Hyper-Hyphen hypertext dictionary -- based on Webster's Unabridged 1913
via Dailey, via Ralph Sutherland's OPTED, via Gutenberg, via Noah Webster

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Mon
A () An adjective, commonly called the indefinite article, and signifying one or any, but less emphatically.

Aard-vark (n.) An edentate mammal, of the genus Orycteropus, somewhat resembling a pig, common in some parts of Southern Africa. It burrows in the ground, and feeds entirely on ants, which it catches with its long, slimy tongue.

Ab (n.) The fifth month of the Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with August.

Abb (n.) Among weavers, yarn for the warp. Hence, abb wool is wool for the abb.

Abbe (n.) The French word answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress.

Abbess (n.) A female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the abbots have over the monks. See Abbey.

Abbey (n.) A monastery or society of persons of either sex, secluded from the world and devoted to religion and celibacy; also, the monastic building or buildings.

Abbey (n.) The church of a monastery.

Abdication (n.) The act of abdicating; the renunciation of a high office, dignity, or trust, by its holder; commonly the voluntary renunciation of sovereign power; as, abdication of the throne, government, power, authority.

Abib (n.) The first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, corresponding nearly to our April. After the Babylonish captivity this month was called Nisan.

Abide (v. i.) To stay; to continue in a place; to have one's abode; to dwell; to sojourn; -- with with before a person, and commonly with at or in before a place.

Abietite (n.) A substance resembling mannite, found in the needles of the common silver fir of Europe (Abies pectinata).

Abnormity (n.) Departure from the ordinary type; irregularity; monstrosity.

Abraxas (n.) A mystical word used as a charm and engraved on gems among the ancients; also, a gem stone thus engraved.

Abrupt (a.) Without notice to prepare the mind for the event; sudden; hasty; unceremonious.

Abruptness (n.) Suddenness; unceremonious haste or vehemence; as, abruptness of style or manner.

Absinthe (n.) The plant absinthium or common wormwood.

Absinthic (a.) Relating to the common wormwood or to an acid obtained from it.

Absinthium (n.) The common wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), an intensely bitter plant, used as a tonic and for making the oil of wormwood.

Absolute (a.) Loosed from any limitation or condition; uncontrolled; unrestricted; unconditional; as, absolute authority, monarchy, sovereignty, an absolute promise or command; absolute power; an absolute monarch.

Absonous (a.) Discordant; inharmonious; incongruous.

Abstract (a.) To take secretly or dishonestly; to purloin; as, to abstract goods from a parcel, or money from a till.

Absurd (a.) Contrary to reason or propriety; obviously and fiatly opposed to manifest truth; inconsistent with the plain dictates of common sense; logically contradictory; nonsensical; ridiculous; as, an absurd person, an absurd opinion; an absurd dream.

Academy (n.) An institution for the study of higher learning; a college or a university. Popularly, a school, or seminary of learning, holding a rank between a college and a common school.

Accite (v. t.) To cite; to summon.

Accolade (n.) A ceremony formerly used in conferring knighthood, consisting am embrace, and a slight blow on the shoulders with the flat blade of a sword.

Accommodate (v. t.) To bring into agreement or harmony; to reconcile; to compose; to adjust; to settle; as, to accommodate differences, a dispute, etc.

Accommodation (n.) A loan of money.

Accompaniment (n.) A part performed by instruments, accompanying another part or parts performed by voices; the subordinate part, or parts, accompanying the voice or a principal instrument; also, the harmony of a figured bass.

Accomplished (a.) Complete in acquirements as the result usually of training; -- commonly in a good sense; as, an accomplished scholar, an accomplished villain.

Accord (v. t.) Agreement or concurrence of opinion, will, or action; harmony of mind; consent; assent.

Accord (v. t.) Harmony of sounds; agreement in pitch and tone; concord; as, the accord of tones.

Accord (v. t.) Agreement, harmony, or just correspondence of things; as, the accord of light and shade in painting.

Accord (v. t.) To bring to an agreement, as persons; to reconcile; to settle, adjust, harmonize, or compose, as things; as, to accord suits or controversies.

Accord (v. i.) To agree; to correspond; to be in harmony; -- followed by with, formerly also by to; as, his disposition accords with his looks.

Accordance (n.) Agreement; harmony; conformity.

Accordant (a.) Agreeing; consonant; harmonious; corresponding; conformable; -- followed by with or to.

According (p. a.) Agreeing; in agreement or harmony; harmonious.

Account (v. i.) To render or receive an account or relation of particulars; as, an officer must account with or to the treasurer for money received.

Accrue (n.) To come to by way of increase; to arise or spring as a growth or result; to be added as increase, profit, or damage, especially as the produce of money lent.

Accumulate (v. t.) To heap up in a mass; to pile up; to collect or bring together; to amass; as, to accumulate a sum of money.

Accuracy (n.) The state of being accurate; freedom from mistakes, this exemption arising from carefulness; exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; precision; exactness; nicety; correctness; as, the value of testimony depends on its accuracy.

Ace (n.) A unit; a single point or spot on a card or die; the card or die so marked; as, the ace of diamonds.

Acetamide (n.) A white crystalline solid, from ammonia by replacement of an equivalent of hydrogen by acetyl.

Achatina (n.) A genus of land snails, often large, common in the warm parts of America and Africa.

Achievement (n.) An escutcheon or ensign armorial; now generally applied to the funeral shield commonly called hatchment.

Acidity (n.) The quality of being sour; sourness; tartness; sharpness to the taste; as, the acidity of lemon juice.

Aconite (n.) The herb wolfsbane, or monkshood; -- applied to any plant of the genus Aconitum (tribe Hellebore), all the species of which are poisonous.

Acridness (n.) The quality of being acrid or pungent; irritant bitterness; acrimony; as, the acridity of a plant, of a speech.

Acrimonious (a.) Acrid; corrosive; as, acrimonious gall.

Acrimonious (a.) Caustic; bitter-tempered' sarcastic; as, acrimonious dispute, language, temper.

Acrimoniously (adv.) In an acrimonious manner.

Acrimoniousness (n.) The quality of being acrimonious; asperity; acrimony.

Acrimonies (pl. ) of Acrimony

Acrimony (n.) A quality of bodies which corrodes or destroys others; also, a harsh or biting sharpness; as, the acrimony of the juices of certain plants.

Acrimony (n.) Sharpness or severity, as of language or temper; irritating bitterness of disposition or manners.

Acromonogrammatic (a.) Having each verse begin with the same letter as that with which the preceding verse ends.

Actinia (n.) An animal of the class Anthozoa, and family Actinidae. From a resemblance to flowers in form and color, they are often called animal flowers and sea anemones. [See Polyp.].

Actiniform (a.) Having a radiated form, like a sea anemone.

Actinozoa (n. pl.) A group of Coelenterata, comprising the Anthozoa and Ctenophora. The sea anemone, or actinia, is a familiar example.

Actuate (v. t.) To put into action or motion; to move or incite to action; to influence actively; to move as motives do; -- more commonly used of persons.

Adamant (n.) A stone imagined by some to be of impenetrable hardness; a name given to the diamond and other substances of extreme hardness; but in modern mineralogy it has no technical signification. It is now a rhetorical or poetical name for the embodiment of impenetrable hardness.

Adamantine (a.) Like the diamond in hardness or luster.

Adansonia (n.) A genus of great trees related to the Bombax. There are two species, A. digitata, the baobab or monkey-bread of Africa and India, and A. Gregorii, the sour gourd or cream-of-tartar tree of Australia. Both have a trunk of moderate height, but of enormous diameter, and a wide-spreading head. The fruit is oblong, and filled with pleasantly acid pulp. The wood is very soft, and the bark is used by the natives for making ropes and cloth.

Adar (n.) The twelfth month of the Hebrew ecclesiastical year, and the sixth of the civil. It corresponded nearly with March.

Adder (n.) A small venomous serpent of the genus Vipera. The common European adder is the Vipera (/ Pelias) berus. The puff adders of Africa are species of Clotho.

Adder (n.) In America, the term is commonly applied to several harmless snakes, as the milk adder, puffing adder, etc.

Adderwort (n.) The common bistort or snakeweed (Polygonum bistorta).

Adduct (v. t.) To draw towards a common center or a middle line.

Adelphous (a.) Having coalescent or clustered filaments; -- said of stamens; as, adelphous stamens. Usually in composition; as, monadelphous.

Adiaphorist (n.) One of the German Protestants who, with Melanchthon, held some opinions and ceremonies to be indifferent or nonessential, which Luther condemned as sinful or heretical.

Adjourn (v. t.) To put off or defer to another day, or indefinitely; to postpone; to close or suspend for the day; -- commonly said of the meeting, or the action, of convened body; as, to adjourn the meeting; to adjourn a debate.

Adlegation (n.) A right formerly claimed by the states of the German Empire of joining their own ministers with those of the emperor in public treaties and negotiations to the common interest of the empire.

Admeasure (v. t.) To determine the proper share of, or the proper apportionment; as, to admeasure dower; to admeasure common of pasture.

Admeasure (v. t.) Formerly, the adjustment of proportion, or ascertainment of shares, as of dower or pasture held in common. This was by writ of admeasurement, directed to the sheriff.

Admonished (imp. & p. p.) of Admonish

Admonishing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Admonish

Admonish (v. t.) To warn or notify of a fault; to reprove gently or kindly, but seriously; to exhort.

Admonish (v. t.) To counsel against wrong practices; to cation or advise; to warn against danger or an offense; -- followed by of, against, or a subordinate clause.

Admonish (v. t.) To instruct or direct; to inform; to notify.

Admonisher (n.) One who admonishes.

Admonishment (n.) Admonition.

Admonition (n.) Gentle or friendly reproof; counseling against a fault or error; expression of authoritative advice; friendly caution or warning.

Admonitioner (n.) Admonisher.

Admonitive (a.) Admonitory.

Admonitor (n.) Admonisher; monitor.

Admonitorial (a.) Admonitory.

Admonitory (a.) That conveys admonition; warning or reproving; as, an admonitory glance.

Admonitrix (n.) A female admonitor.

Adoption (n.) Admission to a more intimate relation; reception; as, the adoption of persons into hospitals or monasteries, or of one society into another.

Adularia (n.) A transparent or translucent variety of common feldspar, or orthoclase, which often shows pearly opalescent reflections; -- called by lapidaries moonstone.

Advance (v. t.) To furnish, as money or other value, before it becomes due, or in aid of an enterprise; to supply beforehand; as, a merchant advances money on a contract or on goods consigned to him.

Advance (v.) A furnishing of something before an equivalent is received (as money or goods), towards a capital or stock, or on loan; payment beforehand; the money or goods thus furnished; money or value supplied beforehand.

Advancement (v. t.) An advance of money or value; payment in advance. See Advance, 5.

Advantage (n.) Interest of money; increase; overplus (as the thirteenth in the baker's dozen).

Adversaria (n. pl.) A miscellaneous collection of notes, remarks, or selections; a commonplace book; also, commentaries or notes.

Advertisement (n.) Admonition; advice; warning.

Advice (n.) Information or notice given; intelligence; as, late advices from France; -- commonly in the plural.

Advoke (v. t.) To summon; to call.

Aerate (v. t.) To supply or impregnate with common air; as, to aerate soil; to aerate water.

Aetiology (n.) The science, doctrine, or demonstration of causes; esp., the investigation of the causes of any disease; the science of the origin and development of things.

Affection (n.) Disease; morbid symptom; malady; as, a pulmonary affection.

Affirmative (a.) Confirmative; ratifying; as, an act affirmative of common law.

Africander (n.) One born in Africa, the offspring of a white father and a "colored" mother. Also, and now commonly in Southern Africa, a native born of European settlers.

Afreet (n.) A powerful evil jinnee, demon, or monstrous giant.

Agaric (n.) A fungus of the genus Agaricus, of many species, of which the common mushroom is an example.

Aggregate (a.) Composed of several florets within a common involucre, as in the daisy; or of several carpels formed from one flower, as in the raspberry.

Aggregate (a.) United into a common organized mass; -- said of certain compound animals.

Aggrieve (v. t.) To give pain or sorrow to; to afflict; hence, to oppress or injure in one's rights; to bear heavily upon; -- now commonly used in the passive TO be aggrieved.

Agio (n.) The premium or percentage on a better sort of money when it is given in exchange for an inferior sort. The premium or discount on foreign bills of exchange is sometimes called agio.

Agist (v. t.) To take to graze or pasture, at a certain sum; -- used originally of the feeding of cattle in the king's forests, and collecting the money for the same.

Agistor (n.) Formerly, an officer of the king's forest, who had the care of cattle agisted, and collected the money for the same; -- hence called gisttaker, which in England is corrupted into guest-taker.

Agouty (n.) A rodent of the genus Dasyprocta, about the size of a rabbit, peculiar to South America and the West Indies. The most common species is the Dasyprocta agouti.

Agrarian (a.) Pertaining to fields, or lands, or their tenure; esp., relating to an equal or equitable division of lands; as, the agrarian laws of Rome, which distributed the conquered and other public lands among citizens.

Agree (v. i.) To harmonize in opinion, statement, or action; to be in unison or concord; to be or become united or consistent; to concur; as, all parties agree in the expediency of the law.

Agree (v. i.) To make a stipulation by way of settling differences or determining a price; to exchange promises; to come to terms or to a common resolve; to promise.

Agree (v. t.) To make harmonious; to reconcile or make friends.

Agreeableness (n.) Resemblance; concordance; harmony; -- with to or between.

Agreement (n.) State of agreeing; harmony of opinion, statement, action, or character; concurrence; concord; conformity; as, a good agreement subsists among the members of the council.

Agrimony (n.) A genus of plants of the Rose family.

Agrimony (n.) The name is also given to various other plants; as, hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum); water agrimony (Bidens).

Agrostis (n.) A genus of grasses, including species called in common language bent grass. Some of them, as redtop (Agrostis vulgaris), are valuable pasture grasses.

Air (n.) In harmonized chorals, psalmody, part songs, etc., the part which bears the tune or melody -- in modern harmony usually the upper part -- is sometimes called the air.

Ajar (adv.) In a state of discord; out of harmony; as, he is ajar with the world.

Aladinist (n.) One of a sect of freethinkers among the Mohammedans.

Alanine (n.) A white crystalline base, C3H7NO2, derived from aldehyde ammonia.

Alarm (n.) A summons to arms, as on the approach of an enemy.

Alarm (n.) Sudden surprise with fear or terror excited by apprehension of danger; in the military use, commonly, sudden apprehension of being attacked by surprise.

Albicore (n.) A name applied to several large fishes of the Mackerel family, esp. Orcynus alalonga. One species (Orcynus thynnus), common in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, is called in New England the horse mackerel; the tunny.

Albite (n.) A mineral of the feldspar family, triclinic in crystallization, and in composition a silicate of alumina and soda. It is a common constituent of granite and of various igneous rocks. See Feldspar.

Alcayde (n.) A commander of a castle or fortress among the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Moors.

Alchemy (n.) Miraculous power of transmuting something common into something precious.

Alcohol (n.) A class of compounds analogous to vinic alcohol in constitution. Chemically speaking, they are hydroxides of certain organic radicals; as, the radical ethyl forms common or ethyl alcohol (C2H5.OH); methyl forms methyl alcohol (CH3.OH) or wood spirit; amyl forms amyl alcohol (C5H11.OH) or fusel oil, etc.

Alectorides (n. pl.) A group of birds including the common fowl and the pheasants.

Alembroth (n.) The salt of wisdom of the alchemists, a double salt composed of the chlorides of ammonium and mercury. It was formerly used as a stimulant.

Alestake (n.) A stake or pole projecting from, or set up before, an alehouse, as a sign; an alepole. At the end was commonly suspended a garland, a bunch of leaves, or a "bush."

Algaroth (n.) A term used for the Powder of Algaroth, a white powder which is a compound of trichloride and trioxide of antimony. It was formerly used in medicine as an emetic, purgative, and diaphoretic.

Alike (adv.) In the same manner, form, or degree; in common; equally; as, we are all alike concerned in religion.

Alimonious (a.) Affording food; nourishing.

Alimony (n.) Maintenance; means of living.

Alimony (n.) An allowance made to a wife out of her husband's estate or income for her support, upon her divorce or legal separation from him, or during a suit for the same.

Alkalamide (n.) One of a series of compounds that may be regarded as ammonia in which a part of the hydrogen has been replaced by basic, and another part by acid, atoms or radicals.

Alkali (n.) One of a class of caustic bases, such as soda, potash, ammonia, and lithia, whose distinguishing peculiarities are solubility in alcohol and water, uniting with oils and fats to form soap, neutralizing and forming salts with acids, turning to brown several vegetable yellows, and changing reddened litmus to blue.

Alla breve () With one breve, or four minims, to measure, and sung faster like four crotchets; in quick common time; -- indicated in the time signature by /.

Allah (n.) The name of the Supreme Being, in use among the Arabs and the Mohammedans generally.

Alleluiah (n.) An exclamation signifying Praise ye Jehovah. Hence: A song of praise to God. See Hallelujah, the commoner form.

Alliance (n.) The state of being allied; the act of allying or uniting; a union or connection of interests between families, states, parties, etc., especially between families by marriage and states by compact, treaty, or league; as, matrimonial alliances; an alliance between church and state; an alliance between France and England.

Alligator (n.) A large carnivorous reptile of the Crocodile family, peculiar to America. It has a shorter and broader snout than the crocodile, and the large teeth of the lower jaw shut into pits in the upper jaw, which has no marginal notches. Besides the common species of the southern United States, there are allied species in South America.

Allomorph (n.) A variety of pseudomorph which has undergone partial or complete change or substitution of material; -- thus limonite is frequently an allomorph after pyrite.

Allowable (a.) Proper to be, or capable of being, allowed; permissible; admissible; not forbidden; not unlawful or improper; as, a certain degree of freedom is allowable among friends.

Allspice (n.) The berry of the pimento (Eugenia pimenta), a tree of the West Indies; a spice of a mildly pungent taste, and agreeably aromatic; Jamaica pepper; pimento. It has been supposed to combine the flavor of cinnamon, nutmegs, and cloves; and hence the name. The name is also given to other aromatic shrubs; as, the Carolina allspice (Calycanthus floridus); wild allspice (Lindera benzoin), called also spicebush, spicewood, and feverbush.

Almanac (n.) A book or table, containing a calendar of days, and months, to which astronomical data and various statistics are often added, such as the times of the rising and setting of the sun and moon, eclipses, hours of full tide, stated festivals of churches, terms of courts, etc.

Almandine (n.) The common red variety of garnet.

Almner (n.) An almoner.

Almond (n.) The fruit of the almond tree.

Almond (n.) The tree that bears the fruit; almond tree.

Almond (n.) Anything shaped like an almond.

Almond (n.) One of the tonsils.

Almond furnace () A kind of furnace used in refining, to separate the metal from cinders and other foreign matter.

Almondine (n.) See Almandine

Almoner (n.) One who distributes alms, esp. the doles and alms of religious houses, almshouses, etc.; also, one who dispenses alms for another, as the almoner of a prince, bishop, etc.

Almonership (n.) The office of an almoner.

Almonries (pl. ) of Almonry

Almonry (n.) The place where an almoner resides, or where alms are distributed.

Almry (n.) See Almonry.

Alms (n. sing. & pl.) Anything given gratuitously to relieve the poor, as money, food, or clothing; a gift of charity.

Alouatte (n.) One of the several species of howling monkeys of South America. See Howler, 2.

Alternative (n.) A choice between more than two things; one of several things offered to choose among.

Amadavat (n.) The strawberry finch, a small Indian song bird (Estrelda amandava), commonly caged and kept for fighting. The female is olive brown; the male, in summer, mostly crimson; -- called also red waxbill.

Amadou (n.) A spongy, combustible substance, prepared from fungus (Boletus and Polyporus) which grows on old trees; German tinder; punk. It has been employed as a styptic by surgeons, but its common use is as tinder, for which purpose it is prepared by soaking it in a strong solution of niter.

Amandine (n.) The vegetable casein of almonds.

Amandine (n.) A kind of cold cream prepared from almonds, for chapped hands, etc.

Amarine (n.) A characteristic crystalline substance, obtained from oil of bitter almonds.

Ambidexter (n.) A juror who takes money from both parties for giving his verdict.

Ambidexterity (n.) A juror's taking of money from the both parties for a verdict.

Amblypoda (n. pl.) A group of large, extinct, herbivorous mammals, common in the Tertiary formation of the United States.

Ambry (n.) Almonry.

Amic (a.) Related to, or derived, ammonia; -- used chiefly as a suffix; as, amic acid; phosphamic acid.

Amide (n.) A compound formed by the union of amidogen with an acid element or radical. It may also be regarded as ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an acid atom or radical.

Amidogen (n.) A compound radical, NH2, not yet obtained in a separate state, which may be regarded as ammonia from the molecule of which one of its hydrogen atoms has been removed; -- called also the amido group, and in composition represented by the form amido.

Amid (prep.) In the midst or middle of; surrounded or encompassed by; among.

Amine (n.) One of a class of strongly basic substances derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by a basic atom or radical.

Ammonia (n.) A gaseous compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, NH3, with a pungent smell and taste: -- often called volatile alkali, and spirits of hartshorn.

Ammoniac (a.) Alt. of Ammoniacal

Ammoniacal (a.) Of or pertaining to ammonia, or possessing its properties; as, an ammoniac salt; ammoniacal gas.

Ammoniac (n.) Alt. of Gum ammoniac

Gum ammoniac (n.) The concrete juice (gum resin) of an umbelliferous plant, the Dorema ammoniacum. It is brought chiefly from Persia in the form of yellowish tears, which occur singly, or are aggregated into masses. It has a peculiar smell, and a nauseous, sweet taste, followed by a bitter one. It is inflammable, partially soluble in water and in spirit of wine, and is used in medicine as an expectorant and resolvent, and for the formation of certain plasters.

Ammoniated (a.) Combined or impregnated with ammonia.

Ammonic (a.) Of or pertaining to ammonia.

Ammonite (n.) A fossil cephalopod shell related to the nautilus. There are many genera and species, and all are extinct, the typical forms having existed only in the Mesozoic age, when they were exceedingly numerous. They differ from the nautili in having the margins of the septa very much lobed or plaited, and the siphuncle dorsal. Also called serpent stone, snake stone, and cornu Ammonis.

Ammonitiferous (a.) Containing fossil ammonites.

Ammonitoidea (n. pl.) An extensive group of fossil cephalopods often very abundant in Mesozoic rocks. See Ammonite.

Ammonium (n.) A compound radical, NH4, having the chemical relations of a strongly basic element like the alkali metals.

Amoeba (n.) A rhizopod. common in fresh water, capable of undergoing many changes of form at will. See Rhizopoda.

Amoneste (v. t.) To admonish.

Among (prep.) Alt. of Amongst

Amongst (prep.) Mixed or mingled; surrounded by.

Amongst (prep.) Conjoined, or associated with, or making part of the number of; in the number or class of.

Amongst (prep.) Expressing a relation of dispersion, distribution, etc.; also, a relation of reciprocal action.

Amontillado (n.) A dry kind of cherry, of a light color.

Amortization (n.) The extinction of a debt, usually by means of a sinking fund; also, the money thus paid.

Amount (n.) To rise, reach, or extend in effect, substance, or influence; to be equivalent; to come practically (to); as, the testimony amounts to very little.

Amount (n.) The effect, substance, value, significance, or result; the sum; as, the amount of the testimony is this.

Amphibole (n.) A common mineral embracing many varieties varying in color and in composition. It occurs in monoclinic crystals; also massive, generally with fibrous or columnar structure. The color varies from white to gray, green, brown, and black. It is a silicate of magnesium and calcium, with usually aluminium and iron. Some common varieties are tremolite, actinolite, asbestus, edenite, hornblende (the last name being also used as a general term for the whole species). Amphibole is a constituent of many crystalline rocks, as syenite, diorite, most varieties of trachyte, etc. See Hornblende.

Amphictyony (n.) A league of states of ancient Greece; esp. the celebrated confederation known as the Amphictyonic Council. Its object was to maintain the common interests of Greece.

Amphora (n.) Among the ancients, a two-handled vessel, tapering at the bottom, used for holding wine, oil, etc.

Amygdalaceous (a.) Akin to, or derived from, the almond.

Amygdalate (a.) Pertaining to, resembling, or made of, almonds.

Amygdalate (n.) An emulsion made of almonds; milk of almonds.

Amygdalic (a.) Of or pertaining to almonds; derived from amygdalin; as, amygdalic acid.

Amygdaliferous (a.) Almond-bearing.

Amygdalin (n.) A glucoside extracted from bitter almonds as a white, crystalline substance.

Amygdaline (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, almonds.

Amygdaloidal (a.) Almond-shaped.

Amylene (n.) One of a group of metameric hydrocarbons, C5H10, of the ethylene series. The colorless, volatile, mobile liquid commonly called amylene is a mixture of different members of the group.

An () This word is properly an adjective, but is commonly called the indefinite article. It is used before nouns of the singular number only, and signifies one, or any, but somewhat less emphatically. In such expressions as "twice an hour," "once an age," a shilling an ounce (see 2d A, 2), it has a distributive force, and is equivalent to each, every.

Anaclastics (n.) That part of optics which treats of the refraction of light; -- commonly called dioptrics.

Anadromous (a.) Ascending rivers from the sea, at certain seasons, for breeding, as the salmon, shad, etc.

Analemma (n.) An instrument of wood or brass, on which this projection of the sphere is made, having a movable horizon or cursor; -- formerly much used in solving some common astronomical problems.

Analyst (n.) One who analyzes; formerly, one skilled in algebraical geometry; now commonly, one skilled in chemical analysis.

Anamorphosis (n.) A distorted or monstrous projection or representation of an image on a plane or curved surface, which, when viewed from a certain point, or as reflected from a curved mirror or through a polyhedron, appears regular and in proportion; a deformation of an image.

Anamorphosis (n.) A morbid or monstrous development, or change of form, or degeneration.

Anapodeictic (a.) Not apodeictic; undemonstrable.

Anaptychus (n.) One of a pair of shelly plates found in some cephalopods, as the ammonites.

androus () A terminal combining form: Having a stamen or stamens; staminate; as, monandrous, with one stamen; polyandrous, with many stamens.

Anemone (n.) A genus of plants of the Ranunculus or Crowfoot family; windflower. Some of the species are cultivated in gardens.

Anemone (n.) The sea anemone. See Actinia, and Sea anemone.

Anemonic (a.) An acrid, poisonous, crystallizable substance, obtained from, the anemone, or from anemonin.

Anemonin (n.) An acrid, poisonous, crystallizable substance, obtained from some species of anemone.

Anemony (n.) See Anemone.

Angel (n.) Attendant spirit; genius; demon.

Angiomonospermous (a.) Producing one seed only in a seed pod.

Angler (n.) A fish (Lophius piscatorius), of Europe and America, having a large, broad, and depressed head, with the mouth very large. Peculiar appendages on the head are said to be used to entice fishes within reach. Called also fishing frog, frogfish, toadfish, goosefish, allmouth, monkfish, etc.

Anharmonic (a.) Not harmonic.

Aniline (n.) An organic base belonging to the phenylamines. It may be regarded as ammonia in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced by the radical phenyl. It is a colorless, oily liquid, originally obtained from indigo by distillation, but now largely manufactured from coal tar or nitrobenzene as a base from which many brilliant dyes are made.

Animadvert (v. i.) To take notice; to observe; -- commonly followed by that.

Anisostemonous (a.) Having unequal stamens; having stamens different in number from the petals.

Anna (n.) An East Indian money of account, the sixteenth of a rupee, or about 2/ cents.

Annuity (n.) A sum of money, payable yearly, to continue for a given number of years, for life, or forever; an annual allowance.

Anomalistical (a.) Irregular; departing from common or established rules.

Anomaly (n.) Deviation from the common rule; an irregularity; anything anomalous.

Anorthite (n.) A mineral of the feldspar family, commonly occurring in small glassy crystals, also a constituent of some igneous rocks. It is a lime feldspar. See Feldspar.

Answer (v. i.) To render account, or to be responsible; to be accountable; to make amends; as, the man must answer to his employer for the money intrusted to his care.

Antacrid (a.) Corrective of acrimony of the humors.

Ant-eater (n.) One of several species of edentates and monotremes that feed upon ants. See Ant-bear, Pangolin, Aard-vark, and Echidna.

Antecedent (n.) The noun to which a relative refers; as, in the sentence "Solomon was the prince who built the temple," prince is the antecedent of who.

Antepenultima (n.) The last syllable of a word except two, as -syl- in monosyllable.

Antepredicament (n.) A prerequisite to a clear understanding of the predicaments and categories, such as definitions of common terms.

Anthozoa (n. pl.) The class of the Coelenterata which includes the corals and sea anemones. The three principal groups or orders are Acyonaria, Actinaria, and Madreporaria.

Anthrenus (n.) A genus of small beetles, several of which, in the larval state, are very destructive to woolen goods, fur, etc. The common "museum pest" is A. varius; the carpet beetle is A. scrophulariae. The larvae are commonly confounded with moths.

Anthropoidea (n. pl.) The suborder of primates which includes the monkeys, apes, and man.

Antimonarchic () Alt. of Antimonarchical

Antimonarchical () Opposed to monarchial government.

Antimonarchist (n.) An enemy to monarchial government.

Antimonate (n.) A compound of antimonic acid with a base or basic radical.

Antimonial (a.) Of or pertaining to antimony.

Antimonial (n.) A preparation or medicine containing antimony.

Antimoniated (a.) Combined or prepared with antimony; as, antimoniated tartar.

Antimonic (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, antimony; -- said of those compounds of antimony in which this element has its highest equivalence; as, antimonic acid.

Antimonious (a.) Pertaining to, or derived from, antimony; -- said of those compounds of antimony in which this element has an equivalence next lower than the highest; as, antimonious acid.

Antimonite (n.) A compound of antimonious acid and a base or basic radical.

Antimonite (n.) Stibnite.

Antimoniureted (a.) Combined with or containing antimony; as, antimoniureted hydrogen.

Antimony (n.) An elementary substance, resembling a metal in its appearance and physical properties, but in its chemical relations belonging to the class of nonmetallic substances. Atomic weight, 120. Symbol, Sb.

Antiquary (n.) One devoted to the study of ancient times through their relics, as inscriptions, monuments, remains of ancient habitations, statues, coins, manuscripts, etc.; one who searches for and studies the relics of antiquity.

Antiquity (n.) A relic or monument of ancient times; as, a coin, a statue, etc.; an ancient institution. [In this sense, usually in the plural.]

Ant-lion (n.) A neuropterous insect, the larva of which makes in the sand a pitfall to capture ants, etc. The common American species is Myrmeleon obsoletus, the European is M. formicarius.

Antonomasia (n.) The use of some epithet or the name of some office, dignity, or the like, instead of the proper name of the person; as when his majesty is used for a king, or when, instead of Aristotle, we say, the philosopher; or, conversely, the use of a proper name instead of an appellative, as when a wise man is called a Solomon, or an eminent orator a Cicero.

Anyone (n.) One taken at random rather than by selection; anybody. [Commonly written as two words.]

Aparejo (n.) A kind of pack saddle used in the American military service and among the Spanish Americans. It is made of leather stuffed with hay, moss, or the like.

Aphthae (n. pl.) Roundish pearl-colored specks or flakes in the mouth, on the lips, etc., terminating in white sloughs. They are commonly characteristic of thrush.

Apis (n.) A genus of insects of the order Hymenoptera, including the common honeybee (Apis mellifica) and other related species. See Honeybee.

Apneumona (n. pl.) An order of holothurians in which the internal respiratory organs are wanting; -- called also Apoda or Apodes.

Apodes (n. pl.) A group of holothurians destitute of suckers. See Apneumona.

Apodixis (n.) Full demonstration.

Apollo (n.) A deity among the Greeks and Romans. He was the god of light and day (the "sun god"), of archery, prophecy, medicine, poetry, and music, etc., and was represented as the model of manly grace and beauty; -- called also Phebus.

Apotheosis (n. pl.) The act of elevating a mortal to the rank of, and placing him among, "the gods;" deification.

Appalachian (a.) Of or pertaining to a chain of mountains in the United States, commonly called the Allegheny mountains.

Apparatus (n.) A collection of organs all of which unite in a common function; as, the respiratory apparatus.

Appeal (v. t.) To summon; to challenge.

Appeal (v. t.) An accusation of a felon at common law by one of his accomplices, which accomplice was then called an approver. See Approvement.

Appeal (v. t.) A summons to answer to a charge.

Appearance (n.) The coming into court of either of the parties; the being present in court; the coming into court of a party summoned in an action, either by himself or by his attorney, expressed by a formal entry by the proper officer to that effect; the act or proceeding by which a party proceeded against places himself before the court, and submits to its jurisdiction.

Appellative (a.) Pertaining to a common name; serving as a distinctive denomination; denominative; naming.

Appellative (a.) Common, as opposed to proper; denominative of a class.

Appellative (n.) A common name, in distinction from a proper name. A common name, or appellative, stands for a whole class, genus, or species of beings, or for universal ideas. Thus, tree is the name of all plants of a particular class; plant and vegetable are names of things that grow out of the earth. A proper name, on the other hand, stands for a single thing; as, Rome, Washington, Lake Erie.

Appellatively (adv.) After the manner of nouns appellative; in a manner to express whole classes or species; as, Hercules is sometimes used appellatively, that is, as a common name, to signify a strong man.

Appendant (v. t.) Appended by prescription, that is, a personal usage for a considerable time; -- said of a thing of inheritance belonging to another inheritance which is superior or more worthy; as, an advowson, common, etc. , which may be appendant to a manor, common of fishing to a freehold, a seat in church to a house.

Application (n.) Hence, in specific uses: (a) That part of a sermon or discourse in which the principles before laid down and illustrated are applied to practical uses; the "moral" of a fable. (b) The use of the principles of one science for the purpose of enlarging or perfecting another; as, the application of algebra to geometry.

Apply (v. t.) To put to use; to use or employ for a particular purpose, or in a particular case; to appropriate; to devote; as, to apply money to the payment of a debt.

Apply (v. t.) To make use of, declare, or pronounce, as suitable, fitting, or relative; as, to apply the testimony to the case; to apply an epithet to a person.

Appoggiatura (n.) A passing tone preceding an essential tone, and borrowing the time it occupies from that; a short auxiliary or grace note one degree above or below the principal note unless it be of the same harmony; -- generally indicated by a note of smaller size, as in the illustration above. It forms no essential part of the harmony.

Apportion (v. t.) To divide and assign in just proportion; to divide and distribute proportionally; to portion out; to allot; as, to apportion undivided rights; to apportion time among various employments.

Appropriate (v. t.) To take to one's self in exclusion of others; to claim or use as by an exclusive right; as, let no man appropriate the use of a common benefit.

Appropriate (v. t.) To set apart for, or assign to, a particular person or use, in exclusion of all others; -- with to or for; as, a spot of ground is appropriated for a garden; to appropriate money for the increase of the navy.

Appropriation (n.) The act of setting apart or assigning to a particular use or person, or of taking to one's self, in exclusion of all others; application to a special use or purpose, as of a piece of ground for a park, or of money to carry out some object.

Appropriation (n.) Anything, especially money, thus set apart.

Appropriation (n.) The application of payment of money by a debtor to his creditor, to one of several debts which are due from the former to the latter.

Approve (v. t.) To make proof of; to demonstrate; to prove or show practically.

Approve (v. t.) To make profit of; to convert to one's own profit; -- said esp. of waste or common land appropriated by the lord of the manor.

Approvement (n.) Improvement of common lands, by inclosing and converting them to the uses of husbandry for the advantage of the lord of the manor.

Appurtenance (n.) That which belongs to something else; an adjunct; an appendage; an accessory; something annexed to another thing more worthy; in common parlance and legal acceptation, something belonging to another thing as principal, and which passes as incident to it, as a right of way, or other easement to land; a right of common to pasture, an outhouse, barn, garden, or orchard, to a house or messuage. In a strict legal sense, land can never pass as an appurtenance to land.

April (n.) The fourth month of the year.

April (n.) Fig.: With reference to April being the month in which vegetation begins to put forth, the variableness of its weather, etc.

Apron (n.) An article of dress, of cloth, leather, or other stuff, worn on the fore part of the body, to keep the clothes clean, to defend them from injury, or as a covering. It is commonly tied at the waist by strings.

Aptychus (n.) A shelly plate found in the terminal chambers of ammonite shells. Some authors consider them to be jaws; others, opercula.

Araguato (n.) A South American monkey, the ursine howler (Mycetes ursinus). See Howler, n., 2.

Arbitrate (v. i.) To act as arbitrator or judge; as, to arbitrate upon several reports; to arbitrate in disputes among neighbors; to arbitrate between parties to a suit.

-arch (a.) A suffix meaning a ruler, as in monarch (a sole ruler).

Archaeology (n.) The science or study of antiquities, esp. prehistoric antiquities, such as the remains of buildings or monuments of an early epoch, inscriptions, implements, and other relics, written manuscripts, etc.

Archaism (a.) An ancient, antiquated, or old-fashioned, word, expression, or idiom; a word or form of speech no longer in common use.

Archimandrite (n.) A chief of a monastery, corresponding to abbot in the Roman Catholic church.

Archimandrite (n.) A superintendent of several monasteries, corresponding to superior abbot, or father provincial, in the Roman Catholic church.

Archivolt (n.) More commonly, the molding or other ornaments with which the wall face of the voussoirs of an arch is charged.

archy () A suffix properly meaning a rule, ruling, as in monarchy, the rule of one only. Cf. -arch.

Aretaics (n.) The ethical theory which excludes all relations between virtue and happiness; the science of virtue; -- contrasted with eudemonics.

Argali (n.) A species of wild sheep (Ovis ammon, or O. argali), remarkable for its large horns. It inhabits the mountains of Siberia and central Asia.

Argent (n.) Silver, or money.

Argus (n.) A genus of East Indian pheasants. The common species (A. giganteus) is remarkable for the great length and beauty of the wing and tail feathers of the male. The species A. Grayi inhabits Borneo.

Ariose (a.) Characterized by melody, as distinguished from harmony.

Arles (n. pl.) An earnest; earnest money; money paid to bind a bargain.

Arm (n.) The limb of the human body which extends from the shoulder to the hand; also, the corresponding limb of a monkey.

Arm (n.) A weapon of offense or defense; an instrument of warfare; -- commonly in the pl.

Armoniac (a.) Ammoniac.

Army worm () A lepidopterous insect, which in the larval state often travels in great multitudes from field to field, destroying grass, grain, and other crops. The common army worm of the northern United States is Leucania unipuncta. The name is often applied to other related species, as the cotton worm.

Arnica (n.) A genus of plants; also, the most important species (Arnica montana), native of the mountains of Europe, used in medicine as a narcotic and stimulant.

Arnicin (n.) An active principle of Arnica montana. It is a bitter resin.

Aromatic (n.) A plant, drug, or medicine, characterized by a fragrant smell, and usually by a warm, pungent taste, as ginger, cinnamon, spices.

Array (n.) The whole body of jurors summoned to attend the court.

Arrear (n.) That which is behind in payment, or which remains unpaid, though due; esp. a remainder, or balance which remains due when some part has been paid; arrearage; -- commonly used in the plural, as, arrears of rent, wages, or taxes.

Arreptitious (a.) Snatched away; seized or possessed, as a demoniac; raving; mad; crack-brained.

Arrestment (n.) The arrest of a person, or the seizure of his effects; esp., a process by which money or movables in the possession of a third party are attached.

Arsenic (n.) One of the elements, a solid substance resembling a metal in its physical properties, but in its chemical relations ranking with the nonmetals. It is of a steel-gray color and brilliant luster, though usually dull from tarnish. It is very brittle, and sublimes at 356 Fahrenheit. It is sometimes found native, but usually combined with silver, cobalt, nickel, iron, antimony, or sulphur. Orpiment and realgar are two of its sulphur compounds, the first of which is the true arsenicum of the ancients. The element and its compounds are active poisons. Specific gravity from 5.7 to 5.9. Atomic weight 75. Symbol As.

Arson (n.) The malicious burning of a dwelling house or outhouse of another man, which by the common law is felony; the malicious and voluntary firing of a building or ship.

Artemisia (n.) A genus of plants including the plants called mugwort, southernwood, and wormwood. Of these A. absinthium, or common wormwood, is well known, and A. tridentata is the sage brush of the Rocky Mountain region.

Aruspex (n.) One of the class of diviners among the Etruscans and Romans, who foretold events by the inspection of the entrails of victims offered on the altars of the gods.

Ascarid (n.) A parasitic nematoid worm, espec. the roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, often occurring in the human intestine, and allied species found in domestic animals; also commonly applied to the pinworm (Oxyuris), often troublesome to children and aged persons.

Asmonean (a.) Of or pertaining to the patriotic Jewish family to which the Maccabees belonged; Maccabean; as, the Asmonean dynasty.

Asmonean (n.) One of the Asmonean family. The Asmoneans were leaders and rulers of the Jews from 168 to 35 b. c.

Asper (n.) A Turkish money of account (formerly a coin), of little value; the 120th part of a piaster.

Asperges (n.) The service or ceremony of sprinkling with holy water.

Asphyxiate (v. t.) To bring to a state of asphyxia; to suffocate. [Used commonly in the past pple.]

Assembly (n.) A company of persons collected together in one place, and usually for some common purpose, esp. for deliberation and legislation, for worship, or for social entertainment.

Assidean (n.) One of a body of devoted Jews who opposed the Hellenistic Jews, and supported the Asmoneans.

Assignation (n.) An appointment of time and place for meeting or interview; -- used chiefly of love interviews, and now commonly in a bad sense.

Association (n.) Union of persons in a company or society for some particular purpose; as, the American Association for the Advancement of Science; a benevolent association. Specifically, as among the Congregationalists, a society, consisting of a number of ministers, generally the pastors of neighboring churches, united for promoting the interests of religion and the harmony of the churches.

Assume (v. t.) To take to or upon one's self; to take formally and demonstratively; sometimes, to appropriate or take unjustly.

Assumpsit (n.) An action to recover damages for a breach or nonperformance of a contract or promise, express or implied, oral or in writing not under seal. Common or indebitatus assumpsit is brought for the most part on an implied promise. Special assumpsit is founded on an express promise or undertaking.

Astarte (n.) A genus of bivalve mollusks, common on the coasts of America and Europe.

Astrology (n.) In its etymological signification, the science of the stars; among the ancients, synonymous with astronomy; subsequently, the art of judging of the influences of the stars upon human affairs, and of foretelling events by their position and aspects.

Astrometry (n.) The art of making measurements among the stars, or of determining their relative magnitudes.

Asura (n.) An enemy of the gods, esp. one of a race of demons and giants.

Ateles (n.) A genus of American monkeys with prehensile tails, and having the thumb wanting or rudimentary. See Spider monkey, and Coaita.

Atlantes (n. pl.) Figures or half figures of men, used as columns to support an entablature; -- called also telamones. See Caryatides.

Atropine (n.) A poisonous, white, crystallizable alkaloid, extracted from the Atropa belladonna, or deadly nightshade, and the Datura Stramonium, or thorn apple. It is remarkable for its power in dilating the pupil of the eye. Called also daturine.

Atrypa (n.) A extinct genus of Branchiopoda, very common in Silurian limestones.

Attest (n.) Witness; testimony; attestation.

Attestation (n.) The act of attesting; testimony; witness; a solemn or official declaration, verbal or written, in support of a fact; evidence. The truth appears from the attestation of witnesses, or of the proper officer. The subscription of a name to a writing as a witness, is an attestation.

Aubin (n.) A broken gait of a horse, between an amble and a gallop; -- commonly called a Canterbury gallop.

Augury (n.) A rite, ceremony, or observation of an augur.

August (a.) The eighth month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

Aulic (n.) The ceremony observed in conferring the degree of doctor of divinity in some European universities. It begins by a harangue of the chancellor addressed to the young doctor, who then receives the cap, and presides at the disputation (also called the aulic).

Aumery (n.) A form of Ambry, a closet; but confused with Almonry, as if a place for alms.

Aura (n.) The peculiar sensation, as of a light vapor, or cold air, rising from the trunk or limbs towards the head, a premonitory symptom of epilepsy or hysterics.

Austro-Hungarian (a.) Of or pertaining to the monarchy composed of Austria and Hungary.

Authority (n.) Testimony; witness.

Autochthon (n.) One who is supposed to rise or spring from the ground or the soil he inhabits; one of the original inhabitants or aborigines; a native; -- commonly in the plural. This title was assumed by the ancient Greeks, particularly the Athenians.

Autocrat (a.) An absolute sovereign; a monarch who holds and exercises the powers of government by claim of absolute right, not subject to restriction; as, Autocrat of all the Russias (a title of the Czar).

Auto-da-fe (n.) An execution of such sentence, by the civil power, esp. the burning of a heretic. It was usually held on Sunday, and was made a great public solemnity by impressive forms and ceremonies.

Autonomasy (n.) The use of a word of common or general signification for the name of a particular thing; as, "He has gone to town," for, "He has gone to London."

Autoptical (a.) Seen with one's own eyes; belonging to, or connected with, personal observation; as, autoptic testimony or experience.

Avena (n.) A genus of grasses, including the common oat (Avena sativa); the oat grasses.

Average (n.) The equitable and proportionate distribution of loss or expense among all interested.

Average (v. t.) To divide among a number, according to a given proportion; as, to average a loss.

Averroist (n.) One of a sect of peripatetic philosophers, who appeared in Italy before the restoration of learning; so denominated from Averroes, or Averrhoes, a celebrated Arabian philosopher. He held the doctrine of monopsychism.

Awk (a.) Wrong, or not commonly used; clumsy; sinister; as, the awk end of a rod (the but end).

Axinite (n.) A borosilicate of alumina, iron, and lime, commonly found in glassy, brown crystals with acute edges.

Axiom (a.) A self-evident and necessary truth, or a proposition whose truth is so evident as first sight that no reasoning or demonstration can make it plainer; a proposition which it is necessary to take for granted; as, "The whole is greater than a part;" "A thing can not, at the same time, be and not be."

Azedarach (n.) A handsome Asiatic tree (Melia azedarach), common in the southern United States; -- called also, Pride of India, Pride of China, and Bead tree.

Babbitt metal () A soft white alloy of variable composition (as a nine parts of tin to one of copper, or of fifty parts of tin to five of antimony and one of copper) used in bearings to diminish friction.

Baccalaureate (n.) A baccalaureate sermon.

Back (adv.) In concealment or reserve; in one's own possession; as, to keep back the truth; to keep back part of the money due to another.

Backgammon (n.) A game of chance and skill, played by two persons on a "board" marked off into twenty-four spaces called "points". Each player has fifteen pieces, or "men", the movements of which from point to point are determined by throwing dice. Formerly called tables.

Backgammon (v. i.) In the game of backgammon, to beat by ending the game before the loser is clear of his first "table".

Backs (n. pl.) Among leather dealers, the thickest and stoutest tanned hides.

Baculite (n.) A cephalopod of the extinct genus Baculites, found fossil in the Cretaceous rocks. It is like an uncoiled ammonite.

Badiaga (n.) A fresh-water sponge (Spongilla), common in the north of Europe, the powder of which is used to take away the livid marks of bruises.

Bag (n.) A sack or pouch, used for holding anything; as, a bag of meal or of money.

Bailiff (n.) A sheriff's deputy, appointed to make arrests, collect fines, summon juries, etc.

Bailment (n.) A delivery of goods or money by one person to another in trust, for some special purpose, upon a contract, expressed or implied, that the trust shall be faithfully executed.

Bailor (n.) One who delivers goods or money to another in trust.

Balcony (n.) A projecting gallery once common at the stern of large ships.

Bald (a.) Destitute of the natural or common covering on the head or top, as of hair, feathers, foliage, trees, etc.; as, a bald head; a bald oak.

Ball (n.) Any solid spherical, cylindrical, or conical projectile of lead or iron, to be discharged from a firearm; as, a cannon ball; a rifle ball; -- often used collectively; as, powder and ball. Spherical balls for the smaller firearms are commonly called bullets.

Ball (n.) A large pill, a form in which medicine is commonly given to horses; a bolus.

Ballad monger () A seller or maker of ballads; a poetaster.

Ballet (n.) A light part song, or madrigal, with a fa la burden or chorus, -- most common with the Elizabethan madrigal composers.

Baltimore oriole () A common American bird (Icterus galbula), named after Lord Baltimore, because its colors (black and orange red) are like those of his coat of arms; -- called also golden robin.

Bambocciade (n.) A representation of a grotesque scene from common or rustic life.

Ban (n.) A public proclamation or edict; a public order or notice, mandatory or prohibitory; a summons by public proclamation.

Ban (n.) A calling together of the king's (esp. the French king's) vassals for military service; also, the body of vassals thus assembled or summoned. In present usage, in France and Prussia, the most effective part of the population liable to military duty and not in the standing army.

Ban (n.) Notice of a proposed marriage, proclaimed in church. See Banns (the common spelling in this sense).

Banal (a.) Commonplace; trivial; hackneyed; trite.

Banality (n.) Something commonplace, hackneyed, or trivial; the commonplace, in speech.

Band (v. t.) A company of persons united in any common design, especially a body of armed men.

Band (v. i.) To confederate for some common purpose; to unite; to conspire together.

Bane (n.) A disease in sheep, commonly termed the rot.

Banian (n.) A Hindoo trader, merchant, cashier, or money changer.

Bank (n.) An establishment for the custody, loan, exchange, or issue, of money, and for facilitating the transmission of funds by drafts or bills of exchange; an institution incorporated for performing one or more of such functions, or the stockholders (or their representatives, the directors), acting in their corporate capacity.

Bank (n.) The sum of money or the checks which the dealer or banker has as a fund, from which to draw his stakes and pay his losses.

Bank (v. i.) To deposit money in a bank; to have an account with a banker.

Banker (n.) One who conducts the business of banking; one who, individually, or as a member of a company, keeps an establishment for the deposit or loan of money, or for traffic in money, bills of exchange, etc.

Banker (n.) A money changer.

Bankrupt (a.) Depleted of money; not having the means of meeting pecuniary liabilities; as, a bankrupt treasury.

Banneret (n.) Originally, a knight who led his vassals into the field under his own banner; -- commonly used as a title of rank.

Bannock (n.) A kind of cake or bread, in shape flat and roundish, commonly made of oatmeal or barley meal and baked on an iron plate, or griddle; -- used in Scotland and the northern counties of England.

Banquet (n.) A feast; a sumptuous entertainment of eating and drinking; often, a complimentary or ceremonious feast, followed by speeches.

Banyan (n.) A tree of the same genus as the common fig, and called the Indian fig (Ficus Indica), whose branches send shoots to the ground, which take root and become additional trunks, until it may be the tree covers some acres of ground and is able to shelter thousands of men.

Baptism (v. i.) The act of baptizing; the application of water to a person, as a sacrament or religious ceremony, by which he is initiated into the visible church of Christ. This is performed by immersion, sprinkling, or pouring.

Bar (n.) Any railing that divides a room, or office, or hall of assembly, in order to reserve a space for those having special privileges; as, the bar of the House of Commons.

Barbara (n.) The first word in certain mnemonic lines which represent the various forms of the syllogism. It indicates a syllogism whose three propositions are universal affirmatives.

Barbermonger (n.) A fop.

Barberry (n.) A shrub of the genus Berberis, common along roadsides and in neglected fields. B. vulgaris is the species best known; its oblong red berries are made into a preserve or sauce, and have been deemed efficacious in fluxes and fevers. The bark dyes a fine yellow, esp. the bark of the root.

