emotion or sentiment (specifically, love or anger) in a state of abnormal or controlling activity; an extreme or inordinate desire; also, the capacity or susceptibility of being so affected; as, to be in a passion; the passions of love, hate, jealously, wrath, ambition, avarice, fear, etc.; a passion for war, or for drink; an orator should have passion as well as rhetorical skill.

Passive (a.) Designating certain morbid conditions, as hemorrhage or dropsy, characterized by relaxation of the vessels and tissues, with deficient vitality and lack of reaction in the affected tissues.

Paste (n.) A kind of cement made of flour and water, starch and water, or the like, -- used for uniting paper or other substances, as in bookbinding, etc., -- also used in calico printing as a vehicle for mordant or color.

Pasteurism (n.) A method of treatment, devised by Pasteur, for preventing certain diseases, as hydrophobia, by successive inoculations with an attenuated virus of gradually increasing strength.

Pastoral (n.) A poem describing the life and manners of shepherds; a poem in which the speakers assume the character of shepherds; an idyl; a bucolic.

Pastoral (n.) A letter of a pastor to his charge; specifically, a letter addressed by a bishop to his diocese; also (Prot. Epis. Ch.), a letter of the House of Bishops, to be read in each parish.

Patagium (n.) In bats, an expansion of the integument uniting the fore limb with the body and extending between the elongated fingers to form the wing; in birds, the similar fold of integument uniting the fore limb with the body.

Patella (n.) A kind of apothecium in lichens, which is orbicular, flat, and sessile, and has a special rim not a part of the thallus.

Patrial (a.) Derived from the name of a country, and designating an inhabitant of the country; gentile; -- said of a noun.

Patriarch (n.) A dignitary superior to the order of archbishops; as, the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Antioch.

Patrician (a.) Of, pertaining to, or appropriate to, a person of high birth; noble; not plebeian.

Patrician (n.) Originally, a member of any of the families constituting the populus Romanus, or body of Roman citizens, before the development of the plebeian order; later, one who, by right of birth or by special privilege conferred, belonged to the nobility.

Patrician (n.) A person of high birth; a nobleman.

Paulianist (n.) A follower of Paul of Samosata, a bishop of Antioch in the third century, who was deposed for denying the divinity of Christ.

Pavilion (n.) A temporary movable habitation; a large tent; a marquee; esp., a tent raised on posts.

Pavo (n.) A genus of birds, including the peacocks.

Payee (n.) The person to whom money is to be, or has been, paid; the person named in a bill or note, to whom, or to whose order, the amount is promised or directed to be paid. See Bill of exchange, under Bill.

Payer (n.) One who pays; specifically, the person by whom a bill or note has been, or should be, paid.

Peabird (n.) The wryneck; -- so called from its note.

Peabody bird () An American sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) having a conspicuous white throat. The name is imitative of its note. Called also White-throated sparrow.

Peak (n.) The upper aftermost corner of a fore-and-aft sail; -- used in many combinations; as, peak-halyards, peak-brails, etc.

Peak (n.) The extremity of an anchor fluke; the bill.

Pearl (n.) A shelly concretion, usually rounded, and having a brilliant luster, with varying tints, found in the mantle, or between the mantle and shell, of certain bivalve mollusks, especially in the pearl oysters and river mussels, and sometimes in certain univalves. It is usually due to a secretion of shelly substance around some irritating foreign particle. Its substance is the same as nacre, or mother-of-pearl. Pearls which are round, or nearly round, and of fine luster, are highly esteemed as jewels, and compare in value with the precious stones.

Peccability (n.) The state or quality of being peccable; lability to sin.

Peccant (a.) Morbid; corrupt; as, peccant humors.

Peck (v.) To strike with the beak; to thrust the beak into; as, a bird pecks a tree.

Peck (v.) To seize and pick up with the beak, or as with the beak; to bite; to eat; -- often with up.

Peck (n.) A quick, sharp stroke, as with the beak of a bird or a pointed instrument.

Pecker (n.) One who, or that which, pecks; specif., a bird that pecks holes in trees; a woodpecker.

Pecten (n.) A vascular pigmented membrane projecting into the vitreous humor within the globe of the eye in birds, and in many reptiles and fishes; -- also called marsupium.

Pecten (n.) The pubic bone.

Pecten (n.) Any species of bivalve mollusks of the genus Pecten, and numerous allied genera (family Pectinidae); a scallop. See Scallop.

Pectination (n.) The act of combing; the combing of the head.

Pectineal (a.) Relating to, or connected with, the pubic bone.

Pectoriloquy (n.) The distinct articulation of the sounds of a patient's voice, heard on applying the ear to the chest in auscultation. It usually indicates some morbid change in the lungs or pleural cavity.

Pectus (n.) The breast of a bird.

Peculiarity (n.) That which is peculiar; a special and distinctive characteristic or habit; particularity.

Pedal (a.) A lever or key acted on by the foot, as in the pianoforte to raise the dampers, or in the organ to open and close certain pipes; a treadle, as in a lathe or a bicycle.

Pedo- () Combining forms from L. pes, pedis, foot, as pedipalp, pedireme, pedometer.

Peel (n.) A spadelike implement, variously used, as for removing loaves of bread from a baker's oven; also, a T-shaped implement used by printers and bookbinders for hanging wet sheets of paper on lines or poles to dry. Also, the blade of an oar.

Peeper (n.) A chicken just breaking the shell; a young bird.

Peer (n.) A nobleman; a member of one of the five degrees of the British nobility, namely, duke, marquis, earl, viscount, baron; as, a peer of the realm.

Peerage (n.) The body of peers; the nobility, collectively.

Peevish (a.) Habitually fretful; easily vexed or fretted; hard to please; apt to complain; querulous; petulant.

Pelasgic (a.) Of or pertaining to the Pelasgians, an ancient people of Greece, of roving habits.