Bard (n.) A professional poet and singer, as among the ancient Celts, whose occupation was to compose and sing verses in honor of the heroic achievements of princes and brave men.

Barite (n.) Native sulphate of barium, a mineral occurring in transparent, colorless, white to yellow crystals (generally tabular), also in granular form, and in compact massive forms resembling marble. It has a high specific gravity, and hence is often called heavy spar. It is a common mineral in metallic veins.

Barleybreak (n.) An ancient rural game, commonly played round stacks of barley, or other grain, in which some of the party attempt to catch others who run from a goal.

Barmaster (n.) Formerly, a local judge among miners; now, an officer of the barmote.

Baronet (n.) A dignity or degree of honor next below a baron and above a knight, having precedency of all orders of knights except those of the Garter. It is the lowest degree of honor that is hereditary. The baronets are commoners.

Barony (n.) In Ireland, a territorial division, corresponding nearly to the English hundred, and supposed to have been originally the district of a native chief. There are 252 of these baronies. In Scotland, an extensive freehold. It may be held by a commoner.

Barrack (n.) A building for soldiers, especially when in garrison. Commonly in the pl., originally meaning temporary huts, but now usually applied to a permanent structure or set of buildings.

Barrigudo (n.) A large, dark-colored, South American monkey, of the genus Lagothrix, having a long prehensile tail.

Barse (n.) The common perch. See 1st Bass.

Barter (v. i.) To traffic or trade, by exchanging one commodity for another, in distinction from a sale and purchase, in which money is paid for the commodities transferred; to truck.

Baritone (n.) A male voice, the compass of which partakes of the common bass and the tenor, but which does not descend as low as the one, nor rise as high as the other.

Base (n.) The lower part of a complete architectural design, as of a monument; also, the lower part of any elaborate piece of furniture or decoration.

Basidium (n.) A special oblong or pyriform cell, with slender branches, which bears the spores in that division of fungi called Basidiomycetes, of which the common mushroom is an example.

Basil (n.) The name given to several aromatic herbs of the Mint family, but chiefly to the common or sweet basil (Ocymum basilicum), and the bush basil, or lesser basil (O. minimum), the leaves of which are used in cookery. The name is also given to several kinds of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum).

Basommatophora (n. pl.) A group of Pulmonifera having the eyes at the base of the tentacles, including the common pond snails.

Bastard (a.) Begotten and born out of lawful matrimony; illegitimate. See Bastard, n., note.

Bastinado (n.) A sound beating with a stick or cudgel. Specifically: A form of punishment among the Turks, Chinese, and others, consisting in beating an offender on the soles of his feet.

Bat (n.) One of the Cheiroptera, an order of flying mammals, in which the wings are formed by a membrane stretched between the elongated fingers, legs, and tail. The common bats are small and insectivorous. See Cheiroptera and Vampire.

Bayard (a.) Properly, a bay horse, but often any horse. Commonly in the phrase blind bayard, an old blind horse.

Bazar (n.) A fair for the sale of fancy wares, toys, etc., commonly for a charitable objects.

Beacon (n.) A signal fire to notify of the approach of an enemy, or to give any notice, commonly of warning.

Beadle (v.) A messenger or crier of a court; a servitor; one who cites or bids persons to appear and answer; -- called also an apparitor or summoner.

Bead proof () Among distillers, a certain degree of strength in alcoholic liquor, as formerly ascertained by the floating or sinking of glass globules of different specific gravities thrown into it; now ascertained by more accurate meters.

Beak (n.) Anything projecting or ending in a point, like a beak, as a promontory of land.

Bere (n.) Barley; the six-rowed barley or the four-rowed barley, commonly the former (Hord. vulgare).

Bearer (n.) One who holds a check, note, draft, or other order for the payment of money; as, pay to bearer.

Bearing (n.) Any single emblem or charge in an escutcheon or coat of arms -- commonly in the pl.

Beaten (a.) Become common or trite; as, a beaten phrase.

Beatitude (n.) Any one of the nine declarations (called the Beatitudes), made in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. v. 3-12), with regard to the blessedness of those who are distinguished by certain specified virtues.

Beau monde () The fashionable world; people of fashion and gayety.

Beckon (v. t.) To make a significant sign to; hence, to summon, as by a motion of the hand.

Bed (n.) (Used as the symbol of matrimony) Marriage.

Beef (n.) An animal of the genus Bos, especially the common species, B. taurus, including the bull, cow, and ox, in their full grown state; esp., an ox or cow fattened for food.

Beer (n.) A fermented liquor made from any malted grain, but commonly from barley malt, with hops or some other substance to impart a bitter flavor.

Beetrave (n.) The common beet (Beta vulgaris).

Beget (v. t.) To procreate, as a father or sire; to generate; -- commonly said of the father.

Behn (n.) The Statice limonium, or sea lavender.

Bel (n.) The Babylonian name of the god known among the Hebrews as Baal. See Baal.

Belief (n.) Assent to a proposition or affirmation, or the acceptance of a fact, opinion, or assertion as real or true, without immediate personal knowledge; reliance upon word or testimony; partial or full assurance without positive knowledge or absolute certainty; persuasion; conviction; confidence; as, belief of a witness; the belief of our senses.

Believe (n.) To exercise belief in; to credit upon the authority or testimony of another; to be persuaded of the truth of, upon evidence furnished by reasons, arguments, and deductions of the mind, or by circumstances other than personal knowledge; to regard or accept as true; to place confidence in; to think; to consider; as, to believe a person, a statement, or a doctrine.

Bell animalcule () An infusorian of the family Vorticellidae, common in fresh-water ponds.

Belzebuth (n.) A spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) of Brazil.

Bemonster (v. t.) To make monstrous or like a monster.

Benedictine (a.) Pertaining to the monks of St. Benedict, or St. Benet.

Benedictine (n.) One of a famous order of monks, established by St. Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century. This order was introduced into the United States in 1846.

Bennet (a.) The common yellow-flowered avens of Europe (Geum urbanum); herb bennet. The name is sometimes given to other plants, as the hemlock, valerian, etc.

Bent (n.) Any neglected field or broken ground; a common; a moor.

Benzamide (n.) A transparent crystalline substance, C6H5.CO.NH2, obtained by the action of ammonia upon chloride of benzoyl, as also by several other reactions with benzoyl compounds.

Benzoyl (n.) A compound radical, C6H5.CO; the base of benzoic acid, of the oil of bitter almonds, and of an extensive series of compounds.

Benzyl (n.) A compound radical, C6H5.CH2, related to toluene and benzoic acid; -- commonly used adjectively.

Bernardine (a.) Of or pertaining to St. Bernard of Clairvaux, or to the Cistercian monks.

Bernardine (n.) A Cistercian monk.

Berthierite (n.) A double sulphide of antimony and iron, of a dark steel-gray color.

Beryl (n.) A mineral of great hardness, and, when transparent, of much beauty. It occurs in hexagonal prisms, commonly of a green or bluish green color, but also yellow, pink, and white. It is a silicate of aluminium and glucinum (beryllium). The aquamarine is a transparent, sea-green variety used as a gem. The emerald is another variety highly prized in jewelry, and distinguished by its deep color, which is probably due to the presence of a little oxide of chromium.

Bespeak (n.) A bespeaking. Among actors, a benefit (when a particular play is bespoken.)

Bestow (v. t.) To expend, as money.

Bethlemite (n.) One of an extinct English order of monks.

Betulin (n.) A substance of a resinous nature, obtained from the outer bark of the common European birch (Betula alba), or from the tar prepared therefrom; -- called also birch camphor.

Between (prep.) Belonging in common to two; shared by both.

Beverage (v. t.) A treat, or drink money.

Beware (v. i.) To be on one's guard; to be cautious; to take care; -- commonly followed by of or lest before the thing that is to be avoided.

Bhunder (n.) An Indian monkey (Macacus Rhesus), protected by the Hindoos as sacred. See Rhesus.

Biblicist (n.) One skilled in the knowledge of the Bible; a demonstrator of religious truth by the Scriptures.

Bidding prayer () The prayer for the souls of benefactors, said before the sermon.

Bidding prayer () The prayer before the sermon, with petitions for various specified classes of persons.

Bighorn (n.) The Rocky Mountain sheep (Ovis / Caprovis montana).

Bill (n.) A weapon of infantry, in the 14th and 15th centuries. A common form of bill consisted of a broad, heavy, double-edged, hook-shaped blade, having a short pike at the back and another at the top, and attached to the end of a long staff.

Bimensal (a.) See Bimonthly, a.

Bimestrial (a.) Continuing two months.

Bimetallism (n.) The legalized use of two metals (as gold and silver) in the currency of a country, at a fixed relative value; -- in opposition to monometallism.

Bimonthly (a.) Occurring, done, or coming, once in two months; as, bimonthly visits; bimonthly publications.

Bimonthly (n.) A bimonthly publication.

Bimonthly (adv.) Once in two months.

Bindheimite (n.) An amorphous antimonate of lead, produced from the alteration of other ores, as from jamesonite.

Biotite (n.) Mica containing iron and magnesia, generally of a black or dark green color; -- a common constituent of crystalline rocks. See Mica.

Birch (n.) A tree of several species, constituting the genus Betula; as, the white or common birch (B. alba) (also called silver birch and lady birch); the dwarf birch (B. glandulosa); the paper or canoe birch (B. papyracea); the yellow birch (B. lutea); the black or cherry birch (B. lenta).

Bird (n.) Specifically, among sportsmen, a game bird.

Bird pepper () A species of capsicum (Capsicum baccatum), whose small, conical, coral-red fruit is among the most piquant of all red peppers.

Bird's-mouth (n.) An interior angle or notch cut across a piece of timber, for the reception of the edge of another, as that in a rafter to be laid on a plate; -- commonly called crow's-foot in the United States.

Birthday (n.) The day of the month in which a person was born, in whatever succeeding year it may recur; the anniversary of one's birth.

Bishop (n.) A beverage, being a mixture of wine, oranges or lemons, and sugar.

Bisilicate (n.) A salt of metasilicic acid; -- so called because the ratio of the oxygen of the silica to the oxygen of the base is as two to one. The bisilicates include many of the most common and important minerals.

Bismillah (interj.) An adjuration or exclamation common among the Mohammedans.

Bissextile (n.) Leap year; every fourth year, in which a day is added to the month of February on account of the excess of the tropical year (365 d. 5 h. 48 m. 46 s.) above 365 days. But one day added every four years is equivalent to six hours each year, which is 11 m. 14 s. more than the excess of the real year. Hence, it is necessary to suppress the bissextile day at the end of every century which is not divisible by 400, while it is retained at the end of those which are divisible by 400.

Bit (v.) In the Southern and Southwestern States, a small silver coin (as the real) formerly current; commonly, one worth about 12 1/2 cents; also, the sum of 12 1/2 cents.

Bitter spar () A common name of dolomite; -- so called because it contains magnesia, the soluble salts of which are bitter. See Dolomite.

Bizet (n.) The upper faceted portion of a brilliant-cut diamond, which projects from the setting and occupies the zone between the girdle and the table. See Brilliant, n.

Black book () A book containing details of the enormities practiced in the English monasteries and religious houses, compiled by order of their visitors under Henry VIII., to hasten their dissolution.

Blackfish (n.) A small kind of whale, of the genus Globicephalus, of several species. The most common is G. melas. Also sometimes applied to other whales of larger size.

Blackfish (n.) The female salmon in the spawning season.

Black hole () A dungeon or dark cell in a prison; a military lock-up or guardroom; -- now commonly with allusion to the cell (the Black Hole) in a fort at Calcutta, into which 146 English prisoners were thrust by the nabob Suraja Dowla on the night of June 20, 17656, and in which 123 of the prisoners died before morning from lack of air.

Blackleg (n.) A disease among calves and sheep, characterized by a settling of gelatinous matter in the legs, and sometimes in the neck.

Blackmail (n.) A certain rate of money, corn, cattle, or other thing, anciently paid, in the north of England and south of Scotland, to certain men who were allied to robbers, or moss troopers, to be by them protected from pillage.

Blackmail (n.) Payment of money exacted by means of intimidation; also, extortion of money from a person by threats of public accusation, exposure, or censure.

Blackmail (v. t.) To extort money from by exciting fears of injury other than bodily harm, as injury to reputation, distress of mind, etc.; as, to blackmail a merchant by threatening to expose an alleged fraud.

Blackmailer (n.) One who extorts, or endeavors to extort, money, by black mailing.

Blackmailing (n.) The act or practice of extorting money by exciting fears of injury other than bodily harm, as injury to reputation.

Black monk () A Benedictine monk.

Blacksnake (n.) A snake of a black color, of which two species are common in the United States, the Bascanium constrictor, or racer, sometimes six feet long, and the Scotophis Alleghaniensis, seven or eight feet long.

Blackstrap (n.) Bad port wine; any common wine of the Mediterranean; -- so called by sailors.

Blanch (a.) To make white by removing the skin of, as by scalding; as, to blanch almonds.

Blancher (n.) One who, or that which, blanches or whitens; esp., one who anneals and cleanses money; also, a chemical preparation for this purpose.

Blank (n.) A kind of base silver money, first coined in England by Henry V., and worth about 8 pence; also, a French coin of the seventeenth century, worth about 4 pence.

Bleed (v. i.) To pay or lose money; to have money drawn or extorted; as, to bleed freely for a cause.

Bleed (v. t.) To draw money from (one); to induce to pay; as, they bled him freely for this fund.

Bloater (n.) The common herring, esp. when of large size, smoked, and half dried; -- called also bloat herring.

Blood (n.) Relationship by descent from a common ancestor; consanguinity; kinship.

Blood money () Money paid to the next of kin of a person who has been killed by another.

Blood money () Money obtained as the price, or at the cost, of another's life; -- said of a reward for supporting a capital charge, of money obtained for betraying a fugitive or for committing murder, or of money obtained from the sale of that which will destroy the purchaser.

Bloodsucker (n.) A hard and exacting master, landlord, or money lender; an extortioner.

Bloomer (n.) A costume for women, consisting of a short dress, with loose trousers gathered round ankles, and (commonly) a broad-brimmed hat.

Blowtube (n.) A similar instrument, commonly of tin, used by boys for discharging paper wads and other light missiles.

Blueback (n.) A salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) of the Columbia River and northward.

Blueberry (n.) The berry of several species of Vaccinium, an ericaceous genus, differing from the American huckleberries in containing numerous minute seeds instead of ten nutlets. The commonest species are V. Pennsylvanicum and V. vacillans. V. corymbosum is the tall blueberry.

Bluebill (n.) A duck of the genus Fuligula. Two American species (F. marila and F. affinis) are common. See Scaup duck.

Bluebird (n.) A small song bird (Sialia sialis), very common in the United States, and, in the north, one of the earliest to arrive in spring. The male is blue, with the breast reddish. It is related to the European robin.

Blue jay () The common jay of the United States (Cyanocitta, or Cyanura, cristata). The predominant color is bright blue.

Bluepoll (n.) A kind of salmon (Salmo Cambricus) found in Wales.

Bluestone (n.) A grayish blue building stone, as that commonly used in the eastern United States.

Bluff (a.) Abrupt; roughly frank; unceremonious; blunt; brusque; as, a bluff answer; a bluff manner of talking; a bluff sea captain.

Blunt (a.) Abrupt in address; plain; unceremonious; wanting the forms of civility; rough in manners or speech.

Blurt (v. t.) To utter suddenly and unadvisedly; to divulge inconsiderately; to ejaculate; -- commonly with out.

Board (n.) A square or oblong piece of thin wood or other material used for some special purpose, as, a molding board; a board or surface painted or arranged for a game; as, a chessboard; a backgammon board.

Boatswain (n.) An officer who has charge of the boats, sails, rigging, colors, anchors, cables, cordage, etc., of a ship, and who also summons the crew, and performs other duties.

Bobbin (n.) A small pin, or cylinder, formerly of bone, now most commonly of wood, used in the making of pillow lace. Each thread is wound on a separate bobbin which hangs down holding the thread at a slight tension.

Bob-cherry (n.) A play among children, in which a cherry, hung so as to bob against the mouth, is to be caught with the teeth.

Bobwhite (n.) The common quail of North America (Colinus, or Ortyx, Virginianus); -- so called from its note.

Body (n.) A number of individuals spoken of collectively, usually as united by some common tie, or as organized for some purpose; a collective whole or totality; a corporation; as, a legislative body; a clerical body.

Bogsucker (n.) The American woodcock; -- so called from its feeding among the bogs.

Bogtrotting (a.) Living among bogs.

Bond (n.) A writing under seal, by which a person binds himself, his heirs, executors, and administrators, to pay a certain sum on or before a future day appointed. This is a single bond. But usually a condition is added, that, if the obligor shall do a certain act, appear at a certain place, conform to certain rules, faithfully perform certain duties, or pay a certain sum of money, on or before a time specified, the obligation shall be void; otherwise it shall remain in full force. If the condition is not performed, the bond becomes forfeited, and the obligor and his heirs are liable to the payment of the whole sum.

Bond (n.) An instrument (of the nature of the ordinary legal bond) made by a government or a corporation for purpose of borrowing money; as, a government, city, or railway bond.

Bondholder (n.) A person who holds the bonds of a public or private corporation for the payment of money at a certain time.

Bonesetter (n.) One who sets broken or dislocated bones; -- commonly applied to one, not a regular surgeon, who makes an occupation of setting bones.

Bonze (n.) A Buddhist or Fohist priest, monk, or nun.

Booby (n.) A swimming bird (Sula fiber or S. sula) related to the common gannet, and found in the West Indies, nesting on the bare rocks. It is so called on account of its apparent stupidity. The name is also sometimes applied to other species of gannets; as, S. piscator, the red-footed booby.

Boodle (n.) Money given in payment for votes or political influence; bribe money; swag.

Book (n.) A collection of sheets of paper, or similar material, blank, written, or printed, bound together; commonly, many folded and bound sheets containing continuous printing or writing.

Bookkeeping (n.) The art of recording pecuniary or business transactions in a regular and systematic manner, so as to show their relation to each other, and the state of the business in which they occur; the art of keeping accounts. The books commonly used are a daybook, cashbook, journal, and ledger. See Daybook, Cashbook, Journal, and Ledger.

Bookmonger (n.) A dealer in books.

Boron (n.) A nonmetallic element occurring abundantly in borax. It is reduced with difficulty to the free state, when it can be obtained in several different forms; viz., as a substance of a deep olive color, in a semimetallic form, and in colorless quadratic crystals similar to the diamond in hardness and other properties. It occurs in nature also in boracite, datolite, tourmaline, and some other minerals. Atomic weight 10.9. Symbol B.

Boroughmonger (n.) One who buys or sells the parliamentary seats of boroughs.

Boroughmongering (n.) Alt. of Boroughmongery

Boroughmongery (n.) The practices of a boroughmonger.

Bort (n.) Imperfectly crystallized or coarse diamonds, or fragments made in cutting good diamonds which are reduced to powder and used in lapidary work.

Botcher (n.) A young salmon; a grilse.

Botfly (n.) A dipterous insect of the family (Estridae, of many different species, some of which are particularly troublesome to domestic animals, as the horse, ox, and sheep, on which they deposit their eggs. A common species is one of the botflies of the horse (Gastrophilus equi), the larvae of which (bots) are taken into the stomach of the animal, where they live several months and pass through their larval states. In tropical America one species sometimes lives under the human skin, and another in the stomach. See Gadfly.

Bottomry (n.) A contract in the nature of a mortgage, by which the owner of a ship, or the master as his agent, hypothecates and binds the ship (and sometimes the accruing freight) as security for the repayment of money advanced or lent for the use of the ship, if she terminates her voyage successfully. If the ship is lost by perils of the sea, the lender loses the money; but if the ship arrives safe, he is to receive the money lent, with the interest or premium stipulated, although it may, and usually does, exceed the legal rate of interest. See Hypothecation.

Boulangerite (n.) A mineral of a bluish gray color and metallic luster, usually in plumose masses, also compact. It is a sulphide of antimony and lead.

Bounce (v. i.) To leap or spring suddenly or unceremoniously; to bound; as, she bounced into the room.

Bounce (v. t.) To eject violently, as from a room; to discharge unceremoniously, as from employment.

Bournonite (n.) A mineral of a steel-gray to black color and metallic luster, occurring crystallized, often in twin crystals shaped like cogwheels (wheel ore), also massive. It is a sulphide of antimony, lead, and copper.

Bourree (n.) An old French dance tune in common time.

Bower (n.) One of the two highest cards in the pack commonly used in the game of euchre.

Box (n.) A tree or shrub, flourishing in different parts of the world. The common box (Buxus sempervirens) has two varieties, one of which, the dwarf box (B. suffruticosa), is much used for borders in gardens. The wood of the tree varieties, being very hard and smooth, is extensively used in the arts, as by turners, engravers, mathematical instrument makers, etc.

Box (n.) A chest or any receptacle for the deposit of money; as, a poor box; a contribution box.

Brachyura (n. pl.) A group of decapod Crustacea, including the common crabs, characterized by a small and short abdomen, which is bent up beneath the large cephalo-thorax. [Also spelt Brachyoura.] See Crab, and Illustration in Appendix.

Brag (v. i.) To talk about one's self, or things pertaining to one's self, in a manner intended to excite admiration, envy, or wonder; to talk boastfully; to boast; -- often followed by of; as, to brag of one's exploits, courage, or money, or of the great things one intends to do.

Brahmin (n.) A person of the highest or sacerdotal caste among the Hindoos.

Brahmo-somaj (n.) A modern reforming theistic sect among the Hindoos.

Brait (n.) A rough diamond.

Brake (n.) A fern of the genus Pteris, esp. the P. aquilina, common in almost all countries. It has solitary stems dividing into three principal branches. Less properly: Any fern.

Brambling (n.) The European mountain finch (Fringilla montifringilla); -- called also bramble finch and bramble.

Branlin (n.) A young salmon or parr, in the stage in which it has transverse black bands, as if burned by a gridiron.

Brant-fox (n.) A kind of fox found in Sweden (Vulpes alopex), smaller than the common fox (V. vulgaris), but probably a variety of it.

Brassica (n.) A genus of plants embracing several species and varieties differing much in appearance and qualities: such as the common cabbage (B. oleracea), broccoli, cauliflowers, etc.; the wild turnip (B. campestris); the common turnip (B. rapa); the rape or coleseed (B. napus), etc.

Break (v. t.) To exchange for other money or currency of smaller denomination; as, to break a five dollar bill.

Breakdown (n.) A noisy, rapid, shuffling dance engaged in competitively by a number of persons or pairs in succession, as among the colored people of the Southern United States, and so called, perhaps, because the exercise is continued until most of those who take part in it break down.

Breccia (n.) A rock composed of angular fragments either of the same mineral or of different minerals, etc., united by a cement, and commonly presenting a variety of colors.

Breeding (n.) Deportment or behavior in the external offices and decorums of social life; manners; knowledge of, or training in, the ceremonies, or polite observances of society.

Breeze fly (n.) A fly of various species, of the family Tabanidae, noted for buzzing about animals, and tormenting them by sucking their blood; -- called also horsefly, and gadfly. They are among the largest of two-winged or dipterous insects. The name is also given to different species of botflies.

Breve (n.) A curved mark [/] used commonly to indicate the short quantity of a vowel.

Brewsterite (n.) A rare zeolitic mineral occurring in white monoclinic crystals with pearly luster. It is a hydrous silicate of aluminia, baryta, and strontia.

Bridal (n.) A nuptial festival or ceremony; a marriage.

Brief (a.) Rife; common; prevalent.

Brief (n.) A letter patent, from proper authority, authorizing a collection or charitable contribution of money in churches, for any public or private purpose.

Brilliant (a.) A diamond or other gem of the finest cut, formed into faces and facets, so as to reflect and refract the light, by which it is rendered more brilliant. It has at the middle, or top, a principal face, called the table, which is surrounded by a number of sloping facets forming a bizet; below, it has a small face or collet, parallel to the table, connected with the girdle by a pavilion of elongated facets. It is thus distinguished from the rose diamond, which is entirely covered with facets on the surface, and is flat below.

Britt (n.) The young of the common herring; also, a small species of herring; the sprat.

Britannia (n.) A white-metal alloy of tin, antimony, bismuth, copper, etc. It somewhat resembles silver, and is used for table ware. Called also Britannia metal.

Broach (n.) A tool of steel, generally tapering, and of a polygonal form, with from four to eight cutting edges, for smoothing or enlarging holes in metal; sometimes made smooth or without edges, as for burnishing pivot holes in watches; a reamer. The broach for gun barrels is commonly square and without taper.

Broadleaf (n.) A tree (Terminalia latifolia) of Jamaica, the wood of which is used for boards, scantling, shingles, etc; -- sometimes called the almond tree, from the shape of its fruit.

Broil (v. t.) To subject to great (commonly direct) heat.

Broker (v. t.) An agent employed to effect bargains and contracts, as a middleman or negotiator, between other persons, for a compensation commonly called brokerage. He takes no possession, as broker, of the subject matter of the negotiation. He generally contracts in the names of those who employ him, and not in his own.

Broker (v. t.) A dealer in money, notes, bills of exchange, etc.

Broncho-pneumonia (n.) Inflammation of the bronchi and lungs; catarrhal pneumonia.

Broom (n.) An implement for sweeping floors, etc., commonly made of the panicles or tops of broom corn, bound together or attached to a long wooden handle; -- so called because originally made of the twigs of the broom.

Brother (n.) One related or closely united to another by some common tie or interest, as of rank, profession, membership in a society, toil, suffering, etc.; -- used among judges, clergymen, monks, physicians, lawyers, professors of religion, etc.

Brotherhood (n.) An association for any purpose, as a society of monks; a fraternity.

Brownian (a.) Pertaining to Dr. Robert Brown, who first demonstrated (about 1827) the commonness of the motion described below.

Brown thrush () A common American singing bird (Harporhynchus rufus), allied to the mocking bird; -- also called brown thrasher.

Bruh (n.) The rhesus monkey. See Rhesus.

Brumaire (n.) The second month of the calendar adopted by the first French republic. It began thirty days after the autumnal equinox. See Vendemiaire.

Brush (n.) To remove or gather by brushing, or by an act like that of brushing, or by passing lightly over, as wind; -- commonly with off.

Bryony (n.) The common name of several cucurbitaceous plants of the genus Bryonia. The root of B. alba (rough or white bryony) and of B. dioica is a strong, irritating cathartic.

Buccinum (n.) A genus of large univalve mollusks abundant in the arctic seas. It includes the common whelk (B. undatum).

Bucentaur (n.) A fabulous monster, half ox, half man.

Bucentaur (n.) The state barge of Venice, used by the doge in the ceremony of espousing the Adriatic.

Buckie (n.) A large spiral marine shell, esp. the common whelk. See Buccinum.

Bude burner () A burner consisting of two or more concentric Argand burners (the inner rising above the outer) and a central tube by which oxygen gas or common air is supplied.

Bude light () A light in which high illuminating power is obtained by introducing a jet of oxygen gas or of common air into the center of a flame fed with coal gas or with oil.

Budget (n.) The annual financial statement which the British chancellor of the exchequer makes in the House of Commons. It comprehends a general view of the finances of the country, with the proposed plan of taxation for the ensuing year. The term is sometimes applied to a similar statement in other countries.

Buffalo (n.) A species of the genus Bos or Bubalus (B. bubalus), originally from India, but now found in most of the warmer countries of the eastern continent. It is larger and less docile than the common ox, and is fond of marshy places and rivers.

Bugle (n.) An elongated glass bead, of various colors, though commonly black.

Bull trout () In England, a large salmon trout of several species, as Salmo trutta and S. Cambricus, which ascend rivers; -- called also sea trout.

Bull trout () The huso or salmon of the Danube.

Bulse (n.) A purse or bag in which to carry or measure diamonds, etc.

Bundle (v. t.) To send off abruptly or without ceremony.

Bundle (v. i.) To prepare for departure; to set off in a hurry or without ceremony.

Burgher (n.) A member of that party, among the Scotch seceders, which asserted the lawfulness of the burgess oath (in which burgesses profess "the true religion professed within the realm"), the opposite party being called antiburghers.

Burgomaster (n.) An aquatic bird, the glaucous gull (Larus glaucus), common in arctic regions.

Burial (n.) The act of burying; depositing a dead body in the earth, in a tomb or vault, or in the water, usually with attendant ceremonies; sepulture; interment.

Burnet (n.) A genus of perennial herbs (Poterium); especially, P.Sanguisorba, the common, or garden, burnet.

Bursar (n.) A treasurer, or cash keeper; a purser; as, the bursar of a college, or of a monastery.

Bursary (n.) The treasury of a college or monastery.

Bury (n.) A borough; a manor; as, the Bury of St. Edmond's

Bury (v. t.) Specifically: To cover out of sight, as the body of a deceased person, in a grave, a tomb, or the ocean; to deposit (a corpse) in its resting place, with funeral ceremonies; to inter; to inhume.

Bushranger (n.) One who roams, or hides, among the bushes; especially, in Australia, an escaped criminal living in the bush.

But (adv. & conj.) Otherwise than that; that not; -- commonly, after a negative, with that.

Butt (n.) The common English flounder.

Butter (n.) Any substance resembling butter in degree of consistence, or other qualities, especially, in old chemistry, the chlorides, as butter of antimony, sesquichloride of antimony; also, certain concrete fat oils remaining nearly solid at ordinary temperatures, as butter of cacao, vegetable butter, shea butter.

But-thorn (n.) The common European starfish (Asterias rubens).

Buxine (n.) An alkaloid obtained from the Buxus sempervirens, or common box tree. It is identical with bebeerine; -- called also buxina.

By (a.) Out of the common path; aside; -- used in composition, giving the meaning of something aside, secondary, or incidental, or collateral matter, a thing private or avoiding notice; as, by-line, by-place, by-play, by-street. It was formerly more freely used in composition than it is now; as, by-business, by-concernment, by-design, by-interest, etc.

Byplay (n.) Action carried on aside, and commonly in dumb show, while the main action proceeds.

Byword (n.) A common saying; a proverb; a saying that has a general currency.

C () C after the clef is the mark of common time, in which each measure is a semibreve (four fourths or crotchets); for alla breve time it is written /.

Cabala (n.) A kind of occult theosophy or traditional interpretation of the Scriptures among Jewish rabbis and certain mediaeval Christians, which treats of the nature of god and the mystery of human existence. It assumes that every letter, word, number, and accent of Scripture contains a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation for ascertaining these occult meanings. The cabalists pretend even to foretell events by this means.

Cabbage (n.) An esculent vegetable of many varieties, derived from the wild Brassica oleracea of Europe. The common cabbage has a compact head of leaves. The cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, etc., are sometimes classed as cabbages.

Caboose (n.) A house on deck, where the cooking is done; -- commonly called the galley.

Cabrilla (n.) A name applied to various species of edible fishes of the genus Serranus, and related genera, inhabiting the Meditarranean, the coast of California, etc. In California, some of them are also called rock bass and kelp salmon.

Cacajao (n.) A South American short-tailed monkey (Pithecia (/ Brachyurus) melanocephala).

Cacao (n.) A small evergreen tree (Theobroma Cacao) of South America and the West Indies. Its fruit contains an edible pulp, inclosing seeds about the size of an almond, from which cocoa, chocolate, and broma are prepared.

Cacodemon (n.) An evil spirit; a devil or demon.

Cacodemon (n.) The nightmare.

Cactaceous (a.) Belonging to, or like, the family of plants of which the prickly pear is a common example.

Cadence (n.) Harmony and proportion in motions, as of a well-managed horse.

Cadence (n.) The close or fall of a strain; the point of rest, commonly reached by the immediate succession of the tonic to the dominant chord.

Cadenza (n.) A parenthetic flourish or flight of ornament in the course of a piece, commonly just before the final cadence.

Cadi (n.) An inferior magistrate or judge among the Mohammedans, usually the judge of a town or village.

Caesura (n.) A metrical break in a verse, occurring in the middle of a foot and commonly near the middle of the verse; a sense pause in the middle of a foot. Also, a long syllable on which the caesural accent rests, or which is used as a foot.

Cairn (n.) A rounded or conical heap of stones erected by early inhabitants of the British Isles, apparently as a sepulchral monument.

Calabash (n.) The common gourd (plant or fruit).

Calamus (n.) The indian cane, a plant of the Palm family. It furnishes the common rattan. See Rattan, and Dragon's blood.

Calamus (n.) A species of Acorus (A. calamus), commonly called calamus, or sweet flag. The root has a pungent, aromatic taste, and is used in medicine as a stomachic; the leaves have an aromatic odor, and were formerly used instead of rushes to strew on floors.

Calcite (n.) Calcium carbonate, or carbonate of lime. It is rhombohedral in its crystallization, and thus distinguished from aragonite. It includes common limestone, chalk, and marble. Called also calc-spar and calcareous spar.

Calefactory (n.) An apartment in a monastery, warmed and used as a sitting room.

Calendar (n.) An orderly arrangement of the division of time, adapted to the purposes of civil life, as years, months, weeks, and days; also, a register of the year with its divisions; an almanac.

Calends (n. pl.) The first day of each month in the ancient Roman calendar.

Calendula (n.) A genus of composite herbaceous plants. One species, Calendula officinalis, is the common marigold, and was supposed to blossom on the calends of every month, whence the name.

Calenture (n.) A name formerly given to various fevers occuring in tropics; esp. to a form of furious delirium accompanied by fever, among sailors, which sometimes led the affected person to imagine the sea to be a green field, and to throw himself into it.

Call (v. t.) To command or request to come or be present; to summon; as, to call a servant.

Call (v. t.) To summon to the discharge of a particular duty; to designate for an office, or employment, especially of a religious character; -- often used of a divine summons; as, to be called to the ministry; sometimes, to invite; as, to call a minister to be the pastor of a church.

Call (v. t.) To invite or command to meet; to convoke; -- often with together; as, the President called Congress together; to appoint and summon; as, to call a meeting of the Board of Aldermen.

Call (n.) The act of calling; -- usually with the voice, but often otherwise, as by signs, the sound of some instrument, or by writing; a summons; an entreaty; an invitation; as, a call for help; the bugle's call.

Call (n.) A signal, as on a drum, bugle, trumpet, or pipe, to summon soldiers or sailors to duty.

Call (n.) A divine vocation or summons.

Call (n.) A whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to summon the sailors to duty.

Calling (n.) The act of one who calls; a crying aloud, esp. in order to summon, or to attact the attention of, some one.

Calling (n.) A summoning or convocation, as of Parliament.

Calling (n.) A divine summons or invitation; also, the state of being divinely called.

Caloyer (n.) A monk of the Greek Church; a cenobite, anchoret, or recluse of the rule of St. Basil, especially, one on or near Mt. Athos.

Calver (v. i.) To cut in slices and pickle, as salmon.

Calver (v. i.) To crimp; as, calvered salmon.

Camaieu (n.) Painting in shades of one color; monochrome.

Cambist (n.) A banker; a money changer or broker; one who deals in bills of exchange, or who is skilled in the science of exchange.

Camera obscura () An apparatus in which the image of an external object or objects is, by means of lenses, thrown upon a sensitized plate or surface placed at the back of an extensible darkened box or chamber variously modified; -- commonly called simply the camera.

Chamomile (n.) A genus of herbs (Anthemis) of the Composite family. The common camomile, A. nobilis, is used as a popular remedy. Its flowers have a strong and fragrant and a bitter, aromatic taste. They are tonic, febrifugal, and in large doses emetic, and the volatile oil is carminative.

Camonflet (n.) A small mine, sometimes formed in the wall or side of an enemy's gallery, to blow in the earth and cut off the retreat of the miners.

Camp (n.) A collection of tents, huts, etc., for shelter, commonly arranged in an orderly manner.

Camphine (n.) Rectified oil of turpentine, used for burning in lamps, and as a common solvent in varnishes.

Cancellation (n.) The operation of striking out common factors, in both the dividend and divisor.

Cancer (n.) A genus of decapod Crustacea, including some of the most common shore crabs of Europe and North America, as the rock crab, Jonah crab, etc. See Crab.

Candleberry tree () A shrub (the Myrica cerifera, or wax-bearing myrtle), common in North America, the little nuts of which are covered with a greenish white wax, which was formerly, used for hardening candles; -- also called bayberry tree, bayberry, or candleberry.

Cane (n.) A name given to several peculiar palms, species of Calamus and Daemanorops, having very long, smooth flexible stems, commonly called rattans.

Canon (n.) In monasteries, a book containing the rules of a religious order.

Canticle (n.) The Song of Songs or Song of Solomon, one of the books of the Old Testament.

Canuck (n.) A small or medium-sized hardy horse, common in Canada.

Canvas (n.) A piece of strong cloth of which the surface has been prepared to receive painting, commonly painting in oil.

Canvass (v. i.) To search thoroughly; to engage in solicitation by traversing a district; as, to canvass for subscriptions or for votes; to canvass for a book, a publisher, or in behalf of a charity; -- commonly followed by for.

Caparro (n.) A large South American monkey (Lagothrix Humboldtii), with prehensile tail.

Cape (n.) A piece or point of land, extending beyond the adjacent coast into the sea or a lake; a promontory; a headland.

Capelin (n.) A small marine fish (Mallotus villosus) of the family Salmonidae, very abundant on the coasts of Greenland, Iceland, Newfoundland, and Alaska. It is used as a bait for the cod.

Capitalist (n.) One who has capital; one who has money for investment, or money invested; esp. a person of large property, which is employed in business.

Capoch (n.) A hood; especially, the hood attached to the gown of a monk.

Cappeak (n.) The front piece of a cap; -- now more commonly called visor.

Capra (n.) A genus of ruminants, including the common goat.

Capricorn (n.) A southern constellation, represented on ancient monuments by the figure of a goat, or a figure with its fore part like a fish.

Capuchin (n.) A Franciscan monk of the austere branch established in 1526 by Matteo di Baschi, distinguished by wearing the long pointed cowl or capoch of St. Francis.

Capuchin (n.) A garment for women, consisting of a cloak and hood, resembling, or supposed to resemble, that of capuchin monks.

Capuchin (n.) A long-tailed South American monkey (Cabus capucinus), having the forehead naked and wrinkled, with the hair on the crown reflexed and resembling a monk's cowl, the rest being of a grayish white; -- called also capucine monkey, weeper, sajou, sapajou, and sai.

Caranx (n.) A genus of fishes, common on the Atlantic coast, including the yellow or golden mackerel.

Carbon (n.) An elementary substance, not metallic in its nature, which is present in all organic compounds. Atomic weight 11.97. Symbol C. it is combustible, and forms the base of lampblack and charcoal, and enters largely into mineral coals. In its pure crystallized state it constitutes the diamond, the hardest of known substances, occuring in monometric crystals like the octahedron, etc. Another modification is graphite, or blacklead, and in this it is soft, and occurs in hexagonal prisms or tables. When united with oxygen it forms carbon dioxide, commonly called carbonic acid, or carbonic oxide, according to the proportions of the oxygen; when united with hydrogen, it forms various compounds called hydrocarbons. Compare Diamond, and Graphite.

Carbonado (n.) A black variety of diamond, found in Brazil, and used for diamond drills. It occurs in irregular or rounded fragments, rarely distinctly crystallized, with a texture varying from compact to porous.

Carboxyl (n.) The complex radical, CO.OH, regarded as the essential and characteristic constituent which all oxygen acids of carbon (as formic, acetic, benzoic acids, etc.) have in common; -- called also oxatyl.

Carboy (n.) A large, globular glass bottle, esp. one of green glass, inclosed in basket work or in a box, for protection; -- used commonly for carrying corrosive liquids; as sulphuric acid, etc.

Carbuncle (n.) A charge or bearing supposed to represent the precious stone. It has eight scepters or staves radiating from a common center. Called also escarbuncle.

Carcass (n.) A dead body, whether of man or beast; a corpse; now commonly the dead body of a beast.

Carcass (n.) The living body; -- now commonly used in contempt or ridicule.

Careful (a.) Taking care; giving good heed; watchful; cautious; provident; not indifferent, heedless, or reckless; -- often followed by of, for, or the infinitive; as, careful of money; careful to do right.

Caribou (n.) The American reindeer, especially the common or woodland species (Rangifer Caribou).

Carina (n.) That part of a papilionaceous flower, consisting of two petals, commonly united, which incloses the organs of fructification

Carpetmonger (n.) One who deals in carpets; a buyer and seller of carpets.

Carpetmonger (n.) One fond of pleasure; a gallant.

Cart (n.) A common name for various kinds of vehicles, as a Scythian dwelling on wheels, or a chariot.

Cartouch (n.) An oval figure on monuments, and in papyri, containing the name of a sovereign.

Cartulary (n.) A register, or record, as of a monastery or church.

Caryophyllin (n.) A tasteless and odorless crystalline substance, extracted from cloves, polymeric with common camphor.

Cascalho (n.) A deposit of pebbles, gravel, and ferruginous sand, in which the Brazilian diamond is usually found.

Cash (n.) A place where money is kept, or where it is deposited and paid out; a money box.

Cash (n.) Ready money; especially, coin or specie; but also applied to bank notes, drafts, bonds, or any paper easily convertible into money

Cash (v. t.) To pay, or to receive, cash for; to exchange for money; as, cash a note or an order.

Cashbook (n.) A book in which is kept a register of money received or paid out.

Cashier (n.) One who has charge of money; a cash keeper; the officer who has charge of the payments and receipts (moneys, checks, notes), of a bank or a mercantile company.

Cashierer (n.) One who rejects, discards, or dismisses; as, a cashierer of monarchs.

Cassia (n.) The bark of several species of Cinnamomum grown in China, etc.; Chinese cinnamon. It is imported as cassia, but commonly sold as cinnamon, from which it differs more or less in strength and flavor, and the amount of outer bark attached.

Cassius (n.) A brownish purple pigment, obtained by the action of some compounds of tin upon certain salts of gold. It is used in painting and staining porcelain and glass to give a beautiful purple color. Commonly called Purple of Cassius.

Cast (v. t.) To fix, distribute, or allot, as the parts of a play among actors; also to assign (an actor) for a part.

Caste (n.) A separate and fixed order or class of persons in society who chiefly hold intercourse among themselves.

Cat (n.) An animal of various species of the genera Felis and Lynx. The domestic cat is Felis domestica. The European wild cat (Felis catus) is much larger than the domestic cat. In the United States the name wild cat is commonly applied to the bay lynx (Lynx rufus) See Wild cat, and Tiger cat.

Catacomb (n.) A cave, grotto, or subterraneous place of large extent used for the burial of the dead; -- commonly in the plural.

Catamenia (n. pl.) The monthly courses of women; menstrual discharges; menses.

Catanadromous (a.) Ascending and descending fresh streams from and to the sea, as the salmon; anadromous.

Catarrhine (n.) One of the Catarrhina, a division of Quadrumana, including the Old World monkeys and apes which have the nostrils close together and turned downward. See Monkey.

Catasterism (n.) A placing among the stars; a catalogue of stars.

Catch (n.) Something desirable to be caught, esp. a husband or wife in matrimony.

Catchpenny (a.) Made or contrived for getting small sums of money from the ignorant or unwary; as, a catchpenny book; a catchpenny show.

Catchword (n.) Among theatrical performers, the last word of the preceding speaker, which reminds one that he is to speak next; cue.

Caterpillar (n.) The larval state of a butterfly or any lepidopterous insect; sometimes, but less commonly, the larval state of other insects, as the sawflies, which are also called false caterpillars. The true caterpillars have three pairs of true legs, and several pairs of abdominal fleshy legs (prolegs) armed with hooks. Some are hairy, others naked. They usually feed on leaves, fruit, and succulent vegetables, being often very destructive, Many of them are popularly called worms, as the cutworm, cankerworm, army worm, cotton worm, silkworm.

Catholic (n.) A person who accepts the creeds which are received in common by all parts of the orthodox Christian church.

Cazic (n.) A chief or petty king among some tribes of Indians in America.

Celebrate (v. t.) To honor by solemn rites, by ceremonies of joy and respect, or by refraining from ordinary business; to observe duly; to keep; as, to celebrate a birthday.

Celestinian (n.) A monk of the austere branch of the Franciscan Order founded by Celestine V. in the 13th centry.

Cell (n.) A very small and close apartment, as in a prison or in a monastery or convent; the hut of a hermit.

Cell (n.) A small religious house attached to a monastery or convent.

Cellarer (n.) A steward or butler of a monastery or chapter; one who has charge of procuring and keeping the provisions.

Cenogamy (n.) The state of a community which permits promiscuous sexual intercourse among its members, as in certain societies practicing communism.

Cenotaph (n.) An empty tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person who is buried elsewhere.

Center (n.) Those members of a legislative assembly (as in France) who support the existing government. They sit in the middle of the legislative chamber, opposite the presiding officer, between the conservatives or monarchists, who sit on the right of the speaker, and the radicals or advanced republicans who occupy the seats on his left, See Right, and Left.

Centime (n.) The hundredth part of a franc; a small French copper coin and money of account.

Centurial (a.) Of or pertaining to a century; as, a centurial sermon.

Cephaloptera (n.) One of the generic names of the gigantic ray (Manta birostris), known as devilfish and sea devil. It is common on the coasts of South Carolina, Florida, and farther south. Some of them grow to enormous size, becoming twenty feet of more across the body, and weighing more than a ton.

Ceratodus (n.) A genus of ganoid fishes, of the order Dipnoi, first known as Mesozoic fossil fishes; but recently two living species have been discovered in Australian rivers. They have lungs so well developed that they can leave the water and breathe in air. In Australia they are called salmon and baramunda. See Dipnoi, and Archipterygium.

Cerberus (n.) A monster, in the shape of a three-headed dog, guarding the entrance into the infernal regions, Hence: Any vigilant custodian or guardian, esp. if surly.

Ceremonial (a.) Relating to ceremony, or external rite; ritual; according to the forms of established rites.

Ceremonial (a.) Observant of forms; ceremonious. [In this sense ceremonious is now preferred.]

Ceremonial (n.) A system of rules and ceremonies, enjoined by law, or established by custom, in religious worship, social intercourse, or the courts of princes; outward form.

Ceremonial (n.) The order for rites and forms in the Roman Catholic church, or the book containing the rules prescribed to be observed on solemn occasions.

Ceremonialism (n.) Adherence to external rites; fondness for ceremony.

Ceremonially (adv.) According to rites and ceremonies; as, a person ceremonially unclean.

Ceremonialness (n.) Quality of being ceremonial.

Ceremonious (a.) Consisting of outward forms and rites; ceremonial. [In this sense ceremonial is now preferred.]

Ceremonious (a.) According to prescribed or customary rules and forms; devoted to forms and ceremonies; formally respectful; punctilious.

Ceremoniously (adv.) In a ceremonious way.

Ceremoniousness (n.) The quality, or practice, of being ceremonious.

Ceremonies (pl. ) of Ceremony

Ceremony (n.) Ar act or series of acts, often of a symbolical character, prescribed by law, custom, or authority, in the conduct of important matters, as in the performance of religious duties, the transaction of affairs of state, and the celebration of notable events; as, the ceremony of crowning a sovereign; the ceremonies observed in consecrating a church; marriage and baptismal ceremonies.

Ceremony (n.) Behavior regulated by strict etiquette; a formal method of performing acts of civility; forms of civility prescribed by custom or authority.

Ceremony (n.) A ceremonial symbols; an emblem, as a crown, scepter, garland, etc.

Ceremony (n.) A sign or prodigy; a portent.

Cerite (n.) A mineral of a brownish of cherry-red color, commonly massive. It is a hydrous silicate of cerium and allied metals.

Cerium (n.) A rare metallic element, occurring in the minerals cerite, allanite, monazite, etc. Symbol Ce. Atomic weight 141.5. It resembles iron in color and luster, but is soft, and both malleable and ductile. It tarnishes readily in the air.

Cero (n.) A large and valuable fish of the Mackerel family, of the genus Scomberomorus. Two species are found in the West Indies and less commonly on the Atlantic coast of the United States, -- the common cero (Scomberomorus caballa), called also kingfish, and spotted, or king, cero (S. regalis).

Ceroma (n.) The unguent (a composition of oil and wax) with which wrestlers were anointed among the ancient Romans.

Certificate (n.) A written testimony to the truth of any fact; as, certificate of good behavior.

Cervantite (n.) See under Antimony.

Cestoidea (n. pl.) A class of parasitic worms (Platelminthes) of which the tapeworms are the most common examples. The body is flattened, and usually but not always long, and composed of numerous joints or segments, each of which may contain a complete set of male and female reproductive organs. They have neither mouth nor intestine. See Tapeworm.

Cetrarin (n.) A white substance extracted from the lichen, Iceland moss (Cetraria Islandica). It consists of several ingredients, among which is cetraric acid, a white, crystalline, bitter substance.

Chaetetes (n.) A genus of fossil corals, common in the lower Silurian limestones.

Chalcopyrite (n.) Copper pyrites, or yellow copper ore; a common ore of copper, containing copper, iron, and sulphur. It occurs massive and in tetragonal crystals of a bright brass yellow color.

Chaldean (n.) A learned man, esp. an astrologer; -- so called among the Eastern nations, because astrology and the kindred arts were much cultivated by the Chaldeans.

Chalk (n.) A soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or yellowish white color, consisting of calcium carbonate, and having the same composition as common limestone.

Challenge (n.) An invitation to engage in a contest or controversy of any kind; a defiance; specifically, a summons to fight a duel; also, the letter or message conveying the summons.

Challenge (n.) To call, invite, or summon to answer for an offense by personal combat.

Chamberer (n.) A civilian; a carpetmonger.

Chamberlain (n.) An officer having the direction and management of the private chambers of a nobleman or monarch; hence, in Europe, one of the high officers of a court.

Chamberlain (n.) A treasurer or receiver of public money; as, the chamberlain of London, of North Wales, etc.

Chameck (n.) A kind of spider monkey (Ateles chameck), having the thumbs rudimentary and without a nail.

Champerty (n.) The prosecution or defense of a suit, whether by furnishing money or personal services, by one who has no legitimate concern therein, in consideration of an agreement that he shall receive, in the event of success, a share of the matter in suit; maintenance with the addition of an agreement to divide the thing in suit. See Maintenance.

Change (v. t.) To give and take reciprocally; to exchange; -- followed by with; as, to change place, or hats, or money, with another.

Change (v. t.) Specifically: To give, or receive, smaller denominations of money (technically called change) for; as, to change a gold coin or a bank bill.

Change (v. t.) Small money; the money by means of which the larger coins and bank bills are made available in small dealings; hence, the balance returned when payment is tendered by a coin or note exceeding the sum due.

Changer (n.) One who deals in or changes money.

Chantry (n.) An endowment or foundation for the chanting of masses and offering of prayers, commonly for the founder.

Chap (n.) One of the jaws or the fleshy covering of a jaw; -- commonly in the plural, and used of animals, and colloquially of human beings.

Chapter (n.) An assembly of monks, or of the prebends and other clergymen connected with a cathedral, conventual, or collegiate church, or of a diocese, usually presided over by the dean.

Charr (n.) One of the several species of fishes of the genus Salvelinus, allied to the spotted trout and salmon, inhabiting deep lakes in mountainous regions in Europe. In the United States, the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is sometimes called a char.

Charles's Wain () The group of seven stars, commonly called the Dipper, in the constellation Ursa Major, or Great Bear. See Ursa major, under Ursa.

Charm (n.) To subdue, control, or summon by incantation or supernatural influence; to affect by magic.

Charte (n.) The constitution, or fundamental law, of the French monarchy, as established on the restoration of Louis XVIII., in 1814.

Charterhouse (n.) A well known public school and charitable foundation in the building once used as a Carthusian monastery (Chartreuse) in London.

Chartreuse (n.) A Carthusian monastery; esp. La Grande Chartreuse, mother house of the order, in the mountains near Grenoble, France.

Charybdis (n.) A dangerous whirlpool on the coast of Sicily opposite Scylla on the Italian coast. It is personified as a female monster. See Scylla.

Chat (v. i.) To talk in a light and familiar manner; to converse without form or ceremony; to gossip.

Chatter (n.) Sounds like those of a magpie or monkey; idle talk; rapid, thoughtless talk; jabber; prattle.

Chatterer (n.) A bird of the family Ampelidae -- so called from its monotonous note. The Bohemion chatterer (Ampelis garrulus) inhabits the arctic regions of both continents. In America the cedar bird is a more common species. See Bohemian chatterer, and Cedar bird.

Cheap (n.) Of comparatively small value; common; mean.

Cheaply (adv.) At a small price; at a low value; in a common or inferior manner.

Check (n.) A written order directing a bank or banker to pay money as therein stated. See Bank check, below.

Cheesemonger (n.) One who deals in cheese.

Cherry (n.) The common garden cherry (Prunus Cerasus), of which several hundred varieties are cultivated for the fruit, some of which are, the begarreau, blackheart, black Tartarian, oxheart, morelle or morello, May-duke (corrupted from Medoc in France).

Chestnut (n.) The edible nut of a forest tree (Castanea vesca) of Europe and America. Commonly two or more of the nuts grow in a prickly bur.

Chevron (n.) A zigzag molding, or group of moldings, common in Norman architecture.

Chiaro-oscuro (n.) The arrangement of light and dark parts in a work of art, such as a drawing or painting, whether in monochrome or in color.

Chiaro-oscuro (n.) The art or practice of so arranging the light and dark parts as to produce a harmonious effect. Cf. Clair-obscur.

Chievance (n.) An unlawful bargain; traffic in which money is exported as discount.

Chigre (n.) A species of flea (Pulex penetrans), common in the West Indies and South America, which often attacks the feet or any exposed part of the human body, and burrowing beneath the skin produces great irritation. When the female is allowed to remain and breed, troublesome sores result, which are sometimes dangerous. See Jigger.

Chime (n.) The harmonious sound of bells, or of musical instruments.

Chime (n.) To sound in harmonious accord, as bells.

Chime (n.) To be in harmony; to agree; to suit; to harmonize; to correspond; to fall in with.

Chime (v. i.) To cause to sound in harmony; to play a tune, as upon a set of bells; to move or strike in harmony.

Chime (v. i.) To utter harmoniously; to recite rhythmically.

Chimera (n.) A monster represented as vomiting flames, and as having the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon.

Chimney-breast (n.) The horizontal projection of a chimney from the wall in which it is built; -- commonly applied to its projection in the inside of a building only.

Chinche (a.) Parsimonious; niggardly.

Chinese (n. sing. & pl.) The language of China, which is monosyllabic.

Chink (v. i.) To make a slight, sharp, metallic sound, as by the collision of little pieces of money, or other small sonorous bodies.

Chipmunk (n.) A squirrel-like animal of the genus Tamias, sometimes called the striped squirrel, chipping squirrel, ground squirrel, hackee. The common species of the United States is the Tamias striatus.

Chippy (n.) A small American sparrow (Spizella socialis), very common near dwelling; -- also called chipping bird and chipping sparrow, from its simple note.

Chirograph (n.) The last part of a fine of land, commonly called the foot of the fine.

Chiromonic (a.) Relating to chironomy.

Chisleu (n.) The ninth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, answering to a part of November with a part of December.

Chiton (n.) An under garment among the ancient Greeks, nearly representing the modern shirt.

Chloride (n.) A binary compound of chlorine with another element or radical; as, chloride of sodium (common salt).

Chlorine (n.) One of the elementary substances, commonly isolated as a greenish yellow gas, two and one half times as heavy as air, of an intensely disagreeable suffocating odor, and exceedingly poisonous. It is abundant in nature, the most important compound being common salt. It is powerful oxidizing, bleaching, and disinfecting agent. Symbol Cl. Atomic weight, 35.4.

Chocolate (n.) A paste or cake composed of the roasted seeds of the Theobroma Cacao ground and mixed with other ingredients, usually sugar, and cinnamon or vanilla.

Choice (n.) A sufficient number to choose among.

Choice (superl.) Preserving or using with care, as valuable; frugal; -- used with of; as, to be choice of time, or of money.

Cholera (n.) One of several diseases affecting the digestive and intestinal tract and more or less dangerous to life, esp. the one commonly called Asiatic cholera.

Chop (n.) A jaw of an animal; -- commonly in the pl. See Chops.

Choral (a.) Of or pertaining to a choir or chorus; singing, sung, or adapted to be sung, in chorus or harmony.

Chorally (adv.) In the manner of a chorus; adapted to be sung by a choir; in harmony.

Chord (n.) A combination of tones simultaneously performed, producing more or less perfect harmony, as, the common chord.

Chord (v. i.) To accord; to harmonize together; as, this note chords with that.

Chorus (n.) The simultaneous of a company in any noisy demonstration; as, a Chorus of shouts and catcalls.

Chouicha (n.) The salmon of the Columbia River or California. See Quinnat.

Chouse (v. t.) To cheat, trick, defraud; -- followed by of, or out of; as, to chouse one out of his money.

Chrisom (n.) A child which died within a month after its baptism; -- so called from the chrisom cloth which was used as a shroud for it.

Chrysolite (n.) A mineral, composed of silica, magnesia, and iron, of a yellow to green color. It is common in certain volcanic rocks; -- called also olivine and peridot. Sometimes used as a gem. The name was also early used for yellow varieties of tourmaline and topaz.

Chub (n.) A species to fresh-water fish of the Cyprinidae or Carp family. The common European species is Leuciscus cephalus; the cheven. In America the name is applied to various fishes of the same family, of the genera Semotilus, Squalius, Ceratichthys, etc., and locally to several very different fishes, as the tautog, black bass, etc.

Chufa (n.) A sedgelike plant (Cyperus esculentus) producing edible tubers, native about the Mediterranean, now cultivated in many regions; the earth almond.

Churchgoing (a.) Summoning to church.

Cicada (n.) Any species of the genus Cicada. They are large hemipterous insects, with nearly transparent wings. The male makes a shrill sound by peculiar organs in the under side of the abdomen, consisting of a pair of stretched membranes, acted upon by powerful muscles. A noted American species (C. septendecim) is called the seventeen year locust. Another common species is the dogday cicada.

Cilia (n. pl.) Hairlike processes, commonly marginal and forming a fringe like the eyelash.

Cinnamic (a.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, cinnamon.

Cinnamon (n.) The inner bark of the shoots of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, a tree growing in Ceylon. It is aromatic, of a moderately pungent taste, and is one of the best cordial, carminative, and restorative spices.

Cinnamon (n.) Cassia.

Cinnamone (n.) A yellow crystalline substance, (C6H5.C2H2)2CO, the ketone of cinnamic acid.

Cipher (n.) A combination or interweaving of letters, as the initials of a name; a device; a monogram; as, a painter's cipher, an engraver's cipher, etc. The cut represents the initials N. W.

Cippus (n.) A small, low pillar, square or round, commonly having an inscription, used by the ancients for various purposes, as for indicating the distances of places, for a landmark, for sepulchral inscriptions, etc.

Circle (n.) A company assembled, or conceived to assemble, about a central point of interest, or bound by a common tie; a class or division of society; a coterie; a set.

Circular (a.) Addressed to a circle, or to a number of persons having a common interest; circulated, or intended for circulation; as, a circular letter.

Circulate (v. i.) To pass from place to place, from person to person, or from hand to hand; to be diffused; as, money circulates; a story circulates.

Cismontane (a.) On this side of the mountains. See under Ultramontane.

Cistercian (n.) A monk of the prolific branch of the Benedictine Order, established in 1098 at Citeaux, in France, by Robert, abbot of Molesme. For two hundred years the Cistercians followed the rule of St. Benedict in all its rigor.

Cital (n.) Summons to appear, as before a judge.

Citation (n.) An official summons or notice given to a person to appear; the paper containing such summons or notice.

Cite (v. t.) To call upon officially or authoritatively to appear, as before a court; to summon.

Citric (a.) Of, pertaining to, or derived from, the citron or lemon; as, citric acid.

Citrination (n.) The process by which anything becomes of the color of a lemon; esp., in alchemy, the state of perfection in the philosopher's stone indicated by its assuming a deep yellow color.

Citrine (a.) Like a citron or lemon; of a lemon color; greenish yellow.

Citron (n.) A fruit resembling a lemon, but larger, and pleasantly aromatic. The thick rind, when candied, is the citron of commerce.

Citrus (n.) A genus of trees including the orange, lemon, citron, etc., originally natives of southern Asia.

City (n.) A corporate town; in the United States, a town or collective body of inhabitants, incorporated and governed by a mayor and aldermen or a city council consisting of a board of aldermen and a common council; in Great Britain, a town corporate, which is or has been the seat of a bishop, or the capital of his see.

Cladophyll (n.) A special branch, resembling a leaf, as in the apparent foliage of the broom (Ruscus) and of the common cultivated smilax (Myrsiphillum).

Clan (n.) A tribe or collection of families, united under a chieftain, regarded as having the same common ancestor, and bearing the same surname; as, the clan of Macdonald.

Clan (n.) A clique; a sect, society, or body of persons; esp., a body of persons united by some common interest or pursuit; -- sometimes used contemptuously.

Clarigate (v. i.) To declare war with certain ceremonies.

Clasper (n.) One of a pair of organs used by the male for grasping the female among many of the Crustacea.

Class (n.) A group of individuals ranked together as possessing common characteristics; as, the different classes of society; the educated class; the lower classes.

Class (n.) A comprehensive division of animate or inanimate objects, grouped together on account of their common characteristics, in any classification in natural science, and subdivided into orders, families, tribes, genera, etc.

Classification (n.) The act of forming into a class or classes; a distibution into groups, as classes, orders, families, etc., according to some common relations or affinities.

Classify (v. t.) To distribute into classes; to arrange according to a system; to arrange in sets according to some method founded on common properties or characters.

Claude Lorraine glass () A slightly convex mirror, commonly of black glass, used as a toy for viewing the reflected landscape.

Clavier (n.) The keyboard of an organ, pianoforte, or harmonium.

Clean (superl.) Free from ceremonial defilement.

Cleavage (n.) The quality possessed by many crystallized substances of splitting readily in one or more definite directions, in which the cohesive attraction is a minimum, affording more or less smooth surfaces; the direction of the dividing plane; a fragment obtained by cleaving, as of a diamond. See Parting.

Clinodiagonal (n.) That diagonal or lateral axis in a monoclinic crystal which makes an oblique angle with the vertical axis. See Crystallization.

Clinopinacoid (n.) The plane in crystals of the monoclinic system which is parallel to the vertical and the inclined lateral (clinidiagonal) axes.

Clinorhombic (a.) Possessing the qualities of a prism, obliquely inclined to a rhombic base; monoclinic.

Clique (v. i.) A narrow circle of persons associated by common interests or for the accomplishment of a common purpose; -- generally used in a bad sense.

Cloaca (n.) The common chamber into which the intestinal, urinary, and generative canals discharge in birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes.

Cloak (n.) A loose outer garment, extending from the neck downwards, and commonly without sleeves. It is longer than a cape, and is worn both by men and by women.

Cloister (v. t.) the series of such passages on the different sides of any court, esp. that of a monastery or a college.

Cloister (v. t.) A monastic establishment; a place for retirement from the world for religious duties.

Close (v. t.) Difficult to obtain; as, money is close.

Close (v. t.) Parsimonious; stingy.

Closure (v. t.) A method of putting an end to debate and securing an immediate vote upon a measure before a legislative body. It is similar in effect to the previous question. It was first introduced into the British House of Commons in 1882. The French word cloture was originally applied to this proceeding.

Clote (n.) The common burdock; the clotbur.

Cloth (n.) A fabric made of fibrous material (or sometimes of wire, as in wire cloth); commonly, a woven fabric of cotton, woolen, or linen, adapted to be made into garments; specifically, woolen fabrics, as distinguished from all others.

Clover (n.) A plant of different species of the genus Trifolium; as the common red clover, T. pratense, the white, T. repens, and the hare's foot, T. arvense.

Club (n.) An association of persons for the promotion of some common object, as literature, science, politics, good fellowship, etc.; esp. an association supported by equal assessments or contributions of the members.

Club (n.) A joint charge of expense, or any person's share of it; a contribution to a common fund.

Club (v. t.) To unite, or contribute, for the accomplishment of a common end; as, to club exertions.

Club (v. i.) To form a club; to combine for the promotion of some common object; to unite.

Club (v. i.) To pay on equal or proportionate share of a common charge or expense; to pay for something by contribution.

Cluniac (n.) A monk of the reformed branch of the Benedictine Order, founded in 912 at Cluny (or Clugny) in France. -- Also used as a.

Coagency (n.) Agency in common; joint agency or agent.

Coaita (n.) The native name of certain South American monkeys of the genus Ateles, esp. A. paniscus. The black-faced coaita is Ateles ater. See Illustration in Appendix.

Coccyx (n.) The end of the vertebral column beyond the sacrum in man and tailless monkeys. It is composed of several vertebrae more or less consolidated.

Cock (n.) The style of gnomon of a dial.

Cockle (n.) A plant or weed that grows among grain; the corn rose (Luchnis Githage).

Cod liver (n.) The liver of the common cod and allied species.

Coefficient (n.) A number, commonly used in computation as a factor, expressing the amount of some change or effect under certain fixed conditions as to temperature, length, volume, etc.; as, the coefficient of expansion; the coefficient of friction.

Coenenchyma (n.) The common tissue which unites the polyps or zooids of a compound anthozoan or coral. It may be soft or more or less ossified. See Coral.

Coenesthesis (n.) Common sensation or general sensibility, as distinguished from the special sensations which are located in, or ascribed to, separate organs, as the eye and ear. It is supposed to depend on the ganglionic system.

Coenoecium (n.) The common tissue which unites the various zooids of a bryozoan.

Coenogamy (n.) The state of a community which permits promiscuous sexual intercourse among its members; -- as in certain primitive tribes or communistic societies.

Coenosarc (n.) The common soft tissue which unites the polyps of a compound hydroid. See Hydroidea.

Coffer (n.) A casket, chest, or trunk; especially, one used for keeping money or other valuables.

Cognomen (n.) The last of the three names of a person among the ancient Romans, denoting his house or family.

Coin (n.) A piece of metal on which certain characters are stamped by government authority, making it legally current as money; -- much used in a collective sense.

Coin (v. t.) To acquire rapidly, as money; to make.

Coin (v. i.) To manufacture counterfeit money.

Coinage (v. t.) The act or process of converting metal into money.

Coinage (v. t.) The cost or expense of coining money.

Coiner (n.) One who makes or stamps coin; a maker of money; -- usually, a maker of counterfeit money.

Coinitial (a.) Having a common beginning.

Cold-blooded (a.) Not thoroughbred; -- said of animals, as horses, which are derived from the common stock of a country.

Coleseed (n.) The common rape or cole.

Collation (v. t.) A collection of the Lives of the Fathers or other devout work read daily in monasteries.

Collation (v. t.) A light repast or luncheon; as, a cold collation; -- first applied to the refreshment on fast days that accompanied the reading of the collation in monasteries.

Collection (n.) A gathering of money for charitable or other purposes, as by passing a contribution box for freewill offerings.

College (n.) A collection, body, or society of persons engaged in common pursuits, or having common duties and interests, and sometimes, by charter, peculiar rights and privileges; as, a college of heralds; a college of electors; a college of bishops.

Colloquial (a.) Pertaining to, or used in, conversation, esp. common and familiar conversation; conversational; hence, unstudied; informal; as, colloquial intercourse; colloquial phrases; a colloquial style.

Collybist (n.) A money changer.

Colophon (n.) An inscription, monogram, or cipher, containing the place and date of publication, printer's name, etc., formerly placed on the last page of a book.

Columbella (n.) A genus of univalve shells, abundant in tropical seas. Some species, as Columbella mercatoria, were formerly used as shell money.

Columbine (n.) A plant of several species of the genus Aquilegia; as, A. vulgaris, or the common garden columbine; A. Canadensis, the wild red columbine of North America.

Columbium (n.) A rare element of the vanadium group, first found in a variety of the mineral columbite occurring in Connecticut, probably at Haddam. Atomic weight 94.2. Symbol Cb or Nb. Now more commonly called niobium.

Comb (n.) A former, commonly cone-shaped, used in hat manufacturing for hardening the soft fiber into a bat.

Combine (v. t.) To unite or join; to link closely together; to bring into harmonious union; to cause or unite so as to form a homogeneous substance, as by chemical union.

Comedo (n.) A small nodule or cystic tumor, common on the nose, etc., which on pressure allows the escape of a yellow wormlike mass of retained oily secretion, with a black head (dirt).

Comestible (n.) Something suitable to be eaten; -- commonly in the plural.

Comet (n.) A member of the solar system which usually moves in an elongated orbit, approaching very near to the sun in its perihelion, and receding to a very great distance from it at its aphelion. A comet commonly consists of three parts: the nucleus, the envelope, or coma, and the tail; but one or more of these parts is frequently wanting. See Illustration in Appendix.

Commandery (n.) An assembly or lodge of Knights Templars (so called) among the Freemasons.

Commensurable (a.) Having a common measure; capable of being exactly measured by the same number, quantity, or measure.

Commensurate (v. t.) To reduce to a common measure.

Commensurate (a.) Having a common measure; commensurable; reducible to a common measure; as, commensurate quantities.

Common (v.) Belonging or relating equally, or similarly, to more than one; as, you and I have a common interest in the property.

Common (v.) Belonging to or shared by, affecting or serving, all the members of a class, considered together; general; public; as, properties common to all plants; the common schools; the Book of Common Prayer.

Common (v.) Often met with; usual; frequent; customary.

Common (v.) Not distinguished or exceptional; inconspicuous; ordinary; plebeian; -- often in a depreciatory sense.

Common (v.) Profane; polluted.

Common (v.) Given to habits of lewdness; prostitute.

Common (n.) The people; the community.

Common (n.) An inclosed or uninclosed tract of ground for pleasure, for pasturage, etc., the use of which belongs to the public; or to a number of persons.

Common (n.) The right of taking a profit in the land of another, in common either with the owner or with other persons; -- so called from the community of interest which arises between the claimant of the right and the owner of the soil, or between the claimants and other commoners entitled to the same right.

Common (v. i.) To converse together; to discourse; to confer.

Common (v. i.) To participate.

Common (v. i.) To have a joint right with others in common ground.

Common (v. i.) To board together; to eat at a table in common.

Commonable (a.) Held in common.

Commonable (a.) Allowed to pasture on public commons.

Commonage (n.) The right of pasturing on a common; the right of using anything in common with others.

Commonalties (pl. ) of Commonalty

Commonalty (n.) The common people; those classes and conditions of people who are below the rank of nobility; the commons.

Commonalty (n.) The majority or bulk of mankind.

Commoner (n.) One of the common people; one having no rank of nobility.

Commoner (n.) A member of the House of Commons.

Commoner (n.) One who has a joint right in common ground.

Commoner (n.) One sharing with another in anything.

Commoner (n.) A student in the university of Oxford, Eng., who is not dependent on any foundation for support, but pays all university charges; - - at Cambridge called a pensioner.

Commoner (n.) A prostitute.

Commonish (a.) Somewhat common; commonplace; vulgar.

Commonition (n.) Advice; warning; instruction.

Commonitive (a.) Monitory.

Commonitory (a.) Calling to mind; giving admonition.

Commonly (adv.) Usually; generally; ordinarily; frequently; for the most part; as, confirmed habits commonly continue through life.

Commonly (adv.) In common; familiarly.

Commonness (n.) State or quality of being common or usual; as, the commonness of sunlight.

Commonness (n.) Triteness; meanness.

Commonplace (a.) Common; ordinary; trite; as, a commonplace person, or observation.

Commonplace (n.) An idea or expression wanting originality or interest; a trite or customary remark; a platitude.

Commonplace (n.) A memorandum; something to be frequently consulted or referred to.

Commonplace (v. t.) To enter in a commonplace book, or to reduce to general heads.

Commonplace (v. i.) To utter commonplaces; to indulge in platitudes.

Commonplaceness (n.) The quality of being commonplace; commonness.

Commons (n. pl.) The mass of the people, as distinguished from the titled classes or nobility; the commonalty; the common people.

Commons (n. pl.) The House of Commons, or lower house of the British Parliament, consisting of representatives elected by the qualified voters of counties, boroughs, and universities.

Commons (n. pl.) Provisions; food; fare, -- as that provided at a common table in colleges and universities.

Commons (n. pl.) A club or association for boarding at a common table, as in a college, the members sharing the expenses equally; as, to board in commons.

Commons (n. pl.) A common; public pasture ground.

Common sense () See Common sense, under Sense.

Commonty (n.) A common; a piece of land in which two or more persons have a common right.

Commonweal (n.) Commonwealth.

Commonwealth (n.) A state; a body politic consisting of a certain number of men, united, by compact or tacit agreement, under one form of government and system of laws.

Commonwealth (n.) The whole body of people in a state; the public.

Commonwealth (n.) Specifically, the form of government established on the death of Charles I., in 1649, which existed under Oliver Cromwell and his son Richard, ending with the abdication of the latter in 1659.

Commune (n.) The commonalty; the common people.

Communicate (v. i.) To share in common; to participate in.

Communicate (v. i.) To share or participate; to possess or enjoy in common; to have sympathy.

Communion (n.) A body of Christians having one common faith and discipline; as, the Presbyterian communion.

Communism (n.) A scheme of equalizing the social conditions of life; specifically, a scheme which contemplates the abolition of inequalities in the possession of property, as by distributing all wealth equally to all, or by holding all wealth in common for the equal use and advantage of all.

Communistic (a.) Living or having their nests in common, as certain birds.

Community (n.) Common possession or enjoyment; participation; as, a community of goods.

Community (n.) A body of people having common rights, privileges, or interests, or living in the same place under the same laws and regulations; as, a community of monks. Hence a number of animals living in a common home or with some apparent association of interests.

Community (n.) Society at large; a commonwealth or state; a body politic; the public, or people in general.

Community (n.) Common character; likeness.

Community (n.) Commonness; frequency.

Commutation (n.) A substitution, as of a less thing for a greater, esp. a substitution of one form of payment for another, or one payment for many, or a specific sum of money for conditional payments or allowances; as, commutation of tithes; commutation of fares; commutation of copyright; commutation of rations.

Comparison (n.) A figure by which one person or thing is compared to another, or the two are considered with regard to some property or quality, which is common to them both; e.g., the lake sparkled like a jewel.

Compatible (a.) Capable of existing in harmony; congruous; suitable; not repugnant; -- usually followed by with.

Compatriot (a.) Of the same country; having a common sentiment of patriotism.

Compel (v. t.) To call forth; to summon.

Competition (n.) The act of seeking, or endeavoring to gain, what another is endeavoring to gain at the same time; common strife for the same objects; strife for superiority; emulous contest; rivalry, as for approbation, for a prize, or as where two or more persons are engaged in the same business and each seeking patronage; -- followed by for before the object sought, and with before the person or thing competed with.

Complain (v. i.) To give utterance to expression of grief, pain, censure, regret. etc.; to lament; to murmur; to find fault; -- commonly used with of. Also, to creak or squeak, as a timber or wheel.

Complainant (n.) The party suing in equity, answering to the plaintiff at common law.

Compliment (n.) An expression, by word or act, of approbation, regard, confidence, civility, or admiration; a flattering speech or attention; a ceremonious greeting; as, to send one's compliments to a friend.

Comply (v. i.) To be ceremoniously courteous; to make one's compliments.

Compose (v. t.) To construct by mental labor; to design and execute, or put together, in a manner involving the adaptation of forms of expression to ideas, or to the laws of harmony or proportion; as, to compose a sentence, a sermon, a symphony, or a picture.

Composition (n.) The art or practice of so combining the different parts of a work of art as to produce a harmonious whole; also, a work of art considered as such. See 4, below.

Compurgation (v. t.) Exculpation by testimony to one's veracity or innocence.

Compurgator (n.) One who bears testimony or swears to the veracity or innocence of another. See Purgation; also Wager of law, under Wager.

Concent (n.) Concert of voices; concord of sounds; harmony; as, a concent of notes.

Concentre (v. i.) To come to one point; to meet in, or converge toward, a common center; to have a common center.

Concentre (v. t.) To draw or direct to a common center; to bring together at a focus or point, as two or more lines; to concentrate.

Concentrate (v. t.) To bring to, or direct toward, a common center; to unite more closely; to gather into one body, mass, or force; to fix; as, to concentrate rays of light into a focus; to concentrate the attention.

Concentrate (v. i.) To approach or meet in a common center; to consolidate; as, population tends to concentrate in cities.

Concentrical (a.) Having a common center, as circles of different size, one within another.

Concentric (n.) That which has a common center with something else.

Concentual (a.) Possessing harmony; accordant.

Concert (v. i.) To act in harmony or conjunction; to form combined plans.

Concert (v. t.) Agreement in a design or plan; union formed by mutual communication of opinions and views; accordance in a scheme; harmony; simultaneous action.

Concert (v. t.) Musical accordance or harmony; concord.

Conch (n.) One of the white natives of the Bahama Islands or one of their descendants in the Florida Keys; -- so called from the commonness of the conch there, or because they use it for food.

Concinnity (n.) Internal harmony or fitness; mutual adaptation of parts; elegance; -- used chiefly of style of discourse.

Concionator (n.) A common councilman.

Conclusible (a.) Demonstrable; determinable.

Concord (n.) A state of agreement; harmony; union.

Concord (n.) An agreeable combination of tones simultaneously heard; a consonant chord; consonance; harmony.

Concordable (a.) Capable of according; agreeing; harmonious.

Concordant (a.) Agreeing; correspondent; harmonious; consonant.

Concretion (n.) A rounded mass or nodule produced by an aggregation of the material around a center; as, the calcareous concretions common in beds of clay.

Concubine (n.) A wife of inferior condition; a lawful wife, but not united to the man by the usual ceremonies, and of inferior condition. Such were Hagar and Keturah, the concubines of Abraham; and such concubines were allowed by the Roman laws. Their children were not heirs of their father.

Concur (v. i.) To meet in the same point; to combine or conjoin; to contribute or help toward a common object or effect.

Concurrence (n.) A common right; coincidence of equal powers; as, a concurrence of jurisdiction in two different courts.

Confabulation (n.) Familiar talk; easy, unrestrained, unceremonious conversation.

Confarreation (n.) A form of marriage among the Romans, in which an offering of bread was made, in presence of the high priest and at least ten witnesses.

Confederacy (n.) A league or compact between two or more persons, bodies of men, or states, for mutual support or common action; alliance.

Confederate (a.) Of or pertaining to the government of the eleven Southern States of the United States which (1860-1865) attempted to establish an independent nation styled the Confederate States of America; as, the Confederate congress; Confederate money.

Confidence (n.) The act of confiding, trusting, or putting faith in; trust; reliance; belief; -- formerly followed by of, now commonly by in.

Confine (v. i.) To have a common boundary; to border; to lie contiguous; to touch; -- followed by on or with.

Confine (n.) Common boundary; border; limit; -- used chiefly in the plural.

Confirmation (n.) That which confirms; that which gives new strength or assurance; as to a statement or belief; additional evidence; proof; convincing testimony.

Conflagrant (a.) Burning together in a common flame.

Conform (v. t.) To shape in accordance with; to make like; to bring into harmony or agreement with; -- usually with to or unto.

Conform (v. i.) To be in accord or harmony; to comply; to be obedient; to submit; -- with to or with.

Conge (n.) The act of taking leave; parting ceremony; farewell; also, dismissal.

Conglutin (n.) A variety of vegetable casein, resembling legumin, and found in almonds, rye, wheat, etc.

Congregation (n.) A company of religious persons forming a subdivision of a monastic order.

Congress (n.) A formal assembly, as of princes, deputies, representatives, envoys, or commissioners; esp., a meeting of the representatives of several governments or societies to consider and determine matters of common interest.

Congruity (n.) The state or quality of being congruous; the relation or agreement between things; fitness; harmony; correspondence; consistency.

Congruous (a.) Suitable or concordant; accordant; fit; harmonious; correspondent; consistent.

Conistra (n.) Originally, a part of the palestra, or gymnasium among the Greeks; either the place where sand was stored for use in sprinkling the wrestlers, or the wrestling ground itself. Hence, a part of the orchestra of the Greek theater.

Conium (n.) The common hemlock (Conium maculatum, poison hemlock, spotted hemlock, poison parsley), a roadside weed of Europe, Asia, and America, cultivated in the United States for medicinal purpose. It is an active poison. The leaves and fruit are used in medicine.

Conjugal (a.) Belonging to marriage; suitable or appropriate to the marriage state or to married persons; matrimonial; connubial.

Conjugally (adv.) In a conjugal manner; matrimonially; connubially.

Conjugate (v. i.) To unite in a kind of sexual union, as two or more cells or individuals among the more simple plants and animals.

Conjuration (n.) The act of calling or summoning by a sacred name, or in solemn manner; the act of binding by an oath; an earnest entreaty; adjuration.

Conjure (v. t.) To call on or summon by a sacred name or in solemn manner; to implore earnestly; to adjure.

Conjuror (n.) One bound by a common oath with others.

Connascency (n.) The common birth of two or more at the same tome; production of two or more together.

Connature (n.) Participation in a common nature or character.

Conoid (n.) A solid formed by the revolution of a conic section about its axis; as, a parabolic conoid, elliptic conoid, etc.; -- more commonly called paraboloid, ellipsoid, etc.

Consecrate (v. t.) To canonize; to exalt to the rank of a saint; to enroll among the gods, as a Roman emperor.

Consecration (n.) The act or ceremony of consecrating; the state of being consecrated; dedication.

Consecutive (a.) Having similarity of sequence; -- said of certain parallel progressions of two parts in a piece of harmony; as, consecutive fifths, or consecutive octaves, which are forbidden.

Consent (n.) Correspondence in parts, qualities, or operations; agreement; harmony; coherence.

Consentaneous (a.) Consistent; agreeable; suitable; accordant to; harmonious; concurrent.

Consideration (n.) The result of delibration, or of attention and examonation; matured opinion; a reflection; as, considerations on the choice of a profession.

Consimility (n.) Common resemblance.

Consist (v. i.) To be consistent or harmonious; to be in accordance; -- formerly used absolutely, now followed by with.

Consistency (n.) Agreement or harmony of all parts of a complex thing among themselves, or of the same thing with itself at different times; the harmony of conduct with profession; congruity; correspondence; as, the consistency of laws, regulations, or judicial decisions; consistency of opinions; consistency of conduct or of character.

Consistent (a.) Having agreement with itself or with something else; having harmony among its parts; possesing unity; accordant; harmonious; congruous; compatible; uniform; not contradictory.

Consonancy (n.) Agreement or congruity; harmony; accord; consistency; suitableness.

Consonant (a.) harmonizing together; accordant; as, consonant tones, consonant chords.

Consort (n.) Harmony of sounds; concert, as of musical instruments.

Consort (v. t.) To unite or join, as in affection, harmony, company, marriage, etc.; to associate.

Constable (n.) A high officer in the monarchical establishments of the Middle Ages.

Consubstantiate (v. t. ) To cause to unite, or to regard as united, in one common substance or nature.

Consumption (n.) A progressive wasting away of the body; esp., that form of wasting, attendant upon pulmonary phthisis and associated with cough, spitting of blood, hectic fever, etc.; pulmonary phthisis; -- called also pulmonary consumption.

Contact (n.) The property of two curves, or surfaces, which meet, and at the point of meeting have a common direction.

Contesseration (n.) An assemblage; a collection; harmonious union.

Contestation (n.) Proof by witness; attestation; testimony.

Continental (a.) Of or pertaining to the confederated colonies collectively, in the time of the Revolutionary War; as, Continental money.

Contingent (n.) That which falls to one in a division or apportionment among a number; a suitable share; proportion; esp., a quota of troops.

Contraremonstrant (n.) One who remonstrates in opposition or answer to a remonstrant.

Contribute (v. t.) To give or grant i common with others; to give to a common stock or for a common purpose; to furnish or suply in part; to give (money or other aid) for a specified object; as, to contribute food or fuel for the poor.

Contribute (v. i.) To give a part to a common stock; to lend assistance or aid, or give something, to a common purpose; to have a share in any act or effect.

Contribution (n.) That which is contributed; -- either the portion which an individual furnishes to the common stock, or the whole which is formed by the gifts of individuals.

Contribution (n.) Payment, by each of several jointly liable, of a share in a loss suffered or an amount paid by one of their number for the common benefit.

Contributory (a.) Contributing to the same stock or purpose; promoting the same end; bringing assistance to some joint design, or increase to some common stock; contributive.

Contributory (n.) One who contributes, or is liable to be called upon to contribute, as toward the discharge of a common indebtedness.

Contumacy (n.) A willful contempt of, and disobedience to, any lawful summons, or to the rules and orders of court, as a refusal to appear in court when legally summoned.

Convene (v. t.) To summon judicially to meet or appear.

Convent (v. i.) An association or community of recluses devoted to a religious life; a body of monks or nuns.

Convent (v. i.) A house occupied by a community of religious recluses; a monastery or nunnery.

Convent (v. t.) To call before a judge or judicature; to summon; to convene.

Conventual (a.) Of or pertaining to a convent; monastic.

Conventual (n.) One who lives in a convent; a monk or nun; a recluse.

Convert (v. t.) To exchange for some specified equivalent; as, to convert goods into money.

Convert (n.) A lay friar or brother, permitted to enter a monastery for the service of the house, but without orders, and not allowed to sing in the choir.

Convict (v. t.) To demonstrate by proof or evidence; to prove.

Convocation (n.) The act of calling or assembling by summons.

Convoke (v. t.) To call together; to summon to meet; to assemble by summons.

Convolvulaceous (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the family of plants of which the bindweed and the morning-glory are common examples.

Convolvulus (n.) A large genus of plants having monopetalous flowers, including the common bindweed (C. arwensis), and formerly the morning-glory, but this is now transferred to the genus Ipomaea.

Convoy (n.) A vessel or fleet, or a train or trains of wagons, employed in the transportation of munitions of war, money, subsistence, clothing, etc., and having an armed escort.

Cool (superl.) Applied facetiously, in a vague sense, to a sum of money, commonly as if to give emphasis to the largeness of the amount.

Coordinate (v. t.) To give a common action, movement, or condition to; to regulate and combine so as to produce harmonious action; to adjust; to harmonize; as, to coordinate muscular movements.

Coordination (n.) The act of coordinating; the act of putting in the same order, class, rank, dignity, etc.; as, the coordination of the executive, the legislative, and the judicial authority in forming a government; the act of regulating and combining so as to produce harmonious results; harmonious adjustment; as, a coordination of functions.

Copper (n.) A common metal of a reddish color, both ductile and malleable, and very tenacious. It is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity. Symbol Cu. Atomic weight 63.3. It is one of the most useful metals in itself, and also in its alloys, brass and bronze.

Coral fish () Any bright-colored fish of the genera Chaetodon, Pomacentrus, Apogon, and related genera, which live among reef corals.

Corchorus (n.) The common name of the Kerria Japonica or Japan globeflower, a yellow-flowered, perennial, rosaceous plant, seen in old-fashioned gardens.

Coreopsis (n.) A genus of herbaceous composite plants, having the achenes two-horned and remotely resembling some insect; tickseed. C. tinctoria, of the Western plains, the commonest plant of the genus, has been used in dyeing.

Co-respondent (n.) One who is called upon to answer a summons or other proceeding jointly with another.

Corinne (n.) The common gazelle (Gazella dorcas). See Gazelle.

Corinthian (a.) Of or pertaining to the Corinthian order of architecture, invented by the Greeks, but more commonly used by the Romans.

Cornua Ammonis (pl. ) of Cornu Ammonis

Cornu Ammonis () A fossil shell, curved like a ram's horn; an obsolete name for an ammonite.

Corollary (n.) Something which follows from the demonstration of a proposition; an additional inference or deduction from a demonstrated proposition; a consequence.

Corona (n.) A crown or garland bestowed among the Romans as a reward for distinguished services.

Corundum (n.) The earth alumina, as found native in a crystalline state, including sapphire, which is the fine blue variety; the oriental ruby, or red sapphire; the oriental amethyst, or purple sapphire; and adamantine spar, the hair-brown variety. It is the hardest substance found native, next to the diamond.

Corymb (n.) A flat-topped or convex cluster of flowers, each on its own footstalk, and arising from different points of a common axis, the outermost blossoms expanding first, as in the hawthorn.

Cosmical (a.) Pertaining to the universe, and having special reference to universal law or order, or to the one grand harmonious system of things; hence; harmonious; orderly.

Cosmopolite (a.) Common everywhere; widely spread; found in all parts of the world.

Cosmos (n.) The universe or universality of created things; -- so called from the order and harmony displayed in it.

Cosmos (n.) The theory or description of the universe, as a system displaying order and harmony.

Costardmonger (n.) A costermonger.

Costermonger (n.) An apple seller; a hawker of, or dealer in, any kind of fruit or vegetables; a fruiterer.

Cotenant (n.) A tenant in common, or a joint tenant.

Cottager (n.) One who lives on the common, without paying any rent, or having land of his own.

Cotter (n.) A piece of wood or metal, commonly wedge-shaped, used for fastening together parts of a machine or structure. It is driven into an opening through one or all of the parts. [See Illust.] In the United States a cotter is commonly called a key.

Cottier (n.) In Great Britain and Ireland, a person who hires a small cottage, with or without a plot of land. Cottiers commonly aid in the work of the landlord's farm.

Cottonwood (n.) An American tree of the genus Populus or poplar, having the seeds covered with abundant cottonlike hairs; esp., the P. monilifera and P. angustifolia of the Western United States.

Council (n.) An assembly of men summoned or convened for consultation, deliberation, or advice; as, a council of physicians for consultation in a critical case.

Councilman (n.) A member of a council, especially of the common council of a city; a councilor.

Counsel (v. t.) To give advice to; to advice, admonish, or instruct, as a person.

Counter (v. t.) A table or board on which money is counted and over which business is transacted; a long, narrow table or bench, on which goods are laid for examination by purchasers, or on which they are weighed or measured.

Counterfoil (n.) That part of a tally, formerly in the exchequer, which was kept by an officer in that court, the other, called the stock, being delivered to the person who had lent the king money on the account; -- called also counterstock.

Counterpoint (n.) The setting of note against note in harmony; the adding of one or more parts to a given canto fermo or melody

Counterpoint (n.) Music in parts; part writing; harmony; polyphonic music. See Polyphony.

Courap (n.) A skin disease, common in India, in which there is perpetual itching and eruption, esp. of the groin, breast, armpits, and face.

Court-plaster (n.) Sticking plaster made by coating taffeta or silk on one side with some adhesive substance, commonly a mixture of isinglass and glycerin.

Couvade (n.) A custom, among certain barbarous tribes, that when a woman gives birth to a child her husband takes to his bed, as if ill.

Covent (n.) A convent or monastery.

Covetous (v. t.) Inordinately desirous; excessively eager to obtain and possess (esp. money); avaricious; -- in a bad sense.

Covetousness (n.) A strong or inordinate desire of obtaining and possessing some supposed good; excessive desire for riches or money; -- in a bad sense.

Cowl (n.) A monk's hood; -- usually attached to the gown. The name was also applied to the hood and garment together.

Cowl (n.) A cowl-shaped cap, commonly turning with the wind, used to improve the draft of a chimney, ventilating shaft, etc.

Cowled (a.) Wearing a cowl; hooded; as, a cowled monk.

Cowslip (n.) A common flower in England (Primula veris) having yellow blossoms and appearing in early spring. It is often cultivated in the United States.

Craft (n.) Those engaged in any trade, taken collectively; a guild; as, the craft of ironmongers.

Cranage (n.) The money or price paid for the use of a crane.

Crayfish (n.) Any crustacean of the family Astacidae, resembling the lobster, but smaller, and found in fresh waters. Crawfishes are esteemed very delicate food both in Europe and America. The North American species are numerous and mostly belong to the genus Cambarus. The blind crawfish of the Mammoth Cave is Cambarus pellucidus. The common European species is Astacus fluviatilis.

Creature (n.) A general term among farmers for horses, oxen, etc.

Credential (n.) Testimonials showing that a person is entitled to credit, or has right to exercise official power, as the letters given by a government to an ambassador or envoy, or a certificate that one is a duly elected delegate.

Creditor (n.) One who gives credit in business matters; hence, one to whom money is due; -- correlative to debtor.

Creeper (n.) A small bird of the genus Certhia, allied to the wrens. The brown or common European creeper is C. familiaris, a variety of which (var. Americana) inhabits America; -- called also tree creeper and creeptree. The American black and white creeper is Mniotilta varia.

Creese (n.) A dagger or short sword used by the Malays, commonly having a serpentine blade.

Cremona (n.) A superior kind of violin, formerly made at Cremona, in Italy.

Crewelwork (n.) Embroidery in crewels, commonly done upon some plain material, such as linen.

Crimpage (n.) The act or practice of crimping; money paid to a crimp for shipping or enlisting men.

Crochet (n.) A kind of knitting done by means of a hooked needle, with worsted, silk, or cotton; crochet work. Commonly used adjectively.

Crocodile (n.) A large reptile of the genus Crocodilus, of several species. They grow to the length of sixteen or eighteen feet, and inhabit the large rivers of Africa, Asia, and America. The eggs, laid in the sand, are hatched by the sun's heat. The best known species is that of the Nile (C. vulgaris, or C. Niloticus). The Florida crocodile (C. Americanus) is much less common than the alligator and has longer jaws. The name is also sometimes applied to the species of other related genera, as the gavial and the alligator.

Croesus (n.) A king of Lydia who flourished in the 6th century b. c., and was renowned for his vast wealth; hence, a common appellation for a very rich man; as, he is a veritable Croesus.

Cromlech (n.) A monument of rough stones composed of one or more large ones supported in a horizontal position upon others. They are found chiefly in countries inhabited by the ancient Celts, and are of a period anterior to the introduction of Christianity into these countries.

Cross (n.) A piece of money stamped with the figure of a cross, also, that side of such a piece on which the cross is stamped; hence, money in general.

Cross (n.) A monument in the form of a cross, or surmounted by a cross, set up in a public place; as, a market cross; a boundary cross; Charing Cross in London.

Cross (n.) A common heraldic bearing, of which there are many varieties. See the Illustration, above.

Crossbred (a.) Produced by mixing distinct breeds; mongrel.

Crossopterygii (n. pl.) An order of ganoid fishes including among living species the bichir (Polypterus). See Brachioganoidei.

Croton bug () A small, active, winged species of cockroach (Ectobia Germanica), the water bug. It is common aboard ships, and in houses in cities, esp. in those with hot-water pipes.

Crowfoot (n.) The genus Ranunculus, of many species; some are common weeds, others are flowering plants of considerable beauty.

Crown (n.) The upper range of facets in a rose diamond.

Crown (n.) A coin stamped with the image of a crown; hence,a denomination of money; as, the English crown, a silver coin of the value of five shillings sterling, or a little more than $1.20; the Danish or Norwegian crown, a money of account, etc., worth nearly twenty-seven cents.

Crown office () The criminal branch of the Court of King's or Queen's Bench, commonly called the crown side of the court, which takes cognizance of all criminal cases.

Crucian carp () A kind of European carp (Carasius vulgaris), inferior to the common carp; -- called also German carp.

Cruive (n.) A kind of weir or dam for trapping salmon; also, a hovel.

Cry (v. i.) Common report; fame.

Cryohydrate (n.) A substance, as salt, ammonium chloride, etc., which crystallizes with water of crystallization only at low temperatures, or below the freezing point of water.

Crystal (n.) A species of glass, more perfect in its composition and manufacture than common glass, and often cut into ornamental forms. See Flint glass.

Crystallite (n.) A minute mineral form like those common in glassy volcanic rocks and some slags, not having a definite crystalline outline and not referable to any mineral species, but marking the first step in the crystallization process. According to their form crystallites are called trichites, belonites, globulites, etc.

Crystallography (n.) The doctrine or science of crystallization, teaching the system of forms among crystals, their structure, and their methods of formation.

Ctenophora (n. pl.) A class of Coelenterata, commonly ellipsoidal in shape, swimming by means of eight longitudinal rows of paddles. The separate paddles somewhat resemble combs.

Cubical (a.) Isometric or monometric; as, cubic cleavage. See Crystallization.

Cucullated (a.) Having the edges toward the base rolled inward, as the leaf of the commonest American blue violet.

Cucurbitaceous (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a family of plants of which the cucumber, melon, and gourd are common examples.

Culasse (n.) The lower faceted portion of a brilliant-cut diamond.

Cup (n.) A small vessel, used commonly to drink from; as, a tin cup, a silver cup, a wine cup; especially, in modern times, the pottery or porcelain vessel, commonly with a handle, used with a saucer in drinking tea, coffee, and the like.

Cupel (n.) A shallow porous cup, used in refining precious metals, commonly made of bone ashes (phosphate of lime).

Cur (n.) A mongrel or inferior dog.

Curacoa (n.) A liqueur, or cordial, flavored with orange peel, cinnamon, and mace; -- first made at the island of Curaccao.

Curialism (n.) The view or doctrine of the ultramontane party in the Latin Church.

Curialist (n.) One who belongs to the ultramontane party in the Latin Church.

Curialistic (a.) Relating or belonging to the ultramontane party in the Latin Church.

Currant (n.) The acid fruit or berry of the Ribes rubrum or common red currant, or of its variety, the white currant.

Currency (n.) That which is in circulation, or is given and taken as having or representing value; as, the currency of a country; a specie currency; esp., government or bank notes circulating as a substitute for metallic money.

Current (a.) Now passing, as time; as, the current month.

Current (a.) Passing from person to person, or from hand to hand; circulating through the community; generally received; common; as, a current coin; a current report; current history.

Current (a.) Commonly estimated or acknowledged.

Currently (adv.) In a current manner; generally; commonly; as, it is currently believed.

Curtal friar () A friar who acted as porter at the gate of a monastery.

Curtana (n.) The pointless sword carried before English monarchs at their coronation, and emblematically considered as the sword of mercy; -- also called the sword of Edward the Confessor.

Curtesy (n.) the life estate which a husband has in the lands of his deceased wife, which by the common law takes effect where he has had issue by her, born alive, and capable of inheriting the lands.

Cushion (n.) A riotous kind of dance, formerly common at weddings; -- called also cushion dance.

Cusk (n.) A large, edible, marine fish (Brosmius brosme), allied to the cod, common on the northern coasts of Europe and America; -- called also tusk and torsk.

Cusp (n.) A multiple point of a curve at which two or more branches of the curve have a common tangent.

Cuspidor (n.) Any ornamental vessel used as a spittoon; hence, to avoid the common term, a spittoon of any sort.

Custom (n.) Frequent repetition of the same act; way of acting common to many; ordinary manner; habitual practice; usage; method of doing or living.

Customary (a.) Agreeing with, or established by, custom; established by common usage; conventional; habitual.

Cut (n.) A common work horse; a gelding.

Cutpurse (n.) One who cuts purses for the sake of stealing them or their contents (an act common when men wore purses fastened by a string to their girdles); one who steals from the person; a pickpocket

Cutworm (n.) A caterpillar which at night eats off young plants of cabbage, corn, etc., usually at the ground. Some kinds ascend fruit trees and eat off the flower buds. During the day, they conceal themselves in the earth. The common cutworms are the larvae of various species of Agrotis and related genera of noctuid moths.

Cyanogen (n.) A colorless, inflammable, poisonous gas, C2N2, with a peach-blossom odor, so called from its tendency to form blue compounds; obtained by heating ammonium oxalate, mercuric cyanide, etc. It is obtained in combination, forming an alkaline cyanide when nitrogen or a nitrogenous compound is strongly ignited with carbon and soda or potash. It conducts itself like a member of the halogen group of elements, and shows a tendency to form complex compounds. The name is also applied to the univalent radical, CN (the half molecule of cyanogen proper), which was one of the first compound radicals recognized.

Cycloidei (n. pl.) An order of fishes, formerly proposed by Agassiz, for those with thin, smooth scales, destitute of marginal spines, as the herring and salmon. The group is now regarded as artificial.

Cyphonism (n.) A punishment sometimes used by the ancients, consisting in the besmearing of the criminal with honey, and exposing him to insects. It is still in use among some Oriental nations.

Cyprus (n.) A thin, transparent stuff, the same as, or corresponding to, crape. It was either white or black, the latter being most common, and used for mourning.

Cyst (n.) One of the bladders or air vessels of certain algae, as of the great kelp of the Pacific, and common rockweeds (Fuci) of our shores.

Daemon (a.) Alt. of Daemonic

Daemonic (a.) See Demon, Demonic.

Dainty (superl.) Requiring dainties. Hence: Overnice; hard to please; fastidious; squeamish; scrupulous; ceremonious.

Daisy (n.) A genus of low herbs (Bellis), belonging to the family Compositae. The common English and classical daisy is B. prennis, which has a yellow disk and white or pinkish rays.

Daisy (n.) The whiteweed (Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum), the plant commonly called daisy in North America; -- called also oxeye daisy. See Whiteweed.

Dalmania (n.) A genus of trilobites, of many species, common in the Upper Silurian and Devonian rocks.

Damage (n.) The estimated reparation in money for detriment or injury sustained; a compensation, recompense, or satisfaction to one party, for a wrong or injury actually done to him by another.

Dame (n.) The mistress of a family in common life, or the mistress of a common school; as, a dame's school.

Dance (v. i.) To move with measured steps, or to a musical accompaniment; to go through, either alone or in company with others, with a regulated succession of movements, (commonly) to the sound of music; to trip or leap rhythmically.

Dandie (n.) One of a breed of small terriers; -- called also Dandie Dinmont.

Dangleberry (n.) A dark blue, edible berry with a white bloom, and its shrub (Gaylussacia frondosa) closely allied to the common huckleberry. The bush is also called blue tangle, and is found from New England to Kentucky, and southward.

Danite (n.) One of a secret association of Mormons, bound by an oath to obey the heads of the church in all things.

Darbyite (n.) One of the Plymouth Brethren, or of a sect among them; -- so called from John N. Darby, one of the leaders of the Brethren.

Dash (v. t.) To form or sketch rapidly or carelessly; to execute rapidly, or with careless haste; -- with off; as, to dash off a review or sermon.

Dashboard (n.) A board placed on the fore part of a carriage, sleigh, or other vehicle, to intercept water, mud, or snow, thrown up by the heels of the horses; -- in England commonly called splashboard.

Date (n.) That addition to a writing, inscription, coin, etc., which specifies the time (as day, month, and year) when the writing or inscription was given, or executed, or made; as, the date of a letter, of a will, of a deed, of a coin. etc.

Datolite (n.) A borosilicate of lime commonly occuring in glassy,, greenish crystals.

Daw (n.) A European bird of the Crow family (Corvus monedula), often nesting in church towers and ruins; a jackdaw.