Pelecaniformes (n. pl.) Those birds that are related to the pelican; the Totipalmi.

Pelfry (n.) Pelf; also, figuratively, rubbish; trash.

Pelican (n.) Any large webfooted bird of the genus Pelecanus, of which about a dozen species are known. They have an enormous bill, to the lower edge of which is attached a pouch in which captured fishes are temporarily stored.

Pelopium (n.) A supposed new metal found in columbite, afterwards shown to be identical with columbium, or niobium.

Peloponnesian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of the Peloponnesus.

Pen (n.) An instrument used for writing with ink, formerly made of a reed, or of the quill of a goose or other bird, but now also of other materials, as of steel, gold, etc. Also, originally, a stylus or other instrument for scratching or graving.

Penality (n.) The quality or state of being penal; lability to punishment.

Penchant (n.) Inclination; decided taste; bias; as, a penchant for art.

Pencil (n.) Hence, figuratively, an artist's ability or peculiar manner; also, in general, the act or occupation of the artist, descriptive writer, etc.

Penetrability (n.) The quality of being penetrable; susceptibility of being penetrated, entered, or pierced.

Penguin (n.) Any bird of the order Impennes, or Ptilopteri. They are covered with short, thick feathers, almost scalelike on the wings, which are without true quills. They are unable to fly, but use their wings to aid in diving, in which they are very expert. See King penguin, under Jackass.

Penitentiary (n.) An officer in some dioceses since A. D. 1215, vested with power from the bishop to absolve in cases reserved to him.

Penny (a.) Denoting pound weight for one thousand; -- used in combination, with respect to nails; as, tenpenny nails, nails of which one thousand weight ten pounds.

Pension (n.) A stated allowance to a person in consideration of past services; payment made to one retired from service, on account of age, disability, or other cause; especially, a regular stipend paid by a government to retired public officers, disabled soldiers, the families of soldiers killed in service, or to meritorious authors, or the like.

Penta- () A combining form denoting five; as, pentacapsular; pentagon.

Pentacid (a.) Capable of neutralizing, or combining with, five molecules of a monobasic acid; having five hydrogen atoms capable of substitution by acid residues; -- said of certain complex bases.

Pentad (n.) Any element, atom, or radical, having a valence of five, or which can be combined with, substituted for, or compared with, five atoms of hydrogen or other monad; as, nitrogen is a pentad in the ammonium compounds.

Pentaptych (n.) A picture, or combination of pictures, consisting of a centerpiece and double folding doors or wings, as for an altarpiece.

People (v. t.) To stock with people or inhabitants; to fill as with people; to populate.

Peopled (a.) Stocked with, or as with, people; inhabited.

Peopler (n.) A settler; an inhabitant.

Peorias (n. pl.) An Algonquin tribe of Indians who formerly inhabited a part of Illinois.

Pequots (n. pl.) A tribe of Indians who formerly inhabited Eastern Connecticut.

Perameles (n.) Any marsupial of the genus Perameles, which includes numerous species found in Australia. They somewhat resemble rabbits in size and form. See Illust. under Bandicoot.

Percarbide (n.) A compound containing a relatively large amount of carbon.

Percarburet (n.) A percarbide.

Percarbureted (a.) Combined with a relatively large amount of carbon.

Perceptibility (n.) The quality or state of being perceptible; as, the perceptibility of light or color.

Perceptibility (n.) Perception.

Perception (n.) The quality, state, or capability, of being affected by something external; sensation; sensibility.

Perch (n.) In solid measure: A mass 16/ feet long, 1 foot in height, and 1/ feet in breadth, or 24/ cubic feet (in local use, from 22 to 25 cubic feet); -- used in measuring stonework.

Perch (v. i.) To alight or settle, as a bird; to sit or roost.

Perchant (n.) A bird tied by the foot, to serve as decoy to other birds by its fluttering.

Perdix (n.) A genus of birds including the common European partridge. Formerly the word was used in a much wider sense to include many allied genera.

Perdurability (n.) Durability; lastingness.

Perennibranchiate (a.) Having branchae, or gills, through life; -- said especially of certain Amphibia, like the menobranchus. Opposed to caducibranchiate.

Perfectibilian (n.) A perfectionist.

Perfectibilist (n.) A perfectionist. See also Illuminati, 2.

Perfectibility (n.) The quality or state of being perfectible.

Periastron (n.) That point, in the real or apparent orbit of one star revolving around another, at which the former is nearest to the latter.

Pericambium (n.) A layer of thin-walled young cells in a growing stem, in which layer certain new vessels originate.

Perigeum (n.) That point in the orbit of the moon which is nearest to the earth; -- opposed to apogee. It is sometimes, but rarely, used of the nearest points of other orbits, as of a comet, a planet, etc. Called also epigee, epigeum.

Perihelium (n.) That point of the orbit of a planet or comet which is nearest to the sun; -- opposed to aphelion.

Perilla (n.) A genus of labiate herbs, of which one species (Perilla ocimoides, or P. Nankinensis) is often cultivated for its purple or variegated foliage.

Perishability (n.) Perishableness.

Perishableness (n.) The quality or state of being perishable; liability to decay or destruction.

Peristerite (n.) A variety of albite, whitish and slightly iridescent like a pigeon's neck.

Peristeropodous (a.) Having pigeonlike feet; -- said of those gallinaceous birds that rest on all four toes, as the curassows and megapods.

Permanent (a.) Continuing in the same state, or without any change that destroys form or character; remaining unaltered or unremoved; abiding; durable; fixed; stable; lasting; as, a permanent impression.

Permeability (n.) The quality or state of being permeable.

Permians (n. pl.) A tribe belonging to the Finnic race, and inhabiting a portion of Russia.

Permissibility (n.) The quality of being permissible; permissibleness; allowableness.