Dayfly (n.) A neuropterous insect of the genus Ephemera and related genera, of many species, and inhabiting fresh water in the larval state; the ephemeral fly; -- so called because it commonly lives but one day in the winged or adult state. See Ephemeral fly, under Ephemeral.

Day lily () A genus of plants (Hemerocallis) closely resembling true lilies, but having tuberous rootstocks instead of bulbs. The common species have long narrow leaves and either yellow or tawny-orange flowers.

Deaconess (n.) A woman chosen as a helper in church work, as among the Congregationalists.

Dead (a.) Cut off from the rights of a citizen; deprived of the power of enjoying the rights of property; as, one banished or becoming a monk is civilly dead.

Dead (n.) One who is dead; -- commonly used collectively.

Dean (n.) The chief or senior of a company on occasion of ceremony; as, the dean of the diplomatic corps; -- so called by courtesy.

Debt (n.) That which is due from one person to another, whether money, goods, or services; that which one person is bound to pay to another, or to perform for his benefit; thing owed; obligation; liability.

Debt (n.) An action at law to recover a certain specified sum of money alleged to be due.

December (n.) The twelfth and last month of the year, containing thirty-one days. During this month occurs the winter solstice.

Decency (n.) The quality or state of being decent, suitable, or becoming, in words or behavior; propriety of form in social intercourse, in actions, or in discourse; proper formality; becoming ceremony; seemliness; hence, freedom from obscenity or indecorum; modesty.

Decent (a.) Suitable in words, behavior, dress, or ceremony; becoming; fit; decorous; proper; seemly; as, decent conduct; decent language.

Decline (v. i.) A gradual sinking and wasting away of the physical faculties; any wasting disease, esp. pulmonary consumption; as, to die of a decline.

Decretal (a.) The collection of ecclesiastical decrees and decisions made, by order of Gregory IX., in 1234, by St. Raymond of Pennafort.

Dedication (n.) The act of setting apart or consecrating to a divine Being, or to a sacred use, often with religious solemnities; solemn appropriation; as, the dedication of Solomon's temple.

Deface (v. t.) To destroy or mar the face or external appearance of; to disfigure; to injure, spoil, or mar, by effacing or obliterating important features or portions of; as, to deface a monument; to deface an edifice; to deface writing; to deface a note, deed, or bond; to deface a record.

Defalcate (v. t.) To cut off; to take away or deduct a part of; -- used chiefly of money, accounts, rents, income, etc.

Defalcate (v. i.) To commit defalcation; to embezzle money held in trust.

Defalcation (n.) An abstraction of money, etc., by an officer or agent having it in trust; an embezzlement.

Defaulter (n.) One who fails to perform a duty; a delinquent; particularly, one who fails to account for public money intrusted to his care; a peculator; a defalcator.

Defervescency (n.) The subsidence of a febrile process; as, the stage of defervescence in pneumonia.

Defiance (n.) The act of defying, putting in opposition, or provoking to combat; a challenge; a provocation; a summons to combat.

Defile (v. t.) To make ceremonially unclean; to pollute.

Definitive (n.) A word used to define or limit the extent of the signification of a common noun, such as the definite article, and some pronouns.

Deify (v. t.) To make a god of; to exalt to the rank of a deity; to enroll among the deities; to apotheosize; as, Julius Caesar was deified.

Deify (v. t.) To praise or revere as a deity; to treat as an object of supreme regard; as, to deify money.

Delight (v. t.) To give delight to; to affect with great pleasure; to please highly; as, a beautiful landscape delights the eye; harmony delights the ear.

Delusional (a.) Of or pertaining to delusions; as, delusional monomania.

Demand (v. t.) To call into court; to summon.

Demimonde (n.) Persons of doubtful reputation; esp., women who are kept as mistresses, though not public prostitutes; demireps.

Demise (n.) The conveyance or transfer of an estate, either in fee for life or for years, most commonly the latter.

Demiwolf (n.) A half wolf; a mongrel dog, between a dog and a wolf.

Democratic (a.) Befitting the common people; -- opposed to aristocratic.

Demon (n.) A spirit, or immaterial being, holding a middle place between men and deities in pagan mythology.

Demon (n.) One's genius; a tutelary spirit or internal voice; as, the demon of Socrates.

Demon (n.) An evil spirit; a devil.

Demoness (n.) A female demon.

Demonetization (n.) The act of demonetizing, or the condition of being demonetized.

Demonetize (v. t.) To deprive of current value; to withdraw from use, as money.

Demoniac (a.) Alt. of Demoniacal

Demoniacal (a.) Pertaining to, or characteristic of, a demon or evil spirit; devilish; as, a demoniac being; demoniacal practices.

Demoniacal (a.) Influenced or produced by a demon or evil spirit; as, demoniac or demoniacal power.

Demoniac (n.) A human being possessed by a demon or evil spirit; one whose faculties are directly controlled by a demon.

Demoniac (n.) One of a sect of Anabaptists who maintain that the demons or devils will finally be saved.

Demoniacally (adv.) In a demoniacal manner.

Demoniacism (n.) The state of being demoniac, or the practices of demoniacs.

Demonial (a.) Of or pertaining to a demon.

Demonian (a.) Relating to, or having the nature of, a demon.

Demonianism (n.) The state of being possessed by a demon or by demons.

Demoniasm (n.) See Demonianism.

Demonic (a.) Of or pertaining to a demon or to demons; demoniac.

Demonism (n.) The belief in demons or false gods.

Demonist (n.) A believer in, or worshiper of, demons.

Demonized (imp. & p. p.) of Demonize

Demonizing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Demonize

Demonize (v. t.) To convert into a demon; to infuse the principles or fury of a demon into.

Demonize (v. t.) To control or possess by a demon.

Demonocracy (n.) The power or government of demons.

Demonographer (n.) A demonologist.

Demonolatry (n.) The worship of demons.

Demonologer (n.) One versed in demonology.

Demonologic (a.) Alt. of Demonological

Demonological (a.) Of or pertaining to demonology.

Demonologist (n.) One who writes on, or is versed in, demonology.

Demonology (n.) A treatise on demons; a supposititious science which treats of demons and their manifestations.

Demonomagy (n.) Magic in which the aid of demons is invoked; black or infernal magic.

Demonomania (n.) A form of madness in which the patient conceives himself possessed of devils.

Demonomist (n.) One in subjection to a demon, or to demons.

Demonomy (n.) The dominion of demons.

Demonry (n.) Demoniacal influence or possession.

Demonship (n.) The state of a demon.

Demonstrability (n.) The quality of being demonstrable; demonstrableness.

Demonstrable (a.) Capable of being demonstrated; that can be proved beyond doubt or question.

Demonstrable (a.) Proved; apparent.

Demonstrableness (n.) The quality of being demonstrable; demonstrability.

Demonstrably (adv.) In a demonstrable manner; incontrovertibly; clearly.

Demonstrance (n.) Demonstration; proof.

Demonstrate (v. t.) To point out; to show; to exhibit; to make evident.

Demonstrate (v. t.) To show, or make evident, by reasoning or proof; to prove by deduction; to establish so as to exclude the possibility of doubt or denial.

Demonstrate (v. t.) To exhibit and explain (a dissection or other anatomical preparation).

Demonstrater (n.) See Demonstrator.

Demonstration (n.) The act of demonstrating; an exhibition; proof; especially, proof beyond the possibility of doubt; indubitable evidence, to the senses or reason.

Demonstration (n.) An expression, as of the feelings, by outward signs; a manifestation; a show.

Demonstration (n.) The exhibition and explanation of a dissection or other anatomical preparation.

Demonstration (n.) (Mil.) a decisive exhibition of force, or a movement indicating an attack.

Demonstration (n.) The act of proving by the syllogistic process, or the proof itself.

Demonstration (n.) A course of reasoning showing that a certain result is a necessary consequence of assumed premises; -- these premises being definitions, axioms, and previously established propositions.

Demonstrative (a.) Having the nature of demonstration; tending to demonstrate; making evident; exhibiting clearly or conclusively.

Demonstrative (a.) Expressing, or apt to express, much; displaying feeling or sentiment; as, her nature was demonstrative.

Demonstrative (a.) Consisting of eulogy or of invective.

Demonstrative (n.) A demonstrative pronoun; as, "this" and "that" are demonstratives.

Demonstratively (adv.) In a manner fitted to demonstrate; clearly; convincingly; forcibly.

Demonstrativeness (n.) The state or quality of being demonstrative.

Demonstrator (n.) One who demonstrates; one who proves anything with certainty, or establishes it by indubitable evidence.

Demonstrator (n.) A teacher of practical anatomy.

Demonstratory (a.) Tending to demonstrate; demonstrative.

Demotic (a.) Of or pertaining to the people; popular; common.

Demurely (adv.) In a demure manner; soberly; gravely; -- now, commonly, with a mere show of gravity or modesty.

Den (n.) A small cavern or hollow place in the side of a hill, or among rocks; esp., a cave used by a wild beast for shelter or concealment; as, a lion's den; a den of robbers.

Deodand (n.) A personal chattel which had caused the death of a person, and for that reason was given to God, that is, forfeited to the crown, to be applied to pious uses, and distributed in alms by the high almoner. Thus, if a cart ran over a man and killed him, it was forfeited as a deodand.

Deplete (a.) To reduce by destroying or consuming the vital powers of; to exhaust, as a country of its strength or resources, a treasury of money, etc.

Depose (v. t.) To testify under oath; to bear testimony to; -- now usually said of bearing testimony which is officially written down for future use.

Deposit (n.) To lodge in some one's hands for safe keeping; to commit to the custody of another; to intrust; esp., to place in a bank, as a sum of money subject to order.

Deposit (v. t.) That which is placed anywhere, or in any one's hands, for safe keeping; something intrusted to the care of another; esp., money lodged with a bank or banker, subject to order; anything given as pledge or security.

Deposit (v. t.) A bailment of money or goods to be kept gratuitously for the bailor.

Deposition (n.) The act of laying down one's testimony in writing; also, testimony laid or taken down in writing, under oath or affirmation, before some competent officer, and in reply to interrogatories and cross-interrogatories.

Depositor (n.) One who makes a deposit, especially of money in a bank; -- the correlative of depository.

Derainment (n.) The renunciation of religious or monastic vows.

Derivative (n.) A chord, not fundamental, but obtained from another by inversion; or, vice versa, a ground tone or root implied in its harmonics in an actual chord.

Derivative (n.) A substance so related to another substance by modification or partial substitution as to be regarded as derived from it; thus, the amido compounds are derivatives of ammonia, and the hydrocarbons are derivatives of methane, benzene, etc.

Dermestes (n.) A genus of coleopterous insects, the larvae of which feed animal substances. They are very destructive to dries meats, skins, woolens, and furs. The most common species is D. lardarius, known as the bacon beetle.

Dermoneural (a.) Pertaining to, or in relation with, both dermal and neural structures; as, the dermoneural spines or dorsal fin rays of fishes.

Dervis (n.) A Turkish or Persian monk, especially one who professes extreme poverty and leads an austere life.

Describe (v. i.) To use the faculty of describing; to give a description; as, Milton describes with uncommon force and beauty.

Designator (n.) An officer who assigned to each his rank and place in public shows and ceremonies.

Desk (n.) A reading table or lectern to support the book from which the liturgical service is read, differing from the pulpit from which the sermon is preached; also (esp. in the United States), a pulpit. Hence, used symbolically for "the clerical profession."

Desmine (n.) Same as Stilbite. It commonly occurs in bundles or tufts of crystals.

Despotism (n.) A government which is directed by a despot; a despotic monarchy; absolutism; autocracy.

Detainer (n.) The keeping possession of what belongs to another; detention of what is another's, even though the original taking may have been lawful. Forcible detainer is indictable at common law.

Deuce (n.) The devil; a demon.

Deviation (n.) The act of deviating; a wandering from the way; variation from the common way, from an established rule, etc.; departure, as from the right course or the path of duty.

Devil (n.) An evil spirit; a demon.

Devious (a.) Going out of the right or common course; going astray; erring; wandering; as, a devious step.

Devotee (n.) One who is wholly devoted; esp., one given wholly to religion; one who is superstitiously given to religious duties and ceremonies; a bigot.

Devulgarize (v. t.) To free from what is vulgar, common, or narrow.

Dextrorse (a.) Turning from the left to the right, in the ascending line, as in the spiral inclination of the stem of the common morning-glory.

Diacid (a.) Divalent; -- said of a base or radical as capable of saturating two acid monad radicals or a dibasic acid. Cf. Dibasic, a., and Biacid.

Diadem (n.) Originally, an ornamental head band or fillet, worn by Eastern monarchs as a badge of royalty; hence (later), also, a crown, in general.

Diagram (n.) A figure or drawing made to illustrate a statement, or facilitate a demonstration; a plan.

Dial (n.) An instrument, formerly much used for showing the time of day from the shadow of a style or gnomon on a graduated arc or surface; esp., a sundial; but there are lunar and astral dials. The style or gnomon is usually parallel to the earth's axis, but the dial plate may be either horizontal or vertical.

Diallage (n.) A dark green or bronze-colored laminated variety of pyroxene, common in certain igneous rocks.

Diamantiferous (a.) Yielding diamonds.

Diamond (n.) A precious stone or gem excelling in brilliancy and beautiful play of prismatic colors, and remarkable for extreme hardness.

Diamond (n.) A geometrical figure, consisting of four equal straight lines, and having two of the interior angles acute and two obtuse; a rhombus; a lozenge.

Diamond (n.) One of a suit of playing cards, stamped with the figure of a diamond.

Diamond (n.) A pointed projection, like a four-sided pyramid, used for ornament in lines or groups.

Diamond (n.) The infield; the square space, 90 feet on a side, having the bases at its angles.

Diamond (n.) The smallest kind of type in English printing, except that called brilliant, which is seldom seen.

Diamond (a.) Resembling a diamond; made of, or abounding in, diamonds; as, a diamond chain; a diamond field.

Diamond-back (n.) The salt-marsh terrapin of the Atlantic coast (Malacoclemmys palustris).

Diamonded (a.) Having figures like a diamond or lozenge.

Diamonded (a.) Adorned with diamonds; diamondized.

Diamondize (v. t.) To set with diamonds; to adorn; to enrich.

Diamond-shaped (a.) Shaped like a diamond or rhombus.

Diapason (n.) Concord, as of notes an octave apart; harmony.

Diaphragm (n.) A dividing membrane or thin partition, commonly with an opening through it.

Diatribe (n.) A prolonged or exhaustive discussion; especially, an acrimonious or invective harangue; a strain of abusive or railing language; a philippic.

Dice (v. i.) To ornament with squares, diamonds, or cubes.

Dictyogen (n.) A plant with net-veined leaves, and monocotyledonous embryos, belonging to the class Dictyogenae, proposed by Lindley for the orders Dioscoreaceae, Smilaceae, Trilliaceae, etc.

Die (n.) A perforated block, commonly of hardened steel used in connection with a punch, for punching holes, as through plates, or blanks from plates, or for forming cups or capsules, as from sheet metal, by drawing.

Diffarreation (n.) A form of divorce, among the ancient Romans, in which a cake was used. See Confarreation.

Differential (n.) A small difference in rates which competing railroad lines, in establishing a common tariff, allow one of their number to make, in order to get a fair share of the business. The lower rate is called a differential rate. Differentials are also sometimes granted to cities.

Differential (n.) One of two coils of conducting wire so related to one another or to a magnet or armature common to both, that one coil produces polar action contrary to that of the other.

Digit (n.) A finger's breadth, commonly estimated to be three fourths of an inch.

Digitain (n.) Any one of several extracts of foxglove (Digitalis), as the "French extract," the "German extract," etc., which differ among themselves in composition and properties.

Dika (n.) A kind of food, made from the almondlike seeds of the Irvingia Barteri, much used by natives of the west coast of Africa; -- called also dika bread.

Dimyaria (n. pl.) An order of lamellibranchiate mollusks having an anterior and posterior adductor muscle, as the common clam. See Bivalve.

Dinar (n.) A petty money of accounts of Persia.

Dingdong (n.) The sound of, or as of, repeated strokes on a metallic body, as a bell; a repeated and monotonous sound.

Dinmont (n.) A wether sheep between one and two years old.

Dioecious (a.) Having the sexes in two separate individuals; -- applied to plants in which the female flowers occur on one individual and the male flowers on another of the same species, and to animals in which the ovum is produced by one individual and the sperm cell by another; -- opposed to monoecious.

Diogenes (n.) A Greek Cynic philosopher (412?-323 B. C.) who lived much in Athens and was distinguished for contempt of the common aims and conditions of life, and for sharp, caustic sayings.

Dionysian (a.) Relating to Dionysius, a monk of the 6th century; as, the Dionysian, or Christian, era.

Diphyodont (a.) Having two successive sets of teeth (deciduous and permanent), one succeeding the other; as, a diphyodont mammal; diphyodont dentition; -- opposed to monophyodont.

Diplocardiac (a.) Having the heart completely divided or double, one side systemic, the other pulmonary.

Diplostemonous (a.) Having twice as many stamens as petals, as the geranium.

Diplostemony (n.) The condition of being diplostemonous.

Dipneumona (n. pl.) A group of spiders having only two lunglike organs.

Disafforest (v. t.) To reduce from the privileges of a forest to the state of common ground; to exempt from forest laws.

Disagree (v. i.) To fail to accord; not to agree; to lack harmony; to differ; to be unlike; to be at variance.

Disburser (n.) One who disburses money.

Discommon (v. t.) To deprive of the right of common.

Discommon (v. t.) To deprive of privileges.

Discommon (v. t.) To deprive of commonable quality, as lands, by inclosing or appropriating.

Discommunity (n.) A lack of common possessions, properties, or relationship.

Disconcert (v. t.) To break up the harmonious progress of; to throw into disorder or confusion; as, the emperor disconcerted the plans of his enemy.

Discord (v. i.) Want of concord or agreement; absence of unity or harmony in sentiment or action; variance leading to contention and strife; disagreement; -- applied to persons or to things, and to thoughts, feelings, or purposes.

Discord (v. i.) Union of musical sounds which strikes the ear harshly or disagreeably, owing to the incommensurability of the vibrations which they produce; want of musical concord or harmony; a chord demanding resolution into a concord.

Discordant (n.) Disagreeing; incongruous; being at variance; clashing; opposing; not harmonious.

Discordant (n.) Dissonant; not in harmony or musical concord; harsh; jarring; as, discordant notes or sounds.

Discount (v.) To lend money upon, deducting the discount or allowance for interest; as, the banks discount notes and bills of exchange.

Discount (v. i.) To lend, or make a practice of lending, money, abating the discount; as, the discount for sixty or ninety days.

Discount (v. t.) A deduction made for interest, in advancing money upon, or purchasing, a bill or note not due; payment in advance of interest upon money.

Discourse (n.) Consecutive speech, either written or unwritten, on a given line of thought; speech; treatise; dissertation; sermon, etc.; as, the preacher gave us a long discourse on duty.

Discovert (a.) Not covert; not within the bonds of matrimony; unmarried; -- applied either to a woman who has never married or to a widow.

Disgavel (v. t.) To deprive of that principal quality of gavelkind tenure by which lands descend equally among all the sons of the tenant; -- said of lands.

Disharmonious (a.) Unharmonious; discordant.

Disharmony (n.) Want of harmony; discord; incongruity.

Disk (n.) The anterior surface or oral area of coelenterate animals, as of sea anemones.

Disparagement (n.) Injurious comparison with an inferior; a depreciating or dishonoring opinion or insinuation; diminution of value; dishonor; indignity; reproach; disgrace; detraction; -- commonly with to.

Dispark (v. t.) To throw (a park or inclosure); to treat (a private park) as a common.

Disperse (v. t.) To scatter abroad; to drive to different parts; to distribute; to diffuse; to spread; as, the Jews are dispersed among all nations.

Dispersion (n.) The act or process of scattering or dispersing, or the state of being scattered or separated; as, the Jews in their dispersion retained their rites and ceremonies; a great dispersion of the human family took place at the building of Babel.

Display (v. i.) To make a display; to act as one making a show or demonstration.

Disregard (v. t.) Not to regard; to pay no heed to; to omit to take notice of; to neglect to observe; to slight as unworthy of regard or notice; as, to disregard the admonitions of conscience.

Dissipated (a.) Wasteful of health, money, etc., in the pursuit of pleasure; dissolute; intemperate.

Dissipation (n.) A dissolute course of life, in which health, money, etc., are squandered in pursuit of pleasure; profuseness in vicious indulgence, as late hours, riotous living, etc.; dissoluteness.

Dissociation (n.) The process by which a compound body breaks up into simpler constituents; -- said particularly of the action of heat on gaseous or volatile substances; as, the dissociation of the sulphur molecules; the dissociation of ammonium chloride into hydrochloric acid and ammonia.

Dissonance (n.) A mingling of discordant sounds; an inharmonious combination of sounds; discord.

Dissonant (a.) Sounding harshly; discordant; unharmonious.

Distance (n.) The remoteness or reserve which respect requires; hence, respect; ceremoniousness.

Distribute (v. t.) To divide among several or many; to deal out; to apportion; to allot.

Distribution (n.) The act of distributing or dispensing; the act of dividing or apportioning among several or many; apportionment; as, the distribution of an estate among heirs or children.

Disturbance (n.) The hindering or disquieting of a person in the lawful and peaceable enjoyment of his right; the interruption of a right; as, the disturbance of a franchise, of common, of ways, and the like.

Diurnal (a.) Active by day; -- applied especially to the eagles and hawks among raptorial birds, and to butterflies (Diurna) among insects.

Diverge (v. i.) To extend from a common point in different directions; to tend from one point and recede from each other; to tend to spread apart; to turn aside or deviate (as from a given direction); -- opposed to converge; as, rays of light diverge as they proceed from the sun.

Divergency (n.) A receding from each other in moving from a common center; the state of being divergent; as, an angle is made by the divergence of straight lines.

Diverging (a.) Tending in different directions from a common center; spreading apart; divergent.

Divide (v. t.) To make partition of among a number; to apportion, as profits of stock among proprietors; to give in shares; to distribute; to mete out; to share.

Dividend (n.) A sum of money to be divided and distributed; the share of a sum divided that falls to each individual; a distribute sum, share, or percentage; -- applied to the profits as appropriated among shareholders, and to assets as apportioned among creditors; as, the dividend of a bank, a railway corporation, or a bankrupt estate.

Dividual (a.) Divided, shared, or participated in, in common with others.

Divorce (n.) A legal dissolution of the marriage contract by a court or other body having competent authority. This is properly a divorce, and called, technically, divorce a vinculo matrimonii.

Do (v. t. / auxiliary) To cash or to advance money for, as a bill or note.

Documental (a.) Of or pertaining to written evidence; documentary; as, documental testimony.

Dogcart (n.) A light one-horse carriage, commonly two-wheeled, patterned after a cart. The original dogcarts used in England by sportsmen had a box at the back for carrying dogs.

Dog-rose (n.) A common European wild rose, with single pink or white flowers.

Dogtooth (n.) An ornament common in Gothic architecture, consisting of pointed projections resembling teeth; -- also called tooth ornament.

Doily (n.) A small napkin, used at table with the fruit, etc.; -- commonly colored and fringed.

Doit (n.) A small Dutch coin, worth about half a farthing; also, a similar small coin once used in Scotland; hence, any small piece of money.

Dollar (n.) The value of a dollar; the unit commonly employed in the United States in reckoning money values.

Dollardee (n.) A species of sunfish (Lepomis pallidus), common in the United States; -- called also blue sunfish, and copper-nosed bream.

Dolomite (n.) A mineral consisting of the carbonate of lime and magnesia in varying proportions. It occurs in distinct crystals, and in extensive beds as a compact limestone, often crystalline granular, either white or clouded. It includes much of the common white marble. Also called bitter spar.

Dolphin (n.) The Coryphaena hippuris, a fish of about five feet in length, celebrated for its surprising changes of color when dying. It is the fish commonly known as the dolphin. See Coryphaenoid.

Dom (n.) A title anciently given to the pope, and later to other church dignitaries and some monastic orders. See Don, and Dan.

Domain (n.) The territory over which dominion or authority is exerted; the possessions of a sovereign or commonwealth, or the like. Also used figuratively.

Domain (n.) Ownership of land; an estate or patrimony which one has in his own right; absolute proprietorship; paramount or sovereign ownership.

Domebook (n.) A book said to have been compiled under the direction of King Alfred. It is supposed to have contained the principal maxims of the common law, the penalties for misdemeanors, and the forms of judicial proceedings. Domebook was probably a general name for book of judgments.

Dominican (n.) One of an order of mendicant monks founded by Dominic de Guzman, in 1215. A province of the order was established in England in 1221. The first foundation in the United States was made in 1807. The Master of the Sacred Palace at Rome is always a Dominican friar. The Dominicans are called also preaching friars, friars preachers, black friars (from their black cloak), brothers of St. Mary, and in France, Jacobins.

Don (n.) Sir; Mr; Signior; -- a title in Spain, formerly given to noblemen and gentlemen only, but now common to all classes.

Doop (n.) A little copper cup in which a diamond is held while being cut.

Dorse (n.) The Baltic or variable cod (Gadus callarias), by some believed to be the young of the common codfish.

Dorsiventral (a.) Having distinct upper and lower surfaces, as most common leaves. The leaves of the iris are not dorsiventral.

Double (a.) To increase by adding an equal number, quantity, length, value, or the like; multiply by two; to double a sum of money; to double a number, or length.

Double (n.) Among compositors, a doublet (see Doublet, 2.); among pressmen, a sheet that is twice pulled, and blurred.

Doublet (a.) A game somewhat like backgammon.

Douc (n.) A monkey (Semnopithecus nemaeus), remarkable for its varied and brilliant colors. It is a native of Cochin China.

Downright (adv.) In plain terms; without ceremony.

Downright (a.) Plain; direct; unceremonious; blunt; positive; as, he spoke in his downright way.

Dowry (n.) The money, goods, or estate, which a woman brings to her husband in marriage; a bride's portion on her marriage. See Note under Dower.

Drachma (n.) A silver coin among the ancient Greeks, having a different value in different States and at different periods. The average value of the Attic drachma is computed to have been about 19 cents.

Drachma (n.) Among the ancient Greeks, a weight of about 66.5 grains; among the modern Greeks, a weight equal to a gram.

Draff (n.) An order from one person or party to another, directing the payment of money; a bill of exchange.

Dragon (n.) A fabulous animal, generally represented as a monstrous winged serpent or lizard, with a crested head and enormous claws, and regarded as very powerful and ferocious.

Drama (n.) A composition, in prose or poetry, accommodated to action, and intended to exhibit a picture of human life, or to depict a series of grave or humorous actions of more than ordinary interest, tending toward some striking result. It is commonly designed to be spoken and represented by actors on the stage.

Draught (n.) An order for the payment of money; -- in this sense almost always written draft.

Draughts (n. pl.) A game, now more commonly called checkers. See Checkers.

Draw (v. t.) To take or procure from a place of deposit; to call for and receive from a fund, or the like; as, to draw money from a bank.

Draw (v. i.) To make a draft or written demand for payment of money deposited or due; -- usually with on or upon.

Drawl (n.) A lengthened, slow monotonous utterance.

Dress (v. t.) To arrange in exact continuity of line, as soldiers; commonly to adjust to a straight line and at proper distance; to align; as, to dress the ranks.

Dress coat () A coat with skirts behind only, as distinct from the frock coat, of which the skirts surround the body. It is worn on occasions of ceremony. The dress coat of officers of the United States army is a full-skirted frock coat.

Dress goods () A term applied to fabrics for the gowns of women and girls; -- most commonly to fabrics of mixed materials, but also applicable to silks, printed linens, and calicoes.

Driblet (n.) A small piece or part; a small sum; a small quantity of money in making up a sum; as, the money was paid in dribblets.

Driftway (n.) A common way, road, or path, for driving cattle.

Dromond () Alt. of Dromon

Dromon () In the Middle Ages, a large, fast-sailing galley, or cutter; a large, swift war vessel.

Drone (v. i.) That which gives out a grave or monotonous tone or dull sound; as: (a) A drum. [Obs.] Halliwell. (b) The part of the bagpipe containing the two lowest tubes, which always sound the key note and the fifth.

Drone (v. i.) A monotonous bass, as in a pastoral composition.

Drone (n.) To utter or make a low, dull, monotonous, humming or murmuring sound.

Drop (n.) That which resembles, or that which hangs like, a liquid drop; as a hanging diamond ornament, an earring, a glass pendant on a chandelier, a sugarplum (sometimes medicated), or a kind of shot or slug.

Dropper (n.) A dog which suddenly drops upon the ground when it sights game, -- formerly a common, and still an occasional, habit of the setter.

Druid (n.) One of an order of priests which in ancient times existed among certain branches of the Celtic race, especially among the Gauls and Britons.

Druidism (n.) The system of religion, philosophy, and instruction, received and taught by the Druids; the rites and ceremonies of the Druids.

Drum (n.) An instrument of percussion, consisting either of a hollow cylinder, over each end of which is stretched a piece of skin or vellum, to be beaten with a stick; or of a metallic hemisphere (kettledrum) with a single piece of skin to be so beaten; the common instrument for marking time in martial music; one of the pair of tympani in an orchestra, or cavalry band.

Drummond light () A very intense light, produced by turning two streams of gas, one oxygen and the other hydrogen, or coal gas, in a state of ignition, upon a ball of lime; or a stream of oxygen gas through a flame of alcohol upon a ball or disk of lime; -- called also oxycalcium light, or lime light.

Drupe (n.) A fruit consisting of pulpy, coriaceous, or fibrous exocarp, without valves, containing a nut or stone with a kernel. The exocarp is succulent in the plum, cherry, apricot, peach, etc.; dry and subcoriaceous in the almond; and fibrous in the cocoanut.

Dufrenite (n.) A mineral of a blackish green color, commonly massive or in nodules. It is a hydrous phosphate of iron.

Dulcet (a.) Sweet to the ear; melodious; harmonious.

Dulcify (v. t.) To sweeten; to free from acidity, saltness, or acrimony.

Dulcimer (n.) An ancient musical instrument in use among the Jews. Dan. iii. 5. It is supposed to be the same with the psaltery.

Dulcorate (v. t.) To sweeten; to make less acrimonious.

Dull (superl.) Furnishing little delight, spirit, or variety; uninteresting; tedious; cheerless; gloomy; melancholy; depressing; as, a dull story or sermon; a dull occupation or period; hence, cloudy; overcast; as, a dull day.

Dulse (n.) A seaweed of a reddish brown color, which is sometimes eaten, as in Scotland. The true dulse is Sarcophyllis edulis; the common is Rhodymenia. [Written also dillisk.]

Dungeon (n.) A close, dark prison, common/, under ground, as if the lower apartments of the donjon or keep of a castle, these being used as prisons.

Dunnage (n.) Fagots, boughs, or loose materials of any kind, laid on the bottom of the hold for the cargo to rest upon to prevent injury by water, or stowed among casks and other cargo to prevent their motion.

Durukuli (n.) A small, nocturnal, South American monkey (Nyctipthecus trivirgatus).

Duse (n.) A demon or spirit. See Deuce.

Dust (n.) Coined money; cash.

Duty (n.) Tax, toll, impost, or customs; excise; any sum of money required by government to be paid on the importation, exportation, or consumption of goods.

Dwarfish (a.) Like a dwarf; below the common stature or size; very small; petty; as, a dwarfish animal, shrub.

Dyscrasite (n.) A mineral consisting of antimony and silver.

Dysgenesis (n.) A condition of not generating or breeding freely; infertility; a form homogenesis in which the hybrids are sterile among themselves, but are fertile with members of either parent race.

Eagle (n.) Any large, rapacious bird of the Falcon family, esp. of the genera Aquila and Haliaeetus. The eagle is remarkable for strength, size, graceful figure, keenness of vision, and extraordinary flight. The most noted species are the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetus); the imperial eagle of Europe (A. mogilnik / imperialis); the American bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus); the European sea eagle (H. albicilla); and the great harpy eagle (Thrasaetus harpyia). The figure of the eagle, as the king of birds, is commonly used as an heraldic emblem, and also for standards and emblematic devices. See Bald eagle, Harpy, and Golden eagle.

Eagre (n.) A wave, or two or three successive waves, of great height and violence, at flood tide moving up an estuary or river; -- commonly called the bore. See Bore.

Earles penny () Earnest money. Same as Arles penny.

Earl marshal () An officer of state in England who marshals and orders all great ceremonials, takes cognizance of matters relating to honor, arms, and pedigree, and directs the proclamation of peace and war. The court of chivalry was formerly under his jurisdiction, and he is still the head of the herald's office or college of arms.

Early (adv.) In advance of the usual or appointed time; in good season; prior in time; among or near the first; -- opposed to late; as, the early bird; an early spring; early fruit.

Early (adv.) Coming in the first part of a period of time, or among the first of successive acts, events, etc.

Earning (n.) That which is earned; wages gained by work or services; money earned; -- used commonly in the plural.

Earthbag (n.) A bag filled with earth, used commonly to raise or repair a parapet.

Earthdrake (n.) A mythical monster of the early Anglo-Saxon literature; a dragon.

Earthpea (n.) A species of pea (Amphicarpaea monoica). It is a climbing leguminous plant, with hairy underground pods.

Easel (n.) A frame (commonly) of wood serving to hold a canvas upright, or nearly upright, for the painter's convenience or for exhibition.

East (n.) The eastern parts of the earth; the regions or countries which lie east of Europe; the orient. In this indefinite sense, the word is applied to Asia Minor, Syria, Chaldea, Persia, India, China, etc.; as, the riches of the East; the diamonds and pearls of the East; the kings of the East.

East (n.) Formerly, the part of the United States east of the Alleghany Mountains, esp. the Eastern, or New England, States; now, commonly, the whole region east of the Mississippi River, esp. that which is north of Maryland and the Ohio River; -- usually with the definite article; as, the commerce of the East is not independent of the agriculture of the West.

Easterling (n.) A piece of money coined in the east by Richard II. of England.

Easterling (a.) Relating to the money of the Easterlings, or Baltic traders. See Sterling.

Easy (v. t.) Not straitened as to money matters; as, the market is easy; -- opposed to tight.

Eavesdropping (n.) The habit of lurking about dwelling houses, and other places where persons meet fro private intercourse, secretly listening to what is said, and then tattling it abroad. The offense is indictable at common law.

Echidna (n.) A monster, half maid and half serpent.

Echinus (n.) A genus of echinoderms, including the common edible sea urchin of Europe.

Echiuroidea (n. pl.) A division of Annelida which includes the genus Echiurus and allies. They are often classed among the Gephyrea, and called the armed Gephyreans.

Eclat (n.) Demonstration of admiration and approbation; applause.

Eclogite (n.) A rock consisting of granular red garnet, light green smaragdite, and common hornblende; -- so called in reference to its beauty.

Economical (a.) Managed with frugality; not marked with waste or extravagance; frugal; -- said of acts; saving; as, an economical use of money or of time.

Economist (n.) One who economizes, or manages domestic or other concerns with frugality; one who expends money, time, or labor, judiciously, and without waste.

Economy (n.) Thrifty and frugal housekeeping; management without loss or waste; frugality in expenditure; prudence and disposition to save; as, a housekeeper accustomed to economy but not to parsimony.

Edict (n.) A public command or ordinance by the sovereign power; the proclamation of a law made by an absolute authority, as if by the very act of announcement; a decree; as, the edicts of the Roman emperors; the edicts of the French monarch.

Educate (v. t.) To bring /// or guide the powers of, as a child; to develop and cultivate, whether physically, mentally, or morally, but more commonly limited to the mental activities or senses; to expand, strengthen, and discipline, as the mind, a faculty, etc.,; to form and regulate the principles and character of; to prepare and fit for any calling or business by systematic instruction; to cultivate; to train; to instruct; as, to educate a child; to educate the eye or the taste.

Edulcorant (a.) Having a tendency to purify or to sweeten by removing or correcting acidity and acrimony.

Eel (n.) An elongated fish of many genera and species. The common eels of Europe and America belong to the genus Anguilla. The electrical eel is a species of Gymnotus. The so called vinegar eel is a minute nematode worm. See Conger eel, Electric eel, and Gymnotus.

Efface (v. t.) To cause to disappear (as anything impresses or inscribed upon a surface) by rubbing out, striking out, etc.; to erase; to render illegible or indiscernible; as, to efface the letters on a monument, or the inscription on a coin.

Effet (n.) The common newt; -- called also asker, eft, evat, and ewt.

Effigy (n.) The image, likeness, or representation of a person, whether a full figure, or a part; an imitative figure; -- commonly applied to sculptured likenesses, as those on monuments, or to those of the heads of princes on coins and medals, sometimes applied to portraits.

Effloresce (v. i.) To become covered with a whitish crust or light crystallization, from a slow chemical change between some of the ingredients of the matter covered and an acid proceeding commonly from an external source; as, the walls of limestone caverns sometimes effloresce with nitrate of calcium in consequence of the action in consequence of nitric acid formed in the atmosphere.

Egremoin (n.) Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria).

Egret (n.) The name of several species of herons which bear plumes on the back. They are generally white. Among the best known species are the American egret (Ardea, / Herodias, egretta); the great egret (A. alba); the little egret (A. garzetta), of Europe; and the American snowy egret (A. candidissima).

Egrimony () The herb agrimony.

Egrimony (n.) Sorrow.

Eke (v. t.) To increase; to add to; to augment; -- now commonly used with out, the notion conveyed being to add to, or piece out by a laborious, inferior, or scanty addition; as, to eke out a scanty supply of one kind with some other.

Elder (a.) Born before another; prior in years; senior; earlier; older; as, his elder brother died in infancy; -- opposed to younger, and now commonly applied to a son, daughter, child, brother, etc.

Elect (a.) Chosen; taken by preference from among two or more.

Electroplating (n.) The art or process of depositing a coating (commonly) of silver, gold, or nickel on an inferior metal, by means of electricity.

Element (n.) One of the simplest essential parts, more commonly called cells, of which animal and vegetable organisms, or their tissues and organs, are composed.

Elephantine (a.) Pertaining to the elephant, or resembling an elephant (commonly, in size); hence, huge; immense; heavy; as, of elephantine proportions; an elephantine step or tread.

Elf (n.) An imaginary supernatural being, commonly a little sprite, much like a fairy; a mythological diminutive spirit, supposed to haunt hills and wild places, and generally represented as delighting in mischievous tricks.

Elm (n.) A tree of the genus Ulmus, of several species, much used as a shade tree, particularly in America. The English elm is Ulmus campestris; the common American or white elm is U. Americana; the slippery or red elm, U. fulva.

Elul (n.) The sixth month of the Jewish year, by the sacred reckoning, or the twelfth, by the civil reckoning, corresponding nearly to the month of September.

Embark (v. t.) To engage, enlist, or invest (as persons, money, etc.) in any affair; as, he embarked his fortune in trade.

Embarrass (v. t.) To involve in difficulties concerning money matters; to incumber with debt; to beset with urgent claims or demands; -- said of a person or his affairs; as, a man or his business is embarrassed when he can not meet his pecuniary engagements.

Embarrassment (n.) Difficulty or perplexity arising from the want of money to pay debts.

Embezzle (v. t.) To appropriate fraudulently to one's own use, as property intrusted to one's care; to apply to one's private uses by a breach of trust; as, to embezzle money held in trust.

Embolism (n.) Intercalation; the insertion of days, months, or years, in an account of time, to produce regularity; as, the embolism of a lunar month in the Greek year.

Embolismal (a.) Pertaining to embolism; intercalary; as, embolismal months.

Embracery (n.) An attempt to influence a court, jury, etc., corruptly, by promises, entreaties, money, entertainments, threats, or other improper inducements.

Emburse (v. t.) To furnish with money; to imburse.

Emeril (n.) A glazier's diamond.

Eminence (n.) An elevated condition among men; a place or station above men in general, either in rank, office, or celebrity; social or moral loftiness; high rank; distinction; preferment.

Emeer (n.) An Arabian military commander, independent chieftain, or ruler of a province; also, an honorary title given to the descendants of Mohammed, in the line of his daughter Fatima; among the Turks, likewise, a title of dignity, given to certain high officials.

Emissary (n.) An agent employed to advance, in a covert manner, the interests of his employers; one sent out by any power that is at war with another, to create dissatisfaction among the people of the latter.

Emong (prep.) Alt. of Emongst

Emongst (prep.) Among.

Emperor (n.) The sovereign or supreme monarch of an empire; -- a title of dignity superior to that of king; as, the emperor of Germany or of Austria; the emperor or Czar of Russia.

Emphatical (a.) Uttered with emphasis; made prominent and impressive by a peculiar stress of voice; laying stress; deserving of stress or emphasis; forcible; impressive; strong; as, to remonstrate in am emphatic manner; an emphatic word; an emphatic tone; emphatic reasoning.

Empower (v. t.) To give authority to; to delegate power to; to commission; to authorize (having commonly a legal force); as, the Supreme Court is empowered to try and decide cases, civil or criminal; the attorney is empowered to sign an acquittance, and discharge the debtor.

Emulsin (n.) The white milky pulp or extract of bitter almonds.

En- () A prefix signifying in or into, used in many English words, chiefly those borrowed from the French. Some English words are written indifferently with en-or in-. For ease of pronunciation it is commonly changed to em-before p, b, and m, as in employ, embody, emmew. It is sometimes used to give a causal force, as in enable, enfeeble, to cause to be, or to make, able, or feeble; and sometimes merely gives an intensive force, as in enchasten. See In-.

Encenia (n. pl.) A festival commemorative of the founding of a city or the consecration of a church; also, the ceremonies (as at Oxford and Cambridge, England) commemorative of founders or benefactors.

Enchantment (n.) The act of enchanting; the production of certain wonderful effects by the aid of demons, or the agency of supposed spirits; the use of magic arts, spells, or charms; incantation.

Enchoric (a.) Belonging to, or used in, a country; native; domestic; popular; common; -- said especially of the written characters employed by the common people of ancient Egypt, in distinction from the hieroglyphics. See Demotic.

Encouragement (n.) That which serves to incite, support, promote, or advance, as favor, countenance, reward, etc.; incentive; increase of confidence; as, the fine arts find little encouragement among a rude people.

Encowl (v. t.) To make a monk (or wearer of a cowl) of.

Encroach (v. i.) To enter by gradual steps or by stealth into the possessions or rights of another; to trespass; to intrude; to trench; -- commonly with on or upon; as, to encroach on a neighbor; to encroach on the highway.

-ency () A noun suffix having much the same meaning as -ence, but more commonly signifying the quality or state; as, emergency, efficiency. See -ancy.

Encystment (n.) A process which, among some of the lower forms of life, precedes reproduction by budding, fission, spore formation, etc.

Endomysium (n.) The delicate bands of connective tissue interspersed among muscular fibers.

Endoneurium (n.) The delicate bands of connective tissue among nerve fibers.

Endorhiza (n.) Any monocotyledonous plant; -- so named because many monocotyledons have an endorhizal embryo.

Endorhizous (a.) Having the radicle of the embryo sheathed by the cotyledon, through which the embryo bursts in germination, as in many monocotyledonous plants.

Endow (v. t.) To furnish with money or its equivalent, as a permanent fund for support; to make pecuniary provision for; to settle an income upon; especially, to furnish with dower; as, to endow a wife; to endow a public institution.

Energumen (n.) One possessed by an evil spirit; a demoniac.

Englishry (n.) A body of English or people of English descent; -- commonly applied to English people in Ireland.

Enharmonic (a.) Alt. of Enharmonical

Enharmonical (a.) Of or pertaining to that one of the three kinds of musical scale (diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic) recognized by the ancient Greeks, which consisted of quarter tones and major thirds, and was regarded as the most accurate.

Enharmonical (a.) Pertaining to a change of notes to the eye, while, as the same keys are used, the instrument can mark no difference to the ear, as the substitution of A/ for G/.

Enharmonical (a.) Pertaining to a scale of perfect intonation which recognizes all the notes and intervals that result from the exact tuning of diatonic scales and their transposition into other keys.

Enharmonically (adv.) In the enharmonic style or system; in just intonation.

Enjoinment (n.) Direction; command; authoritative admonition.

Ennoble (v. t.) To raise to the rank of nobility; as, to ennoble a commoner.

Enormity (n.) The state or quality of exceeding a measure or rule, or of being immoderate, monstrous, or outrageous.

Enormous (a.) Exceedingly wicked; outrageous; atrocious; monstrous; as, an enormous crime.

Entellus (n.) An East Indian long-tailed bearded monkey (Semnopithecus entellus) regarded as sacred by the natives. It is remarkable for the caplike arrangement of the hair on the head. Called also hoonoomaun and hungoor.

Enter- () A prefix signifying between, among, part.

Entermewer (n.) A hawk gradually changing the color of its feathers, commonly in the second year.

Entomophaga (n. pl.) One of a group of hymenopterous insects whose larvae feed parasitically upon living insects. See Ichneumon, 2.

Enzootic (a.) Afflicting animals; -- used of a disease affecting the animals of a district. It corresponds to an endemic disease among men.

Eparchy (n.) A province, prefecture, or territory, under the jurisdiction of an eparch or governor; esp., in modern Greece, one of the larger subdivisions of a monarchy or province of the kingdom; in Russia, a diocese or archdiocese.

Eparterial (a.) Situated upon or above an artery; -- applied esp. to the branches of the bronchi given off above the point where the pulmonary artery crosses the bronchus.

Epeira (n.) A genus of spiders, including the common garden spider (E. diadema). They spin geometrical webs. See Garden spider.

Ephod (n.) A part of the sacerdotal habit among Jews, being a covering for the back and breast, held together on the shoulders by two clasps or brooches of onyx stones set in gold, and fastened by a girdle of the same stuff as the ephod. The ephod for the priests was of plain linen; that for the high priest was richly embroidered in colors. The breastplate of the high priest was worn upon the ephod in front.

Epi- () A prefix, meaning upon, beside, among, on the outside, above, over. It becomes ep-before a vowel, as in epoch, and eph-before a Greek aspirate, as in ephemeral.

Epicene (a. & n.) Common to both sexes; -- a term applied, in grammar, to such nouns as have but one form of gender, either the masculine or feminine, to indicate animals of both sexes; as boy^s, bos, for the ox and cow; sometimes applied to eunuchs and hermaphrodites.

Epidemical (a.) Common to, or affecting at the same time, a large number in a community; -- applied to a disease which, spreading widely, attacks many persons at the same time; as, an epidemic disease; an epidemic catarrh, fever, etc. See Endemic.

Epidictical (a.) Serving to explain; demonstrative.

Epididymitis (n.) Inflammation of the epididymis, one of the common results of gonorrhea.

Epidote (n.) A mineral, commonly of a yellowish green (pistachio) color, occurring granular, massive, columnar, and in monoclinic crystals. It is a silicate of alumina, lime, and oxide of iron, or manganese.

Epimere (n.) One of the segments of the transverse axis, or the so called homonymous parts; as, for example, one of the several segments of the extremities in vertebrates, or one of the similar segments in plants, such as the segments of a segmented leaf.

Epitaph (n.) A brief writing formed as if to be inscribed on a monument, as that concerning Alexander: "Sufficit huic tumulus, cui non sufficeret orbis."

Epizoon (n.) One of the artificial group of invertebrates of various kinds, which live parasitically upon the exterior of other animals; an ectozoon. Among them are the lice, ticks, many acari, the lerneans, or fish lice, and other crustaceans.

Epizootic (a.) Of the nature of a disease which attacks many animals at the same time; -- corresponding to epidemic diseases among men.

Epizootic (n.) An epizootic disease; a murrain; an epidemic influenza among horses.

Epoch (n.) A division of time characterized by the prevalence of similar conditions of the earth; commonly a minor division or part of a period.

Equate (v. t.) To make equal; to reduce to an average; to make such an allowance or correction in as will reduce to a common standard of comparison; to reduce to mean time or motion; as, to equate payments; to equate lines of railroad for grades or curves; equated distances.

Equites (n. pl) An order of knights holding a middle place between the senate and the commonalty; members of the Roman equestrian order.

Erect (v. t.) To raise and place in an upright or perpendicular position; to set upright; to raise; as, to erect a pole, a flagstaff, a monument, etc.

Erection (n.) The act of erecting, or raising upright; the act of constructing, as a building or a wall, or of fitting together the parts of, as a machine; the act of founding or establishing, as a commonwealth or an office; also, the act of rousing to excitement or courage.

Erogate (v. t.) To lay out, as money; to deal out; to expend.

Erratic (a.) Deviating from a wise of the common course in opinion or conduct; eccentric; strange; queer; as, erratic conduct.

Erratic (n.) One who deviates from common and accepted opinions; one who is eccentric or preserve in his intellectual character.

Erythrogen (n.) A crystalline substance obtained from diseased bile, which becomes blood-red when acted on by nitric acid or ammonia.

Escort (n.) To attend with a view to guard and protect; to accompany as safeguard; to give honorable or ceremonious attendance to; -- used esp. with reference to journeys or excursions on land; as, to escort a public functionary, or a lady; to escort a baggage wagon.

Escritoire (n.) A piece of furniture used as a writing table, commonly with drawers, pigeonholes, and the like; a secretary or writing desk.

Esparcet (n.) The common sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa), an Old World leguminous forage plant.

Especial (a.) Distinguished among others of the same class or kind; special; concerning a species or a single object; principal; particular; as, in an especial manner or degree.

Especially (adv.) In an especial manner; chiefly; particularly; peculiarly; in an uncommon degree.

Espousal (n.) The act of espousing or betrothing; especially, in the plural, betrothal; plighting of the troths; a contract of marriage; sometimes, the marriage ceremony.

Essene (n.) One of a sect among the Jews in the time of our Savior, remarkable for their strictness and abstinence.

Essonite (n.) Cinnamon stone, a variety of garnet. See Garnet.

Estate (n.) The state; the general body politic; the common-wealth; the general interest; state affairs.

Estate (n.) The great classes or orders of a community or state (as the clergy, the nobility, and the commonalty of England) or their representatives who administer the government; as, the estates of the realm (England), which are (1) the lords spiritual, (2) the lords temporal, (3) the commons.

Estimate (v. t.) To judge and form an opinion of the value of, from imperfect data, -- either the extrinsic (money), or intrinsic (moral), value; to fix the worth of roughly or in a general way; as, to estimate the value of goods or land; to estimate the worth or talents of a person.

Estovers (n. pl.) Necessaries or supples; an allowance to a person out of an estate or other thing for support; as of wood to a tenant for life, etc., of sustenance to a man confined for felony of his estate, or alimony to a woman divorced out of her husband's estate.

Ethane (n.) A gaseous hydrocarbon, C2H6, forming a constituent of ordinary illuminating gas. It is the second member of the paraffin series, and its most important derivatives are common alcohol, aldehyde, ether, and acetic acid. Called also dimethyl.

Ethically (adv.) According to, in harmony with, moral principles or character.

Ethyl (n.) A monatomic, hydrocarbon radical, C2H5 of the paraffin series, forming the essential radical of ethane, and of common alcohol and ether.

Ethylamine (n.) A colorless, mobile, inflammable liquid, C2H5.NH2, very volatile and with an ammoniacal odor. It is a strong base, and is a derivative of ammonia. Called also ethyl carbamine, and amido ethane.

Etiquette (n.) The forms required by good breeding, or prescribed by authority, to be observed in social or official life; observance of the proprieties of rank and occasion; conventional decorum; ceremonial code of polite society.

Etym (n.) See Etymon.

Etymic (a.) Relating to the etymon; as, an etymic word.

Etymons (pl. ) of Etymon

Etyma (pl. ) of Etymon

Etymon (n.) An original form; primitive word; root.

Etymon (n.) Original or fundamental signification.

Eucharist (n.) The sacrament of the Lord's Supper; the solemn act of ceremony of commemorating the death of Christ, in the use of bread and wine, as the appointed emblems; the communion.

Eudemon (n.) Alt. of Eudaemon

Eudaemon (n.) A good angel.

Eudemonics (n.) Alt. of Eudaemonics

Eudaemonics (n.) That part of moral philosophy which treats of happiness; the science of happiness; -- contrasted with aretaics.

Eudemonism (n.) Alt. of Eudaemonism

Eudaemonism (n.) That system of ethics which defines and enforces moral obligation by its relation to happiness or personal well-being.

Eudemonist (n.) Alt. of Eudaemonist

Eudaemonist (n.) One who believes in eudemonism.

Eudemonistic (a.) Alt. of Eudaemonistic

Eudaemonistic (a.) Of or pertaining to eudemonism.

Eudemonistical (a.) Alt. of Eudaemonistical

Eudaemonistical (a.) Eudemonistic.

Eugenia (n.) A genus of myrtaceous plants, mostly of tropical countries, and including several aromatic trees and shrubs, among which are the trees which produce allspice and cloves of commerce.

Euharmonic (a.) Producing mathematically perfect harmony or concord; sweetly or perfectly harmonious.

Eunuch (n.) A male of the human species castrated; commonly, one of a class of such persons, in Oriental countries, having charge of the women's apartments. Some of them, in former times, gained high official rank.

Eupatorium (n.) A genus of perennial, composite herbs including hemp agrimony, boneset, throughwort, etc.

Eurythmy (n.) Just or harmonious proportion or movement, as in the composition of a poem, an edifice, a painting, or a statue.

Euthyneura (n. pl.) A large division of gastropod molluske, including the Pulmonifera and Opisthobranchiata.

Eutychian (n.) A follower of Eutyches [5th century], who held that the divine and the human in the person of Christ were blended together as to constitute but one nature; a monophysite; -- opposed to Nestorian.

Eventless (a.) Without events; tame; monotomous; marked by nothing unusual; uneventful.

Everyday (a.) Used or fit for every day; common; usual; as, an everyday suit or clothes.

Everyone (n.) Everybody; -- commonly separated, every one.

Evet (n.) The common newt or eft. In America often applied to several species of aquatic salamanders.

Evincible (a.) Capable of being proved or clearly brought to light; demonstrable.

Evincive (a.) Tending to prove; having the power to demonstrate; demonstrative; indicative.

Evocate (v. t.) To call out or forth; to summon; to evoke.

Evoke (v. t.) To call out; to summon forth.

Examine (v. t.) To interrogate as in a judicial proceeding; to try or test by question; as, to examine a witness in order to elicit testimony, a student to test his qualifications, a bankrupt touching the state of his property, etc.

Exarch (n.) A viceroy; in Ravenna, the title of the viceroys of the Byzantine emperors; in the Eastern Church, the superior over several monasteries; in the modern Greek Church, a deputy of the patriarch , who visits the clergy, investigates ecclesiastical cases, etc.

Excambium (n.) Exchange; barter; -- used commonly of lands.

Excellence (n.) A title of honor or respect; -- more common in the form excellency.

Except (v. i.) To take exception; to object; -- usually followed by to, sometimes by against; as, to except to a witness or his testimony.

Exceptional (a.) Forming an exception; not ordinary; uncommon; rare; hence, better than the average; superior.

Exchange (n.) The process of setting accounts or debts between parties residing at a distance from each other, without the intervention of money, by exchanging orders or drafts, called bills of exchange. These may be drawn in one country and payable in another, in which case they are called foreign bills; or they may be drawn and made payable in the same country, in which case they are called inland bills. The term bill of exchange is often abbreviated into exchange; as, to buy or sell exchange.

Exemplary (a.) Serving as a warning; monitory; as, exemplary justice, punishment, or damages.

Exequy (n.) A funeral rite (usually in the plural); the ceremonies of burial; obsequies; funeral procession.

Exercise (n.) The performance of an office, a ceremony, or a religious duty.

Exhortation (n.) Language intended to incite and encourage; advice; counsel; admonition.

Exigenter (n.) An officer in the Court of King's Bench and Common Pleas whose duty it was make out exigents. The office in now abolished.

Exocoetus (n.) A genus of fishes, including the common flying fishes. See Flying fish.

Exogen (n.) A plant belonging to one of the greater part of the vegetable kingdom, and which the plants are characterized by having c wood bark, and pith, the wood forming a layer between the other two, and increasing, if at all, by the animal addition of a new layer to the outside next to the bark. The leaves are commonly netted-veined, and the number of cotyledons is two, or, very rarely, several in a whorl. Cf. Endogen.

Exorcise (v. t.) To cast out, as a devil, evil spirits, etc., by conjuration or summoning by a holy name, or by certain ceremonies; to expel (a demon) or to conjure (a demon) to depart out of a person possessed by one.

Exorcise (v. t.) To deliver or purify from the influence of an evil spirit or demon.

Exotery (n.) That which is obvious, public, or common.

Expend (v. t.) To lay out, apply, or employ in any way; to consume by use; to use up or distribute, either in payment or in donations; to spend; as, they expend money for food or in charity; to expend time labor, and thought; to expend hay in feeding cattle, oil in a lamp, water in mechanical operations.

Expend (v. i.) To pay out or disburse money.

Expenditure (n.) The act of expending; a laying out, as of money; disbursement.

Expiation (n.) An act by which the treats of prodigies were averted among the ancient heathen.

Expire (v. i.) To come to an end; to cease; to terminate; to perish; to become extinct; as, the flame expired; his lease expires to-day; the month expired on Saturday.

Expostulate (v. i.) To reason earnestly with a person on some impropriety of his conduct, representing the wrong he has done or intends, and urging him to make redress or to desist; to remonstrate; -- followed by with.

Expostulation (n.) The act of expostulating or reasoning with a person in opposition to some impropriety of conduct; remonstrance; earnest and kindly protest; dissuasion.

Expostulatory (a.) Containing expostulation or remonstrance; as, an expostulatory discourse or letter.

Express (n.) A messenger sent on a special errand; a courier; hence, a regular and fast conveyance; commonly, a company or system for the prompt and safe transportation of merchandise or parcels; also, a railway train for transporting passengers or goods with speed and punctuality.

Expression (n.) A form of words in which an idea or sentiment is conveyed; a mode of speech; a phrase; as, a common expression; an odd expression.

Exterior (n.) Outward or external deportment, form, or ceremony; visible act; as, the exteriors of religion.

Extortion (n.) The offense committed by an officer who corruptly claims and takes, as his fee, money, or other thing of value, that is not due, or more than is due, or before it is due.

Extraordinary (a.) Beyond or out of the common order or method; not usual, customary, regular, or ordinary; as, extraordinary evils; extraordinary remedies.

Extraordinary (a.) Exceeding the common degree, measure. or condition; hence, remarkable; uncommon; rare; wonderful; as, extraordinary talents or grandeur.

Extravagance (n.) The state of being extravagant, wild, or prodigal beyond bounds of propriety or duty; want of moderation; excess; especially, undue expenditure of money; vaid and superfluous expense; prodigality; as, extravagance of anger, love, expression, imagination, demands.

Fable (n.) Any story told to excite wonder; common talk; the theme of talk.

Faburden (n.) A monotonous refrain.

Facet (n.) A little face; a small, plane surface; as, the facets of a diamond.

Facet (v. t.) To cut facets or small faces upon; as, to facet a diamond.

Facing (n.) The collar and cuffs of a military coat; -- commonly of a color different from that of the coat.

Faction (n.) A party, in political society, combined or acting in union, in opposition to the government, or state; -- usually applied to a minority, but it may be applied to a majority; a combination or clique of partisans of any kind, acting for their own interests, especially if greedy, clamorous, and reckless of the common good.

Factious (a.) Given to faction; addicted to form parties and raise dissensions, in opposition to government or the common good; turbulent; seditious; prone to clamor against public measures or men; -- said of persons.

Factorize (v. t.) To give warning to; -- said of a person in whose hands the effects of another are attached, the warning being to the effect that he shall not pay the money or deliver the property of the defendant in his hands to him, but appear and answer the suit of the plaintiff.

Fade (a.) Weak; insipid; tasteless; commonplace.

Fairy (n.) An imaginary supernatural being or spirit, supposed to assume a human form (usually diminutive), either male or female, and to meddle for good or evil in the affairs of mankind; a fay. See Elf, and Demon.

Fairy (a.) Given by fairies; as, fairy money.

Faith (n.) Belief; the assent of the mind to the truth of what is declared by another, resting solely and implicitly on his authority and veracity; reliance on testimony.

Fakir (n.) An Oriental religious ascetic or begging monk.

Fallow deer () A European species of deer (Cervus dama), much smaller than the red deer. In summer both sexes are spotted with white. It is common in England, where it is often domesticated in the parks.

Familiar (a.) Well known; well understood; common; frequent; as, a familiar illustration.

Familiar (n.) An attendant demon or evil spirit.

Familiarity (n.) The state of being familiar; intimate and frequent converse, or association; unconstrained intercourse; freedom from ceremony and constraint; intimacy; as, to live in remarkable familiarity.

Familiarity (n.) Anything said or done by one person to another unceremoniously and without constraint; esp., in the pl., such actions and words as propriety and courtesy do not warrant; liberties.

Family (v. t.) Those who descend from one common progenitor; a tribe, clan, or race; kindred; house; as, the human family; the family of Abraham; the father of a family.

Fancymonger (n.) A lovemonger; a whimsical lover.

Faro (n.) A gambling game at cardds, in whiich all the other players play against the dealer or banker, staking their money upon the order in which the cards will lie and be dealt from the pack.

Farse (n.) An addition to, or a paraphrase of, some part of the Latin service in the vernacular; -- common in English before the Reformation.

Fasces (pl.) A bundle of rods, having among them an ax with the blade projecting, borne before the Roman magistrates as a badge of their authority.

Fashion (n.) The prevailing mode or style, especially of dress; custom or conventional usage in respect of dress, behavior, etiquette, etc.; particularly, the mode or style usual among persons of good breeding; as, to dress, dance, sing, ride, etc., in the fashion.

Fashion-monger (n.) One who studies the fashions; a fop; a dandy.

Fashion-mongering (a.) Behaving like a fashion-monger.

Feast (n.) A festival; a holiday; a solemn, or more commonly, a joyous, anniversary.

Feast (n.) A festive or joyous meal; a grand, ceremonious, or sumptuous entertainment, of which many guests partake; a banquet characterized by tempting variety and abundance of food.

February (n.) The second month in the year, said to have been introduced into the Roman calendar by Numa. In common years this month contains twenty-eight days; in the bissextile, or leap year, it has twenty-nine days.

Fellah (n.) A peasant or cultivator of the soil among the Egyptians, Syrians, etc.

Fellmonger (n.) A dealer in fells or sheepskins, who separates the wool from the pelts.

Fellow-commoner (n.) A student at Cambridge University, England, who commons, or dines, at the Fellow's table.

Fellowship (n.) The rule for dividing profit and loss among partners; -- called also partnership, company, and distributive proportion.

Felony (n.) An offense which occasions a total forfeiture either lands or goods, or both, at the common law, and to which capital or other punishment may be added, according to the degree of guilt.

Felucca (n.) A small, swift-sailing vessel, propelled by oars and lateen sails, -- once common in the Mediterranean.

Female fern () a common species of fern with large decompound fronds (Asplenium Filixfaemina), growing in many countries; lady fern.

Fenerate (v. i.) To put money to usury; to lend on interest.

Feroher (n.) A symbol of the solar deity, found on monuments exhumed in Babylon, Nineveh, etc.

Ferrugo (n.) A disease of plants caused by fungi, commonly called the rust, from its resemblance to iron rust in color.

Fetish (n.) A material object supposed among certain African tribes to represent in such a way, or to be so connected with, a supernatural being, that the possession of it gives to the possessor power to control that being.

Feu (n.) A free and gratuitous right to lands made to one for service to be performed by him; a tenure where the vassal, in place of military services, makes a return in grain or in money.

Fiddler (n.) The common European sandpiper (Tringoides hypoleucus); -- so called because it continually oscillates its body.

Field (n.) That part of the grounds reserved for the players which is outside of the diamond; -- called also outfield.

Fieldwork (n.) Any temporary fortification thrown up by an army in the field; -- commonly in the plural.

Fiend (n.) An implacable or malicious foe; one who is diabolically wicked or cruel; an infernal being; -- applied specifically to the devil or a demon.

Fiendly (a.) Fiendlike; monstrous; devilish.

Fieriness (n.) The quality of being fiery; heat; acrimony; irritability; as, a fieriness of temper.

Figurate (a.) Florid; figurative; involving passing discords by the freer melodic movement of one or more parts or voices in the harmony; as, figurate counterpoint or descant.

Filacer (n.) A former officer in the English Court of Common Pleas; -- so called because he filed the writs on which he made out process.

Filch (v. t.) To steal or take privily (commonly, that which is of little value); to pilfer.

File (v. t.) To put upon the files or among the records of a court; to note on (a paper) the fact date of its reception in court.

Filibuster (n.) A lawless military adventurer, especially one in quest of plunder; a freebooter; -- originally applied to buccaneers infesting the Spanish American coasts, but introduced into common English to designate the followers of Lopez in his expedition to Cuba in 1851, and those of Walker in his expedition to Nicaragua, in 1855.

Finance (n.) The income of a ruler or of a state; revennue; public money; sometimes, the income of an individual; often used in the plural for funds; available money; resources.

Financier (n.) One skilled in financial operations; one acquainted with money matters.

Finback (n.) Any whale of the genera Sibbaldius, Balaenoptera, and allied genera, of the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by a prominent fin on the back. The common finbacks of the New England coast are Sibbaldius tectirostris and S. tuberosus.

Find (v. t.) To provide for; to supply; to furnish; as, to find food for workemen; he finds his nephew in money.

Fine (n.) A sum of money paid as the settlement of a claim, or by way of terminating a matter in dispute; especially, a payment of money imposed upon a party as a punishment for an offense; a mulct.

Fine (n.) A sum of money or price paid for obtaining a benefit, favor, or privilege, as for admission to a copyhold, or for obtaining or renewing a lease.

Fingerling (n.) A young salmon. See Parr.

Fireball (n.) A ball filled with powder or other combustibles, intended to be thrown among enemies, and to injure by explosion; also, to set fire to their works and light them up, so that movements may be seen.

Fire-set (n.) A set of fire irons, including, commonly, tongs, shovel, and poker.

Firework (n.) A device for producing a striking display of light, or a figure or figures in plain or colored fire, by the combustion of materials that burn in some peculiar manner, as gunpowder, sulphur, metallic filings, and various salts. The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube filled with the combustible material. A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety of figures in fire, often variously colored. The skyrocket is a common form of firework. The name is also given to various combustible preparations used in war.

First (a.) Preceding all others of a series or kind; the ordinal of one; earliest; as, the first day of a month; the first year of a reign.

Fishmonger (n.) A dealer in fish.

Fissilinguia (n. pl.) A group of Lacertilia having the tongue forked, including the common lizards.

Fission (n.) A method of asexual reproduction among the lowest (unicellular) organisms by means of a process of self-division, consisting of gradual division or cleavage of the into two parts, each of which then becomes a separate and independent organisms; as when a cell in an animal or plant, or its germ, undergoes a spontaneous division, and the parts again subdivide. See Segmentation, and Cell division, under Division.

Flag (n.) A cloth usually bearing a device or devices and used to indicate nationality, party, etc., or to give or ask information; -- commonly attached to a staff to be waved by the wind; a standard; a banner; an ensign; the colors; as, the national flag; a military or a naval flag.

Flagellata (v. t.) An order of Infusoria, having one or two long, whiplike cilia, at the anterior end. It includes monads. See Infusoria, and Monad.

Flagworm (n.) A worm or grub found among flags and sedge.

Flail (n.) An ancient military weapon, like the common flail, often having the striking part armed with rows of spikes, or loaded.

Flat (superl.) Unanimated; dull; uninteresting; without point or spirit; monotonous; as, a flat speech or composition.

Flea-beetle (n.) A small beetle of the family Halticidae, of many species. They have strong posterior legs and leap like fleas. The turnip flea-beetle (Phyllotreta vittata) and that of the grapevine (Graptodera chalybea) are common injurious species.

Fleece (v. t.) To strip of money or other property unjustly, especially by trickery or fraud; to bring to straits by oppressions and exactions.

Fleshmonger (n.) One who deals in flesh; hence, a pimp; a procurer; a pander.

Floreal (n.) The eight month of the French republican calendar. It began April 20, and ended May 19. See Vendemiare.

Flos-ferri (n.) A variety of aragonite, occuring in delicate white coralloidal forms; -- common in beds of iron ore.

Flow (v. i.) To move with a continual change of place among the particles or parts, as a fluid; to change place or circulate, as a liquid; as, rivers flow from springs and lakes; tears flow from the eyes.

Flowering (a.) Having conspicuous flowers; -- used as an epithet with many names of plants; as, flowering ash; flowering dogwood; flowering almond, etc.

Flowerpot (n.) A vessel, commonly or earthenware, for earth in which plants are grown.

Fluid (n.) A fluid substance; a body whose particles move easily among themselves.

Fluorite (n.) Calcium fluoride, a mineral of many different colors, white, yellow, purple, green, red, etc., often very beautiful, crystallizing commonly in cubes with perfect octahedral cleavage; also massive. It is used as a flux. Some varieties are used for ornamental vessels. Also called fluor spar, or simply fluor.

Fluoroid (n.) A tetrahexahedron; -- so called because it is a common form of fluorite.

Flushing (n.) A heavy, coarse cloth manufactured from shoddy; -- commonly in the /

Folium (n.) A curve of the third order, consisting of two infinite branches, which have a common asymptote. The curve has a double point, and a leaf-shaped loop; whence the name. Its equation is x3 + y3 = axy.

Folkland (n.) Land held in villenage, being distributed among the folk, or people, at the pleasure of the lord of the manor, and resumed at his discretion. Not being held by any assurance in writing, it was opposed to bookland or charter land, which was held by deed.

Folk lore () Tales, legends, or superstitions long current among the people.

Folkmote (n.) a general assembly of the people to consider and order matters of the commonwealth; also, a local court.

Follower (n.) Among law stationers, a sheet of parchment or paper which is added to the first sheet of an indenture or other deed.

Fool (n.) A compound of gooseberries scalded and crushed, with cream; -- commonly called gooseberry fool.

Fool (n.) One destitute of reason, or of the common powers of understanding; an idiot; a natural.

Fool (v. t.) To use as a fool; to deceive in a shameful or mortifying manner; to impose upon; to cheat by inspiring foolish confidence; as, to fool one out of his money.

For (n.) One who takes, or that which is said on, the affrimative side; that which is said in favor of some one or something; -- the antithesis of against, and commonly used in connection with it.

Foreadmonish (v. t.) To admonish beforehand, or before the act or event.

Foregleam (n.) An antecedent or premonitory gleam; a dawning light.

Foreign (a.) Remote; distant; strange; not belonging; not connected; not pertaining or pertient; not appropriate; not harmonious; not agreeable; not congenial; -- with to or from; as, foreign to the purpose; foreign to one's nature.

Foreland (n.) A promontory or cape; a headland; as, the North and South Foreland in Kent, England.

Foremostly (adv.) In the foremost place or order; among the foremost.

Forewarn (v. t.) To warn beforehand; to give previous warning, admonition, information, or notice to; to caution in advance.

Forktail (n.) A salmon in its fourth year's growth.

Form (n.) Show without substance; empty, outside appearance; vain, trivial, or conventional ceremony; conventionality; formality; as, a matter of mere form.

Formal (a.) Devoted to, or done in accordance with, forms or rules; punctilious; regular; orderly; methodical; of a prescribed form; exact; prim; stiff; ceremonious; as, a man formal in his dress, his gait, his conversation.

Formality (n.) The condition or quality of being formal, strictly ceremonious, precise, etc.

Formality (n.) Compliance with formal or conventional rules; ceremony; conventionality.

Formally (adv.) In a formal manner; essentially; characteristically; expressly; regularly; ceremoniously; precisely.

Formica (n.) A Linnaean genus of hymenopterous insects, including the common ants. See Ant.

Forsooth (n.) A person who used forsooth much; a very ceremonious and deferential person.

Forty-spot (n.) The Tasmanian forty-spotted diamond bird (Pardalotus quadragintus).

Fourierism (n.) The cooperative socialistic system of Charles Fourier, a Frenchman, who recommended the reorganization of society into small communities, living in common.

Four-o'clock (n.) A plant of the genus Mirabilis. There are about half a dozen species, natives of the warmer parts of America. The common four-o'clock is M. Jalapa. Its flowers are white, yellow, and red, and open toward sunset, or earlier in cloudy weather; hence the name. It is also called marvel of Peru, and afternoon lady.

Fourteenth (a.) Next in order after the thirteenth; as, the fourteenth day of the month.

Fowl (n.) Any domesticated bird used as food, as a hen, turkey, duck; in a more restricted sense, the common domestic cock or hen (Gallus domesticus).

Foxglove (n.) Any plant of the genus Digitalis. The common English foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) is a handsome perennial or biennial plant, whose leaves are used as a powerful medicine, both as a sedative and diuretic. See Digitalis.

Fra (n.) Brother; -- a title of a monk of friar; as, Fra Angelo.

Franc (a.) A silver coin of France, and since 1795 the unit of the French monetary system. It has been adopted by Belgium and Swizerland. It is equivalent to about nineteen cents, or ten pence, and is divided into 100 centimes.

Franciscan (n.) A monk or friar of the Order of St. Francis, a large and zealous order of mendicant monks founded in 1209 by St. Francis of Assisi. They are called also Friars Minor; and in England, Gray Friars, because they wear a gray habit.

Francolin (n.) A spurred partidge of the genus Francolinus and allied genera, of Asia and Africa. The common species (F. vulgaris) was formerly common in southern Europe, but is now nearly restricted to Asia.

Frangipane (n.) A species of pastry, containing cream and almonds.

Frank (n.) The common heron; -- so called from its note.

Frankincense (n.) A fragrant, aromatic resin, or gum resin, burned as an incense in religious rites or for medicinal fumigation. The best kinds now come from East Indian trees, of the genus Boswellia; a commoner sort, from the Norway spruce (Abies excelsa) and other coniferous trees. The frankincense of the ancient Jews is still unidentified.

Frank-law (n.) The liberty of being sworn in courts, as a juror or witness; one of the ancient privileges of a freeman; free and common law; -- an obsolete expression signifying substantially the same as the American expression civil rights.

Frater (n.) A monk; also, a frater house.

Fraternity (n.) A body of men associated for their common interest, business, or pleasure; a company; a brotherhood; a society; in the Roman Catholic Chucrch, an association for special religious purposes, for relieving the sick and destitute, etc.

Fratrage (n.) A sharing among brothers, or brothers' kin.

Free (superl.) Not close or parsimonious; liberal; open-handed; lavish; as, free with his money.

Free (superl.) Privileged or individual; the opposite of common; as, a free fishery; a free warren.

Freieslebenite (n.) A sulphide of antimony, lead, and silver, occuring in monoclinic crystals.

Freight (n.) The price paid a common carrier for the carriage of goods.

Frequency (n.) The condition of returning frequently; occurrence often repeated; common occurence; as, the frequency of crimes; the frequency of miracles.

Frequent (n.) Often or commonly reported.

Frequently (adv.) At frequent or short intervals; many times; often; repeatedly; commonly.

Friary (n.) A monastery; a convent of friars.

Friendship (n.) Aptness to unite; conformity; affinity; harmony; correspondence.

Frimaire (n.) The third month of the French republican calendar. It commenced November 21, and ended December 20., See Vendemiaire.

Fringe (n.) An ornamental appendage to the border of a piece of stuff, originally consisting of the ends of the warp, projecting beyond the woven fabric; but more commonly made separate and sewed on, consisting sometimes of projecting ends, twisted or plaited together, and sometimes of loose threads of wool, silk, or linen, or narrow strips of leather, or the like.

Frith (a.) A small field taken out of a common, by inclosing it; an inclosure.

Fritillary (n.) One of several species of butterflies belonging to Argynnis and allied genera; -- so called because the coloring of their wings resembles that of the common Fritillaria. See Aphrodite.

Frock (n.) A coarse gown worn by monks or friars, and supposed to take the place of all, or nearly all, other garments. It has a hood which can be drawn over the head at pleasure, and is girded by a cord.

Frock (v. t.) To make a monk of. Cf. Unfrock.

From (prep.) Out of the neighborhood of; lessening or losing proximity to; leaving behind; by reason of; out of; by aid of; -- used whenever departure, setting out, commencement of action, being, state, occurrence, etc., or procedure, emanation, absence, separation, etc., are to be expressed. It is construed with, and indicates, the point of space or time at which the action, state, etc., are regarded as setting out or beginning; also, less frequently, the source, the cause, the occasion, out of which anything proceeds; -- the aritithesis and correlative of to; as, it, is one hundred miles from Boston to Springfield; he took his sword from his side; light proceeds from the sun; separate the coarse wool from the fine; men have all sprung from Adam, and often go from good to bad, and from bad to worse; the merit of an action depends on the principle from which it proceeds; men judge of facts from personal knowledge, or from testimony.

Frontal (n.) A movable, decorative member in metal, carved wood, or, commonly, in rich stuff or in embroidery, covering the front of the altar. Frontals are usually changed according to the different ceremonies.

Fructidor (n.) The twelfth month of the French republican calendar; -- commencing August 18, and ending September 16. See Vendemiaire.

Fruit (v. t.) Whatever is produced for the nourishment or enjoyment of man or animals by the processes of vegetable growth, as corn, grass, cotton, flax, etc.; -- commonly used in the plural.

Fuchsia (n.) A genus of flowering plants having elegant drooping flowers, with four sepals, four petals, eight stamens, and a single pistil. They are natives of Mexico and South America. Double-flowered varieties are now common in cultivation.

Fucoid (a.) Properly, belonging to an order of alga: (Fucoideae) which are blackish in color, and produce oospores which are not fertilized until they have escaped from the conceptacle. The common rockweeds and the gulfweed (Sargassum) are fucoid in character.

Fullage (n.) The money or price paid for fulling or cleansing cloth.

Fulmar (n.) One of several species of sea birds, of the family procellariidae, allied to the albatrosses and petrels. Among the well-known species are the arctic fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) (called also fulmar petrel, malduck, and mollemock), and the giant fulmar (Ossifraga gigantea).

Fumage (n.) Hearth money.

Fumitory (n.) The common uame of several species of the genus Fumaria, annual herbs of the Old World, with finely dissected leaves and small flowers in dense racemes or spikes. F. officinalis is a common species, and was formerly used as an antiscorbutic.

Fund (n.) A stock or capital; a sum of money appropriated as the foundation of some commercial or other operation undertaken with a view to profit; that reserve by means of which expenses and credit are supported; as, the fund of a bank, commercial house, manufacturing corporation, etc.

Fund (n.) The stock of a national debt; public securities; evidences (stocks or bonds) of money lent to government, for which interest is paid at prescribed intervals; -- called also public funds.

Fund (n.) An invested sum, whose income is devoted to a specific object; as, the fund of an ecclesiastical society; a fund for the maintenance of lectures or poor students; also, money systematically collected to meet the expenses of some permanent object.

Fund (v. t.) To place in a fund, as money.

Funded (a.) Invested in public funds; as, funded money.

Fundholder (a.) One who has money invested in the public funds.

Funeral (n.) The solemn rites used in the disposition of a dead human body, whether such disposition be by interment, burning, or otherwise; esp., the ceremony or solemnization of interment; obsequies; burial; -- formerly used in the plural.

Funeral (n.) A funeral sermon; -- usually in the plural.

Funeral (n.) Per. taining to a funeral; used at the interment of the dead; as, funeral rites, honors, or ceremonies.

Furmonty (n.) Alt. of Furmity

Furze (n.) A thorny evergreen shrub (Ulex Europaeus), with beautiful yellow flowers, very common upon the plains and hills of Great Britain; -- called also gorse, and whin. The dwarf furze is Ulex nanus.

Fyllot (n.) A rebated cross, formerly used as a secret emblem, and a common ornament. It is also called gammadion, and swastika.

Gaff (v. t.) To strike with a gaff or barbed spear; to secure by means of a gaff; as, to gaff a salmon.

Galilean (n.) One of the party among the Jews, who opposed the payment of tribute to the Romans; -- called also Gaulonite.

Galilee (n.) A porch or waiting room, usually at the west end of an abbey church, where the monks collected on returning from processions, where bodies were laid previous to interment, and where women were allowed to see the monks to whom they were related, or to hear divine service. Also, frequently applied to the porch of a church, as at Ely and Durham cathedrals.

Gall (n.) An excrescence of any form produced on any part of a plant by insects or their larvae. They are most commonly caused by small Hymenoptera and Diptera which puncture the bark and lay their eggs in the wounds. The larvae live within the galls. Some galls are due to aphids, mites, etc. See Gallnut.

Galley (n.) A large vessel for war and national purposes; -- common in the Middle Ages, and down to the 17th century.

Gallinae (n.) An order of birds, including the common domestic fowls, pheasants, grouse, quails, and allied forms; -- sometimes called Rasores.

Gallinule (n.) One of several wading birds, having long, webless toes, and a frontal shield, belonging to the family Rallidae. They are remarkable for running rapidly over marshes and on floating plants. The purple gallinule of America is Ionornis Martinica, that of the Old World is Porphyrio porphyrio. The common European gallinule (Gallinula chloropus) is also called moor hen, water hen, water rail, moor coot, night bird, and erroneously dabchick. Closely related to it is the Florida gallinule (Gallinula galeata).

Gamble (v. i.) To play or game for money or other stake.

Game (n.) To play for a stake or prize; to use cards, dice, billiards, or other instruments, according to certain rules, with a view to win money or other thing waged upon the issue of the contest; to gamble.

Game fowl () A handsome breed of the common fowl, remarkable for the great courage and pugnacity of the males.

Gammon (n.) The buttock or thigh of a hog, salted and smoked or dried; the lower end of a flitch.

Gammoned (imp. & p. p.) of Gammon

Gammoning (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Gammon

Gammon (v. t.) To make bacon of; to salt and dry in smoke.

Gammon (n.) Backgammon.

Gammon (n.) An imposition or hoax; humbug.

Gammon (v. t.) To beat in the game of backgammon, before an antagonist has been able to get his "men" or counters home and withdraw any of them from the board; as, to gammon a person.

Gammon (v. t.) To impose on; to hoax; to cajole.

Gammon (v. t.) To fasten (a bowsprit) to the stem of a vessel by lashings of rope or chain, or by a band of iron.

Gammoning (n.) The lashing or iron band by which the bowsprit of a vessel is secured to the stem to opposite the lifting action of the forestays.

Gammoning (n.) The act of imposing upon or hoaxing a person.

Gamopetalous (a.) Having the petals united or joined so as to form a tube or cup; monopetalous.

Gamosepalous (a.) Formed of united sepals; monosepalous.

Gang-flower (n.) The common English milkwort (Polygala vulgaris), so called from blossoming in gang week.

Ganglion (n.) A globular, hard, indolent tumor, situated somewhere on a tendon, and commonly formed by the effusion of a viscid fluid into it; -- called also weeping sinew.

Gangway (v. i.) In the English House of Commons, a narrow aisle across the house, below which sit those who do not vote steadly either with the government or with the opposition.

Garfish (n.) One of several species of similar fishes of the genus Tylosurus, of which one species (T. marinus) is common on the Atlantic coast. T. Caribbaeus, a very large species, and T. crassus, are more southern; -- called also needlefish. Many of the common names of the European garfish are also applied to the American species.

Garlic (n.) A plant of the genus Allium (A. sativum is the cultivated variety), having a bulbous root, a very strong smell, and an acrid, pungent taste. Each root is composed of several lesser bulbs, called cloves of garlic, inclosed in a common membranous coat, and easily separable.

Garnet (n.) A mineral having many varieties differing in color and in their constituents, but with the same crystallization (isometric), and conforming to the same general chemical formula. The commonest color is red, the luster is vitreous, and the hardness greater than that of quartz. The dodecahedron and trapezohedron are the common forms.

Garnishee (n.) One who is garnished; a person upon whom garnishment has been served in a suit by a creditor against a debtor, such person holding property belonging to the debtor, or owing him money.

Garnishment (n.) Warning to a person in whose hands the effects of another are attached, not to pay the money or deliver the goods to the defendant, but to appear in court and give information as garnishee.

Garrulous (a.) Talking much, especially about commonplace or trivial things; talkative; loquacious.

Gas (n.) A complex mixture of gases, of which the most important constituents are marsh gas, olefiant gas, and hydrogen, artificially produced by the destructive distillation of gas coal, or sometimes of peat, wood, oil, resin, etc. It gives a brilliant light when burned, and is the common gas used for illuminating purposes.

Gasket (n.) A line or band used to lash a furled sail securely. Sea gaskets are common lines; harbor gaskets are plaited and decorated lines or bands. Called also casket.

Gastronomical (a.) Pertaining to gastromony.

Gather (v. t.) To pick out and bring together from among what is of less value; to collect, as a harvest; to harvest; to cull; to pick off; to pluck.

Gauge (n.) The quantity of plaster of Paris used with common plaster to accelerate its setting.

Gavot (n.) A kind of difficult dance; a dance tune, the air of which has two brisk and lively, yet dignified, strains in common time, each played twice over.

Gean (n.) A species of cherry tree common in Europe (Prunus avium); also, the fruit, which is usually small and dark in color.

Gee (v. i.) To agree; to harmonize.

General (a.) Common to many, or the greatest number; widely spread; prevalent; extensive, though not universal; as, a general opinion; a general custom.

General (a.) Having a relation to all; common to the whole; as, Adam, our general sire.

General (a.) Usual; common, on most occasions; as, his general habit or method.

General (a.) The chief of an order of monks, or of all the houses or congregations under the same rule.

Generally (adv.) In general; commonly; extensively, though not universally; most frequently.

Generalness (n.) The condition or quality of being general; frequency; commonness.

Generator (n.) The principal sound or sounds by which others are produced; the fundamental note or root of the common chord; -- called also generating tone.

Genette (n.) The fur of the common genet (Genetta vulgaris); also, any skin dressed in imitation of this fur.

Genista (n.) A genus of plants including the common broom of Western Europe.

Genius (n.) A good or evil spirit, or demon, supposed by the ancients to preside over a man's destiny in life; a tutelary deity; a supernatural being; a spirit, good or bad. Cf. Jinnee.

Genius (n.) Distinguished mental superiority; uncommon intellectual power; especially, superior power of invention or origination of any kind, or of forming new combinations; as, a man of genius.

Genius (n.) A man endowed with uncommon vigor of mind; a man of superior intellectual faculties; as, Shakespeare was a rare genius.

Gens (a.) A clan or family connection, embracing several families of the same stock, who had a common name and certain common religious rites; a subdivision of the Roman curia or tribe.

Gens (a.) A minor subdivision of a tribe, among American aborigines. It includes those who have a common descent, and bear the same totem.

Genus (n.) An assemblage of species, having so many fundamental points of structure in common, that in the judgment of competent scientists, they may receive a common substantive name. A genus is not necessarily the lowest definable group of species, for it may often be divided into several subgenera. In proportion as its definition is exact, it is natural genus; if its definition can not be made clear, it is more or less an artificial genus.

Geocronite (n.) A lead-gray or grayish blue mineral with a metallic luster, consisting of sulphur, antimony, and lead, with a small proportion of arsenic.

Gerlind (n.) A salmon returning from the sea the second time.

Germinal (n.) The seventh month of the French republican calendar [1792 -- 1806]. It began March 21 and ended April 19. See VendEmiaire.

Gest (n.) An action represented in sports, plays, or on the stage; show; ceremony.

Get-penny (n.) Something which gets or gains money; a successful affair.

Ghoul (n.) An imaginary evil being among Eastern nations, which was supposed to feed upon human bodies.

Giallolino (n.) A term variously employed by early writers on art, though commonly designating the yellow oxide of lead, or massicot.

Gibfish (n.) The male of the salmon.

Gila monster () A large tuberculated lizard (Heloderma suspectum) native of the dry plains of Arizona, New Mexico, etc. It is the only lizard known to have venomous teeth.

Gillyflower (n.) A name given by old writers to the clove pink (Dianthus Caryophyllus) but now to the common stock (Matthiola incana), a cruciferous plant with showy and fragrant blossoms, usually purplish, but often pink or white.

Gilthead (n.) The Pagrus, / Chrysophrys, auratus, a valuable food fish common in the Mediterranean (so named from its golden-colored head); -- called also giltpoll.

Gin (n.) A strong alcoholic liquor, distilled from rye and barley, and flavored with juniper berries; -- also called Hollands and Holland gin, because originally, and still very extensively, manufactured in Holland. Common gin is usually flavored with turpentine.

Ginseng (n.) A plant of the genus Aralia, the root of which is highly valued as a medicine among the Chinese. The Chinese plant (Aralia Schinseng) has become so rare that the American (A. quinquefolia) has largely taken its place, and its root is now an article of export from America to China. The root, when dry, is of a yellowish white color, with a sweetness in the taste somewhat resembling that of licorice, combined with a slight aromatic bitterness.

Girdle (n.) The line ofgreatest circumference of a brilliant-cut diamond, at which it is grasped by the setting. See Illust. of Brilliant.

Gismondine (n.) Alt. of Gismondite

Gismondite (n.) A native hydrated silicate of alumina, lime, and potash, first noticed near Rome.

Gladiator (n.) Originally, a swordplayer; hence, one who fought with weapons in public, either on the occasion of a funeral ceremony, or in the arena, for public amusement.

Glass (v. t.) A hard, brittle, translucent, and commonly transparent substance, white or colored, having a conchoidal fracture, and made by fusing together sand or silica with lime, potash, soda, or lead oxide. It is used for window panes and mirrors, for articles of table and culinary use, for lenses, and various articles of ornament.

Glassite (n.) A member of a Scottish sect, founded in the 18th century by John Glass, a minister of the Established Church of Scotland, who taught that justifying faith is "no more than a simple assent to the divine testimone passively recived by the understanding." The English and American adherents of this faith are called Sandemanians, after Robert Sandeman, the son-in-law and disciple of Glass.

Glasstonbury thorn () A variety of the common hawthorn.

Glauber's salts () Sulphate of soda, a well-known cathartic. It is a white crystalline substance, with a cooling, slightly bitter taste, and is commonly called "salts."

Glede (v. i.) The common European kite (Milvus ictinus). This name is also sometimes applied to the buzzard.

Gleet (n.) A transparent mucous discharge from the membrane of the urethra, commonly an effect of gonorrhea.

Glory (n.) Praise, honor, admiration, or distinction, accorded by common consent to a person or thing; high reputation; honorable fame; renown.

Gloss (n.) A foreign, archaic, technical, or other uncommon word requiring explanation.

Glossary (n.) A collection of glosses or explanations of words and passages of a work or author; a partial dictionary of a work, an author, a dialect, art, or science, explaining archaic, technical, or other uncommon words.

Glossocomon (n.) A kind of hoisting winch.

Glycosine (n.) An organic base, C6H6N4, produced artificially as a white, crystalline powder, by the action of ammonia on glyoxal.

Glycyrrhizin (n.) A glucoside found in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza), in monesia bark (Chrysophyllum), in the root of the walnut, etc., and extracted as a yellow, amorphous powder, of a bittersweet taste.

Glyoxaline (n.) A white, crystalline, organic base, C3H4N2, produced by the action of ammonia on glyoxal, and forming the origin of a large class of derivatives hence, any one of the series of which glyoxaline is a type; -- called also oxaline.

Gnathidium (n.) The ramus of the lower jaw of a bird as far as it is naked; -- commonly used in the plural.

Gnomical (a.) Gnomonical.

Gnomon (n.) The style or pin, which by its shadow, shows the hour of the day. It is usually set parallel to the earth's axis.

Gnomon (n.) A style or column erected perpendicularly to the horizon, formerly used in astronomocal observations. Its principal use was to find the altitude of the sun by measuring the length of its shadow.

Gnomon (n.) The space included between the boundary lines of two similar parallelograms, the one within the other, with an angle in common; as, the gnomon bcdefg of the parallelograms ac and af. The parallelogram bf is the complement of the parallelogram df.

Gnomon (n.) The index of the hour circle of a globe.

Gnomonic (a.) Alt. of Gnomonical

Gnomonical (a.) Of or pertaining to the gnomon, or the art of dialing.

Gnomonically (adv.) According to the principles of the gnomonic projection.

Gnomonics (n.) The art or science of dialing, or of constructing dials to show the hour of the day by the shadow of a gnomon.

Gnomonist (n.) One skilled in gnomonics.

Gnomonology (n.) A treatise on gnomonics.

Goitre (n.) An enlargement of the thyroid gland, on the anterior part of the neck; bronchocele. It is frequently associated with cretinism, and is most common in mountainous regions, especially in certain parts of Switzerland.

Gold (v. t.) A metallic element, constituting the most precious metal used as a common commercial medium of exchange. It has a characteristic yellow color, is one of the heaviest substances known (specific gravity 19.32), is soft, and very malleable and ductile. It is quite unalterable by heat, moisture, and most corrosive agents, and therefore well suited for its use in coin and jewelry. Symbol Au (Aurum). Atomic weight 196.7.

Golden-eye (n.) A duck (Glaucionetta clangula), found in Northern Europe, Asia, and America. The American variety (var. Americana) is larger. Called whistler, garrot, gowdy, pied widgeon, whiteside, curre, and doucker. Barrow's golden-eye of America (G. Islandica) is less common.

Golden-rod (n.) A tall herb (Solidago Virga-aurea), bearing yellow flowers in a graceful elongated cluster. The name is common to all the species of the genus Solidago.

Golding (n.) A conspicuous yellow flower, commonly the corn marigold (Chrysanthemum segetum).

Goltschut (n.) A silver ingot, used in Japan as money.

Goniatite (n.) One of an extinct genus of fossil cephalopods, allied to the Ammonites. The earliest forms are found in the Devonian formation, the latest, in the Triassic.

Goose (n.) Any large bird of other related families, resembling the common goose.

Gooseberry (a.) Any thorny shrub of the genus Ribes; also, the edible berries of such shrub. There are several species, of which Ribes Grossularia is the one commonly cultivated.

Gordius (n.) A genus of long, slender, nematoid worms, parasitic in insects until near maturity, when they leave the insect, and live in water, in which they deposit their eggs; -- called also hair eel, hairworm, and hair snake, from the absurd, but common and widely diffused, notion that they are metamorphosed horsehairs.

Gossypium (n.) A genus of plants which yield the cotton of the arts. The species are much confused. G. herbaceum is the name given to the common cotton plant, while the long-stapled sea-island cotton is produced by G. Barbadense, a shrubby variety. There are several other kinds besides these.

Goura (n.) One of several species of large, crested ground pigeons of the genus Goura, inhabiting New Guinea and adjacent islands. The Queen Victoria pigeon (Goura Victoria) and the crowned pigeon (G. coronata) are among the beat known species.

Grace (n.) Fortune; luck; -- used commonly with hard or sorry when it means misfortune.

Grace (n.) Beauty, physical, intellectual, or moral; loveliness; commonly, easy elegance of manners; perfection of form.

Grace (n.) Graceful and beautiful females, sister goddesses, represented by ancient writers as the attendants sometimes of Apollo but oftener of Venus. They were commonly mentioned as three in number; namely, Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia, and were regarded as the inspirers of the qualities which give attractiveness to wisdom, love, and social intercourse.

Gradate (v. t.) To grade or arrange (parts in a whole, colors in painting, etc.), so that they shall harmonize.

Grain (n.) A rounded prominence on the back of a sepal, as in the common dock. See Grained, a., 4.

-gram () A suffix indicating something drawn or written, a drawing, writing; -- as, monogram, telegram, chronogram.

Grand (superl.) Great in size, and fine or imposing in appearance or impression; illustrious, dignifled, or noble (said of persons); majestic, splendid, magnificent, or sublime (said of things); as, a grand monarch; a grand lord; a grand general; a grand view; a grand conception.

Grange (n.) A farmhouse of a monastery, where the rents and tithes, paid in grain, were deposited.

Grant (v. t.) A transfer of property by deed or writing; especially, au appropriation or conveyance made by the government; as, a grant of land or of money; also, the deed or writing by which the transfer is made.

Gravelling (n.) A salmon one or two years old, before it has gone to sea.

Gray (n.) An animal or thing of gray color, as a horse, a badger, or a kind of salmon.

Graylag (n.) The common wild gray goose (Anser anser) of Europe, believed to be the wild form of the domestic goose. See Illust. of Goose.

Grayling (a.) An American fish of the genus Thymallus, having similar habits to the above; one species (T. Ontariensis), inhabits several streams in Michigan; another (T. montanus), is found in the Yellowstone region.

Great (superl.) Endowed with extraordinary powers; uncommonly gifted; able to accomplish vast results; strong; powerful; mighty; noble; as, a great hero, scholar, genius, philosopher, etc.

Greenbacker (n.) One of those who supported greenback or paper money, and opposed the resumption of specie payments.

Greening (n.) A greenish apple, of several varieties, among which the Rhode Island greening is the best known for its fine-grained acid flesh and its excellent keeping quality.

Gregarian (a.) Gregarious; belonging to the herd or common sort; common.

Greisen (n.) A crystalline rock consisting of quarts and mica, common in the tin regions of Cornwall and Saxony.

Grenade (n.) A hollow ball or shell of iron filled with powder of other explosive, ignited by means of a fuse, and thrown from the hand among enemies.

Greyhound (n.) A slender, graceful breed of dogs, remarkable for keen sight and swiftness. It is one of the oldest varieties known, and is figured on the Egyptian monuments.

Griddlecake (n.) A cake baked or fried on a griddle, esp. a thin batter cake, as of buckwheat or common flour.

Grievance (v. t.) A cause of uneasiness and complaint; a wrong done and suffered; that which gives ground for remonstrance or resistance, as arising from injustice, tyranny, etc.; injury.

Griffon (n.) A fabulous monster, half lion and half eagle. It is often represented in Grecian and Roman works of art.

Grilse (n.) A young salmon after its first return from the sea.

Gripe (v. i.) To clutch, hold, or pinch a thing, esp. money, with a gripe or as with a gripe.

Grisaille (n.) Decorative painting in gray monochrome; -- used in English especially for painted glass.

Grison (n.) A South American monkey (Lagothrix infumatus), said to be gluttonous.

Grist (n.) In rope making, a given size of rope, common grist being a rope three inches in circumference, with twenty yarns in each of the three strands.

Grivet (n.) A monkey of the upper Nile and Abyssinia (Cercopithecus griseo-viridis), having the upper parts dull green, the lower parts white, the hands, ears, and face black. It was known to the ancient Egyptians. Called also tota.

Groat (n.) Any small sum of money.

Grosbeak (n.) One of various species of finches having a large, stout beak. The common European grosbeak or hawfinch is Coccothraustes vulgaris.

Groschen (n.) A small silver coin and money of account of Germany, worth about two cents. It is not included in the new monetary system of the empire.

Groundsel (v.) An annual composite plant (Senecio vulgaris), one of the most common and widely distributed weeds on the globe.

Group (n.) An assemblage of objects in a certain order or relation, or having some resemblance or common characteristic; as, groups of strata.

Group (n.) A variously limited assemblage of animals or plants, having some resemblance, or common characteristics in form or structure. The term has different uses, and may be made to include certain species of a genus, or a whole genus, or certain genera, or even several orders.

Grozing iron () A tool with a hardened steel point, formerly used instead of a diamond for cutting glass.

Gryllus (n.) A genus of insects including the common crickets.

Guanidine (n.) A strongly alkaline base, CN3H5, formed by the oxidation of guanin, and also obtained combined with methyl in the decomposition of creatin. Boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, it yields urea and ammonia.

Guano (n.) A substance found in great abundance on some coasts or islands frequented by sea fowls, and composed chiefly of their excrement. It is rich in phosphates and ammonia, and is used as a powerful fertilizer.

Guarantee (n.) In law and common usage: A promise to answer for the payment of some debt, or the performance of some duty, in case of the failure of another person, who is, in the first instance, liable to such payment or performance; an engagement which secures or insures another against a contingency; a warranty; a security. Same as Guaranty.

Guarantee (n.) In law and common usage: to undertake or engage for the payment of (a debt) or the performance of (a duty) by another person; to undertake to secure (a possession, right, claim, etc.) to another against a specified contingency, or at all avents; to give a guarantee concerning; to engage, assure, or secure as a thing that may be depended on; to warrant; as, to guarantee the execution of a treaty.

Guaranty (n.) In law and common usage: An undertaking to answer for the payment of some debt, or the performance of some contract or duty, of another, in case of the failure of such other to pay or perform; a guarantee; a warranty; a security.

Guaranty (n.) In law and common usage: To undertake or engage that another person shall perform (what he has stipulated); to undertake to be answerable for (the debt or default of another); to engage to answer for the performance of (some promise or duty by another) in case of a failure by the latter to perform; to undertake to secure (something) to another, as in the case of a contingency. See Guarantee, v. t.

Guenon (n.) One of several long-tailed Oriental monkeys, of the genus Cercocebus, as the green monkey and grivet.

Guereza (n.) A beautiful Abyssinian monkey (Colobus guereza), having the body black, with a fringe of long, silky, white hair along the sides, and a tuft of the same at the end of the tail. The frontal band, cheeks, and chin are white.

Guild (v. t.) An association of men belonging to the same class, or engaged in kindred pursuits, formed for mutual aid and protection; a business fraternity or corporation; as, the Stationers' Guild; the Ironmongers' Guild. They were originally licensed by the government, and endowed with special privileges and authority.

Gumption (n.) Capacity; shrewdness; common sense.

Gunflint (n.) A sharpened flint for the lock of a gun, to ignite the charge. It was in common use before the introduction of percussion caps.

Gurgle (v. i.) To run or flow in a broken, irregular, noisy current, as water from a bottle, or a small stream among pebbles or stones.

Gush (v. i.) To make a sentimental or untimely exhibition of affection; to display enthusiasm in a silly, demonstrative manner.

Gushing (a.) Emitting copiously, as tears or words; weakly and unreservedly demonstrative in matters of affection; sentimental.

Gymnosperm (n.) A plant that bears naked seeds (i. e., seeds not inclosed in an ovary), as the common pine and hemlock. Cf. Angiosperm.

Gynaecium (n.) The part of a large house, among the ancients, exclusively appropriated to women.

H () the eighth letter of the English alphabet, is classed among the consonants, and is formed with the mouth organs in the same position as that of the succeeding vowel. It is used with certain consonants to form digraphs representing sounds which are not found in the alphabet, as sh, th, /, as in shall, thing, /ine (for zh see /274); also, to modify the sounds of some other letters, as when placed after c and p, with the former of which it represents a compound sound like that of tsh, as in charm (written also tch as in catch), with the latter, the sound of f, as in phase, phantom. In some words, mostly derived or introduced from foreign languages, h following c and g indicates that those consonants have the hard sound before e, i, and y, as in chemistry, chiromancy, chyle, Ghent, Ghibelline, etc.; in some others, ch has the sound of sh, as in chicane. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 153, 179, 181-3, 237-8.

Habitat (v. t.) Place where anything is commonly found.