Permutation (n.) The arrangement of any determinate number of things, as units, objects, letters, etc., in all possible orders, one after the other; -- called also alternation. Cf. Combination, n., 4.

Perofskite (n.) A titanate of lime occurring in octahedral or cubic crystals.

Perpender (n.) A large stone reaching through a wall so as to appear on both sides of it, and acting as a binder; -- called also perbend, perpend stone, and perpent stone.

Perplex (a.) To embarrass; to puzzle; to distract; to bewilder; to confuse; to trouble with ambiguity, suspense, or anxiety.

Persian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Persia.

Personate (a.) Having the throat of a bilabiate corolla nearly closed by a projection of the base of the lower lip; masked, as in the flower of the snapdragon.

Perspicuous (a.) Clear to the understanding; capable of being clearly understood; clear in thought or in expression; not obscure or ambiguous; as, a perspicuous writer; perspicuous statements.

Perspirability (n.) The quality or state of being perspirable.

Persuasibility (n.) Capability of being persuaded.

Perthite (n.) A kind of feldspar consisting of a laminated intertexture of albite and orthoclase, usually of different colors.

Perturbability (n.) The quality or state of being perturbable.

Perturbation (n.) The act of perturbing, or the state of being perturbed; esp., agitation of mind.

Perturbative (a.) Tending to cause perturbation; disturbing.

Peruvian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Peru.

Pervious (a.) Open; -- used synonymously with perforate, as applied to the nostrils or birds.

Peso (n.) A Spanish dollar; also, an Argentine, Chilian, Colombian, etc., coin, equal to from 75 cents to a dollar; also, a pound weight.

Pessulus (n.) A delicate bar of cartilage connecting the dorsal and ventral extremities of the first pair of bronchial cartilages in the syrinx of birds.

Pestalozzian (a.) Belonging to, or characteristic of, a system of elementary education which combined manual training with other instruction, advocated and practiced by Jean Henri Pestalozzi (1746-1827), a Swiss teacher.

Petalism (n.) A form of sentence among the ancient Syracusans by which they banished for five years a citizen suspected of having dangerous influence or ambition. It was similar to the ostracism in Athens; but olive leaves were used instead of shells for ballots.

Petechiae (n. pl.) Small crimson, purple, or livid spots, like flea-bites, due to extravasation of blood, which appear on the skin in malignant fevers, etc.

Petrel (n.) Any one of numerous species of longwinged sea birds belonging to the family Procellaridae. The small petrels, or Mother Carey's chickens, belong to Oceanites, Oceanodroma, Procellaria, and several allied genera.

Petro- () A combining form from Gr. / a rock, / a stone; as, petrology, petroglyphic.

Pettychaps (n.) Any one of several species of small European singing birds of the subfamily Sylviinae, as the willow warbler, the chiff-chaff, and the golden warbler (Sylvia hortensis).

Pewter (n.) A hard, tough, but easily fusible, alloy, originally consisting of tin with a little lead, but afterwards modified by the addition of copper, antimony, or bismuth.

Phacops (n.) A genus of trilobites found in the Silurian and Devonian formations. Phacops bufo is one of the most common species.

Phaethon (n.) A genus of oceanic birds including the tropic birds.

Phainopepla (n.) A small crested passerine bird (Phainopepla nitens), native of Mexico and the Southern United States. The adult male is of a uniform glossy blue-black; the female is brownish. Called also black flycatcher.

Phalanx (n.) Any body of troops or men formed in close array, or any combination of people distinguished for firmness and solidity of a union.

Phalarope (n.) Any species of Phalaropus and allied genera of small wading birds (Grallae), having lobate toes. They are often seen far from land, swimming in large flocks. Called also sea goose.

Pharmacopoeia (n.) A book or treatise describing the drugs, preparations, etc., used in medicine; especially, one that is issued by official authority and considered as an authoritative standard.

Pharmacosiderite (n.) A hydrous arsenate of iron occurring in green or yellowish green cubic crystals; cube ore.

Pharyngognathi (n. pl.) A division of fishes in which the lower pharyngeal bones are united. It includes the scaroid, labroid, and embioticoid fishes.

Pharynx (n.) The part of the alimentary canal between the cavity of the mouth and the esophagus. It has one or two external openings through the nose in the higher vertebrates, and lateral branchial openings in fishes and some amphibias.

Phase (n.) That which is exhibited to the eye; the appearance which anything manifests, especially any one among different and varying appearances of the same object.

Pheasant (n.) Any one of numerous species of large gallinaceous birds of the genus Phasianus, and many other genera of the family Phasianidae, found chiefly in Asia.

Phenix (n.) A bird fabled to exist single, to be consumed by fire by its own act, and to rise again from its ashes. Hence, an emblem of immortality.

Philadelphian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Philadelphia.

Philippian (n.) A native or an inhabitant of Philippi.

Philistine (n.) A native or an inhabitant of ancient Philistia, a coast region of southern Palestine.

Philistinism (n.) The condition, character, aims, and habits of the class called Philistines. See Philistine, 3.

Phillyrin (n.) A glucoside extracted from Phillyrea as a bitter white crystalline substance. It is sometimes used as a febrifuge.

Philo- () A combining form from Gr. fi`los loving, fond of, attached to; as, philosophy, philotechnic.

Philomela (n.) A genus of birds including the nightingales.

Phlebitis (n.) Inflammation of a vein.

Phlogisticate (v. t.) To combine phlogiston with; -- usually in the form and sense of the p. p. or the adj.; as, highly phlogisticated substances.

Phlogistication (n.) The act or process of combining with phlogiston.

Phlogiston (n.) The hypothetical principle of fire, or inflammability, regarded by Stahl as a chemical element.

Phloretin (n.) A bitter white crystalline substance obtained by the decomposition of phlorizin, and formerly used to some extent as a substitute for quinine.