Hack (n.) A horse, hackneyed or let out for common hire; also, a horse used in all kinds of work, or a saddle horse, as distinguished from hunting and carriage horses.

Hack (v. t.) To use frequently and indiscriminately, so as to render trite and commonplace.

Hack (v. i.) To be exposed or offered or to common use for hire; to turn prostitute.

Hackberry (n.) A genus of trees (Celtis) related to the elm, but bearing drupes with scanty, but often edible, pulp. C. occidentalis is common in the Eastern United States.

Hackney (a.) Let out for hire; devoted to common use; hence, much used; trite; mean; as, hackney coaches; hackney authors.

Hackney (v. t.) To devote to common or frequent use, as a horse or carriage; to wear out in common service; to make trite or commonplace; as, a hackneyed metaphor or quotation.

Hadji (n.) A Mohammedan pilgrim to Mecca; -- used among Orientals as a respectful salutation or a title of honor.

Haemony (n.) A plant described by Milton as "of sovereign use against all enchantments."

Hag (n.) A fury; a she-monster.

Hake (n.) One of several species of marine gadoid fishes, of the genera Phycis, Merlucius, and allies. The common European hake is M. vulgaris; the American silver hake or whiting is M. bilinearis. Two American species (Phycis chuss and P. tenius) are important food fishes, and are also valued for their oil and sounds. Called also squirrel hake, and codling.

Half-fish (n.) A salmon in its fifth year of growth.

Hall (n.) The apartment in which English university students dine in common; hence, the dinner itself; as, hall is at six o'clock.

Halsening (a.) Sounding harshly in the throat; inharmonious; rough.

Hamite (n.) A fossil cephalopod of the genus Hamites, related to the ammonites, but having the last whorl bent into a hooklike form.

Hammer (n.) Something which in firm or action resembles the common hammer

Hammerhead (n.) An African fruit bat (Hypsignathus monstrosus); -- so called from its large blunt nozzle.

Hand (n.) That part of the fore limb below the forearm or wrist in man and monkeys, and the corresponding part in many other animals; manus; paw. See Manus.

Hand (n.) A limb of certain animals, as the foot of a hawk, or any one of the four extremities of a monkey.

Handsel (n.) A sale, gift, or delivery into the hand of another; especially, a sale, gift, delivery, or using which is the first of a series, and regarded as on omen for the rest; a first installment; an earnest; as the first money received for the sale of goods in the morning, the first money taken at a shop newly opened, the first present sent to a young woman on her wedding day, etc.

Han't () A contraction of have not, or has not, used in illiterate speech. In the United States the commoner spelling is hain't.

Haplostemonous (a.) Having but one series of stamens, and that equal in number to the proper number of petals; isostemonous.

Hardbake (n.) A sweetmeat of boiled brown sugar or molasses made with almonds, and flavored with orange or lemon juice, etc.

Hardhack (n.) A very astringent shrub (Spiraea tomentosa), common in pastures. The Potentilla fruticosa in also called by this name.

Hardhead (n.) A California salmon; the steelhead.

Hardness (n.) The cohesion of the particles on the surface of a body, determined by its capacity to scratch another, or be itself scratched;-measured among minerals on a scale of which diamond and talc form the extremes.

Hardware (n.) Ware made of metal, as cutlery, kitchen utensils, and the like; ironmongery.

Harelip (n.) A lip, commonly the upper one, having a fissure of perpendicular division like that of a hare.

Haricot (n.) The ripe seeds, or the unripe pod, of the common string bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), used as a vegetable. Other species of the same genus furnish different kinds of haricots.

Harlot (n.) A churl; a common man; a person, male or female, of low birth.

Harlot (n.) A woman who prostitutes her body for hire; a prostitute; a common woman; a strumpet.

Harmonic (a.) Alt. of Harmonical

Harmonical (a.) Concordant; musical; consonant; as, harmonic sounds.

Harmonical (a.) Relating to harmony, -- as melodic relates to melody; harmonious; esp., relating to the accessory sounds or overtones which accompany the predominant and apparent single tone of any string or sonorous body.

Harmonical (a.) Having relations or properties bearing some resemblance to those of musical consonances; -- said of certain numbers, ratios, proportions, points, lines. motions, and the like.

Harmonic (n.) A musical note produced by a number of vibrations which is a multiple of the number producing some other; an overtone. See Harmonics.

Harmonica (n.) A musical instrument, consisting of a series of hemispherical glasses which, by touching the edges with the dampened finger, give forth the tones.

Harmonica (n.) A toy instrument of strips of glass or metal hung on two tapes, and struck with hammers.

Har monically (adv.) In an harmonical manner; harmoniously.

Har monically (adv.) In respect to harmony, as distinguished from melody; as, a passage harmonically correct.

Har monically (adv.) In harmonical progression.

Harmonicon (n.) A small, flat, wind instrument of music, in which the notes are produced by the vibration of free metallic reeds.

Harmonics (n.) The doctrine or science of musical sounds.

Harmonics (n.) Secondary and less distinct tones which accompany any principal, and apparently simple, tone, as the octave, the twelfth, the fifteenth, and the seventeenth. The name is also applied to the artificial tones produced by a string or column of air, when the impulse given to it suffices only to make a part of the string or column vibrate; overtones.

Harmonious (a.) Adapted to each other; having parts proportioned to each other; symmetrical.

Harmonious (a.) Acting together to a common end; agreeing in action or feeling; living in peace and friendship; as, an harmonious family.

Harmonious (a.) Vocally or musically concordant; agreeably consonant; symphonious.

Harmoniphon (n.) An obsolete wind instrument with a keyboard, in which the sound, which resembled the oboe, was produced by the vibration of thin metallic plates, acted upon by blowing through a tube.

Harmonist (n.) One who shows the agreement or harmony of corresponding passages of different authors, as of the four evangelists.

Harmonist (n.) One who understands the principles of harmony or is skillful in applying them in composition; a musical composer.

Harmonist (n.) Alt. of Harmonite

Harmonite (n.) One of a religious sect, founded in Wurtemburg in the last century, composed of followers of George Rapp, a weaver. They had all their property in common. In 1803, a portion of this sect settled in Pennsylvania and called the village thus established, Harmony.

Harmonium (n.) A musical instrument, resembling a small organ and especially designed for church music, in which the tones are produced by forcing air by means of a bellows so as to cause the vibration of free metallic reeds. It is now made with one or two keyboards, and has pedals and stops.

Harmonization (n.) The act of harmonizing.

Harmonized (imp. & p. p.) of Harmonize

Harmonizing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Harmonize

Harmonize (v. i.) To agree in action, adaptation, or effect on the mind; to agree in sense or purport; as, the parts of a mechanism harmonize.

Harmonize (v. i.) To be in peace and friendship, as individuals, families, or public organizations.

Harmonize (v. i.) To agree in vocal or musical effect; to form a concord; as, the tones harmonize perfectly.

Harmonize (v. t.) To adjust in fit proportions; to cause to agree; to show the agreement of; to reconcile the apparent contradiction of.

Harmonize (v. t.) To accompany with harmony; to provide with parts, as an air, or melody.

Harmonizer (n.) One who harmonizes.

Harmonometer (n.) An instrument for measuring the harmonic relations of sounds. It is often a monochord furnished with movable bridges.

Harmonies (pl. ) of Harmony

Harmony (n.) The just adaptation of parts to each other, in any system or combination of things, or in things, or things intended to form a connected whole; such an agreement between the different parts of a design or composition as to produce unity of effect; as, the harmony of the universe.

Harmony (n.) Concord or agreement in facts, opinions, manners, interests, etc.; good correspondence; peace and friendship; as, good citizens live in harmony.

Harmony (n.) A literary work which brings together or arranges systematically parallel passages of historians respecting the same events, and shows their agreement or consistency; as, a harmony of the Gospels.

Harmony (n.) A succession of chords according to the rules of progression and modulation.

Harmony (n.) The science which treats of their construction and progression.

Harmony (n.) See Harmonic suture, under Harmonic.

Harp (n.) To dwell on or recur to a subject tediously or monotonously in speaking or in writing; to refer to something repeatedly or continually; -- usually with on or upon.

Harpy (n.) A fabulous winged monster, ravenous and filthy, having the face of a woman and the body of a vulture, with long claws, and the face pale with hunger. Some writers mention two, others three.

Harsh (a.) Having violent contrasts of color, or of light and shade; lacking in harmony.

Hart-tongue (n.) A common British fern (Scolopendrium vulgare), rare in America.

Hashish (n.) A slightly acrid gum resin produced by the common hemp (Cannabis saltiva), of the variety Indica, when cultivated in a warm climate; also, the tops of the plant, from which the resinous product is obtained. It is narcotic, and has long been used in the East for its intoxicating effect. See Bhang, and Ganja.

Hatchettite (n.) Mineral t/ low; a waxy or spermaceti-like substance, commonly of a greenish yellow color.

Hautboy (n.) A wind instrument, sounded through a reed, and similar in shape to the clarinet, but with a thinner tone. Now more commonly called oboe. See Illust. of Oboe.

Hawfinch (n.) The common European grosbeak (Coccothraustes vulgaris); -- called also cherry finch, and coble.

Hazel (n.) A shrub or small tree of the genus Corylus, as the C. avellana, bearing a nut containing a kernel of a mild, farinaceous taste; the filbert. The American species are C. Americana, which produces the common hazelnut, and C. rostrata. See Filbert.

Head (n.) Each one among many; an individual; -- often used in a plural sense; as, a thousand head of cattle.

Head (n.) A headland; a promontory; as, Gay Head.

Head (n.) A separate part, or topic, of a discourse; a theme to be expanded; a subdivision; as, the heads of a sermon.

Headed (a.) Furnished with a head (commonly as denoting intellectual faculties); -- used in composition; as, clear-headed, long-headed, thick-headed; a many-headed monster.

Headland (n.) A cape; a promontory; a point of land projecting into the sea or other expanse of water.

Headshake (n.) A significant shake of the head, commonly as a signal of denial.

Healall (n.) A common herb of the Mint family (Brunela vulgaris), destitute of active properties, but anciently thought a panacea.

Hearsay (n.) Report; rumor; fame; common talk; something heard from another.

Hearse (n.) A framework of wood or metal placed over the coffin or tomb of a deceased person, and covered with a pall; also, a temporary canopy bearing wax lights and set up in a church, under which the coffin was placed during the funeral ceremonies.

Hearse (n.) A grave, coffin, tomb, or sepulchral monument.

Hearty (n.) Comrade; boon companion; good fellow; -- a term of familiar address and fellowship among sailors.

Hegemonic (a.) Alt. of Hegemonical

Hegemonical (a.) Leading; controlling; ruling; predominant.

Hegemony (n.) Leadership; preponderant influence or authority; -- usually applied to the relation of a government or state to its neighbors or confederates.

Helichrysum (n.) A genus of composite plants, with shining, commonly white or yellow, or sometimes reddish, radiated involucres, which are often called "everlasting flowers."

Heliotrope (n.) A plant of the genus Heliotropium; -- called also turnsole and girasole. H. Peruvianum is the commonly cultivated species with fragrant flowers.

Helix (n.) A nonplane curve whose tangents are all equally inclined to a given plane. The common helix is the curve formed by the thread of the ordinary screw. It is distinguished from the spiral, all the convolutions of which are in the plane.

Hellenic (n.) The dialect, formed with slight variations from the Attic, which prevailed among Greek writers after the time of Alexander.

Helm (n.) The apparatus by which a ship is steered, comprising rudder, tiller, wheel, etc.; -- commonly used of the tiller or wheel alone.

Helmet (n.) The hood-formed upper sepal or petal of some flowers, as of the monkshood or the snapdragon.

Help (v. t.) To furnish with strength or means for the successful performance of any action or the attainment of any object; to aid; to assist; as, to help a man in his work; to help one to remember; -- the following infinitive is commonly used without to; as, "Help me scale yon balcony."

Hemin (n.) A substance, in the form of reddish brown, microscopic, prismatic crystals, formed from dried blood by the action of strong acetic acid and common salt; -- called also Teichmann's crystals. Chemically, it is a hydrochloride of hematin.

Hemlock (n.) An evergreen tree common in North America (Abies, / Tsuga, Canadensis); hemlock spruce.

Henna (n.) A thorny tree or shrub of the genus Lawsonia (L. alba). The fragrant white blossoms are used by the Buddhists in religious ceremonies. The powdered leaves furnish a red coloring matter used in the East to stain the hails and fingers, the manes of horses, etc.

Henotic (a.) Harmonizing; irenic.

Henpeck (v. t.) To subject to petty authority; -- said of a wife who thus treats her husband. Commonly used in the past participle (often adjectively).

Hepatica (n.) A genus of pretty spring flowers closely related to Anemone; squirrel cup.

Hepper (n.) A young salmon; a parr.

Heptad (n.) An atom which has a valence of seven, and which can be theoretically combined with, substituted for, or replaced by, seven monad atoms or radicals; as, iodine is a heptad in iodic acid. Also used as an adjective.

Heraldry (n.) The art or office of a herald; the art, practice, or science of recording genealogies, and blazoning arms or ensigns armorial; also, of marshaling cavalcades, processions, and public ceremonies.

Herd (v. i.) To associate; to ally one's self with, or place one's self among, a group or company.

Heresy (n.) An opinion held in opposition to the established or commonly received doctrine, and tending to promote a division or party, as in politics, literature, philosophy, etc.; -- usually, but not necessarily, said in reproach.

Hermaphrodite (n.) An individual which has the attributes of both male and female, or which unites in itself the two sexes; an animal or plant having the parts of generation of both sexes, as when a flower contains both the stamens and pistil within the same calyx, or on the same receptacle. In some cases reproduction may take place without the union of the distinct individuals. In the animal kingdom true hermaphrodites are found only among the invertebrates. See Illust. in Appendix, under Helminths.

Hern (n.) A heron; esp., the common European heron.

Hernia (n.) A protrusion, consisting of an organ or part which has escaped from its natural cavity, and projects through some natural or accidental opening in the walls of the latter; as, hernia of the brain, of the lung, or of the bowels. Hernia of the abdominal viscera in most common. Called also rupture.

Hero (n.) An illustrious man, supposed to be exalted, after death, to a place among the gods; a demigod, as Hercules.

Herodian (n.) One of a party among the Jews, composed of partisans of Herod of Galilee. They joined with the Pharisees against Christ.

Heron (n.) Any wading bird of the genus Ardea and allied genera, of the family Ardeidae. The herons have a long, sharp bill, and long legs and toes, with the claw of the middle toe toothed. The common European heron (Ardea cinerea) is remarkable for its directly ascending flight, and was formerly hunted with the larger falcons.

Herring (n.) One of various species of fishes of the genus Clupea, and allied genera, esp. the common round or English herring (C. harengus) of the North Atlantic. Herrings move in vast schools, coming in spring to the shores of Europe and America, where they are salted and smoked in great quantities.

Herse (n.) A funeral ceremonial.

Hesperidium (n.) A large berry with a thick rind, as a lemon or an orange.

Hetarism (n.) A supposed primitive state of society, in which all the women of a tribe were held in common.

Heteroclite (n.) Any thing or person deviating from the common rule, or from common forms.

Heteronym (n.) That which is heteronymous; a thing having a different name or designation from some other thing; -- opposed to homonym.

Heulandite (n.) A mineral of the Zeolite family, often occurring in amygdaloid, in foliated masses, and also in monoclinic crystals with pearly luster on the cleavage face. It is a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime.

Hexad (n.) An atom whose valence is six, and which can be theoretically combined with, substituted for, or replaced by, six monad atoms or radicals; as, sulphur is a hexad in sulphuric acid. Also used as an adjective.

Hide (n.) A measure of land, common in Domesday Book and old English charters, the quantity of which is not well ascertained, but has been differently estimated at 80, 100, and 120 acres.

Hideous (a.) Frightful, shocking, or offensive to the eyes; dreadful to behold; as, a hideous monster; hideous looks.

Hieromnemon (n.) The sacred secretary or recorder sent by each state belonging to the Amphictyonic Council, along with the deputy or minister.

Hieromnemon (n.) A magistrate who had charge of religious matters, as at Byzantium.

Highbinder (n.) A ruffian; one who hounds, or spies upon, another; app. esp. to the members of certain alleged societies among the Chinese.

Hig-taper (n.) A plant of the genus Verbascum (V. Thapsus); the common mullein. [Also high-taper and hag-taper.]

Hilary term () Formerly, one of the four terms of the courts of common law in England, beginning on the eleventh of January and ending on the thirty-first of the same month, in each year; -- so called from the festival of St. Hilary, January 13th.

Hill (n.) A natural elevation of land, or a mass of earth rising above the common level of the surrounding land; an eminence less than a mountain.

Hind (n.) A spotted food fish of the genus Epinephelus, as E. apua of Bermuda, and E. Drummond-hayi of Florida; -- called also coney, John Paw, spotted hind.

Hippocampus (n.) A fabulous monster, with the head and fore quarters of a horse joined to the tail of a dolphin or other fish (Hippocampus brevirostris), -- seen in Pompeian paintings, attached to the chariot of Neptune.

Hippodame (n.) A fabulous sea monster.

Hippopotamus (n.) A large, amphibious, herbivorous mammal (Hippopotamus amphibius), common in the rivers of Africa. It is allied to the hogs, and has a very thick, naked skin, a thick and square head, a very large muzzle, small eyes and ears, thick and heavy body, and short legs. It is supposed to be the behemoth of the Bible. Called also zeekoe, and river horse. A smaller species (H. Liberiencis) inhabits Western Africa.

Hire (n.) To procure (any chattel or estate) from another person, for temporary use, for a compensation or equivalent; to purchase the use or enjoyment of for a limited time; as, to hire a farm for a year; to hire money.

Hirudo (n.) A genus of leeches, including the common medicinal leech. See Leech.

Hit (n.) A game won at backgammon after the adversary has removed some of his men. It counts less than a gammon.

Hoard (n.) A store, stock, or quantity of anything accumulated or laid up; a hidden supply; a treasure; as, a hoard of provisions; a hoard of money.

Hoard (v. i.) To lay up a store or hoard, as of money.

Hobbism (n.) The philosophical system of Thomas Hobbes, an English materialist (1588-1679); esp., his political theory that the most perfect form of civil government is an absolute monarchy with despotic control over everything relating to law, morals, and religion.

Hogweed (n.) A common weed (Ambrosia artemisiaege). See Ambrosia, 3.

Holm (n.) A common evergreen oak, of Europe (Quercus Ilex); -- called also ilex, and holly.

Holocaust (n.) A burnt sacrifice; an offering, the whole of which was consumed by fire, among the Jews and some pagan nations.

Holocephali (n. pl.) An order of elasmobranch fishes, including, among living species, only the chimaeras; -- called also Holocephala. See Chimaera; also Illustration in Appendix.

Holour (n.) A whoremonger.

Holy (superl.) Set apart to the service or worship of God; hallowed; sacred; reserved from profane or common use; holy vessels; a holy priesthood.

Homarus (n.) A genus of decapod Crustacea, including the common lobsters.

Homiletics (n.) The art of preaching; that branch of theology which treats of homilies or sermons, and the best method of preparing and delivering them.

Homily (n.) A discourse or sermon read or pronounced to an audience; a serious discourse.

Homo- () A combining form from Gr. "omo`s, one and the same, common, joint.

Homogenetic (a.) Homogenous; -- applied to that class of homologies which arise from similarity of structure, and which are taken as evidences of common ancestry.

Homogenous (a.) Having a resemblance in structure, due to descent from a common progenitor with subsequent modification; homogenetic; -- applied both to animals and plants. See Homoplastic.

Homogeny (n.) The correspondence of common descent; -- a term used to supersede homology by Lankester, who also used homoplasy to denote any superinduced correspondence of position and structure in parts embryonically distinct (other writers using the term homoplasmy). Thus, there is homogeny between the fore limb of a mammal and the wing of a bird; but the right and left ventricles of the heart in both are only in homoplasy with each other, these having arisen independently since the divergence of both groups from a univentricular ancestor.

Homonomous (a.) Of or pertaining to homonomy.

Homonomy (n.) The homology of parts arranged on transverse axes.

Homonym (n.) A word having the same sound as another, but differing from it in meaning; as the noun bear and the verb bear.

Homonymous (a.) Having the same name or designation; standing in the same relation; -- opposed to heteronymous.

Homonymous (a.) Having the same name or designation, but different meaning or relation; hence, equivocal; ambiguous.

Homonymously (adv.) In an homonymous manner; so as to have the same name or relation.

Homonymously (adv.) Equivocally; ambiguously.

Homonymy (n.) Sameness of name or designation; identity in relations.

Homonymy (n.) Sameness of name or designation of things or persons which are different; ambiguity.

Homophonous (a.) Originally, sounding alike; of the same pitch; unisonous; monodic.

Homophonous (a.) Now used for plain harmony, note against note, as opposed to polyphonic harmony, in which the several parts move independently, each with its own melody.

Homophony (n.) Plain harmony, as opposed to polyphony. See Homophonous.

Homophyly (n.) That form of homology due to common ancestry (phylogenetic homology), in opposition to homomorphy, to which genealogic basis is wanting.

Homoplasmy (n.) Resemblance between different plants or animals, in external shape, in general habit, or in organs, which is not due to descent from a common ancestor, but to similar surrounding circumstances.

Honesty (a.) Satin flower; the name of two cruciferous herbs having large flat pods, the round shining partitions of which are more beautiful than the blossom; -- called also lunary and moonwort. Lunaria biennis is common honesty; L. rediva is perennial honesty.

Honeybee (n.) Any bee of the genus Apis, which lives in communities and collects honey, esp. the common domesticated hive bee (Apis mellifica), the Italian bee (A. ligustica), and the Arabiab bee (A. fasciata). The two latter are by many entomologists considered only varieties of the common hive bee. Each swarm of bees consists of a large number of workers (barren females), with, ordinarily, one queen or fertile female, but in the swarming season several young queens, and a number of males or drones, are produced.

Honeymoon (n.) The first month after marriage.

Hong (n.) A mercantile establishment or factory for foreign trade in China, as formerly at Canton; a succession of offices connected by a common passage and used for business or storage.

Honor (n.) A token of esteem paid to worth; a mark of respect; a ceremonial sign of consideration; as, he wore an honor on his breast; military honors; civil honors.

Honorable (a.) Performed or accompanied with marks of honor, or with testimonies of esteem; an honorable burial.

Hood (n.) A part of a monk's outer garment, with which he covers his head; a cowl.

Hood (n.) The hood-shaped upper petal of some flowers, as of monkshood; -- called also helmet.

Hoonoomaun (n.) An Indian monkey. See Entellus.

Hornbeam (n.) A tree of the genus Carpinus (C. Americana), having a smooth gray bark and a ridged trunk, the wood being white and very hard. It is common along the banks of streams in the United States, and is also called ironwood. The English hornbeam is C. Betulus. The American is called also blue beech and water beech.

Hornblende (n.) The common black, or dark green or brown, variety of amphibole. (See Amphibole.) It belongs to the aluminous division of the species, and is also characterized by its containing considerable iron. Also used as a general term to include the whole species.

Hornito (n.) A low, oven-shaped mound, common in volcanic regions, and emitting smoke and vapors from its sides and summit.

Horse-chestnut (n.) The tree itself, which was brought from Constantinople in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and is now common in the temperate zones of both hemispheres. The native American species are called buckeyes.

Horseweed (n.) A composite plant (Erigeron Canadensis), which is a common weed.

Hospice (n.) A convent or monastery which is also a place of refuge or entertainment for travelers on some difficult road or pass, as in the Alps; as, the Hospice of the Great St. Bernard.

Hostile (n.) An enemy; esp., an American Indian in arms against the whites; -- commonly in the plural.

Hotchpotch (n.) A blending of property for equality of division, as when lands given in frank-marriage to one daughter were, after the death of the ancestor, blended with the lands descending to her and to her sisters from the same ancestor, and then divided in equal portions among all the daughters. In modern usage, a mixing together, or throwing into a common mass or stock, of the estate left by a person deceased and the amounts advanced to any particular child or children, for the purpose of a more equal division, or of equalizing the shares of all the children; the property advanced being accounted for at its value when given.

House (n.) One of the estates of a kingdom or other government assembled in parliament or legislature; a body of men united in a legislative capacity; as, the House of Lords; the House of Commons; the House of Representatives; also, a quorum of such a body. See Congress, and Parliament.

Howler (n.) Any South American monkey of the genus Mycetes. Many species are known. They are arboreal in their habits, and are noted for the loud, discordant howling in which they indulge at night.

Huchen (n.) A large salmon (Salmo, / Salvelinus, hucho) inhabiting the Danube; -- called also huso, and bull trout.

Huckleberry (n.) The edible black or dark blue fruit of several species of the American genus Gaylussacia, shrubs nearly related to the blueberries (Vaccinium), and formerly confused with them. The commonest huckelberry comes from G. resinosa.

Hugger-mugger (n.) Privacy; secrecy. Commonly in the phrase in hugger-mugger, with haste and secrecy.

Hum (v. i.) To make a nasal sound, like that of the letter m prolonged, without opening the mouth, or articulating; to mumble in monotonous undertone; to drone.

Hum (n.) A low monotonous noise, as of bees in flight, of a swiftly revolving top, of a wheel, or the like; a drone; a buzz.

Humdrum (a.) Monotonous; dull; commonplace.

Humpback (n.) Any whale of the genus Megaptera, characterized by a hump or bunch on the back. Several species are known. The most common ones in the North Atlantic are Megaptera longimana of Europe, and M. osphyia of America; that of the California coasts is M. versabilis.

Humpback (n.) A small salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), of the northwest coast of America.

Huron-Iroquous (n.) A linguistic group of warlike North American Indians, belonging to the same stock as the Algonquins, and including several tribes, among which were the Five Nations. They formerly occupied the region about Lakes Erie and Ontario, and the larger part of New York.

Huso (n.) The huchen, a large salmon.

Hyacinth (n.) A bulbous plant of the genus Hyacinthus, bearing beautiful spikes of fragrant flowers. H. orientalis is a common variety.

Hydra (n.) A serpent or monster in the lake or marsh of Lerna, in the Peloponnesus, represented as having many heads, one of which, when cut off, was immediately succeeded by two others, unless the wound was cauterized. It was slain by Hercules. Hence, a terrible monster.

Hydramide (n.) One of a group of crystalline bodies produced by the action of ammonia on certain aldehydes.

Hydramine (n.) One of a series of artificial, organic bases, usually produced as thick viscous liquids by the action of ammonia on ethylene oxide. They have the properties both of alcohol and amines.

Hydrangea (n.) A genus of shrubby plants bearing opposite leaves and large heads of showy flowers, white, or of various colors. H. hortensis, the common garden species, is a native of China or Japan.

Hydrate (n.) A substance which does not contain water as such, but has its constituents (hydrogen, oxygen, hydroxyl) so arranged that water may be eliminated; hence, a derivative of, or compound with, hydroxyl; hydroxide; as, ethyl hydrate, or common alcohol; calcium hydrate, or slaked lime.

Hydrobranchiata (n. pl.) An extensive artificial division of gastropod mollusks, including those that breathe by gills, as contrasted with the Pulmonifera.

Hydrogen (n.) A gaseous element, colorless, tasteless, and odorless, the lightest known substance, being fourteen and a half times lighter than air (hence its use in filling balloons), and over eleven thousand times lighter than water. It is very abundant, being an ingredient of water and of many other substances, especially those of animal or vegetable origin. It may by produced in many ways, but is chiefly obtained by the action of acids (as sulphuric) on metals, as zinc, iron, etc. It is very inflammable, and is an ingredient of coal gas and water gas. It is standard of chemical equivalents or combining weights, and also of valence, being the typical monad. Symbol H. Atomic weight 1.

Hydroxylamine (n.) A nitrogenous, organic base, NH2.OH, resembling ammonia, and produced by a modified reduction of nitric acid. It is usually obtained as a volatile, unstable solution in water. It acts as a strong reducing agent.

Hymenoptera (n. pl.) An extensive order of insects, including the bees, ants, ichneumons, sawflies, etc.

Hyparterial (a.) Situated below an artery; applied esp. to the branches of the bronchi given off below the point where the pulmonary artery crosses the bronchus.

Hypermetrical (a.) Having a redundant syllable; exceeding the common measure.

Hypothecation (n.) A contract whereby, in consideration of money advanced for the necessities of the ship, the vessel, freight, or cargo is made liable for its repayment, provided the ship arrives in safety. It is usually effected by a bottomry bond. See Bottomry.

Hypothecator (n.) One who hypothecates or pledges anything as security for the repayment of money borrowed.

Iceland moss () A kind of lichen (Cetraria Icelandica) found from the Arctic regions to the North Temperate zone. It furnishes a nutritious jelly and other forms of food, and is used in pulmonary complaints as a demulcent.

Iceman (n.) A man who is skilled in traveling upon ice, as among glaciers.

Ichneumon (n.) Any carnivorous mammal of the genus Herpestes, and family Viverridae. Numerous species are found in Asia and Africa. The Egyptian species(H. ichneumon), which ranges to Spain and Palestine, is noted for destroying the eggs and young of the crocodile as well as various snakes and lizards, and hence was considered sacred by the ancient Egyptians. The common species of India (H. griseus), known as the mongoose, has similar habits and is often domesticated. It is noted for killing the cobra.

Ichneumon (n.) Any hymenopterous insect of the family Ichneumonidae, of which several thousand species are known, belonging to numerous genera.

Ichneumonidan (a.) Of or pertaining to the Ichneumonidae, or ichneumon flies.

Ichneumonidan (n.) One of the Ichneumonidae.

Ichneumonides (n. pl.) The ichneumon flies.

Ichthulin (n.) A substance from the yolk of salmon's egg.

Ides (n. pl.) The fifteenth day of March, May, July, and October, and the thirteenth day of the other months.

Idiot (n.) A human being destitute of the ordinary intellectual powers, whether congenital, developmental, or accidental; commonly, a person without understanding from birth; a natural fool; a natural; an innocent.

Idiotical (a.) Common; simple.

Ignoble (a.) Of low birth or family; not noble; not illustrious; plebeian; common; humble.

Il- () A form of the prefix in-, not, and in-, among. See In-.

Ilex (n.) A genus of evergreen trees and shrubs, including the common holly.

Illiberally (adv.) In a illiberal manner, ungenerously; uncharitably; parsimoniously.

Illuminati (v. t.) Persons in the early church who had received baptism; in which ceremony a lighted taper was given them, as a symbol of the spiritual illumination they has received by that sacrament.

Imaum (n.) Among the Mohammedans, a minister or priest who performs the regular service of the mosque.

Imburse (v. t.) To supply or stock with money.

Imesatin (n.) A dark yellow, crystalline substance, obtained by the action of ammonia on isatin.

Imide (n.) A compound with, or derivative of, the imido group; specif., a compound of one or more acid radicals with the imido group, or with a monamine; hence, also, a derivative of ammonia, in which two atoms of hydrogen have been replaced by divalent basic or acid radicals; -- frequently used as a combining form; as, succinimide.

Immane (a.) Very great; huge; vast; also, monstrous in character; inhuman; atrocious; fierce.

Immense (a.) Immeasurable; unlimited. In commonest use: Very great; vast; huge.

Immusical (a.) Inharmonious; unmusical; discordant.

Imp (n.) A young or inferior devil; a little, malignant spirit; a puny demon; a contemptible evil worker.

Impark (v. t.) To inclose for a park; to sever from a common; hence, to inclose or shut up.

Impasto (n.) The thickness of the layer or body of pigment applied by the painter to his canvas with especial reference to the juxtaposition of different colors and tints in forming a harmonious whole.

Impatiens (n.) A genus of plants, several species of which have very beautiful flowers; -- so called because the elastic capsules burst when touched, and scatter the seeds with considerable force. Called also touch-me-not, jewelweed, and snapweed. I. Balsamina (sometimes called lady's slipper) is the common garden balsam.

Impecunious (a.) Not having money; habitually without money; poor.

Imperishable (a.) Not perishable; not subject to decay; indestructible; enduring permanently; as, an imperishable monument; imperishable renown.

Impeyan pheasant () An Indian crested pheasant of the genus Lophophorus. Several species are known. Called also monaul, monal.

Implacental (a.) Without a placenta, as marsupials and monotremes.

Implacentalia (n. pl.) A primary division of the Mammalia, including the monotremes and marsupials, in which no placenta is formed.

Impress (n.) To take by force for public service; as, to impress sailors or money.

Imprest (v. t.) A kind of earnest money; loan; -- specifically, money advanced for some public service, as in enlistment.

Improper (a.) Not peculiar or appropriate to individuals; general; common.

Improperia (n. pl.) A series of antiphons and responses, expressing the sorrowful remonstrance of our Lord with his people; -- sung on the morning of the Good Friday in place of the usual daily Mass of the Roman ritual.

Impure (a.) Not purified according to the ceremonial law of Moses; unclean.

Impurity (n.) Want of ceremonial purity; defilement.

In- (prep.) A prefix from Eng. prep. in, also from Lat. prep. in, meaning in, into, on, among; as, inbred, inborn, inroad; incline, inject, intrude. In words from the Latin, in- regularly becomes il- before l, ir- before r, and im- before a labial; as, illusion, irruption, imblue, immigrate, impart. In- is sometimes used with an simple intensive force.

In (prep.) The specific signification of in is situation or place with respect to surrounding, environment, encompassment, etc. It is used with verbs signifying being, resting, or moving within limits, or within circumstances or conditions of any kind conceived of as limiting, confining, or investing, either wholly or in part. In its different applications, it approaches some of the meanings of, and sometimes is interchangeable with, within, into, on, at, of, and among.

Inadmissible (a.) Not admissible; not proper to be admitted, allowed, or received; as, inadmissible testimony; an inadmissible proposition, or explanation.

Inaugurate (v. t.) To introduce or induct into an office with suitable ceremonies or solemnities; to invest with power or authority in a formal manner; to install; as, to inaugurate a president; to inaugurate a king.

Inaugurate (v. t.) To cause to begin, esp. with formality or solemn ceremony; hence, to set in motion, action, or progress; to initiate; -- used especially of something of dignity or worth or public concern; as, to inaugurate a new era of things, new methods, etc.

Inauguration (n.) The act of inuagurating, or inducting into office with solemnity; investiture by appropriate ceremonies.

Inca (n.) An emperor or monarch of Peru before, or at the time of, the Spanish conquest; any member of this royal dynasty, reputed to have been descendants of the sun.

Incantation (n.) The act or process of using formulas sung or spoken, with occult ceremonies, for the purpose of raising spirits, producing enchantment, or affecting other magical results; enchantment.

Incentive (n.) That which moves or influences the mind, or operates on the passions; that which incites, or has a tendency to incite, to determination or action; that which prompts to good or ill; motive; spur; as, the love of money, and the desire of promotion, are two powerful incentives to action.

Inch (n.) A measure of length, the twelfth part of a foot, commonly subdivided into halves, quarters, eights, sixteenths, etc., as among mechanics. It was also formerly divided into twelve parts, called lines, and originally into three parts, called barleycorns, its length supposed to have been determined from three grains of barley placed end to end lengthwise. It is also sometimes called a prime ('), composed of twelve seconds (''), as in the duodecimal system of arithmetic.

Inclemency (n.) Physical severity or harshness (commonly in respect to the elements or weather); roughness; storminess; rigor; severe cold, wind, rain, or snow.

Inclose (v. t.) To separate from common grounds by a fence; as, to inclose lands.

Incloser (n.) One who, or that which, incloses; one who fences off land from common grounds.

Inclosure (n.) The act of inclosing; the state of being inclosed, shut up, or encompassed; the separation of land from common ground by a fence.

Incoercible (a.) Not capable of being reduced to the form of a liquid by pressure; -- said of any gas above its critical point; -- also particularly of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide, formerly regarded as incapable of liquefaction at any temperature or pressure.

Income (n.) That gain which proceeds from labor, business, property, or capital of any kind, as the produce of a farm, the rent of houses, the proceeds of professional business, the profits of commerce or of occupation, or the interest of money or stock in funds, etc.; revenue; receipts; salary; especially, the annual receipts of a private person, or a corporation, from property; as, a large income.

Incommensurable (a.) Not commensurable; having no common measure or standard of comparison; as, quantities are incommensurable when no third quantity can be found that is an aliquot part of both; the side and diagonal of a square are incommensurable with each other; the diameter and circumference of a circle are incommensurable.

Incommensurable (n.) One of two or more quantities which have no common measure.

Incommensurate (a.) Not commensurate; not admitting of a common measure; incommensurable.

Incompatible (a.) Not compatible; so differing as to be incapable of harmonious combination or coexistence; inconsistent in thought or being; irreconcilably disagreeing; as, persons of incompatible tempers; incompatible colors, desires, ambition.

Incongruity (n.) Disagreement of parts; want of symmetry or of harmony.

Incongruous (a.) Not congruous; reciprocally disagreeing; not capable of harmonizing or readily assimilating; inharmonious; inappropriate; unsuitable; not fitting; inconsistent; improper; as, an incongruous remark; incongruous behavior, action, dress, etc.

Inconsonancy (n.) Want of consonance or harmony of sound, action, or thought; disagreement.

Incoordination (n.) Want of coordination; lack of harmonious adjustment or action.

Incorrectly (adv.) Not correctly; inaccurately; not exactly; as, a writing incorrectly copied; testimony incorrectly stated.

Incubus (n.) A demon; a fiend; a lascivious spirit, supposed to have sexual intercourse with women by night.

Inculcate (v. t.) To teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions; to urge on the mind; as, Christ inculcates on his followers humility.

Indemonstrability (n.) The quality of being indemonstrable.

Indemonstrable (a.) Incapable of being demonstrated.

Indentation (n.) The act of beginning a line or series of lines at a little distance within the flush line of the column or page, as in the common way of beginning the first line of a paragraph.

Indicavit (n.) A writ of prohibition against proceeding in the spiritual court in certain cases, when the suit belongs to the common-law courts.

Indirect (a.) Not reaching the end aimed at by the most plain and direct method; as, an indirect proof, demonstration, etc.

Indistinctive (a.) Having nothing distinctive; common.

Induct (v. t.) To introduce, as to a benefice or office; to put in actual possession of the temporal rights of an ecclesiastical living, or of any other office, with the customary forms and ceremonies.

Induction (n.) The introduction of a clergyman into a benefice, or of an official into a office, with appropriate acts or ceremonies; the giving actual possession of an ecclesiastical living or its temporalities.

Induction (n.) A process of demonstration in which a general truth is gathered from an examination of particular cases, one of which is known to be true, the examination being so conducted that each case is made to depend on the preceding one; -- called also successive induction.

Industrious (a.) Given to industry; characterized by diligence; constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied; busy; assiduous; not slothful or idle; -- commonly implying devotion to lawful and useful labor.

Infamous (a.) Branded with infamy by conviction of a crime; as, at common law, an infamous person can not be a witness.

Infamy (n.) That loss of character, or public disgrace, which a convict incurs, and by which he is at common law rendered incompetent as a witness.

Infield (n.) The diamond; -- opposed to outfield. See Diamond, n., 5.

Infirmarian (n.) A person dwelling in, or having charge of, an infirmary, esp. in a monastic institution.

Inflationist (n.) One who favors an increased or very large issue of paper money.

Inflection (n.) A departure from the monotone, or reciting note, in chanting.

Informal (a.) Not in the regular, usual, or established form; not according to official, conventional, prescribed, or customary forms or rules; irregular; hence, without ceremony; as, an informal writting, proceeding, or visit.

Infrequency (n.) The state of rarely occuring; uncommonness; rareness; as, the infrquence of his visits.

Infrequent (a.) Seldom happening or occurring; rare; uncommon; unusual.

Infula (n.) A sort of fillet worn by dignitaries, priests, and others among the ancient Romans. It was generally white.

Inharmonic (a.) Alt. of Inharmonical

Inharmonical (a.) Not harmonic; inharmonious; discordant; dissonant.

Inharmonious (a.) Not harmonious; unmusical; discordant; dissonant.

Inharmonious (a.) Conflicting; jarring; not in harmony.

Inharmoniously (adv.) Without harmony.

Inharmoniousness (n.) The quality of being inharmonious; want of harmony; discord.

Inharmony (n.) Want of harmony.

Initiate (v. t.) To introduce into a society or organization; to confer membership on; especially, to admit to a secret order with mysterious rites or ceremonies.

Initiation (n.) The form or ceremony by which a person is introduced into any society; mode of entrance into an organized body; especially, the rite of admission into a secret society or order.

Initiatory (a.) Tending or serving to initiate; introducing by instruction, or by the use and application of symbols or ceremonies; elementary; rudimentary.

Ink (n.) A fluid, or a viscous material or preparation of various kinds (commonly black or colored), used in writing or printing.

Inofficial (a.) Not official; not having official sanction or authoriy; not according to the forms or ceremony of official business; as, inofficial intelligence.

Inofficious (a.) Regardless of natural obligation; contrary to natural duty; unkind; -- commonly said of a testament made without regard to natural obligation, or by which a child is unjustly deprived of inheritance.

Inscription (n.) That which is inscribed; something written or engraved; especially, a word or words written or engraved on a solid substance for preservation or public inspection; as, inscriptions on monuments, pillars, coins, medals, etc.

Insectivora (n. pl.) A division of the Cheiroptera, including the common or insect-eating bats.

Insessor (n.) One of the Insessores. The group includes most of the common singing birds.

Insist (v. i.) To take a stand and refuse to give way; to hold to something firmly or determinedly; to be persistent, urgent, or pressing; to persist in demanding; -- followed by on, upon, or that; as, he insisted on these conditions; he insisted on going at once; he insists that he must have money.

Install (v. t.) To place in an office, rank, or order; to invest with any charge by the usual ceremonies; to instate; to induct; as, to install an ordained minister as pastor of a church; to install a college president.

Installation (n.) The act of installing or giving possession of an office, rank, or order, with the usual rites or ceremonies; as, the installation of an ordained minister in a parish.

Installment (n.) A portion of a debt, or sum of money, which is divided into portions that are made payable at different times. Payment by installment is payment by parts at different times, the amounts and times being often definitely stipulated.

Instant (a.) A day of the present or current month; as, the sixth instant; -- an elliptical expression equivalent to the sixth of the month instant, i. e., the current month. See Instant, a., 3.

Institution (n.) The act or ceremony of investing a clergyman with the spiritual part of a benefice, by which the care of souls is committed to his charge.

Inter- () A prefix signifying among, between, amid; as, interact, interarticular, intermit.

Intercalary (a.) Inserted or introduced among others in the calendar; as, an intercalary month, day, etc.; -- now applied particularly to the odd day (Feb. 29) inserted in the calendar of leap year. See Bissextile, n.

Intercalary (n.) Introduced or inserted among others; additional; supernumerary.

Intercalate (v. t.) To insert among others, as a verse in a stanza; specif. (Geol.), to introduce as a bed or stratum, between the layers of a regular series of rocks.

Intercalation (n.) The insertion or introduction of anything among others, as the insertion of a phrase, line, or verse in a metrical composition; specif. (Geol.), the intrusion of a bed or layer between other layers.

Intercolonial (a.) Between or among colonies; pertaining to the intercourse or mutual relations of colonies; as, intercolonial trade.

Intercommoned (imp. & p. p.) of Intercommon

Intercommoning (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Intercommon

Intercommon (v. t.) To share with others; to participate; especially, to eat at the same table.

Intercommon (v. t.) To graze cattle promiscuously in the commons of each other, as the inhabitants of adjoining townships, manors, etc.

Intercommonage (n.) The right or privilege of intercommoning.

Intercontinental (a.) Between or among continents; subsisting or carried on between continents; as, intercontinental relations or commerce.

Intercourse (n.) A commingling; intimate connection or dealings between persons or nations, as in common affairs and civilities, in correspondence or trade; communication; commerce; especially, interchange of thought and feeling; association; communion.

Intercurrent (a.) Running between or among; intervening.

Interdash (v. t.) To dash between or among; to intersperse.

Interest (n.) Premium paid for the use of money, -- usually reckoned as a percentage; as, interest at five per cent per annum on ten thousand dollars.

Interfluous (a.) Flowing between or among; intervening.

Interfuse (v. t.) To pour or spread between or among; to diffuse; to scatter.

Interim (n.) A name given to each of three compromises made by the emperor Charles V. of Germany for the sake of harmonizing the connecting opinions of Protestants and Catholics.

Interjacency (n.) The state of being between; a coming or lying between or among; intervention; also, that which lies between.

Interjacent (a.) Lying or being between or among; intervening; as, interjacent isles.

Interject (v. i.) To throw one's self between or among; to come between; to interpose.

Interlard (v. t.) To place lard or bacon amongst; to mix, as fat meat with lean.

Interlay (v. t.) To lay or place among or between.

Interment (v. t.) The act or ceremony of depositing a dead body in the earth; burial; sepulture; inhumation.

Intermention (v. t.) To mention among other things, or casually or incidentally.

Intermicate (v. i.) To flash or shine between or among.

Intermication (n.) A shining between or among.

Intermobility (n.) Capacity of things to move among each other; as, the intermobility of fluid particles.

Intermontane (a.) Between mountains; as, intermontane soil.

International (a.) Between or among nations; pertaining to the intercourse of nations; participated in by two or more nations; common to, or affecting, two or more nations.

Interpale (v. t.) To place pales between or among; to separate by pales.

Interpellation (n.) A official summons or citation.

Interpenetrative (a.) Penetrating among or between other substances; penetrating each the other; mutually penetrative.

Interplace (v. t.) To place between or among; as, to interplace a name.

Interrupt (v. t.) To divide; to separate; to break the monotony of; as, the evenness of the road was not interrupted by a single hill.

Interrupted (a.) Irregular; -- said of any arrangement whose symmetry is destroyed by local causes, as when leaflets are interposed among the leaves in a pinnate leaf.

Interseminate (v. t.) To sow between or among.

Interset (v. t.) To set between or among.

Intersidereal (a.) Between or among constellations or stars; interstellar.

Intersperse (v. t.) To scatter or set here and there among other things; to insert at intervals; as, to intersperse pictures in a book.

Intersperse (v. t.) To diversify or adorn with things set or scattered at intervals; to place something at intervals in or among; as, to intersperse a book with pictures.

Interstellar (a.) Between or among the stars; as, interstellar space.

Interstratification (n.) Stratification among or between other layers or strata; also, that which is interstratified.

Interstratified (a.) Stratified among or between other bodies; as, interstratified rocks.

Intrust (v. t.) To deliver (something) to another in trust; to deliver to (another) something in trust; to commit or surrender (something) to another with a certain confidence regarding his care, use, or disposal of it; as, to intrust a servant with one's money or intrust money or goods to a servant.

Intussusception (n.) The interposition of new particles of formative material among those already existing, as in a cell wall, or in a starch grain.

Invent (v. t.) To discover, as by study or inquiry; to find out; to devise; to contrive or produce for the first time; -- applied commonly to the discovery of some serviceable mode, instrument, or machine.

Invention (n.) The exercise of the imagination in selecting and treating a theme, or more commonly in contriving the arrangement of a piece, or the method of presenting its parts.

Invert (v. t.) To change the position of; -- said of tones which form a chord, or parts which compose harmony.

Invest (v. t.) To lay out (money or capital) in business with the /iew of obtaining an income or profit; as, to invest money in bank stock.

Investiture (n.) The act or ceremony of investing, or the of being invested, as with an office; a giving possession; also, the right of so investing.

Investment (n.) The laying out of money in the purchase of some species of property; the amount of money invested, or that in which money is invested.

Invite (v. t.) To ask; to request; to bid; to summon; to ask to do some act, or go to some place; esp., to ask to an entertainment or visit; to request the company of; as, to invite to dinner, or a wedding, or an excursion.

Invocation (n.) A call or summons; especially, a judicial call, demand, or order; as, the invocation of papers or evidence into court.

Invoke (v. t.) To call on for aid or protection; to invite earnestly or solemnly; to summon; to address in prayer; to solicit or demand by invocation; to implore; as, to invoke the Supreme Being, or to invoke His and blessing.

Involucre (n.) A continuous marginal covering of sporangia, in certain ferns, as in the common brake, or the cup-shaped processes of the filmy ferns.

Inwrought (p. p. / a.) Wrought or worked in or among other things; worked into any fabric so as to from a part of its texture; wrought or adorned, as with figures.

Ioqua shell () The shell of a large Dentalium (D. pretiosum), formerly used as shell money, and for ornaments, by the Indians of the west coast of North America.

Iotacism (n.) The frequent use of the sound of iota (that of English e in be), as among the modern Greeks; also, confusion from sounding /, /, /, /, //, etc., like /.

Ipecacuanha (n.) The root of a Brazilian rubiaceous herb (Cephaelis Ipecacuanha), largely employed as an emetic; also, the plant itself; also, a medicinal extract of the root. Many other plants are used as a substitutes; among them are the black or Peruvian ipecac (Psychotria emetica), the white ipecac (Ionidium Ipecacuanha), the bastard or wild ipecac (Asclepias Curassavica), and the undulated ipecac (Richardsonia scabra).

Ipomoea (n.) A genus of twining plants with showy monopetalous flowers, including the morning-glory, the sweet potato, and the cypress vine.

Irenics (n.) That branch of Christian science which treats of the methods of securing unity among Christians or harmony and union among the churches; -- called also Irenical theology.

Irish (n. sing. & pl.) An old game resembling backgammon.

Iron (n.) The most common and most useful metallic element, being of almost universal occurrence, usually in the form of an oxide (as hematite, magnetite, etc.), or a hydrous oxide (as limonite, turgite, etc.). It is reduced on an enormous scale in three principal forms; viz., cast iron, steel, and wrought iron. Iron usually appears dark brown, from oxidation or impurity, but when pure, or on a fresh surface, is a gray or white metal. It is easily oxidized (rusted) by moisture, and is attacked by many corrosive agents. Symbol Fe (Latin Ferrum). Atomic weight 55.9. Specific gravity, pure iron, 7.86; cast iron, 7.1. In magnetic properties, it is superior to all other substances.

Ironmonger (n.) A dealer in iron or hardware.

Ironmongery (n.) Hardware; a general name for all articles made of iron.

Irregular (a.) Not regular; not conforming to a law, method, or usage recognized as the general rule; not according to common form; not conformable to nature, to the rules of moral rectitude, or to established principles; not normal; unnatural; immethodical; unsymmetrical; erratic; no straight; not uniform; as, an irregular line; an irregular figure; an irregular verse; an irregular physician; an irregular proceeding; irregular motion; irregular conduct, etc. Cf. Regular.

Irrelavant (a.) Not relevant; not applicable or pertinent; not bearing upon or serving to support; foreign; extraneous; as, testimony or arguments irrelevant to a case.

Irvingite (n.) The common designation of one a sect founded by the Rev. Edward Irving (about 1830), who call themselves the Catholic Apostolic Church. They are highly ritualistic in worship, have an elaborate hierarchy of apostles, prophets, etc., and look for the speedy coming of Christ.

Isabella moth () A common American moth (Pyrrharctia isabella), of an isabella color. The larva, called woolly bear and hedgehog caterpillar, is densely covered with hairs, which are black at each end of the body, and red in the middle part.

Isocryme (n.) A line connecting points on the earth's surface having the same mean temperature in the coldest month of the year.

Isometrical (a.) Noting, or conforming to, that system of crystallization in which the three axes are of equal length and at right angles to each other; monometric; regular; cubic. Cf. Crystallization.

Isospondyli (n. pl.) An extensive order of fishes, including the salmons, herrings, and many allied forms.