Phlorizin (n.) A bitter white crystalline glucoside extracted from the root bark of the apple, pear, cherry, plum, etc.

Phoenician (n.) A native or inhabitant of Phoenica.

Phoenicopterus (n.) A genus of birds which includes the flamingoes.

Pholas (n.) Any one of numerous species of marine bivalve mollusks of the genus Pholas, or family Pholadidae. They bore holes for themselves in clay, peat, and soft rocks.

Phono- () A combining form from Gr. / sound, tone; as, phonograph, phonology.

Phonology (n.) The science or doctrine of the elementary sounds uttered by the human voice in speech, including the various distinctions, modifications, and combinations of tones; phonetics. Also, a treatise on sounds.

Phonoscope (n.) An instrument for observing or exhibiting the motions or properties of sounding bodies; especially, an apparatus invented by Konig for testing the quality of musical strings.

Phosphide (n.) A binary compound of phosphorus.

Phosphorate (v. t.) To impregnate, or combine, with phosphorus or its compounds; as, phosphorated oil.

Phosphureted (a.) Impregnated, or combined, with phosphorus.

Photo- () A combining form from Gr. fw^s, fwto`s, light; as, photography, phototype, photometer.

Photobiotic (a.) Requiring light to live; incapable of living without light; as, photobiotic plant cells.

Photographometer (n.) An instrument for determining the sensibility of the plates employed in photographic processes to luminous rays.

Photophobia (n.) A dread or intolerance of light.

Phrase (n.) A brief expression, sometimes a single word, but usually two or more words forming an expression by themselves, or being a portion of a sentence; as, an adverbial phrase.

Phrygian (a.) Of or pertaining to Phrygia, or to its inhabitants.

Phrygian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Phrygia.

Phyllo- () A combining form from Gr. / a leaf; as, phyllopod, phyllotaxy.

Phylogeny (n.) The history of genealogical development; the race history of an animal or vegetable type; the historic exolution of the phylon or tribe, in distinction from ontogeny, or the development of the individual organism, and from biogenesis, or life development generally.

Physico- () A combining form, denoting relation to, or dependence upon, natural causes, or the science of physics.

Physiogony (n.) The birth of nature.

Phyto- () A combining form from Gr. fyto`n a plant; as, phytochemistry, phytography.

Phytography (n.) The science of describing plants in a systematic manner; also, a description of plants.

Phytophagous (a.) Feeding on plants; herbivorous; as, a phytophagous animal.

Picariae (n. pl.) An extensive division of birds which includes the woodpeckers, toucans, trogons, hornbills, kingfishers, motmots, rollers, and goatsuckers. By some writers it is made to include also the cuckoos, swifts, and humming birds.

Picayune (n.) A small coin of the value of six and a quarter cents. See Fippenny bit.

Pici (n. pl.) A division of birds including the woodpeckers and wrynecks.

Piciformes (n. pl.) A group of birds including the woodpeckers, toucans, barbets, colies, kingfishes, hornbills, and some other related groups.

Pick (v.) To peck at, as a bird with its beak; to strike at with anything pointed; to act upon with a pointed instrument; to pierce; to prick, as with a pin.

Pick (n.) The blow which drives the shuttle, -- the rate of speed of a loom being reckoned as so many picks per minute; hence, in describing the fineness of a fabric, a weft thread; as, so many picks to an inch.

Picoline (n.) Any one of three isometric bases (C6H7N) related to pyridine, and obtained from bone oil, acrolein ammonia, and coal-tar naphtha, as colorless mobile liquids of strong odor; -- called also methyl pyridine.

Picric (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, a strong organic acid (called picric acid), intensely bitter.

Picrite (n.) A dark green igneous rock, consisting largely of chrysolite, with hornblende, augite, biotite, etc.

Picromel (n.) A colorless viscous substance having a bitter-sweet taste.

Picrotoxin (n.) A bitter white crystalline substance found in the cocculus indicus. It is a peculiar poisonous neurotic and intoxicant, and consists of a mixture of several neutral substances.

Picts (n. pl.) A race of people of uncertain origin, who inhabited Scotland in early times.

Piece (v. t.) To unite; to join; to combine.

Piecener (n.) One who supplies rolls of wool to the slubbing machine in woolen mills.

Piezometer (n.) An instrument for measuring the compressibility of liquids.

Pigeon (n.) Any bird of the order Columbae, of which numerous species occur in nearly all parts of the world.

Pigeonhole (v. t.) To place in the pigeonhole of a case or cabinet; hence, to put away; to lay aside indefinitely; as, to pigeonhole a letter or a report.

Pigment (n.) Any one of the colored substances found in animal and vegetable tissues and fluids, as bilirubin, urobilin, chlorophyll, etc.

Pignut (n.) The bitter-flavored nut of a species of hickory (Carya glabra, / porcina); also, the tree itself.

Pika (n.) Any one of several species of rodents of the genus Lagomys, resembling small tailless rabbits. They inhabit the high mountains of Asia and America. Called also calling hare, and crying hare. See Chief hare.

Pileus (n.) The top of the head of a bird, from the bill to the nape.

Pimaric (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found in galipot, and isomeric with abietic acid.

Pimlico (n.) The friar bird.

Pinch (v. t.) o seize; to grip; to bite; -- said of animals.

Pinefinch (n.) A small American bird (Spinus, / Chrysomitris, spinus); -- called also pine siskin, and American siskin.

Pinic (a.) Of or pertaining to the pine; obtained from the pine; formerly, designating an acid which is the chief constituent of common resin, -- now called abietic, or sylvic, acid.

Pinion (n.) The joint of bird's wing most remote from the body.

Pinion (v. t.) To bind or confine the wings of; to confine by binding the wings.

Pinion (v. t.) To disable or restrain, as a person, by binding the arms, esp. by binding the arms to the body.