Isostemonous (a.) Having exactly as many stamens as petals.

Isostemony (n.) The quality or state of being isostemonous.

Issue (n.) The act of sending out, or causing to go forth; delivery; issuance; as, the issue of an order from a commanding officer; the issue of money from a treasury.

Issue (n.) Progeny; a child or children; offspring. In law, sometimes, in a general sense, all persons descended from a common ancestor; all lineal descendants.

It (pron.) As a demonstrative, especially at the beginning of a sentence, pointing to that which is about to be stated, named, or mentioned, or referring to that which apparent or well known; as, I saw it was John.

Itacolumite (n.) A laminated, granular, siliceous rocks, often occurring in regions where the diamond is found.

Ivy (n.) A plant of the genus Hedera (H. helix), common in Europe. Its leaves are evergreen, dark, smooth, shining, and mostly five-pointed; the flowers yellowish and small; the berries black or yellow. The stem clings to walls and trees by rootlike fibers.

Jacchus (n.) The common marmoset (Hapale vulgaris). Formerly, the name was also applied to other species of the same genus.

Jack (n.) A large tree, the Artocarpus integrifolia, common in the East Indies, closely allied to the breadfruit, from which it differs in having its leaves entire. The fruit is of great size, weighing from thirty to forty pounds, and through its soft fibrous matter are scattered the seeds, which are roasted and eaten. The wood is of a yellow color, fine grain, and rather heavy, and is much used in cabinetwork. It is also used for dyeing a brilliant yellow.

Jack (n.) A mechanical contrivance, an auxiliary machine, or a subordinate part of a machine, rendering convenient service, and often supplying the place of a boy or attendant who was commonly called Jack

Jackanapes (n.) A monkey; an ape.

Jacqueminot (n.) A half-hardy, deep crimson rose of the remontant class; -- so named after General Jacqueminot, of France.

Jade (n.) A stone, commonly of a pale to dark green color but sometimes whitish. It is very hard and compact, capable of fine polish, and is used for ornamental purposes and for implements, esp. in Eastern countries and among many early peoples.

Jainism (n.) The heterodox Hindoo religion, of which the most striking features are the exaltation of saints or holy mortals, called jins, above the ordinary Hindoo gods, and the denial of the divine origin and infallibility of the Vedas. It is intermediate between Brahmanism and Buddhism, having some things in common with each.

Jako (n.) An African parrot (Psittacus erithacus), very commonly kept as a cage bird; -- called also gray parrot.

Jalapin (n.) A glucoside found in the stems of the jalap plant and scammony. It is a strong purgative.

Jamesonite (n.) A steel-gray mineral, of metallic luster, commonly fibrous massive. It is a sulphide of antimony and lead, with a little iron.

James's powder () Antimonial powder, first prepared by Dr. James, ar English physician; -- called also fever powder.

Jamestown weed () The poisonous thorn apple or stramonium (Datura stramonium), a rank weed early noticed at Jamestown, Virginia. See Datura.

Jangle (v. t.) To cause to sound harshly or inharmoniously; to produce discordant sounds with.

January (n.) The first month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

Jasmine (n.) A shrubby plant of the genus Jasminum, bearing flowers of a peculiarly fragrant odor. The J. officinale, common in the south of Europe, bears white flowers. The Arabian jasmine is J. Sambac, and, with J. angustifolia, comes from the East Indies. The yellow false jasmine in the Gelseminum sempervirens (see Gelsemium). Several other plants are called jasmine in the West Indies, as species of Calotropis and Faramea.

Jerboa (n.) Any small jumping rodent of the genus Dipus, esp. D. Aegyptius, which is common in Egypt and the adjacent countries. The jerboas have very long hind legs and a long tail.

Jibe (v. t.) To agree; to harmonize.

Jinnee (n.) A genius or demon; one of the fabled genii, good and evil spirits, supposed to be the children of fire, and to have the power of assuming various forms.

Jog (v. i.) To move by jogs or small shocks, like those of a slow trot; to move slowly, leisurely, or monotonously; -- usually with on, sometimes with over.

Join (n.) The line joining two points; the point common to two intersecting lines.

Joint (a.) United, joined, or sharing with another or with others; not solitary in interest or action; holding in common with an associate, or with associates; acting together; as, joint heir; joint creditor; joint debtor, etc.

Joint (a.) Shared by, or affecting two or more; held in common; as, joint property; a joint bond.

Joke (n.) Something said for the sake of exciting a laugh; something witty or sportive (commonly indicating more of hilarity or humor than jest); a jest; a witticism; as, to crack good-natured jokes.

Journeyman (n.) Formerly, a man hired to work by the day; now, commonly, one who has mastered a handicraft or trade; -- distinguished from apprentice and from master workman.

Jovinianist (n.) An adherent to the doctrines of Jovinian, a monk of the fourth century, who denied the virginity of Mary, and opposed the asceticism of his time.

Jubilee (n.) A church solemnity or ceremony celebrated at Rome, at stated intervals, originally of one hundred years, but latterly of twenty-five; a plenary and extraordinary indulgence grated by the sovereign pontiff to the universal church. One invariable condition of granting this indulgence is the confession of sins and receiving of the eucharist.

Judaism (n.) Conformity to the Jewish rites and ceremonies.

Jugum (n.) One of the ridges commonly found on the fruit of umbelliferous plants.

July (n.) The seventh month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

Juncaceous (a.) Of. pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of plants (Juncaceae), of which the common rush (Juncus) is the type.

June (n.) The sixth month of the year, containing thirty days.

Kahau (n.) A long-nosed monkey (Semnopithecus nasalis), native of Borneo. The general color of the body is bright chestnut, with the under parts, shoulders, and sides of the head, golden yellow, and the top of the head and upper part of the back brown. Called also proboscis monkey.

Kakaralli (n.) A kind of wood common in Demerara, durable in salt water, because not subject to the depredations of the sea worm and barnacle.

Kalasie (n.) A long-tailed monkey of Borneo (Semnopithecus rubicundus). It has a tuft of long hair on the head.

Kaoline (n.) A very pure white clay, ordinarily in the form of an impalpable powder, and used to form the paste of porcelain; China clay; porcelain clay. It is chiefly derived from the decomposition of common feldspar.

Katydid (n.) A large, green, arboreal, orthopterous insect (Cyrtophyllus concavus) of the family Locustidae, common in the United States. The males have stridulating organs at the bases of the front wings. During the summer and autumn, in the evening, the males make a peculiar, loud, shrill sound, resembling the combination Katy-did, whence the name.

Kayko (n.) The dog salmon.

Keen (superl.) Bitter; piercing; acrimonious; cutting; stinging; severe; as, keen satire or sarcasm.

Keeping (n.) Conformity; congruity; harmony; consistency; as, these subjects are in keeping with each other.

Keeping (n.) Harmony or correspondence between the different parts of a work of art; as, the foreground of this painting is not in keeping.

Kelpfish (n.) A small California food fish (Heterostichus rostratus), living among kelp. The name is also applied to species of the genus Platyglossus.

Kelt (n.) A salmon after spawning.

Kerana (n.) A kind of long trumpet, used among the Persians.

Keynote (n.) The fundamental fact or idea; that which gives the key; as, the keynote of a policy or a sermon.

Khan (n.) A king; a prince; a chief; a governor; -- so called among the Tartars, Turks, and Persians, and in countries now or formerly governed by them.

Kin (n.) Relationship, consanguinity, or affinity; connection by birth or marriage; kindred; near connection or alliance, as of those having common descent.

Kind (superl.) Having feelings befitting our common nature; congenial; sympathetic; as, a kind man; a kind heart.

King (n.) A chief ruler; a sovereign; one invested with supreme authority over a nation, country, or tribe, usually by hereditary succession; a monarch; a prince.

King (n.) One who, or that which, holds a supreme position or rank; a chief among competitors; as, a railroad king; a money king; the king of the lobby; the king of beasts.

King (n.) A playing card having the picture of a king; as, the king of diamonds.

Kingcup (n.) The common buttercup.

Kingdom (n.) The rank, quality, state, or attributes of a king; royal authority; sovereign power; rule; dominion; monarchy.

Kingdom (n.) The territory or country subject to a king or queen; the dominion of a monarch; the sphere in which one is king or has control.

Kingfish (n.) The common cero; also, the spotted cero. See Cero.

Kingly (superl.) Belonging to, suitable to, or becoming, a king; characteristic of, resembling, a king; directed or administered by a king; monarchical; royal; sovereign; regal; august; noble; grand.

King-post (n.) A member of a common form of truss, as a roof truss. It is strictly a tie, intended to prevent the sagging of the tiebeam in the middle. If there are struts, supporting the main rafters, they often bear upon the foot of the king-post. Called also crown-post.

King's Bench () Formerly, the highest court of common law in England; -- so called because the king used to sit there in person. It consisted of a chief justice and four puisne, or junior, justices. During the reign of a queen it was called the Queen's Bench. Its jurisdiction was transferred by the judicature acts of 1873 and 1875 to the high court of justice created by that legislation.

Kipper (n.) A salmon after spawning.

Kipper (n.) A salmon split open, salted, and dried or smoked; -- so called because salmon after spawning were usually so cured, not being good when fresh.

Kistvaen (n.) A Celtic monument, commonly known as a dolmen.

Kite (n.) Fictitious commercial paper used for raising money or to sustain credit, as a check which represents no deposit in bank, or a bill of exchange not sanctioned by sale of goods; an accommodation check or bill.

Kite (v. i.) To raise money by "kites;" as, kiting transactions. See Kite, 6.

Kiteflying (n.) A mode of raising money, or sustaining one's credit, by the use of paper which is merely nominal; -- called also kiting.

Knawel (n.) A low, spreading weed (Scleranthus annuus), common in sandy soil.

Knell (v. t.) To summon, as by a knell.

Knight (n.) In feudal times, a man-at-arms serving on horseback and admitted to a certain military rank with special ceremonies, including an oath to protect the distressed, maintain the right, and live a stainless life.

Knoll (v. t.) To ring, as a bell; to strike a knell upon; to toll; to proclaim, or summon, by ringing.

Knotgrass (n.) a common weed with jointed stems (Polygonum aviculare); knotweed.

Kobellite (n.) A blackish gray mineral, a sulphide of antimony, bismuth, and lead.

Kohnur (n.) A famous diamond, surrendered to the British crown on the annexation of the Punjab. According to Hindoo legends, it was found in a Golconda mine, and has been the property of various Hindoo and Persian rulers.

Kraken (n.) A fabulous Scandinavian sea monster, often represented as resembling an island, but sometimes as resembling an immense octopus.

Krumhorn (a.) A reed stop in the organ; -- sometimes called cremona.

Kurd (n.) A native or inhabitant of a mountainous region of Western Asia belonging to the Turkish and Persian monarchies.

La (n.) The tone A; -- so called among the French and Italians.

La (interj.) An exclamation of surprise; -- commonly followed by me; as, La me!

Labadist (n.) A follower of Jean de Labadie, a religious teacher of the 17th century, who left the Roman Catholic Church and taught a kind of mysticism, and the obligation of community of property among Christians.

Labarum (n.) The standard adopted by the Emperor Constantine after his conversion to Christianity. It is described as a pike bearing a silk banner hanging from a crosspiece, and surmounted by a golden crown. It bore a monogram of the first two letters (CHR) of the name of Christ in its Greek form. Later, the name was given to various modifications of this standard.

Lablab (n.) an East Indian name for several twining leguminous plants related to the bean, but commonly applied to the hyacinth bean (Dolichos Lablab).

Labradorite (n.) A kind of feldspar commonly showing a beautiful play of colors, and hence much used for ornamental purposes. The finest specimens come from Labrador. See Feldspar.

Lacedaemonian (a.) Of or pertaining to Lacedaemon or Sparta, the chief city of Laconia in the Peloponnesus.

Lacedaemonian (n.) A Spartan.

Lacinia (n.) A narrow, slender portion of the edge of a monophyllous calyx, or of any irregularly incised leaf.

Lacrosse (n.) A game of ball, originating among the North American Indians, now the popular field sport of Canada, and played also in England and the United States. Each player carries a long-handled racket, called a "crosse". The ball is not handled but caught with the crosse and carried on it, or tossed from it, the object being to carry it or throw it through one of the goals placed at opposite ends of the field.

Lactucarium (n.) The inspissated juice of the common lettuce, sometimes used as a substitute for opium.

Lacuna (n.) A small opening; a small depression or cavity; a space, as a vacant space between the cells of plants, or one of the spaces left among the tissues of the lower animals, which serve in place of vessels for the circulation of the body fluids, or the cavity or sac, usually of very small size, in a mucous membrane.

Ladybird (n.) Any one of numerous species of small beetles of the genus Coccinella and allied genera (family Coccinellidae); -- called also ladybug, ladyclock, lady cow, lady fly, and lady beetle. Coccinella seplempunctata in one of the common European species. See Coccinella.

Lady's bedstraw () The common bedstraw (Galium verum); also, a slender-leaved East Indian shrub (Pharnaceum Mollugo), with white flowers in umbels.

Lady's seal () The European Solomon's seal (Polygonatum verticillatum).

Lady's slipper () Any orchidaceous plant of the genus Cypripedium, the labellum of which resembles a slipper. Less commonly, in the United States, the garden balsam (Impatiens Balsamina).

Lager beer () Originally a German beer, but now also made in immense quantities in the United States; -- so called from its being laid up or stored for some months before use.

Lama (n.) In Thibet, Mongolia, etc., a priest or monk of the belief called Lamaism.

Lamasery (n.) A monastery or convent of lamas, in Thibet, Mongolia, etc.

Lamia (n.) A monster capable of assuming a woman's form, who was said to devour human beings or suck their blood; a vampire; a sorceress; a witch.

Laminaria (n.) A genus of great seaweeds with long and broad fronds; kelp, or devil's apron. The fronds commonly grow in clusters, and are sometimes from thirty to fifty feet in length. See Illust. of Kelp.

Lacasterian (a.) Of or pertaining to the monitorial system of instruction followed by Joseph Lancaster, of England, in which advanced pupils in a school teach pupils below them.

Lancet (n.) A surgical instrument of various forms, commonly sharp-pointed and two-edged, used in venesection, and in opening abscesses, etc.

Landlocked (a.) Confined to a fresh-water lake by reason of waterfalls or dams; -- said of fishes that would naturally seek the sea, after spawning; as, the landlocked salmon.

Landlubber (n.) One who passes his life on land; -- so called among seamen in contempt or ridicule.

Lane (n.) A passageway between fences or hedges which is not traveled as a highroad; an alley between buildings; a narrow way among trees, rocks, and other natural obstructions; hence, in a general sense, a narrow passageway; as, a lane between lines of men, or through a field of ice.

Lant (n.) Any one of several species of small, slender, marine fishes of the genus Ammedytes. The common European species (A. tobianus) and the American species (A. Americanus) live on sandy shores, buried in the sand, and are caught in large quantities for bait. Called also launce, and sand eel.

Lapidary (a.) Of or pertaining to the art of cutting stones, or engraving on stones, either gems or monuments; as, lapidary ornamentation.

Lapidary (a.) Of or pertaining to monumental inscriptions; as, lapidary adulation.

Larkspur (n.) A genus of ranunculaceous plants (Delphinium), having showy flowers, and a spurred calyx. They are natives of the North Temperate zone. The commonest larkspur of the gardens is D. Consolida. The flower of the bee larkspur (D. elatum) has two petals bearded with yellow hairs, and looks not unlike a bee.

Lathe (n.) Formerly, a part or division of a county among the Anglo-Saxons. At present it consists of four or five hundreds, and is confined to the county of Kent.

Latitat (n.) A writ based upon the presumption that the person summoned was hiding.

Latter-day saint () A Mormon; -- the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints being the name assumed by the whole body of Mormons.

Laumontite (n.) A mineral, of a white color and vitreous luster. It is a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime. Exposed to the air, it loses water, becomes opaque, and crumbles.

Lauraceous (a.) Belonging to, or resembling, a natural order (Lauraceae) of trees and shrubs having aromatic bark and foliage, and including the laurel, sassafras, cinnamon tree, true camphor tree, etc.

Laurus (n.) A genus of trees including, according to modern authors, only the true laurel (Laurus nobilis), and the larger L. Canariensis of Madeira and the Canary Islands. Formerly the sassafras, the camphor tree, the cinnamon tree, and several other aromatic trees and shrubs, were also referred to the genus Laurus.

Lavender (n.) An aromatic plant of the genus Lavandula (L. vera), common in the south of Europe. It yields and oil used in medicine and perfumery. The Spike lavender (L. Spica) yields a coarser oil (oil of spike), used in the arts.

Laver (n.) One of several vessels in Solomon's Temple in which the offerings for burnt sacrifices were washed.

Lavish (a.) Expending or bestowing profusely; profuse; prodigal; as, lavish of money; lavish of praise.

Lavish (v. t.) To expend or bestow with profusion; to use with prodigality; to squander; as, to lavish money or praise.

Lawmonger (n.) A trader in law; one who practices law as if it were a trade.

Lay (n.) The laity; the common people.

Lazulite (n.) A mineral of a light indigo-blue color, occurring in small masses, or in monoclinic crystals; blue spar. It is a hydrous phosphate of alumina and magnesia.

Lead (v. t.) To go or to be in advance of; to precede; hence, to be foremost or chief among; as, the big sloop led the fleet of yachts; the Guards led the attack; Demosthenes leads the orators of all ages.

League (v. t.) To join in a league; to cause to combine for a joint purpose; to combine; to unite; as, common interests will league heterogeneous elements.

Leapfrog (n.) A play among boys, in which one stoops down and another leaps over him by placing his hands on the shoulders of the former.

Leap year () Bissextile; a year containing 366 days; every fourth year which leaps over a day more than a common year, giving to February twenty-nine days. See Bissextile.

Leatherback (n.) A large sea turtle (Sphargis coriacea), having no bony shell on its back. It is common in the warm and temperate parts of the Atlantic, and sometimes weighs over a thousand pounds; -- called also leather turtle, leathery turtle, leather-backed tortoise, etc.

Leatherwood (n.) A small branching shrub (Dirca palustris), with a white, soft wood, and a tough, leathery bark, common in damp woods in the Northern United States; -- called also moosewood, and wicopy.

Lebban (n.) Coagulated sour milk diluted with water; -- a common beverage among the Arabs. Also, a fermented liquor made of the same.

Lecanomancy (n.) divination practiced with water in a basin, by throwing three stones into it, and invoking the demon whose aid was sought.

Lecture (n.) A discourse on any subject; especially, a formal or methodical discourse, intended for instruction; sometimes, a familiar discourse, in contrast with a sermon.

Lecythis (n.) A genus of gigantic trees, chiefly Brazilian, of the order Myrtaceae, having woody capsules opening by an apical lid. Lecythis Zabucajo yields the delicious sapucaia nuts. L. Ollaria produces the monkey-pots, its capsules. Its bark separates into thin sheets, like paper, used by the natives for cigarette wrappers.

Leek (n.) A plant of the genus Allium (A. Porrum), having broadly linear succulent leaves rising from a loose oblong cylindrical bulb. The flavor is stronger than that of the common onion.

Legacy (n.) A gift of property by will, esp. of money or personal property; a bequest. Also Fig.; as, a legacy of dishonor or disease.

Legitimist (n.) One who supports legitimate authority; esp., one who believes in hereditary monarchy, as a divine right.

Lemma (n.) A preliminary or auxiliary proposition demonstrated or accepted for immediate use in the demonstration of some other proposition, as in mathematics or logic.

Lemon (n.) An oval or roundish fruit resembling the orange, and containing a pulp usually intensely acid. It is produced by a tropical tree of the genus Citrus, the common fruit known in commerce being that of the species C. Limonum or C. Medica (var. Limonum). There are many varieties of the fruit, some of which are sweet.

Lemon (n.) The tree which bears lemons; the lemon tree.

Lemonade (n.) A beverage consisting of lemon juice mixed with water and sweetened.

Lemur (n.) One of a family (Lemuridae) of nocturnal mammals allied to the monkeys, but of small size, and having a sharp and foxlike muzzle, and large eyes. They feed upon birds, insects, and fruit, and are mostly natives of Madagascar and the neighboring islands, one genus (Galago) occurring in Africa. The slow lemur or kukang of the East Indies is Nycticebus tardigradus. See Galago, Indris, and Colugo.

Lend (v. t.) To allow the possession and use of, on condition of the return of an equivalent in kind; as, to lend money or some article of food.

Length (a.) The quality or state of being long, in space or time; extent; duration; as, some sea birds are remarkable for the length of their wings; he was tired by the length of the sermon, and the length of his walk.

Lenitive (a.) Having the quality of softening or mitigating, as pain or acrimony; assuasive; emollient.

Lens (n.) A piece of glass, or other transparent substance, ground with two opposite regular surfaces, either both curved, or one curved and the other plane, and commonly used, either singly or combined, in optical instruments, for changing the direction of rays of light, and thus magnifying objects, or otherwise modifying vision. In practice, the curved surfaces are usually spherical, though rarely cylindrical, or of some other figure.

Lenticel (n.) One of the small, oval, rounded spots upon the stem or branch of a plant, from which the underlying tissues may protrude or roots may issue, either in the air, or more commonly when the stem or branch is covered with water or earth.

Lentil (n.) A leguminous plant of the genus Ervum (Ervum Lens), of small size, common in the fields in Europe. Also, its seed, which is used for food on the continent.

Leopard's bane () A name of several harmless plants, as Arnica montana, Senecio Doronicum, and Paris quadrifolia.

Lepisma (n.) A genus of wingless thysanurous insects having an elongated flattened body, covered with shining scales and terminated by seven unequal bristles. A common species (Lepisma saccharina) is found in houses, and often injures books and furniture. Called also shiner, silver witch, silver moth, and furniture bug.

Let (n.) A retarding; hindrance; obstacle; impediment; delay; -- common in the phrase without let or hindrance, but elsewhere archaic.

Lettuce (n.) A composite plant of the genus Lactuca (L. sativa), the leaves of which are used as salad. Plants of this genus yield a milky juice, from which lactucarium is obtained. The commonest wild lettuce of the United States is L. Canadensis.

Levari facias () A writ of execution at common law.

Level (v. t.) Figuratively, to bring to a common level or plane, in respect of rank, condition, character, privilege, etc.; as, to level all the ranks and conditions of men.

Leviticus (n.) The third canonical book of the Old Testament, containing the laws and regulations relating to the priests and Levites among the Hebrews, or the body of the ceremonial law.

Levy (v. t.) To gather or exact; as, to levy money.

Libel (n.) A malicious publication expressed either in print or in writing, or by pictures, effigies, or other signs, tending to expose another to public hatred, contempt, or ridicule. Such publication is indictable at common law.

Liberal (a.) Not bound by orthodox tenets or established forms in political or religious philosophy; independent in opinion; not conservative; friendly to great freedom in the constitution or administration of government; having tendency toward democratic or republican, as distinguished from monarchical or aristocratic, forms; as, liberal thinkers; liberal Christians; the Liberal party.

Libethenite (n.) A mineral of an olive-green color, commonly in orthorhombic crystals. It is a hydrous phosphate of copper.

Lickpenny (n.) A devourer or absorber of money.

Lift (v. t.) To collect, as moneys due; to raise.

Lightly (adv.) Commonly; usually.

Lightning (n.) A discharge of atmospheric electricity, accompanied by a vivid flash of light, commonly from one cloud to another, sometimes from a cloud to the earth. The sound produced by the electricity in passing rapidly through the atmosphere constitutes thunder.

Lilac (n.) A shrub of the genus Syringa. There are six species, natives of Europe and Asia. Syringa vulgaris, the common lilac, and S. Persica, the Persian lilac, are frequently cultivated for the fragrance and beauty of their purplish or white flowers. In the British colonies various other shrubs have this name.

Limacina (n.) A genus of small spiral pteropods, common in the Arctic and Antarctic seas. It contributes to the food of the right whales.

Limax (n.) A genus of airbreathing mollusks, including the common garden slugs. They have a small rudimentary shell. The breathing pore is on the right side of the neck. Several species are troublesome in gardens. See Slug.

Limb (n.) The border or upper spreading part of a monopetalous corolla, or of a petal, or sepal; blade.

Lime (n.) A fruit allied to the lemon, but much smaller; also, the tree which bears it. There are two kinds; Citrus Medica, var. acida which is intensely sour, and the sweet lime (C. Medica, var. Limetta) which is only slightly sour.

Limit (v. t.) To apply a limit to, or set a limit for; to terminate, circumscribe, or restrict, by a limit or limits; as, to limit the acreage of a crop; to limit the issue of paper money; to limit one's ambitions or aspirations; to limit the meaning of a word.

Limmer (n.) A mongrel, as a cross between the mastiff and hound.

Limniad (n.) See Limoniad.

Limoniad (n.) A nymph of the meadows; -- called also Limniad.

Limonin (n.) A bitter, white, crystalline substance found in orange and lemon seeds.

Limonite (n.) Hydrous sesquioxide of iron, an important ore of iron, occurring in stalactitic, mammillary, or earthy forms, of a dark brown color, and yellowish brown powder. It includes bog iron. Also called brown hematite.

Limpet (n.) Any species of Siphonaria, a genus of limpet-shaped Pulmonifera, living between tides, on rocks.

Limuloidea (n. pl.) An order of Merostomata, including among living animals the genus Limulus, with various allied fossil genera, mostly of the Carboniferous period. Called also Xiphosura.

Linarite (n.) A hydrous sulphate of lead and copper occurring in bright blue monoclinic crystals.

Linden (n.) A handsome tree (Tilia Europaea), having cymes of light yellow flowers, and large cordate leaves. The tree is common in Europe.

Line (v. t.) To put something in the inside of; to fill; to supply, as a purse with money.

Lineage (n.) Descent in a line from a common progenitor; progeny; race; descending line of offspring or ascending line of parentage.

-ling () A noun suffix, commonly having a diminutive or a depreciatory force; as in duckling, gosling, hireling, fosterling, firstling, underling.

Linnet (n.) Any one of several species of fringilline birds of the genera Linota, Acanthis, and allied genera, esp. the common European species (L. cannabina), which, in full summer plumage, is chestnut brown above, with the breast more or less crimson. The feathers of its head are grayish brown, tipped with crimson. Called also gray linnet, red linnet, rose linnet, brown linnet, lintie, lintwhite, gorse thatcher, linnet finch, and greater redpoll. The American redpoll linnet (Acanthis linaria) often has the crown and throat rosy. See Redpoll, and Twite.

Linsang (n.) Any viverrine mammal of the genus Prionodon, inhabiting the East Indies and Southern Asia. The common East Indian linsang (P. gracilis) is white, crossed by broad, black bands. The Guinea linsang (Porana Richardsonii) is brown with black spots.

Lionize (v. t.) To show the lions or objects of interest to; to conduct about among objects of interest.

Lion's tail () A genus of labiate plants (Leonurus); -- so called from a fancied resemblance of its flower spikes to the tuft of a lion's tail. L. Cardiaca is the common motherwort.

Liquid (a.) Being in such a state that the component parts move freely among themselves, but do not tend to separate from each other as the particles of gases and vapors do; neither solid nor aeriform; as, liquid mercury, in distinction from mercury solidified or in a state of vapor.

Lisp (v. i.) To pronounce the sibilant letter s imperfectly; to give s and z the sound of th; -- a defect common among children.

Listen (v. i.) To give heed; to yield to advice; to follow admonition; to obey.

Litharge (n.) Lead monoxide; a yellowish red substance, obtained as an amorphous powder, or crystallized in fine scales, by heating lead moderately in a current of air or by calcining lead nitrate or carbonate. It is used in making flint glass, in glazing earthenware, in making red lead minium, etc. Called also massicot.

Lithofellic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, a crystalline, organic acid, resembling cholic acid, found in the biliary intestinal concretions (bezoar stones) common in certain species of antelope.

Littorina (n.) A genus of small pectinibranch mollusks, having thick spiral shells, abundant between tides on nearly all rocky seacoasts. They feed on seaweeds. The common periwinkle is a well-known example. See Periwinkle.

Lituite (n.) Any species of ammonites of the genus Lituites. They are found in the Cretaceous formation.

Liverwort (n.) A ranunculaceous plant (Anemone Hepatica) with pretty white or bluish flowers and a three-lobed leaf; -- called also squirrel cups.

Livre (n.) A French money of account, afterward a silver coin equal to 20 sous. It is not now in use, having been superseded by the franc.

Loach (n.) Any one of several small, fresh-water, cyprinoid fishes of the genera Cobitis, Nemachilus, and allied genera, having six or more barbules around the mouth. They are found in Europe and Asia. The common European species (N. barbatulus) is used as a food fish.

Load (v.) A particular measure for certain articles, being as much as may be carried at one time by the conveyance commonly used for the article measured; as, a load of wood; a load of hay; specifically, five quarters.

Loan (n.) The act of lending; a lending; permission to use; as, the loan of a book, money, services.

Loan (n.) That which one lends or borrows, esp. a sum of money lent at interest; as, he repaid the loan.

Loanmonger (n.) A dealer in, or negotiator of, loans.

Loblolly (n.) Gruel; porridge; -- so called among seamen.

Lock (v. t.) To fasten in or out, or to make secure by means of, or as with, locks; to confine, or to shut in or out -- often with up; as, to lock one's self in a room; to lock up the prisoners; to lock up one's silver; to lock intruders out of the house; to lock money into a vault; to lock a child in one's arms; to lock a secret in one's breast.

Locutory (n.) A room for conversation; especially, a room in monasteries, where the monks were allowed to converse.

Loggerhead (n.) A very large marine turtle (Thalassochelys caretta, / caouana), common in the warmer parts of the Atlantic Ocean, from Brazil to Cape Cod; -- called also logger-headed turtle.

Loligo (n.) A genus of cephalopods, including numerous species of squids, common on the coasts of America and Europe. They are much used for fish bait.

Lombard (n.) A money lender or banker; -- so called because the business of banking was first carried on in London by Lombards.

Lombar-house (n.) A public institution for lending money to the poor at a moderate interest, upon articles deposited and pledged; -- called also mont de piete.

Lomonite (n.) Same as Laumontite.

Longhand (n.) The written characters used in the common method of writing; -- opposed to shorthand.

Loon (n.) Any one of several aquatic, wed-footed, northern birds of the genus Urinator (formerly Colymbus), noted for their expertness in diving and swimming under water. The common loon, or great northern diver (Urinator imber, or Colymbus torquatus), and the red-throated loon or diver (U. septentrionalis), are the best known species. See Diver.

Loricate (n.) An animal covered with bony scales, as crocodiles among reptiles, and the pangolins among mammals.

Lory (n.) Any one of many species of small parrots of the family Trichoglossidae, generally having the tongue papillose at the tip, and the mandibles straighter and less toothed than in common parrots. They are found in the East Indies, Australia, New Guinea, and the adjacent islands. They feed mostly on soft fruits and on the honey of flowers.

Lose (v. t.) To part with unintentionally or unwillingly, as by accident, misfortune, negligence, penalty, forfeit, etc.; to be deprived of; as, to lose money from one's purse or pocket, or in business or gaming; to lose an arm or a leg by amputation; to lose men in battle.

Loss (v. t.) The act of losing; failure; destruction; privation; as, the loss of property; loss of money by gaming; loss of health or reputation.

Lot (n.) A large quantity or number; a great deal; as, to spend a lot of money; lots of people think so.

Lotong (n.) An East Indian monkey (Semnopithecus femoralis).

Lotus (n.) A name of several kinds of water lilies; as Nelumbium speciosum, used in religious ceremonies, anciently in Egypt, and to this day in Asia; Nelumbium luteum, the American lotus; and Nymphaea Lotus and N. caerulea, the respectively white-flowered and blue-flowered lotus of modern Egypt, which, with Nelumbium speciosum, are figured on its ancient monuments.

Loutou (n.) A crested black monkey (Semnopithecus maurus) of Java.

Lovemonger (n.) One who deals in affairs of love.

Lozenge (n.) A diamond-shaped figure usually with the upper and lower angles slightly acute, borne upon a shield or escutcheon. Cf. Fusil.

Lucrative (a.) Yielding lucre; gainful; profitable; making increase of money or goods; as, a lucrative business or office.

Lucre (n.) Gain in money or goods; profit; riches; -- often in an ill sense.

Ludlamite (n.) A mineral occurring in small, green, transparent, monoclinic crystals. It is a hydrous phosphate of iron.

Lumbricus (n.) A genus of annelids, belonging to the Oligochaeta, and including the common earthworms. See Earthworm.

Lunar (a.) Measured by the revolutions of the moon; as, a lunar month.

Lung (n.) An organ for aerial respiration; -- commonly in the plural.

Lungoor (n.) A long-tailed monkey (Semnopithecus schislaceus), from the mountainous districts of India.

Lungwort (n.) An herb of the genus Pulmonaria (P. officinalis), of Europe; -- so called because the spotted appearance of the leaves resembles that of a diseased lung.

Lungwort (n.) Any plant of the genus Mertensia (esp. M. Virginica and M. Sibirica) plants nearly related to Pulmonaria. The American lungwort is Mertensia Virginica, Virginia cowslip.

Lunistice (n.) The farthest point of the moon's northing and southing, in its monthly revolution.

Lupine (n.) A leguminous plant of the genus Lupinus, especially L. albus, the seeds of which have been used for food from ancient times. The common species of the Eastern United States is L. perennis. There are many species in California.

Lurcher (n.) One of a mongrel breed of dogs said to have been a cross between the sheep dog, greyhound, and spaniel. It hunts game silently, by scent, and is often used by poachers.

Lustration (n.) A sacrifice, or ceremony, by which cities, fields, armies, or people, defiled by crimes, pestilence, or other cause of uncleanness, were purified.

Lychnis (n.) A genus of Old World plants belonging to the Pink family (Caryophyllaceae). Most of the species have brilliantly colored flowers and cottony leaves, which may have anciently answered as wicks for lamps. The botanical name is in common use for the garden species. The corn cockle (Lychnis Githago) is a common weed in wheat fields.

Lyencephala (n. pl.) A group of Mammalia, including the marsupials and monotremes; -- so called because the corpus callosum is rudimentary.

Lyre bird () Any one of two or three species of Australian birds of the genus Menura. The male is remarkable for having the sixteen tail feathers very long and, when spread, arranged in the form of a lyre. The common lyre bird (Menura superba), inhabiting New South Wales, is about the size of a grouse. Its general color is brown, with rufous color on the throat, wings, tail coverts and tail. Called also lyre pheasant and lyre-tail.

Lyrid (n.) One of the group of shooting stars which come into the air in certain years on or about the 19th of April; -- so called because the apparent path among the stars the stars if produced back wards crosses the constellation Lyra.

Maa (n.) The common European gull (Larus canus); -- called also mar. See New, a gull.

Mabolo (n.) A kind of persimmon tree (Diospyros discolor) from the Philippine Islands, now introduced into the East and West Indies. It bears an edible fruit as large as a quince.

Macacus (n.) A genus of monkeys, found in Asia and the East Indies. They have short tails and prominent eyebrows.

Macaque (n.) Any one of several species of short-tailed monkeys of the genus Macacus; as, M. maurus, the moor macaque of the East Indies.

Macaroon (n.) A small cake, composed chiefly of the white of eggs, almonds, and sugar.

Macavahu (n.) A small Brazilian monkey (Callithrix torquatus), -- called also collared teetee.

Maccabees (n. pl.) The name given later times to the Asmonaeans, a family of Jewish patriots, who headed a religious revolt in the reign of Antiochus IV., 168-161 B. C., which led to a period of freedom for Israel.

Mace (n.) A money of account in China equal to one tenth of a tael; also, a weight of 57.98 grains.

Machine (n.) A combination of persons acting together for a common purpose, with the agencies which they use; as, the social machine.

Mackinaw () A thick blanket formerly in common use in the western part of the United States.

Macrocystis (n.) An immensely long blackish seaweed of the Pacific (Macrocystis pyrifera), having numerous almond-shaped air vessels.

Macrometer (n.) An instrument for determining the size or distance of inaccessible objects by means of two reflectors on a common sextant.

Macropus (n.) genus of marsupials including the common kangaroo.

Madwort (n.) A genus of cruciferous plants (Alyssum) with white or yellow flowers and rounded pods. A. maritimum is the commonly cultivated sweet alyssum, a fragrant white-flowered annual.

Maestricht monitor () The Mosasaurus Hofmanni. See Mosasaurus.

Magi (n. pl.) A caste of priests, philosophers, and magicians, among the ancient Persians; hence, any holy men or sages of the East.

Mahdi (n.) Among Mohammedans, the last imam or leader of the faithful. The Sunni, the largest sect of the Mohammedans, believe that he is yet to appear.

Maia (n.) A genus of spider crabs, including the common European species (Maia squinado).

Maidenhair (n.) A fern of the genus Adiantum (A. pedatum), having very slender graceful stalks. It is common in the United States, and is sometimes used in medicine. The name is also applied to other species of the same genus, as to the Venus-hair.

Mail (n.) A small piece of money; especially, an English silver half-penny of the time of Henry V.

Maintainor (n.) One who, not being interested, maintains a cause depending between others, by furnishing money, etc., to either party.

Maintenance (n.) An officious or unlawful intermeddling in a cause depending between others, by assisting either party with money or means to carry it on. See Champerty.

Make (v. t.) To gain, as the result of one's efforts; to get, as profit; to make acquisition of; to have accrue or happen to one; as, to make a large profit; to make an error; to make a loss; to make money.

Malacopterygii (n. pl.) An order of fishes in which the fin rays, except the anterior ray of the pectoral and dorsal fins, are closely jointed, and not spiny. It includes the carp, pike, salmon, shad, etc. Called also Malacopteri.

Malbrouck (n.) A West African arboreal monkey (Cercopithecus cynosurus).

Mall (n.) Formerly, among Teutonic nations, a meeting of the notables of a state for the transaction of public business, such meeting being a modification of the ancient popular assembly.

Mammon (n.) Riches; wealth; the god of riches; riches, personified.

Mammonish (a.) Actuated or prompted by a devotion to money getting or the service of Mammon.

Mammonism (n.) Devotion to the pursuit of wealth; worldliness.

Mammonist (n.) A mammonite.

Mammonite (n.) One devoted to the acquisition of wealth or the service of Mammon.

Mammonization (n.) The process of making mammonish; the state of being under the influence of mammonism.

Mammonize (v. t.) To make mammonish.

Man (n.) One, or any one, indefinitely; -- a modified survival of the Saxon use of man, or mon, as an indefinite pronoun.

Mancus (n.) An old Anglo Saxon coin both of gold and silver, and of variously estimated values. The silver mancus was equal to about one shilling of modern English money.

Mandelic (a.) Pertaining to an acid first obtained from benzoic aldehyde (oil of better almonds), as a white crystalline substance; -- called also phenyl glycolic acid.

Mandrill (n.) a large West African baboon (Cynocephalus, / Papio, mormon). The adult male has, on the sides of the nose, large, naked, grooved swellings, conspicuously striped with blue and red.

Mamgabey (n.) Any one of several African monkeys of the genus Cercocebus, as the sooty mangabey (C. fuliginosus), which is sooty black.

Manikin (n.) A model of the human body, made of papier-mache or other material, commonly in detachable pieces, for exhibiting the different parts and organs, their relative position, etc.

Manilla (n.) A ring worn upon the arm or leg as an ornament, especially among the tribes of Africa.

Manilla (n.) A piece of copper of the shape of a horseshoe, used as money by certain tribes of the west coast of Africa.

Mansion (n.) The place in the heavens occupied each day by the moon in its monthly revolution.

Mantelet (n.) A musket-proof shield of rope, wood, or metal, which is sometimes used for the protection of sappers or riflemen while attacking a fortress, or of gunners at embrasures; -- now commonly written mantlet.

Mantis (n.) Any one of numerous species of voracious orthopterous insects of the genus Mantis, and allied genera. They are remarkable for their slender grotesque forms, and for holding their stout anterior legs in a manner suggesting hands folded in prayer. The common American species is M. Carolina.

Manual (a.) A keyboard of an organ or harmonium for the fingers, as distinguished from the pedals; a clavier, or set of keys.

Manul (n.) A wild cat (Felis manul), having long, soft, light-colored fur. It is found in the mountains of Central Asia, and dwells among rocks.

Many (a.) The populace; the common people; the majority of people, or of a community.

Maple (n.) A tree of the genus Acer, including about fifty species. A. saccharinum is the rock maple, or sugar maple, from the sap of which sugar is made, in the United States, in great quantities, by evaporation; the red or swamp maple is A. rubrum; the silver maple, A. dasycarpum, having fruit wooly when young; the striped maple, A. Pennsylvanium, called also moosewood. The common maple of Europe is A. campestre, the sycamore maple is A. Pseudo-platanus, and the Norway maple is A. platanoides.

Mara (n.) A female demon who torments people in sleep by crouching on their chests or stomachs, or by causing terrifying visions.

Maravedi (n.) A small copper coin of Spain, equal to three mils American money, less than a farthing sterling. Also, an ancient Spanish gold coin.

Marc (n.) A German coin and money of account. See Mark.

Marcasite (n.) A sulphide of iron resembling pyrite or common iron pyrites in composition, but differing in form; white iron pyrites.

March (n.) The third month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

March-mad (a.) Extremely rash; foolhardy. See under March, the month.

Marchpane (n.) A kind of sweet bread or biscuit; a cake of pounded almonds and sugar.

Marimonda (n.) A spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) of Central and South America.

Mark (n.) The unit of monetary account of the German Empire, equal to 23.8 cents of United States money; the equivalent of one hundred pfennigs. Also, a silver coin of this value.

Mark (v. t.) To be a mark upon; to designate; to indicate; -- used literally and figuratively; as, this monument marks the spot where Wolfe died; his courage and energy marked him for a leader.

Marmoset (n.) Any one of numerous species of small South American monkeys of the genera Hapale and Midas, family Hapalidae. They have long soft fur, and a hairy, nonprehensile tail. They are often kept as pets. Called also squirrel monkey.

Marmot (n.) Any rodent of the genus Arctomys. The common European marmot (A. marmotta) is about the size of a rabbit, and inhabits the higher regions of the Alps and Pyrenees. The bobac is another European species. The common American species (A. monax) is the woodchuck.

Marmottes oil () A fine oil obtained from the kernel of Prunus brigantiaca. It is used instead of olive or almond oil.

Marriage (v. t.) The act of marrying, or the state of being married; legal union of a man and a woman for life, as husband and wife; wedlock; matrimony.

Marrried (a.) Being in the state of matrimony; wedded; as, a married man or woman.

Marrot (n.) The common guillemot.

Marrow (n.) The tissue which fills the cavities of most bones; the medulla. In the larger cavities it is commonly very fatty, but in the smaller cavities it is much less fatty, and red or reddish in color.

Marry (v. t.) To unite in wedlock or matrimony; to perform the ceremony of joining, as a man and a woman, for life; to constitute (a man and a woman) husband and wife according to the laws or customs of the place.

Marsh (n.) A tract of soft wet land, commonly covered partially or wholly with water; a fen; a swamp; a morass.

Marshal (n.) An officer of high rank, charged with the arrangement of ceremonies, the conduct of operations, or the like

Marten (n.) Any one of several fur-bearing carnivores of the genus Mustela, closely allied to the sable. Among the more important species are the European beech, or stone, marten (Mustela foina); the pine marten (M. martes); and the American marten, or sable (M. Americana), which some zoologists consider only a variety of the Russian sable.

Martin (n.) One of several species of swallows, usually having the tail less deeply forked than the tail of the common swallows.

Martingal (n.) A strap fastened to a horse's girth, passing between his fore legs, and fastened to the bit, or now more commonly ending in two rings, through which the reins pass. It is intended to hold down the head of the horse, and prevent him from rearing.

Mascagnite (n.) Native sulphate of ammonia, found in volcanic districts; -- so named from Mascagni, who discovered it.

Master (n.) A male person having another living being so far subject to his will, that he can, in the main, control his or its actions; -- formerly used with much more extensive application than now. (a) The employer of a servant. (b) The owner of a slave. (c) The person to whom an apprentice is articled. (d) A sovereign, prince, or feudal noble; a chief, or one exercising similar authority. (e) The head of a household. (f) The male head of a school or college. (g) A male teacher. (h) The director of a number of persons performing a ceremony or sharing a feast. (i) The owner of a docile brute, -- especially a dog or horse. (j) The controller of a familiar spirit or other supernatural being.

Master (n.) A title given by courtesy, now commonly pronounced mister, except when given to boys; -- sometimes written Mister, but usually abbreviated to Mr.

Master (n.) A person holding an office of authority among the Freemasons, esp. the presiding officer; also, a person holding a similar office in other civic societies.

Match (v.) A matrimonial union; a marriage.

Match (v.) A candidate for matrimony; one to be gained in marriage.

Match (v.) Suitable combination or bringing together; that which corresponds or harmonizes with something else; as, the carpet and curtains are a match.

Mate (n.) Hence, specifically, a husband or wife; and among the lower animals, one of a pair associated for propagation and the care of their young.

Matrimoine (n.) Matrimony.

Matrimonial (a.) Of or pertaining to marriage; derived from marriage; connubial; nuptial; hymeneal; as, matrimonial rights or duties.

Matrimonially (adv.) In a matrimonial manner.

Matrimonious (a.) Matrimonial.

Matrimony (n.) The union of man and woman as husband and wife; the nuptial state; marriage; wedlock.

Matrimony (n.) A kind of game at cards played by several persons.

Matter-of-fact (a.) Adhering to facts; not turning aside from absolute realities; not fanciful or imaginative; commonplace; dry.

Maule (n.) The common mallow.

Mausolean (a.) Pertaining to a mausoleum; monumental.

Mausoleum (n.) A magnificent tomb, or stately sepulchral monument.

Mawworm (n.) Any intestinal worm found in the stomach, esp. the common round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides), and allied species.

May (n.) The fifth month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

Mayfish (n.) A common American minnow (Fundulus majalis). See Minnow.

Mayweed (n.) A composite plant (Anthemis Cotula), having a strong odor; dog's fennel. It is a native of Europe, now common by the roadsides in the United States.

Mazame (n.) A goatlike antelope (Haplocerus montanus) which inhabits the Rocky Mountains, frequenting the highest parts; -- called also mountain goat.

Me (pers. pron.) The person speaking, regarded as an object; myself; a pronoun of the first person used as the objective and dative case of the pronoum I; as, he struck me; he gave me the money, or he gave the money to me; he got me a hat, or he got a hat for me.

Mealies (n. pl.) Maize or Indian corn; -- the common name in South Africa.

Mean (superl.) Destitute of distinction or eminence; common; low; vulgar; humble.

Measure (a.) A number which is contained in a given number a number of times without a remainder; as in the phrases, the common measure, the greatest common measure, etc., of two or more numbers.

Measurer (n.) One who measures; one whose occupation or duty is to measure commondities in market.

Mechanic (a.) Of or pertaining to a mechanic or artificer, or to the class of artisans; hence, rude; common; vulgar.

Mediocre (n.) A young monk who was excused from performing a portion of a monk's duties.

Medium (n.) A substance through which an effect is transmitted from one thing to another; as, air is the common medium of sound. Hence: The condition upon which any event or action occurs; necessary means of motion or action; that through or by which anything is accomplished, conveyed, or carried on; specifically, in animal magnetism, spiritualism, etc., a person through whom the action of another being is said to be manifested and transmitted.

Medley (n.) A mixture; a mingled and confused mass of ingredients, usually inharmonious; a jumble; a hodgepodge; -- often used contemptuously.

Meerkat (n.) A South African carnivore (Cynictis penicillata), allied to the ichneumons.

Meet (v. t.) To come together by mutual concessions; hence, to agree; to harmonize; to unite.

Meeting (n.) A congregation; a collection of people; a convention; as, a large meeting; an harmonius meeting.

Melostemonous (a.) Having fever stamens than the parts of the corolla.

Melam (n.) A white or buff-colored granular powder, C6H9N11, obtained by heating ammonium sulphocyanate.

Melchite (n.) One of a sect, chiefly in Syria and Egypt, which acknowledges the authority of the pope, but adheres to the liturgy and ceremonies of the Eastern Church.

Meleagris (n.) A genus of American gallinaceous birds, including the common and the wild turkeys.

Melliloquent (a.) Speaking sweetly or harmoniously.

Melodize (v. i.) To make melody; to compose melodies; to harmonize.

Melton (n.) A kind of stout woolen cloth with unfinished face and without raised nap. A commoner variety has a cotton warp.

Memorial (a.) Mnemonic; assisting the memory.

Memorial (n.) Anything intended to preserve the memory of a person or event; something which serves to keep something else in remembrance; a monument.

Menaccanite (n.) An iron-black or steel-gray mineral, consisting chiefly of the oxides of iron and titanium. It is commonly massive, but occurs also in rhombohedral crystals. Called also titanic iron ore, and ilmenite.

Menaion (n.) A work of twelve volumes, each containing the offices in the Greek Church for a month; also, each volume of the same.

Menhir (n.) A large stone set upright in olden times as a memorial or monument. Many, of unknown date, are found in Brittany and throughout Northern Europe.

Mennonite (n.) One of a small denomination of Christians, so called from Menno Simons of Friesland, their founder. They believe that the New Testament is the only rule of faith, that there is no original sin, that infants should not be baptized, and that Christians ought not to take oath, hold office, or render military service.

Menology (n.) A register of months.

Mensal (a.) Occurring once in a month; monthly.

Menstrual (a.) Recurring once a month; monthly; gone through in a month; as, the menstrual revolution of the moon; pertaining to monthly changes; as, the menstrual equation of the sun's place.

Menstruant (a.) Subject to monthly flowing or menses.

Menstruous (a.) Having the monthly flow or discharge; menstruating.

Menstruous (a.) Of or pertaining tj the monthly flow; catamenial.

Mentor (n.) A wise and faithful counselor or monitor.

Mentorial (a.) Containing advice or admonition.

Mercurammonium (n.) A radical regarded as derived from ammonium by the substitution of mercury for a portion of the hydrogen.

Mercurial (a.) Of or pertaining to Mercury as the god of trade; hence, money-making; crafty.

Mercury (n.) A metallic element mostly obtained by reduction from cinnabar, one of its ores. It is a heavy, opaque, glistening liquid (commonly called quicksilver), and is used in barometers, thermometers, ect. Specific gravity 13.6. Symbol Hg (Hydrargyrum). Atomic weight 199.8. Mercury has a molecule which consists of only one atom. It was named by the alchemists after the god Mercury, and designated by his symbol, /.

Meritmonger (n.) One who depends on merit for salvation.

Mess (n.) A number of persons who eat together, and for whom food is prepared in common; especially, persons in the military or naval service who eat at the same table; as, the wardroom mess.

Messidor (n.) The tenth month of the French republican calendar dating from September 22, 1792. It began June 19, and ended July 18. See VendEmiaire.

Metagenesis (n.) The change of form which one animal species undergoes in a series of successively produced individuals, extending from the one developed from the ovum to the final perfected individual. Hence, metagenesis involves the production of sexual individuals by nonsexual means, either directly or through intervening sexless generations. Opposed to monogenesis. See Alternate generation, under Generation.

Metalammonium (n.) A hypothetical radical derived from ammonium by the substitution of metallic atoms in place of hydrogen.

Metantimonate (n.) A salt of metantimonic acid.

Metantimonic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid (formerly called antimonic acid) analogous to metaphosphoric acid, and obtained as a white amorphous insoluble substance, (HSbO3).

Metantimonic (a.) Formerly, designating an acid, which is now properly called pyroantimonic acid, and analogous to pyrophosphoric acid.