Pinion (v. t.) Hence, generally, to confine; to bind; to tie up.

Pinite (n.) Any fossil wood which exhibits traces of having belonged to the Pine family.

Pink (v. t.) A color resulting from the combination of a pure vivid red with more or less white; -- so called from the common color of the flower.

Pinking (n.) The act of piercing or stabbing.

Pinna (n.) Any species of Pinna, a genus of large bivalve mollusks found in all warm seas. The byssus consists of a large number of long, silky fibers, which have been used in manufacturing woven fabrics, as a curiosity.

Pinnatiped (a.) Having the toes bordered by membranes; fin-footed, as certain birds.

Pinnatiped (n.) Any bird which has the toes bordered by membranes.

Pinner (n.) An apron with a bib; a pinafore.

Pintado (n.) Any bird of the genus Numida. Several species are found in Africa. The common pintado, or Guinea fowl, the helmeted, and the crested pintados, are the best known. See Guinea fowl, under Guinea.

Pin-tailed (a.) Having a tapered tail, with the middle feathers longest; -- said of birds.

Pious (a.) Of or pertaining to piety; exhibiting piety; reverential; dutiful; religious; devout; godly.

Pipa (n.) The Surinam toad (Pipa Americana), noted for its peculiar breeding habits.

Pipe (n.) The peeping whistle, call, or note of a bird.

Pipe laying () The act or method of making combinations for personal advantage secretly or slyly; -- in this sense, usually written as one word.

Piping (n.) The act of playing on a pipe; the shrill noted of birds, etc.

Pipit (n.) Any one of numerous species of small singing birds belonging to Anthus and allied genera, of the family Motacillidae. They strongly resemble the true larks in habits, colors, and the great length of the hind claw. They are, therefore, often called titlarks, and pipit larks.

Pipra (n.) Any one of numerous species of small clamatorial birds belonging to Pipra and allied genera, of the family Pipridae. The male is usually glossy black, varied with scarlet, yellow, or sky blue. They chiefly inhabit South America.

Pique (v. t.) To excite to action by causing resentment or jealousy; to stimulate; to prick; as, to pique ambition, or curiosity.

Piririgua (n.) A South American bird (Guira guira) allied to the cuckoos.

Pirn (n.) A quill or reed on which thread or yarn is wound; a bobbin; also, the wound yarn on a weaver's shuttle; also, the reel of a fishing rod.

Pissasphalt (n.) Earth pitch; a soft, black bitumen of the consistence of tar, and of a strong smell. It is inflammable, and intermediate between petroleum and asphalt.

Pistachio (n.) The nut of the Pistacia vera, a tree of the order Anacardiaceae, containing a kernel of a pale greenish color, which has a pleasant taste, resembling that of the almond, and yields an oil of agreeable taste and odor; -- called also pistachio nut. It is wholesome and nutritive. The tree grows in Arabia, Persia, Syria, and Sicily.

Pistacia (n.) The name of a genus of trees, including the tree which bears the pistachio, the Mediterranean mastic tree (Pistacia Lentiscus), and the species (P. Terebinthus) which yields Chian or Cyprus turpentine.

Pitch (v. i.) To fix or place a tent or temporary habitation; to encamp.

Pitta (n.) Any one of a large group of bright-colored clamatorial birds belonging to Pitta, and allied genera of the family Pittidae. Most of the species are varied with three or more colors, such as blue, green, crimson, yellow, purple, and black. They are called also ground thrushes, and Old World ant thrushes; but they are not related to the true thrushes.

Placability (n.) The quality or state of being placable or appeasable; placable disposition.

Placenta (n.) The vascular appendage which connects the fetus with the parent, and is cast off in parturition with the afterbirth.

Plaguy (a.) Vexatious; troublesome; tormenting; as, a plaguy horse. [Colloq.] Also used adverbially; as, "He is so plaguy proud."

Plaint (n.) A private memorial tendered to a court, in which a person sets forth his cause of action; the exhibiting of an action in writing.

Plane (a.) An ideal surface, conceived as coinciding with, or containing, some designated astronomical line, circle, or other curve; as, the plane of an orbit; the plane of the ecliptic, or of the equator.

Planet (n.) A celestial body which revolves about the sun in an orbit of a moderate degree of eccentricity. It is distinguished from a comet by the absence of a coma, and by having a less eccentric orbit. See Solar system.

Planetary (a.) Of or pertaining to the planets; as, planetary inhabitants; planetary motions; planetary year.

Plano- (a.) Combining forms signifying flat, level, plane; as planifolious, planimetry, plano-concave.

Plano-orbicular (a.) Plane or flat on one side, and spherical on the other.

Planorbis (n.) Any fresh-water air-breathing mollusk belonging to Planorbis and other allied genera, having shells of a discoidal form.

Plasmid (n.) A piece of DNA, usually circular, functioning as part of the genetic material of a cell, not integrated with the chromosome and replicating independently of the chromosome, but transferred, like the chromosome, to subsequent generations. In bacteria, plasmids often carry the genes for antibiotic resistance; they are exploited in genetic engineering as the vehicles for introduction of extraneous DNA into cells, to alter the genetic makeup of the cell. The cells thus altered may produce desirable proteins which are extracted and used; in the case of genetically altered plant cells, the altered cells may grow into complete plants with changed properties, as for example, increased resistance to disease.

Plasmodium (n.) A naked mobile mass of protoplasm, formed by the union of several amoebalike young, and constituting one of the stages in the life cycle of Mycetozoa and other low organisms.

Plaster (n.) An external application of a consistency harder than ointment, prepared for use by spreading it on linen, leather, silk, or other material. It is adhesive at the ordinary temperature of the body, and is used, according to its composition, to produce a medicinal effect, to bind parts together, etc.; as, a porous plaster; sticking plaster.

-plastic () A combining form signifying developing, forming, growing; as, heteroplastic, monoplastic, polyplastic.

-plasty () A combining form denoting the act or process of forming, development, growth; as, autoplasty, perineoplasty.

Plate-gilled (a.) Having flat, or leaflike, gills, as the bivalve mollusks.

Platiniridium (n.) A natural alloy of platinum and iridium occurring in grayish metallic rounded or cubical grains with platinum.

Platinize (v. t.) To cover or combine with platinum.

Platy- () A combining form from Gr. platy`s broad, wide, flat; as, platypus, platycephalous.

Platycnemism (n.) Lateral flattening of the tibia.

Plausibility (n.) Something worthy of praise.

Plausibility (n.) The quality of being plausible; speciousness.

Plausibility (n.) Anything plausible or specious.

Play (v. t.) To bring into sportive or wanton action; to exhibit in action; to execute; as, to play tricks.

Play (n.) The act or practice of contending for victory, amusement, or a prize, as at dice, cards, or billiards; gaming; as, to lose a fortune in play.

Play (n.) The representation or exhibition of a comedy or tragedy; as, he attends ever play.

Playbill (n.) A printed programme of a play, with the parts assigned to the actors.

Playhouse (n.) A building used for dramatic exhibitions; a theater.

Plebicolist (n.) One who flatters, or courts the favor of, the common people; a demagogue.

Plebification (n.) A rendering plebeian; the act of vulgarizing.

Plebiscitary (a.) Of or pertaining to plebiscite.

Plebiscite (n.) A vote by universal male suffrage; especially, in France, a popular vote, as first sanctioned by the National Constitution of 1791.

Plebiscitum (n.) A law enacted by the common people, under the superintendence of a tribune or some subordinate plebeian magistrate, without the intervention of the senate.

Pledge (n.) A promise or agreement by which one binds one's self to do, or to refrain from doing, something; especially, a solemn promise in writing to refrain from using intoxicating liquors or the like; as, to sign the pledge; the mayor had made no pledges.

Pledge (n.) To bind or engage by promise or declaration; to engage solemnly; as, to pledge one's self.

Pleomorphism (n.) The theory that the various genera of bacteria are phases or variations of growth of a number of Protean species, each of which may exhibit, according to undetermined conditions, all or some of the forms characteristic of the different genera and species.

Plethoric (a.) Haeving a full habit of body; characterized by plethora or excess of blood; as, a plethoric constitution; -- used also metaphorically.

Pleuro- () A combining form denoting relation to a side; specif., connection with, or situation in or near, the pleura; as, pleuroperitoneum.

Pleuropneumonia (n.) Inflammation of the pleura and lungs; a combination of pleurisy and pneumonia, esp. a kind of contagions and fatal lung plague of cattle.

Pleurosteon (n.) The antero-lateral piece which articulates the sternum of birds.

Pliability (n.) The quality or state of being pliable; flexibility; as, pliability of disposition.

Plica (v.) The bend of the wing of a bird.

Plodding (a.) Progressing in a slow, toilsome manner; characterized by laborious diligence; as, a plodding peddler; a plodding student; a man of plodding habits.

Plot (n.) Contrivance; deep reach of thought; ability to plot or intrigue.

Plover (n.) Any one of numerous species of limicoline birds belonging to the family Charadridae, and especially those belonging to the subfamily Charadrinsae. They are prized as game birds.

Plover (n.) Any grallatorial bird allied to, or resembling, the true plovers, as the crab plover (Dromas ardeola); the American upland, plover (Bartramia longicauda); and other species of sandpipers.

Plumage (n.) The entire clothing of a bird.

Plumbing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Plumb

Plumb (v. t.) To supply, as a building, with a system of plumbing.

Plumbery (n.) A place where plumbing is carried on; lead works.

Plumbic (a.) Of, pertaining to, resembling, or containing, lead; -- used specifically to designate those compounds in which it has a higher valence as contrasted with plumbous compounds; as, plumbic oxide.

Plumbiferous (a.) Producing or containing lead.

Plumbing (n.) The art of casting and working in lead, and applying it to building purposes; especially, the business of furnishing, fitting, and repairing pipes for conducting water, sewage, etc.

Plumbing (n.) The lead or iron pipes, and other apparatus, used in conveying water, sewage, etc., in a building.

Plumbism (n.) A diseased condition, produced by the absorption of lead, common among workers in this metal or in its compounds, as among painters, typesetters, etc. It is characterized by various symptoms, as lead colic, lead line, and wrist drop. See under Colic, Lead, and Wrist.

Plumbous (a.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, lead; -- used specifically to designate those compounds in which it has a lower valence as contrasted with plumbic compounds.

Plumiped (n.) A plumiped bird.

Pluri- () A combining form from L. plus, pluris, more, many; as pluriliteral.

Pluriparous (a.) Producing several young at a birth; as, a pluriparous animal.

Pluvian (n.) The crocodile bird.

Ply (v.) Bent; turn; direction; bias.

Pneumaticity (n.) The state of being pneumatic, or of having a cavity or cavities filled with air; as, the pneumaticity of the bones of birds.

Pneumato- () A combining form from Gr. pney^ma, pney`matos, wind, air, breath, respiration; as, pneumatograph, pneumatology.

Pneumo- () A combining form from Gr. pney`mwn, pney`monos, a lung; as, pneumogastric, pneumology.

Poach (v. i.) To steal or pocket game, or to carry it away privately, as in a bag; to kill or destroy game contrary to law, especially by night; to hunt or fish unlawfully; as, to poach for rabbits or for salmon.

Pocket (n.) One of several bags attached to a billiard table, into which the balls are driven.

-pod () A combining form or suffix from Gr. poy`s, podo`s, foot; as, decapod, an animal having ten feet; phyllopod, an animal having leaflike feet; myriapod, hexapod.

-poda () A New Latin plural combining form or suffix from Gr. /, /, foot; as, hexapoda, myriapoda. See -pod.

Podarthrum (n.) The foot joint; in birds, the joint between the metatarsus and the toes.

Podo- () A combining form or prefix from Gr. poy`s, podo`s, foot; as, podocarp, podocephalous, podology.

Podophyllin (n.) A brown bitter gum extracted from the rootstalk of the May apple (Podophyllum peltatum). It is a complex mixture of several substances.

Podotheca (n.) The scaly covering of the foot of a bird or reptile.

Poebird (n.) The parson bird.

Poephaga (n. pl.) A group of herbivorous marsupials including the kangaroos and their allies.

Poetical (a.) Expressed in metrical form; exhibiting the imaginative or the rhythmical quality of poetry; as, a poetical composition; poetical prose.

Poinciana (n.) A prickly tropical shrub (Caesalpinia, formerly Poinciana, pulcherrima), with bipinnate leaves, and racemes of showy orange-red flowers with long crimson filaments.

Poinsettia (n.) A Mexican shrub (Euphorbia pulcherrima) with very large and conspicuous vermilion bracts below the yellowish flowers.

Pointing (n.) The rubbing off of the point of the wheat grain in the first process of high milling.

Poison (n.) Any agent which, when introduced into the animal organism, is capable of producing a morbid, noxious, or deadly effect upon it; as, morphine is a deadly poison; the poison of pestilential diseases.

Polander (n.) A native or inhabitant of Poland; a Pole.

Polaristic (a.) Pertaining to, or exhibiting, poles; having a polar arrangement or disposition; arising from, or dependent upon, the possession of poles or polar characteristics; as, polaristic antagonism.

Polarity (n.) That quality or condition of a body in virtue of which it exhibits opposite, or contrasted, properties or powers, in opposite, or contrasted, parts or directions; or a condition giving rise to a contrast of properties corresponding to a contrast of positions, as, for example, attraction and repulsion in the opposite parts of a magnet, the dissimilar phenomena corresponding to the different sides of a polarized ray of light, etc.

Polarization (n.) A peculiar affection or condition of the rays of light or heat, in consequence of which they exhibit different properties in different directions.

Pole (n.) A native or inhabitant of Poland; a Polander.

Pole (n.) A long, slender piece of wood; a tall, slender piece of timber; the stem of a small tree whose branches have been removed; as, specifically: (a) A carriage pole, a wooden bar extending from the front axle of a carriage between the wheel horses, by which the carriage is guided and held back. (b) A flag pole, a pole on which a flag is supported. (c) A Maypole. See Maypole. (d) A barber's pole, a pole painted in stripes, used as a sign by barbers and hairdressers. (e) A pole on which climbing beans, hops, or other vines, are trained.

Polewig (n.) The European spotted goby (Gobius minutus); -- called also pollybait.

Polish (a.) Of or pertaining to Poland or its inhabitants.

Polity (n.) The form or constitution of the civil government of a nation or state; the framework or organization by which the various departments of government are combined into a systematic whole.

Pollex (n.) The first, or preaxial, digit of the fore limb, corresponding to the hallux in the hind limb; the thumb. In birds, the pollex is the joint which bears the bastard wing.

Poly- (a.) A combining form or prefix from Gr. poly`s, many; as, polygon, a figure of many angles; polyatomic, having many atoms; polychord, polyconic.

Poly (n.) A whitish woolly plant (Teucrium Polium) of the order Labiatae, found throughout the Mediterranean region. The name, with sundry prefixes, is sometimes given to other related species of the same genus.

Polyacid (a.) Capable of neutralizing, or of combining with, several molecules of a monobasic acid; having more than one hydrogen atom capable of being replaced by acid radicals; -- said of certain bases; as, calcium hydrate and glycerin are polyacid bases.

Polybasic (a.) Capable of neutralizing, or of combining with, several molecules of a monacid base; having several hydrogen atoms capable of being replaced by basic radicals; -- said of certain acids; as, sulphuric acid is polybasic.

Polychromate (n.) A compound which exhibits, or from which may be prepared, a variety of colors, as certain solutions derived from vegetables, which display colors by fluorescence.

Polychromy (n.) The art or practice of combining different colors, especially brilliant ones, in an artistic way.

Polygala (n.) A genus of bitter herbs or shrubs having eight stamens and a two-celled ovary (as the Seneca snakeroot, the flowering wintergreen, etc.); milkwort.

Polygamy (n.) The state or habit of having more than one mate.

Polygonum (n.) A genus of plants embracing a large number of species, including bistort, knotweed, smartweed, etc.

Polygraph (n.) In bibliography, a collection of different works, either by one or several authors.

Polymorphism (n.) The capability of assuming different forms; the capability of widely varying in form.

Polypharmacy (n.) The act or practice of prescribing too many medicines.

Polypteroidei (n. pl.) A suborder of existing ganoid fishes having numerous fins along the back. The bichir, or Polypterus, is the type. See Illust. under Crossopterygian.

Polypterus (n.) An African genus of ganoid fishes including the bichir.

Polysyllabic (a.) Alt. of Polysyllabical

Polysyllabical (a.) Pertaining to a polysyllable; containing, or characterized by, polysyllables; consisting of more than three syllables.

Polysyllabicism (n.) Polysyllabism.

Polysyllabicity (n.) Polysyllabism.

Polysyllabism (n.) The quality or state of being polysyllabic.

Polysynthesis (n.) The act or process of combining many separate elements into a whole.

Polysynthesis (n.) The formation of a word by the combination of several simple words, as in the aboriginal languages of America; agglutination.

Polytechnic (a.) Comprehending, or relating to, many arts and sciences; -- applied particularly to schools in which many branches of art and science are taught with especial reference to their practical application; also to exhibitions of machinery and industrial products.

Pomeranian (n.) A native or inhabitant of Pomerania.

Ponderability (n.) The quality or state of being ponderable.

Ponibility (n.) The capability of being placed or located.

Pool (n.) The stake played for in certain games of cards, billiards, etc.; an aggregated stake to which each player has contributed a snare; also, the receptacle for the stakes.

Pool (n.) A game at billiards, in which each of the players stakes a certain sum, the winner taking the whole; also, in public billiard rooms, a game in which the loser pays the entrance fee for all who engage in the game; a game of skill in pocketing the balls on a pool table.

Pool (n.) A combination of persons contributing money to be used for the purpose of increasing or depressing the market price of stocks, grain, or other commodities; also, the aggregate of the sums so contributed; as, the pool took all the wheat offered below the limit; he put $10,000 into the pool.

Pool (n.) An aggregation of properties or rights, belonging to different people in a community, in a common fund, to be charged with common liabilities.

Pool (v. i.) To combine or contribute with others, as for a commercial, speculative, or gambling transaction.

Pooling (n.) The act of uniting, or an agreement to unite, an aggregation of properties belonging to different persons, with a view to common liabilities or profits.

Poop (n.) A deck raised above the after part of a vessel; the hindmost or after part of a vessel's hull; also, a cabin covered by such a deck. See Poop deck, under Deck. See also Roundhouse.

Poor-will (n.) A bird of the Western United States (Phalaenoptilus Nutalli) allied to the whip-poor-will.

Pope (n.) Any ecclesiastic, esp. a bishop.

Pope (n.) The bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. See Note under Cardinal.

Poppet (n.) One of certain upright timbers on the bilge ways, used to support a vessel in launching.

Populate (v. t.) To furnish with inhabitants, either by natural increase or by immigration or colonization; to cause to be inhabited; to people.

Population (n.) The act or process of populating; multiplication of inhabitants.

Population (n.) The whole number of people, or inhabitants, in a country, or portion of a country; as, a population of ten millions.

Populous (a.) Abounding in people; full of inhabitants; containing many inhabitants in proportion to the extent of the country.

Porbeagle (n.) A species of shark (Lamna cornubica), about eight feet long, having a pointed nose and a crescent-shaped tail; -- called also mackerel shark.

Porcupine (n.) Any species of Erethizon and related genera, native of America. They are related to the true porcupines, but have shorter spines, and are arboreal in their habits. The Canada porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus) is a well known species.

Porgy (n.) Any one of several species of embiotocoids, or surf fishes, of the Pacific coast. The name is also given locally to several other fishes, as the bur fish.

Porism (n.) A proposition affirming the possibility of finding such conditions as will render a certain determinate problem indeterminate or capable of innumerable solutions.

Portability (n.) The quality or state of being portable; fitness to be carried.

Portableness (n.) The quality or state of being portable; portability.

Porter (n.) A malt liquor, of a dark color and moderately bitter taste, possessing tonic and intoxicating qualities.

Portfolio (n.) Hence: The office and functions of a minister of state or member of the cabinet; as, to receive the portfolio of war; to resign the portfolio.

Portman (n.) An inhabitant or burgess of a port, esp. of one of the Cinque Ports.

Portuguese (a.) Of or pertaining to Portugal, or its inhabitants.

Portuguese (n. sing. & pl.) A native or inhabitant of Portugal; people of Portugal.

Positive (a.) Hence: Not admitting of any doubt, condition, qualification, or discretion; not dependent on circumstances or probabilities; not speculative; compelling assent or obedience; peremptory; indisputable; decisive; as, positive instructions; positive truth; positive proof.

Positive (a.) Prescribed by express enactment or institution; settled by arbitrary appointment; said of laws.

Positively (adv.) In a positive manner; absolutely; really; expressly; with certainty; indubitably; peremptorily; dogmatically; -- opposed to negatively.

Possibilities (pl. ) of Possibility

Possibility (n.) The quality or state of being possible; the power of happening, being, or existing.

Possibility (n.) That which is possible; a contingency; a thing or event that may not happen; a contingent interest, as in real or personal estate.

Possible (a.) Capable of existing or occurring, or of being conceived or thought of; able to happen; capable of being done; not contrary to the nature of things; -- sometimes used to express extreme improbability; barely able to be, or to come to pass; as, possibly he is honest, as it is possible that Judas meant no wrong.

Post (v. t.) To attach to a post, a wall, or other usual place of affixing public notices; to placard; as, to post a notice; to post playbills.

Postdate (n.) A date put to a bill of exchange or other paper, later than that when it was actually made.

Poster (n.) A large bill or placard intended to be posted in public places.

Poster (n.) One who posts bills; a billposter.

Postero () - (/). A combining form meaning posterior, back; as, postero-inferior, situated back and below; postero-lateral, situated back and at the side.

Postmaster-general (n.) The chief officer of the post-office department of a government. In the United States the postmaster-general is a member of the cabinet.

Postnatal (a.) After birth; subsequent to birth; as, postnatal infanticide; postnatal diseases.

Post-obit () Alt. of Post-obit bond

Post-obit bond () A bond in which the obligor, in consideration of having received a certain sum of money, binds himself to pay a larger sum, on unusual interest, on the death of some specified individual from whom he has expectations.

Postocular (a. & n.) Same as Postorbital.

Postorbital (a.) Situated behind the orbit; as, the postorbital scales of some fishes and reptiles.

Postorbital (n.) A postorbital bone or scale.

Postpone (v. t.) To defer to a future or later time; to put off; also, to cause to be deferred or put off; to delay; to adjourn; as, to postpone the consideration of a bill to the following day, or indefinitely.

Potassium (n.) An Alkali element, occurring abundantly but always combined, as in the chloride, sulphate, carbonate, or silicate, in the minerals sylvite, kainite, orthoclase, muscovite, etc. Atomic weight 39.0. Symbol K (Kalium).

Potency (n