Metaphosphoric (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, a monobasic acid, HPO3, analogous to nitric acid, and, by heating phosphoric acid, obtained as a crystalline substance, commonly called glacial phosphoric acid.

Metazoa (n. pl.) Those animals in which the protoplasmic mass, constituting the egg, is converted into a multitude of cells, which are metamorphosed into the tissues of the body. A central cavity is commonly developed, and the cells around it are at first arranged in two layers, -- the ectoderm and endoderm. The group comprises nearly all animals except the Protozoa.

Method (n.) Classification; a mode or system of classifying natural objects according to certain common characteristics; as, the method of Theophrastus; the method of Ray; the Linnaean method.

Metope (n.) The space between two triglyphs of the Doric frieze, which, among the ancients, was often adorned with carved work. See Illust. of Entablature.

Mew (n.) A gull, esp. the common British species (Larus canus); called also sea mew, maa, mar, mow, and cobb.

Mew (n.) The common cry of a cat.

Mezuzoth (n.) A piece of parchment bearing the Decalogue and attached to the doorpost; -- in use among orthodox Hebrews.

Miargyrite (n.) A mineral of an iron-black color, and very sectile, consisting principally of sulphur, antimony, and silver.

Mico (n.) A small South American monkey (Mico melanurus), allied to the marmoset. The name was originally applied to an albino variety.

Microcline (n.) A mineral of the feldspar group, like orthoclase or common feldspar in composition, but triclinic in form.

Midas (n.) A genus of longeared South American monkeys, including numerous species of marmosets. See Marmoset.

Midas's ear () A pulmonate mollusk (Auricula, / Ellobium, aurismidae); -- so called from resemblance to a human ear.

Midden crow () The common European crow.

Middleman (n.) A person of intermediate rank; a commoner.

Milfoil (n.) A common composite herb (Achillea Millefolium) with white flowers and finely dissected leaves; yarrow.

Milk (n.) An emulsion made by bruising seeds; as, the milk of almonds, produced by pounding almonds with sugar and water.

Milkwort (n.) A genus of plants (Polygala) of many species. The common European P. vulgaris was supposed to have the power of producing a flow of milk in nurses.

Mill (n.) A money of account of the United States, having the value of the tenth of a cent, or the thousandth of a dollar.

Mill (n.) A common name for various machines which produce a manufactured product, or change the form of a raw material by the continuous repetition of some simple action; as, a sawmill; a stamping mill, etc.

Millerite (n.) A sulphide of nickel, commonly occurring in delicate capillary crystals, also in incrustations of a bronze yellow; -- sometimes called hair pyrites.

Millet (n.) The name of several cereal and forage grasses which bear an abundance of small roundish grains. The common millets of Germany and Southern Europe are Panicum miliaceum, and Setaria Italica.

Million (n.) The mass of common people; -- with the article the.

Milreis (n.) A Portuguese money of account rated in the treasury department of the United States at one dollar and eight cents; also, a Brazilian money of account rated at fifty-four cents and six mills.

Mimicry (n.) Protective resemblance; the resemblance which certain animals and plants exhibit to other animals and plants or to the natural objects among which they live, -- a characteristic which serves as their chief means of protection against enemies; imitation; mimesis; mimetism.

Mina (n.) An ancient weight or denomination of money, of varying value. The Attic mina was valued at a hundred drachmas.

Minaret (n.) A slender, lofty tower attached to a mosque and surrounded by one or more projecting balconies, from which the summon to prayer is cried by the muezzin.

Mingle (v. t.) To mix; intermix; to combine or join, as an individual or part, with other parts, but commonly so as to be distinguishable in the product; to confuse; to confound.

Mink (n.) A carnivorous mammal of the genus Putorius, allied to the weasel. The European mink is Putorius lutreola. The common American mink (P. vison) varies from yellowish brown to black. Its fur is highly valued. Called also minx, nurik, and vison.

Minor (n.) The minor term, that is, the subject of the conclusion; also, the minor premise, that is, that premise which contains the minor term; in hypothetical syllogisms, the categorical premise. It is the second proposition of a regular syllogism, as in the following: Every act of injustice partakes of meanness; to take money from another by gaming is an act of injustice; therefore, the taking of money from another by gaming partakes of meanness.

Minotaur (n.) A fabled monster, half man and half bull, confined in the labyrinth constructed by Daedalus in Crete.

Minster (n.) A church of a monastery. The name is often retained and applied to the church after the monastery has ceased to exist (as Beverly Minster, Southwell Minster, etc.), and is also improperly used for any large church.

Mint (n.) A place where money is coined by public authority.

Mint (v. t.) To make by stamping, as money; to coin; to make and stamp into money.

Minuet (n.) A tune or air to regulate the movements of the dance so called; a movement in suites, sonatas, symphonies, etc., having the dance form, and commonly in 3-4, sometimes 3-8, measure.

Mirage (n.) An optical effect, sometimes seen on the ocean, but more frequently in deserts, due to total reflection of light at the surface common to two strata of air differently heated. The reflected image is seen, commonly in an inverted position, while the real object may or may not be in sight. When the surface is horizontal, and below the eye, the appearance is that of a sheet of water in which the object is seen reflected; when the reflecting surface is above the eye, the image is seen projected against the sky. The fata Morgana and looming are species of mirage.

Mirza (n.) The common title of honor in Persia, prefixed to the surname of an individual. When appended to the surname, it signifies Prince.

Misapply (v. t.) To apply wrongly; to use for a wrong purpose; as, to misapply a name or title; to misapply public money.

Misgiving (n.) Evil premonition; doubt; distrust.

Mission (n.) A course of extraordinary sermons and services at a particular place and time for the special purpose of quickening the faith and zeal participants, and of converting unbelievers.

Misspend (v. t.) To spend amiss or for wrong purposes; to aquander; to waste; as, to misspend time or money.

Mistletoe (n.) A parasitic evergreen plant of Europe (Viscum album), bearing a glutinous fruit. When found upon the oak, where it is rare, it was an object of superstitious regard among the Druids. A bird lime is prepared from its fruit.

Mitre (n.) A sort of base money or coin.

Mixture (n.) An organ stop, comprising from two to five ranges of pipes, used only in combination with the foundation and compound stops; -- called also furniture stop. It consists of high harmonics, or overtones, of the ground tone.

Mnemonic (a.) Alt. of Mnemonical

Mnemonical (a.) Assisting in memory.

Mnemonician (n.) One who instructs in the art of improving or using the memory.

Mnemonics (n.) The art of memory; a system of precepts and rules intended to assist the memory; artificial memory.

Mnemotechny (n.) Mnemonics.

Modern (a.) New and common; trite; commonplace.

Modulation (n.) A change of key, whether transient, or until the music becomes established in the new key; a shifting of the tonality of a piece, so that the harmonies all center upon a new keynote or tonic; the art of transition out of the original key into one nearly related, and so on, it may be, by successive changes, into a key quite remote. There are also sudden and unprepared modulations.

Muharram (n.) The first month of the Mohammedan year.

Muharram (n.) A festival of the Shiah sect of the Mohammedans held during the first ten days of the month Mohurrum.

Mole (n.) A spot, mark, or small permanent protuberance on the human body; esp., a spot which is dark-colored, from which commonly issue one or more hairs.

Molech (n.) The fire god of the Ammonites, to whom human sacrifices were offered; Moloch.

Mollusca (n. pl.) One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom, including the classes Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, PteropodaScaphopoda, and Lamellibranchiata, or Conchifera. These animals have an unsegmented bilateral body, with most of the organs and parts paired, but not repeated longitudinally. Most of them develop a mantle, which incloses either a branchial or a pulmonary cavity. They are generally more or less covered and protected by a calcareous shell, which may be univalve, bivalve, or multivalve.

Moloch (n.) The fire god of the Ammonites in Canaan, to whom human sacrifices were offered; Molech. Also applied figuratively.

Molossine (n.) A bat of the genus Molossus, as the monk bat.

Mona (n.) A small, handsome, long-tailed West American monkey (Cercopithecus mona). The body is dark olive, with a spot of white on the haunches.

Monachal (a.) Of or pertaining to monks or a monastic life; monastic.

Monachism (n.) The system and influences of a monastic life; monasticism.

Monacid (a.) Having one hydrogen atom replaceable by a negative or acid atom or radical; capable of neutralizing a monobasic acid; -- said of bases, and of certain metals.

Monadical (a.) Of, pertaining to, or like, a monad, in any of its senses. See Monad, n.

Monadiform (a.) Having the form of a monad; resembling a monad in having one or more filaments of vibratile protoplasm; as, monadiform young.

Monadology (n.) The doctrine or theory of monads.

Monamine (n.) A basic compound containing one amido group; as, methyl amine is a monamine.

Monandric (a.) Of or pertaining to monandry; practicing monandry as a system of marriage.

Monandrous (a.) Of or pertaining to the monandria; having but one stamen.

Monarch (n.) One superior to all others of the same kind; as, an oak is called the monarch of the forest.

Monarchal (a.) Pertaining to a monarch; suiting a monarch; sovoreign; regal; imperial.

Monarchess (n.) A female monarch.

Monarchical (a.) Of or pertaining to a monarch, or to monarchy.

Monarchism (n.) The principles of, or preference for, monarchy.

Monarchist (n.) An advocate of, or believer in, monarchy.

Monarchize (v. i.) To play the sovereign; to act the monarch.

Monarchizer (n.) One who monarchizes; also, a monarchist.

Monarchy (n.) A state or government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch.

Monarchy (n.) A system of government in which the chief ruler is a monarch.

Monarchy (n.) The territory ruled over by a monarch; a kingdom.

Monasterial (a.) Of or pertaining to monastery, or to monastic life.

Monastery (n.) A house of religious retirement, or of secusion from ordinary temporal concerns, especially for monks; -- more rarely applied to such a house for females.

Monastic (n.) A monk.

Monastical (a.) Of or pertaining to monasteries, or to their occupants, rules, etc., as, monastic institutions or rules.

Monastically (adv.) In a monastic manner.

Monasticism (n.) The monastic life, system, or condition.

Monasticon (n.) A book giving an account of monasteries.

Monatomic (adv.) Consisting of, or containing, one atom; as, the molecule of mercury is monatomic.

Monatomic (adv.) Having the equivalence or replacing power of an atom of hydrogen; univalent; as, the methyl radical is monatomic.

Monaxial (a.) Having only one axis; developing along a single line or plane; as, monaxial development.

Monerula (n.) A germ in that stage of development in which its form is simply that of a non-nucleated mass of protoplasm. It precedes the one-celled germ. So called from its likeness to a moner.

Monest (v. t.) To warn; to admonish; to advise.

Monetary (a.) Of or pertaining to money, or consisting of money; pecuniary.

Moneth (n.) A month.

Monetization (n.) The act or process of converting into money, or of adopting as money; as, the monetization of silver.

Monetize (v. t.) To convert into money; to adopt as current money; as, to monetize silver.

Money (n.) Any written or stamped promise, certificate, or order, as a government note, a bank note, a certificate of deposit, etc., which is payable in standard coined money and is lawfully current in lieu of it; in a comprehensive sense, any currency usually and lawfully employed in buying and selling.

Money (n.) In general, wealth; property; as, he has much money in land, or in stocks; to make, or lose, money.

Money (v. t.) To supply with money.

Moneyed (adv.) Supplied with money; having money; wealthy; as, moneyey men.

Moneyed (adv.) Converted into money; coined.

Moneyed (adv.) Consisting in, or composed of, money.

Moneyer (n.) A person who deals in money; banker or broker.

Moneyer (n.) An authorized coiner of money.

Moneyless (a.) Destitute of money; penniless; impecunious.

Money-maker (n.) One who coins or prints money; also, a counterfeiter of money.

Money-maker (n.) One who accumulates money or wealth; specifically, one who makes money-getting his governing motive.

Money-making (n.) The act or process of making money; the acquisition and accumulation of wealth.

Money-making (a.) Affording profitable returns; lucrative; as, a money-making business.

Money-making (a.) Sussessful in gaining money, and devoted to that aim; as, a money-making man.

Monger (n.) A trader; a dealer; -- now used chiefly in composition; as, fishmonger, ironmonger, newsmonger.

Mongoos (n.) A species of ichneumon (Herpestes griseus), native of India. Applied also to other allied species, as the African banded mongoose (Crossarchus fasciatus).

Mongrel (a.) Of mixed kinds; as, mongrel language.

Mongrelize (v. t. & i.) To cause to be mongrel; to cross breeds, so as to produce mongrels.

'Mongst (prep.) See Amongst.

Moniliform (a.) Joined or constricted, at regular intervals, so as to resemble a string of beads; as, a moniliform root; a moniliform antenna. See Illust. of Antenna.

Moniment (n.) Something to preserve memory; a reminder; a monument; hence, a mark; an image; a superscription; a record.

Monish (v. t.) To admonish; to warn. See Admonish.

Monisher (n.) One who monishes; an admonisher.

Monishment (n.) Admonition.

Monist (n.) A believer in monism.

Monistic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or involving, monism.

Monition (n.) Instruction or advice given by way of caution; an admonition; a warning; a caution.

Monition (n.) A process in the nature of a summons to appear and answer.

Monition (n.) An order monishing a party complained against to obey under pain of the law.

Monitive (a.) Conveying admonition; admonitory.

Monitor (n.) One who admonishes; one who warns of faults, informs of duty, or gives advice and instruction by way of reproof or caution.

Monitorial (a.) Of or pertaining to a monitor or monitors.

Monitorial (a.) Done or performed by a monitor; as, monitorial work; conducted or taught by monitors; as, a monitorial school; monitorial instruction.

Monitorially (adv.) In a monitorial manner.

Monitorship (n.) The post or office of a monitor.

Monitory (a.) Giving admonition; instructing by way of caution; warning.

Monitory (n.) Admonition; warning; especially, a monition proceeding from an ecclesiastical court, but not addressed to any one person.

Monitrix (n.) A female monitor.

Monk (n.) A man who retires from the ordinary temporal concerns of the world, and devotes himself to religion; one of a religious community of men inhabiting a monastery, and bound by vows to a life of chastity, obedience, and poverty.

Monk (n.) A South American monkey (Pithecia monachus); also applied to other species, as Cebus xanthocephalus.

Monkery (n.) The life of monks; monastic life; monastic usage or customs; -- now usually applied by way of reproach.

Monkery (n.) A collective body of monks.

Monkey (v. t. & i.) To act or treat as a monkey does; to ape; to act in a grotesque or meddlesome manner.

Monkey's puzzle () A lofty coniferous Chilian tree (Araucaria imbricata), the branches of which are so crowded and intertwisted "as to puzzle a monkey to climb." The edible nuts are over an inch long, and are called pion by the Chilians.

Monkhood (n.) The character or condition of a monk.

Monkish (a.) Like a monk, or pertaining to monks; monastic; as, monkish manners; monkish dress; monkish solitude.

Monkly (a.) Like, or suitable to, a monk.

Mon- () A prefix signifying one, single, alone; as, monocarp, monopoly; (Chem.) indicating that a compound contains one atom, radical, or group of that to the name of which it is united; as, monoxide, monosulphide, monatomic, etc.

Monobasic (a.) Capable of being neutralized by a univalent base or basic radical; having but one acid hydrogen atom to be replaced; -- said of acids; as, acetic, nitric, and hydrochloric acids are monobasic.

Monocarbonic (a.) Containing one carboxyl group; as, acetic acid is a monocarbonic acid.

Monocarp (n.) A monocarpic plant.

Monocarpellary (a.) Consisting of a single carpel, as the fruit of the pea, cherry, and almond.

Monoceros (n.) A one-horned creature; a unicorn; a sea monster with one horn.

Monochromic (a.) Made, or done, with a single color; as, a monochromic picture.

Monochromy (n.) The art of painting or drawing in monochrome.

Monocline (n.) A monoclinal fold.

Monocotyl (n.) Any monocotyledonous plant.

Monocrotic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or showing, monocrotism; as, a monocrotic pulse; a pulse of the monocrotic type.

Monocular (a.) Having only one eye; with one eye only; as, monocular vision.

Monocular (a.) Adapted to be used with only one eye at a time; as, a monocular microscope.

Monodical (a.) Belonging to a monody.

Monodical (a.) For one voice; monophonic.

Monodist (n.) A writer of a monody.

Monodramatic (a.) Pertaining to a monodrama.

Monoecian (a.) Of or pertaining to the Monoecia; monoecious.

Monoecian (n.) A monoecious animal, as certain mollusks.

Monoecism (n.) The state or condition of being monoecious.

Monogamic (a.) Pertaining to, or involving, monogamy.

Monogamist (n.) One who practices or upholds monogamy.

Monogamous (a.) Upholding, or practicing, monogamy.

Monogenesis (n.) Oneness of origin; esp. (Biol.), development of all beings in the universe from a single cell; -- opposed to polygenesis. Called also monism.

Monogenetic (a.) Relating to, or involving, monogenesis; as, the monogenetic school of physiologists, who admit but one cell as the source of all beings.

Monogenic (a.) Of or pertaining to monogenesis.

Monogenism (n.) The theory or doctrine that the human races have a common origin, or constitute a single species.

Monogenous (a.) Of or pertaining to monogenesis; as, monogenous, or asexual, reproduction.

Monogeny (n.) The doctrine that the members of the human race have all a common origin.

Monogrammic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a monogram.

Monographer (n.) A writer of a monograph.

Monographical (a.) Of or pertaining to a monograph, or to a monography; as, a monographic writing; a monographic picture.

Monographist (n.) One who writes a monograph.

Monography (n.) A monograph.

Monogynian (a.) Pertaining to the Monogynia; monogynous.

Monogyny (n.) The state or condition of being monogynous.

Monolith (n.) A single stone, especially one of large size, shaped into a pillar, statue, or monument.

Monolithic (a.) Of or pertaining to a monolith; consisting of a single stone.

Monologist (n.) One who soliloquizes; esp., one who monopolizes conversation in company.

Monologue (n.) A speech uttered by a person alone; soliloquy; also, talk or discourse in company, in the strain of a soliloquy; as, an account in monologue.

Monology (n.) The habit of soliloquizing, or of monopolizing conversation.

Monomane (n.) A monomaniac.

Monomaniac (n.) A person affected by monomania.

Monomaniacal (a.) Affected with monomania, or partial derangement of intellect; caused by, or resulting from, monomania; as, a monomaniacal delusion.

Monome (n.) A monomial.

Monometallic (a.) Consisting of one metal; of or pertaining to monometallism.

Monometallism (n.) The legalized use of one metal only, as gold, or silver, in the standard currency of a country, or as a standard of money values. See Bimetallism.

Monometallist (n.) One who believes in monometallism as opposed to bimetallism, etc.

Monomphalus (n.) A form of double monster, in which two individuals are united by a common umbilicus.

Monophonic (a.) Single-voiced; having but one part; as, a monophonic composition; -- opposed to polyphonic.

Monophthongal (a.) Consisting of, or pertaining to, a monophthong.

Monophyletic (a.) Of or pertaining to a single family or stock, or to development from a single common parent form; -- opposed to polyphyletic; as, monophyletic origin.

Monophyllous (a.) One-leaved; composed of a single leaf; as, a monophyllous involucre or calyx.

Monoplast (n.) A monoplastic element.

Monoplastic (a.) That has one form, or retains its primary form, as, a monoplastic element.

Monopneumona (n. pl.) A suborder of Dipnoi, including the Ceratodus.

Monopode (n.) A monopodium.

Monopodial (a.) Having a monopodium or a single and continuous axis, as a birchen twig or a cornstalk.

Monopoler (n.) A monopolist.

Monopolist (n.) One who monopolizes; one who has a monopoly; one who favors monopoly.

Monopolistic (a.) Of or pertaining to a monopolist.

Monopolite (n.) A monopolist.

Monopolize (v. t.) To acquire a monopoly of; to have or get the exclusive privilege or means of dealing in, or the exclusive possession of; to engross the whole of; as, to monopolize the coffee trade; to monopolize land.

Monopolizer (n.) One who monopolizes.

Monopoly (n.) The exclusive power, or privilege of selling a commodity; the exclusive power, right, or privilege of dealing in some article, or of trading in some market; sole command of the traffic in anything, however obtained; as, the proprietor of a patented article is given a monopoly of its sale for a limited time; chartered trading companies have sometimes had a monopoly of trade with remote regions; a combination of traders may get a monopoly of a particular product.

Monopoly (n.) Exclusive possession; as, a monopoly of land.

Monopoly (n.) The commodity or other material thing to which the monopoly relates; as, tobacco is a monopoly in France.

Monosperm (n.) A monospermous plant.

Monosulphide (n.) A sulphide containing one atom of sulphur, and analogous to a monoxide; -- contrasted with a polysulphide; as, galena is a monosulphide.

Monosyllabic (a.) Being a monosyllable, or composed of monosyllables; as, a monosyllabic word; a monosyllabic language.

Monosyllabism (n.) The state of consisting of monosyllables, or having a monosyllabic form; frequent occurrence of monosyllables.

Monosyllabled (a.) Formed into, or consisting of, monosyllables.

Monotessaron (n.) A single narrative framed from the statements of the four evangelists; a gospel harmony.

Monotheistic (a.) Of or pertaining to monotheism.

Monotocous (a.) Bearing fruit but once; monocarpic.

Monotonical (a.) Of, pertaining to, or uttered in, a monotone; monotonous.

Monotonous (a.) Uttered in one unvarying tone; continued with dull uniformity; characterized by monotony; without change or variety; wearisome.

Monotypic (a.) Having but one type; containing but one representative; as, a monotypic genus, which contains but one species.

Monoxide (n.) An oxide containing one atom of oxygen in each molecule; as, barium monoxide.

Monsieur (n.) The common title of civility in France in speaking to, or of, a man; Mr. or Sir.

Monster (v. t.) To make monstrous.

Monstration (n.) The act of demonstrating; proof.

Monstrosity (n.) The state of being monstrous, or out of the common order of nature; that which is monstrous; a monster.

Monstrous (a.) Having the qualities of a monster; deviating greatly from the natural form or character; abnormal; as, a monstrous birth.

Monstrous (a.) Extraordinary in a way to excite wonder, dislike, apprehension, etc.; -- said of size, appearance, color, sound, etc.; as, a monstrous height; a monstrous ox; a monstrous story.

Monstrous (a.) Abounding in monsters.

Monstrously (adv.) In a monstrous manner; unnaturally; extraordinarily; as, monstrously wicked.

Monstrousness (n.) The state or quality of being monstrous, unusual, extraordinary.

Mont de piete () One of certain public pawnbroking establishments which originated in Italy in the 15th century, the object of which was to lend money at a low rate of interest to poor people in need; -- called also mount of piety. The institution has been adopted in other countries, as in Spain and France. See Lombard-house.

Monte (n.) A favorite gambling game among Spaniards, played with dice or cards.

Montem (n.) A custom, formerly practiced by the scholars at Eton school, England, of going every third year, on Whittuesday, to a hillock near the Bath road, and exacting money from all passers-by, to support at the university the senior scholar of the school.

Month (n.) One of the twelve portions into which the year is divided; the twelfth part of a year, corresponding nearly to the length of a synodic revolution of the moon, -- whence the name. In popular use, a period of four weeks is often called a month.

Monthling (n.) That which is a month old, or which lives for a month.

Monthly (a.) Continued a month, or a performed in a month; as, the monthly revolution of the moon.

Monthly (a.) Done, happening, payable, published, etc., once a month, or every month; as, a monthly visit; monthly charges; a monthly installment; a monthly magazine.

Monthly (n.) A publication which appears regularly once a month.

Monthly (adv.) Once a month; in every month; as, the moon changes monthly.

Monticulate (a.) Furnished with monticles or little elevations.

Monument (n.) A building, pillar, stone, or the like, erected to preserve the remembrance of a person, event, action, etc.; as, the Washington monument; the Bunker Hill monument. Also, a tomb, with memorial inscriptions.

Monumental (a.) Of, pertaining to, or suitable for, a monument; as, a monumental inscription.

Monumental (a.) Serving as a monument; memorial; preserving memory.

Monumentally (adv.) By means of monuments.

Monureid (n.) Any one of a series of complex nitrogenous substances regarded as derived from one molecule of urea; as, alloxan is a monureid.

Moon (n.) The celestial orb which revolves round the earth; the satellite of the earth; a secondary planet, whose light, borrowed from the sun, is reflected to the earth, and serves to dispel the darkness of night. The diameter of the moon is 2,160 miles, its mean distance from the earth is 240,000 miles, and its mass is one eightieth that of the earth. See Lunar month, under Month.

Moon (n.) The time occupied by the moon in making one revolution in her orbit; a month.

Mooncalf (n.) A monster; a false conception; a mass of fleshy matter, generated in the uterus.

Moonshine (n.) A month.

Mooruk (n.) A species of cassowary (Casuarius Bennetti) found in New Britain, and noted for its agility in running and leaping. It is smaller and has stouter legs than the common cassowary. Its crest is biloted; the neck and breast are black; the back, rufous mixed with black; and the naked skin of the neck, blue.

Moot (n.) A meeting for discussion and deliberation; esp., a meeting of the people of a village or district, in Anglo-Saxon times, for the discussion and settlement of matters of common interest; -- usually in composition; as, folk-moot.

Moral (a.) Supported by reason or probability; practically sufficient; -- opposed to legal or demonstrable; as, a moral evidence; a moral certainty.

Mormon (n.) A genus of sea birds, having a large, thick bill; the puffin.

Mormon (n.) The mandrill.

Mormon (n.) One of a sect in the United States, followers of Joseph Smith, who professed to have found an addition to the Bible, engraved on golden plates, called the Book of Mormon, first published in 1830. The Mormons believe in polygamy, and their hierarchy of apostles, etc., has control of civil and religious matters.

Mormon (a.) Of or pertaining to the Mormons; as, the Mormon religion; Mormon practices.

Mormondom (n.) The country inhabited by the Mormons; the Mormon people.

Mormonism (n.) The doctrine, system, and practices of the Mormons.

Mormonite (n.) A Mormon.

Mormonite (a.) Mormon.

Morocco (n.) A fine kind of leather, prepared commonly from goatskin (though an inferior kind is made of sheepskin), and tanned with sumac and dyed of various colors; -- said to have been first made by the Moors.

Morris (n.) A dance formerly common in England, often performed in pagenats, processions, and May games. The dancers, grotesquely dressed and ornamented, took the parts of Robin Hood, Maidmarian, and other fictious characters.

Mort (n.) A salmon in its third year.

Mortal (a.) Very painful or tedious; wearisome; as, a sermon lasting two mortal hours.

Mortality (n.) The whole sum or number of deaths in a given time or a given community; also, the proportion of deaths to population, or to a specific number of the population; death rate; as, a time of great, or low, mortality; the mortality among the settlers was alarming.

Mortar (n.) A strong vessel, commonly in form of an inverted bell, in which substances are pounded or rubbed with a pestle.

Mortuary (a.) Of or pertaining to the dead; as, mortuary monuments.

Moth (n.) Any nocturnal lepidopterous insect, or any not included among the butterflies; as, the luna moth; Io moth; hawk moth.

Mouflon (n.) A wild sheep (Ovis musimon), inhabiting the mountains of Sardinia, Corsica, etc. Its horns are very large, with a triangular base and rounded angles. It is supposed by some to be the original of the domestic sheep. Called also musimon or musmon.

Mount (v.) A mass of earth, or earth and rock, rising considerably above the common surface of the surrounding land; a mountain; a high hill; -- used always instead of mountain, when put before a proper name; as, Mount Washington; otherwise, chiefly in poetry.

Mount (v. t.) Hence: To put upon anything that sustains and fits for use, as a gun on a carriage, a map or picture on cloth or paper; to prepare for being worn or otherwise used, as a diamond by setting, or a sword blade by adding the hilt, scabbard, etc.

Mountain (n.) A large mass of earth and rock, rising above the common level of the earth or adjacent land; earth and rock forming an isolated peak or a ridge; an eminence higher than a hill; a mount.

Mountain (a.) Of or pertaining to a mountain or mountains; growing or living on a mountain; found on or peculiar to mountains; among mountains; as, a mountain torrent; mountain pines; mountain goats; mountain air; mountain howitzer.

Mountaineer (n.) An inhabitant of a mountain; one who lives among mountains.

Mounter (n.) An animal mounted; a monture.

Mounting (n.) That by which anything is prepared for use, or set off to advantage; equipment; embellishment; setting; as, the mounting of a sword or diamond.

Mouse (n.) Any one of numerous species of small rodents belonging to the genus Mus and various related genera of the family Muridae. The common house mouse (Mus musculus) is found in nearly all countries. The American white-footed, or deer, mouse (Hesperomys leucopus) sometimes lives in houses. See Dormouse, Meadow mouse, under Meadow, and Harvest mouse, under Harvest.

Mouth (n.) A principal speaker; one who utters the common opinion; a mouthpiece.

Mouth (n.) Speech; language; testimony.

Much (n.) A thing uncommon, wonderful, or noticeable; something considerable.

Mucker (v. t.) To scrape together, as money, by mean labor or shifts.

Muckworm (n.) One who scrapes together money by mean labor and devices; a miser.

Mull (n.) A promontory; as, the Mull of Cantyre.

Mullein (n.) Any plant of the genus Verbascum. They are tall herbs having coarse leaves, and large flowers in dense spikes. The common species, with densely woolly leaves, is Verbascum Thapsus.

Mullet (n.) Any one of numerous fishes of the genus Mugil; -- called also gray mullets. They are found on the coasts of both continents, and are highly esteemed as food. Among the most valuable species are Mugil capito of Europe, and M. cephalus which occurs both on the European and American coasts.

Multiaxial (a.) Having more than one axis; developing in more than a single line or plain; -- opposed to monoaxial.

Multiplication (n.) The process of repeating, or adding to itself, any given number or quantity a certain number of times; commonly, the process of ascertaining by a briefer computation the result of such repeated additions; also, the rule by which the operation is performed; -- the reverse of division.

Mummery (n.) Farcical show; hypocritical disguise and parade or ceremonies.

Munga (n.) See Bonnet monkey, under Bonnet.

Muraena (n.) A genus of large eels of the family Miraenidae. They differ from the common eel in lacking pectoral fins and in having the dorsal and anal fins continuous. The murry (Muraena Helenae) of Southern Europe was the muraena of the Romans. It is highly valued as a food fish.

Murexide (n.) A crystalline nitrogenous substance having a splendid dichroism, being green by reflected light and garnet-red by transmitted light. It was formerly used in dyeing calico, and was obtained in a large quantities from guano. Formerly called also ammonium purpurate.

Muriate (n.) A salt of muriatic hydrochloric acid; a chloride; as, muriate of ammonia.

Muriated (a.) Prepared with chloride of silver through the agency of common salt.

Murrain (n.) An infectious and fatal disease among cattle.

Murza (n.) One of the hereditary nobility among the Tatars, esp. one of the second class.

Mus (n.) A genus of small rodents, including the common mouse and rat.

Musar (n.) An itinerant player on the musette, an instrument formerly common in Europe.

Musca (n.) A genus of dipterous insects, including the common house fly, and numerous allied species.

Muscardin (n.) The common European dormouse; -- so named from its odor.

Muscatel (n.) A common name for several varieties of rich sweet wine, made in Italy, Spain, and France.

Muscovite (n.) Common potash mica. See Mica.

Muscovy duck () A duck (Cairina moschata), larger than the common duck, often raised in poultry yards. Called also musk duck. It is native of tropical America, from Mexico to Southern Brazil.

Music (n.) The science and the art of tones, or musical sounds, i. e., sounds of higher or lower pitch, begotten of uniform and synchronous vibrations, as of a string at various degrees of tension; the science of harmonical tones which treats of the principles of harmony, or the properties, dependences, and relations of tones to each other; the art of combining tones in a manner to please the ear.

Music (n.) Harmony; an accordant combination of simultaneous tones.

Musical (a.) Of or pertaining to music; having the qualities of music; or the power of producing music; devoted to music; melodious; harmonious; as, musical proportion; a musical voice; musical instruments; a musical sentence; musical persons.

Musicomania (n.) A kind of monomania in which the passion for music becomes so strong as to derange the intellectual faculties.

Musimon (n.) See Mouflon.

Musmon (n.) See Mouflon.

Mussel (n.) Any one of many species of marine bivalve shells of the genus Mytilus, and related genera, of the family Mytidae. The common mussel (Mytilus edulis; see Illust. under Byssus), and the larger, or horse, mussel (Modiola modiolus), inhabiting the shores both of Europe and America, are edible. The former is extensively used as food in Europe.

Mussite (n.) A variety of pyroxene, from the Mussa Alp in Piedmont; diopside.

Mustac (n.) A small tufted monkey.

Mustache (n.) A West African monkey (Cercopithecus cephus). It has yellow whiskers, and a triangular blue mark on the nose.

Muster (v. t.) Hence: To summon together; to enroll in service; to get together.

Mute (n.) Among the Turks, an officer or attendant who is selected for his place because he can not speak.

Mutual (a.) Possessed, experienced, or done by two or more persons or things at the same time; common; joint; as, mutual happiness; a mutual effort.

Mya (n.) A genus of bivalve mollusks, including the common long, or soft-shelled, clam.

Myaria (n. pl.) A division of bivalve mollusks of which the common clam (Mya) is the type.

Mycetes (n.) A genus of South American monkeys, including the howlers. See Howler, 2, and Illust.

Mygale (n.) A genus of very large hairy spiders having four lungs and only four spinnerets. They do not spin webs, but usually construct tubes in the earth, which are often furnished with a trapdoor. The South American bird spider (Mygale avicularia), and the crab spider, or matoutou (M. cancerides) are among the largest species. Some of the species are erroneously called tarantulas, as the Texas tarantula (M. Hentzii).

Myroxylon (n.) A genus of leguminous trees of tropical America, the different species of which yield balsamic products, among which are balsam of Peru, and balsam of Tolu. The species were formerly referred to Myrospermum.

Myrtle (n.) A species of the genus Myrtus, especially Myrtus communis. The common myrtle has a shrubby, upright stem, eight or ten feet high. Its branches form a close, full head, thickly covered with ovate or lanceolate evergreen leaves. It has solitary axillary white or rosy flowers, followed by black several-seeded berries. The ancients considered it sacred to Venus. The flowers, leaves, and berries are used variously in perfumery and as a condiment, and the beautifully mottled wood is used in turning.

Mystery (a.) A kind of secret religious celebration, to which none were admitted except those who had been initiated by certain preparatory ceremonies; -- usually plural; as, the Eleusinian mysteries.

Mytilotoxine (n.) A poisonous base (leucomaine) found in the common mussel. It either causes paralysis of the muscles, or gives rise to convulsions, including death by an accumulation of carbonic acid in the blood.

Mytilus (n.) A genus of marine bivalve shells, including the common mussel. See Illust. under Byssus.

Myxopod (n.) A rhizopod or moneran. Also used adjectively; as, a myxopod state.

N () the fourteenth letter of English alphabet, is a vocal consonent, and, in allusion to its mode of formation, is called the dentinasal or linguanasal consonent. Its commoner sound is that heard in ran, done; but when immediately followed in the same word by the sound of g hard or k (as in single, sink, conquer), it usually represents the same sound as the digraph ng in sing, bring, etc. This is a simple but related sound, and is called the gutturo-nasal consonent. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 243-246.

Namaycush (n.) A large North American lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). It is usually spotted with red, and sometimes weighs over forty pounds. Called also Mackinaw trout, lake trout, lake salmon, salmon trout, togue, and tuladi.

Naphthalene (n.) A white crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon, C10H8, analogous to benzene, and obtained by the distillation of certain bituminous materials, such as the heavy oil of coal tar. It is the type and basis of a large number of derivatives among organic compounds. Formerly called also naphthaline.

Nardoo (n.) An Australian name for Marsilea Drummondii, a four-leaved cryptogamous plant, sometimes used for food.

Narrow (superl.) Parsimonious; niggardly; covetous; selfish.

Narrowly (adv.) Sparingly; parsimoniously.

Narwhal (n.) An arctic cetacean (Monodon monocerous), about twenty feet long. The male usually has one long, twisted, pointed canine tooth, or tusk projecting forward from the upper jaw like a horn, whence it is called also sea unicorn, unicorn fish, and unicorn whale. Sometimes two horns are developed, side by side.

Nasturtium (n.) Any plant of the genus Tropaeolum, geraniaceous herbs, having mostly climbing stems, peltate leaves, and spurred flowers, and including the common Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus), the canary-bird flower (T. peregrinum), and about thirty more species, all natives of South America. The whole plant has a warm pungent flavor, and the fleshy fruits are used as a substitute for capers, while the leaves and flowers are sometimes used in salads.

Nation (n.) A part, or division, of the people of the earth, distinguished from the rest by common descent, language, or institutions; a race; a stock.

Nation (n.) One of the divisions of university students in a classification according to nativity, formerly common in Europe.

National (a.) Of or pertaining to a nation; common to a whole people or race; public; general; as, a national government, language, dress, custom, calamity, etc.

Nationality (n.) A race or people, as determined by common language and character, and not by political bias or divisions; a nation.

Natural (a.) Applied to an air or modulation of harmony which moves by easy and smooth transitions, digressing but little from the original key.

Near (a) Close-fisted; parsimonious.

Nebula (n.) A faint, cloudlike, self-luminous mass of matter situated beyond the solar system among the stars. True nebulae are gaseous; but very distant star clusters often appear like them in the telescope.

Negative (a.) Not positive; without affirmative statement or demonstration; indirect; consisting in the absence of something; privative; as, a negative argument; a negative morality; negative criticism.

Negligee (n.) An easy, unceremonious attire; undress; also, a kind of easy robe or dressing gown worn by women.

Negus (n.) A beverage made of wine, water, sugar, nutmeg, and lemon juice; -- so called, it is said, from its first maker, Colonel Negus.

Nems (n.) The ichneumon.

Neomenia (n.) The time of the new moon; the beginning of the month in the lunar calendar.

Nepenthes (n.) A genus of climbing plants found in India, Malaya, etc., which have the leaves prolonged into a kind of stout tendril terminating in a pitcherlike appendage, whence the plants are often called pitcher plants and monkey-cups. There are about thirty species, of which the best known is Nepenthes distillatoria. See Pitcher plant.

Ness (n.) A promontory; a cape; a headland.

Nesslerize (v. t.) To treat or test, as a liquid, with a solution of mercuric iodide in potassium iodide and potassium hydroxide, which is called Nessler's solution or Nessler's test, and is used to detect the presence of ammonia.

Nettle (n.) A plant of the genus Urtica, covered with minute sharp hairs containing a poison that produces a stinging sensation. Urtica gracitis is common in the Northern, and U. chamaedryoides in the Southern, United States. the common European species, U. urens and U. dioica, are also found in the Eastern united States. U. pilulifera is the Roman nettle of England.

Neurine (n.) A poisonous organic base (a ptomaine) formed in the decomposition of protagon with boiling baryta water, and in the putrefraction of proteid matter. It was for a long time considered identical with choline, a crystalline body originally obtained from bile. Chemically, however, choline is oxyethyl-trimethyl-ammonium hydroxide, while neurine is vinyl-trimethyl-ammonium hydroxide.

Neuter (n.) An organism, either vegetable or animal, which at its maturity has no generative organs, or but imperfectly developed ones, as a plant without stamens or pistils, as the garden Hydrangea; esp., one of the imperfectly developed females of certain social insects, as of the ant and the common honeybee, which perform the labors of the community, and are called workers.

Nevadite (n.) A grantitoid variety of rhyolite, common in Nevada.

Newsmonger (n.) One who deals in news; one who is active in hearing and telling news.

Newt (n.) Any one of several species of small aquatic salamanders. The common British species are the crested newt (Triton cristatus) and the smooth newt (Lophinus punctatus). In America, Diemictylus viridescens is one of the most abundant species.

Niggard (n.) A person meanly close and covetous; one who spends grudgingly; a stingy, parsimonous fellow; a miser.

Niggard (a.) Like a niggard; meanly covetous or parsimonious; niggardly; miserly; stingy.

Niggardliness (n.) The quality or state of being niggard; meanness in giving or spending; parsimony; stinginess.

Nightshade (n.) A common name of many species of the genus Solanum, given esp. to the Solanum nigrum, or black nightshade, a low, branching weed with small white flowers and black berries reputed to be poisonous.

Nine-bark (n.) A white-flowered rosaceous shrub (Neillia, / Spiraea, opulifolia), common in the Northern United States. The bark separates into many thin layers, whence the name.

Nineteen (a.) Nine and ten; eighteen and one more; one less than twenty; as, nineteen months.

Nisan (n.) The first month of the jewish ecclesiastical year, formerly answering nearly to the month of April, now to March, of the Christian calendar. See Abib.

Nitratine (n.) A mineral occurring in transparent crystals, usually of a white, sometimes of a reddish gray, or lemon-yellow, color; native sodium nitrate. It is used in making nitric acid and for manure. Called also soda niter.

Nitrile (n.) Any one of a series of cyanogen compounds; particularly, one of those cyanides of alcohol radicals which, by boiling with acids or alkalies, produce a carboxyl acid, with the elimination of the nitrogen as ammonia.

Nitrobenzene (n.) A yellow aromatic liquid (C6H5.NO2), produced by the action of nitric acid on benzene, and called from its odor imitation oil of bitter almonds, or essence of mirbane. It is used in perfumery, and is manufactured in large quantities in the preparation of aniline. Fornerly called also nitrobenzol.

Nitrogen (n.) A colorless nonmetallic element, tasteless and odorless, comprising four fifths of the atmosphere by volume. It is chemically very inert in the free state, and as such is incapable of supporting life (hence the name azote still used by French chemists); but it forms many important compounds, as ammonia, nitric acid, the cyanides, etc, and is a constituent of all organized living tissues, animal or vegetable. Symbol N. Atomic weight 14. It was formerly regarded as a permanent noncondensible gas, but was liquefied in 1877 by Cailletet of Paris, and Pictet of Geneva.

Nivose (n.) The fourth month of the French republican calendar [1792-1806]. It commenced December 21, and ended January 19. See VendEmiaire.

Nix (fem.) One of a class of water spirits, commonly described as of a mischievous disposition.

Noble (n.) A person of rank above a commoner; a nobleman; a peer.

Noble (n.) An English money of account, and, formerly, a gold coin, of the value of 6 s. 8 d. sterling, or about $1.61.

Nobleman (n.) One of the nobility; a noble; a peer; one who enjoys rank above a commoner, either by virtue of birth, by office, or by patent.

Node (n.) A hole in the gnomon of a dial, through which passes the ray of light which marks the hour of the day, the parallels of the sun's declination, his place in the ecliptic, etc.

Node (n.) One of the fixed points of a sonorous string, when it vibrates by aliquot parts, and produces the harmonic tones; nodal line or point.

Nones (n. pl.) The fifth day of the months January, February, April, June, August, September, November, and December, and the seventh day of March, May, July, and October. The nones were nine days before the ides, reckoning inclusively, according to the Roman method.

Norbertine (n.) See Premonstrant.

Norimons (pl. ) of Norimon

Norimon (n.) A Japanese covered litter, carried by men.

Nostoc (n.) A genus of algae. The plants are composed of moniliform cells imbedded in a gelatinous substance.

Notoriety (n.) The quality or condition of being notorious; the state of being generally or publicly known; -- commonly used in an unfavorable sense; as, the notoriety of a crime.

Nougat (n.) A cake, sweetmeat, or confection made with almonds or other nuts.

November (n.) The eleventh month of the year, containing thirty days.

Novice (n.) One who enters a religious house, whether of monks or nuns, as a probationist.

Noyau (n.) A cordial of brandy, etc., flavored with the kernel of the bitter almond, or of the peach stone, etc.

Numerosity (n.) Rhythm; harmony; flow.

Nummary (a.) Of or relating to coins or money.

Nummulary (a.) Of or pertaining to coin or money; pecuniary; as, the nummulary talent.

Nuptial (a.) Of or pertaining to marriage; done or used at a wedding; as, nuptial rites and ceremonies.

Nuptial (n.) Marriage; wedding; nuptial ceremony; -- now only in the plural.

Nut (n.) The fruit of certain trees and shrubs (as of the almond, walnut, hickory, beech, filbert, etc.), consisting of a hard and indehiscent shell inclosing a kernel.

Nymphales (n. pl.) An extensive family of butterflies including the nymphs, the satyrs, the monarchs, the heliconias, and others; -- called also brush-footed butterflies.

Nympholepsy (n.) A species of demoniac enthusiasm or possession coming upon one who had accidentally looked upon a nymph; ecstasy.

Nyula (n.) A species of ichneumon (Herpestes nyula). Its fur is beautifully variegated by closely set zigzag markings.

Adios (interj.) Adieu; farewell; good-by; -- chiefly used among Spanish-speaking people.

Aerocurve (n.) A modification of the aeroplane, having curved surfaces, the advantages of which were first demonstrated by Lilienthal.

Aeroplane (n.) A light rigid plane used in aerial navigation to oppose sudden upward or downward movement in the air, as in gliding machines; specif., such a plane slightly inclined and driven forward as a lifting device in some flying machines; hence, a flying machine using such a device. These machines are called monoplanes, biplanes, triplanes, or quadruplanes, according to the number of main supporting planes used in their constraction. Being heavier than air they depend for their levitation on motion imparted by one or more propellers actuated by a gasoline engine. They start from the ground by a run on small wheels or runners, and are guided by a steering apparatus consisting of horizontal and vertical movable planes. There are many varieties of form and construction, which in some cases are known by the names of their inventors.

evil () A chronic skin affection terminating in an ulcer, most commonly of the face. It is endemic along the Mediterranean, and is probably due to a specific bacillus. Called also Aleppo ulcer, Biskara boil, Delhi boil, Oriental sore, etc.

Alexia (n.) More commonly, inability, due to brain disease, to understand written or printed symbols although they can be seen, as in case of word blindness.

Alkali (n.) Soluble mineral matter, other than common salt, contained in soils of natural waters.

Alkali soil () Any one of various soils found in arid and semiarid regions, containing an unusual amount of soluble mineral salts which effloresce in the form of a powder or crust (usually white) in dry weather following rains or irrigation. The basis of these salts is mainly soda with a smaller amount of potash, and usually a little lime and magnesia. Two main classes of alkali are commonly distinguished: black alkali, which may be any alkaline carbonate, but which practically consists of sodium carbonate (sal soda), which is highly corrosive and destructive to vegetation; and white alkali, characterized by the presence of sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt), which is less injurious to vegetation. Black alkali is so called because water containing it dissolves humus, forming a dark-colored solution which, when it collects in puddles and evaporates, produces characteristic black spots.

Allelomorph (n.) One of the pure unit characters commonly existing singly or in pairs in the germ cells of Mendelian hybrids, and exhibited in varying proportion among the organisms themselves. Allelomorphs which under certain circumstances are themselves compound are called hypallelomorphs. See Mendel's law.

Alphorn (n.) A curved wooden horn about three feet long, with a cupped mouthpiece and a bell, used by the Swiss to sound the ranz des vaches and other melodies. Its notes are open harmonics of the tube.

Alternat (n.) A usage, among diplomats, of rotation in precedence among representatives of equal rank, sometimes determined by lot and at other times in regular order. The practice obtains in the signing of treaties and conventions between nations.

American Protective Association () A secret organization in the United States, formed in Iowa in 1887, ostensibly for the protection of American institutions by keeping Roman Catholics out of public office. Abbrev. commonly to A. P .A.

Ammonal (n.) An explosive consisting of a mixture of powdered aluminium and nitrate of ammonium.

Ammoniacal fermentation () Any fermentation process by which ammonia is formed, as that by which urea is converted into ammonium carbonate when urine is exposed to the air.

Amvis (n.) An explosive consisting of ammonium nitrate, a derivative of nitrobenzene, chlorated napthalene, and wood meal.

Amygdala (n.) An almond.

Anchor escapement () The common recoil escapement.

Andropogon (n.) A very large and important genus of grasses, found in nearly all parts of the world. It includes the lemon grass of Ceylon and the beard grass, or broom sedge, of the United States. The principal subgenus is Sorghum, including A. sorghum and A. halepensis, from which have been derived the Chinese sugar cane, the Johnson grass, the Aleppo grass, the broom corn, and the durra, or Indian millet. Several East Indian species, as A. nardus and A. schoenanthus, yield fragrant oils, used in perfumery.

Annunciation lily () The common white lily (Lilium candidum). So called because it is usually introduced by painters in pictures of the Annunciation.

Anthophilous (a.) Lit., fond of flowers; hence, feeding upon, or living among, flowers.

Anthracosis (n.) A chronic lung disease, common among coal miners, due to the inhalation of coal dust; -- called also collier's lung and miner's phthisis.

Antimonsoon (n.) The upper, contrary-moving current of the atmosphere over a monsoon.

Apartment house () A building comprising a number of suites designed for separate housekeeping tenements, but having conveniences, such as heat, light, elevator service, etc., furnished in common; -- often distinguished in the United States from a flat house.

Argon (n.) A colorless, odorless gas occurring in the air (of which it constitutes 0.93 per cent by volume), in volcanic gases, etc.; -- so named on account of its inertness by Rayleigh and Ramsay, who prepared and examined it in 1894-95. Symbol, A; at. wt., 39.9. Argon is condensible to a colorless liquid boiling at -186.1 C. and to a solid melting at -189.6 C. It has a characteristic spectrum. No compounds of it are known, but there is physical evidence that its molecule is monatomic. Weight of one liter at 0 C. and 760 mm., 1.7828 g.

Army organization () The system by which a country raises, classifies, arranges, and equips its armed land forces. The usual divisions are: (1) A regular or active army, in which soldiers serve continuously with the colors and live in barracks or cantonments when not in the field; (2) the reserves of this army, in which the soldiers, while remaining constantly subject to a call to the colors, live at their homes, being summoned more or less frequently to report for instruction, drill, or maneuvers; and (3) one or more classes of soldiers organized largely for territorial defense, living at home and having only occasional periods of drill and instraction, who are variously called home reserves (as in the table below), second, third, etc., line of defense (the regular army and its reserves ordinarily constituting the first line of defense), territorial forces, or the like. In countries where conscription prevails a soldier is supposed to serve a given number of years. He is usually enrolled first in the regular army, then passes to its reserve, then into the home reserves, to serve until he reaches the age limit. It for any reason he is not enrolled in the regular army, he may begin his service in the army reserves or even the home reserves, but then serves the full number of years or up to the age limit. In equipment the organization of the army is into the three great arms of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, together with more or less numerous other branches, such as engineers, medical corps, etc., besides the staff organizations such as those of the pay and subsistence departments.

Ascomycetes (n. pl.) A large class of higher fungi distinguished by septate hyphae, and by having their spores formed in asci, or spore sacs. It comprises many orders, among which are the yeasts, molds, mildews, truffles, morels, etc.

Auction bridge () A variety of the game of bridge in which the players, beginning with the dealer, bid for the privilege of naming the trump and playing with the dummy for that deal, there being heavy penalties for a player's failure to make good his bid. The score value of each trick more than six taken by the successful bidder is as follows: when the trump is spades, 2; clubs, 6; diamonds, 7; hearts, 8; royal spades (lilies), 9; and when the deal is played with no trump, 10.

Automobile (n.) An automobile vehicle or mechanism; esp., a self-propelled vehicle suitable for use on a street or roadway. Automobiles are usually propelled by internal combustion engines (using volatile inflammable liquids, as gasoline or petrol, alcohol, naphtha, etc.), steam engines, or electric motors. The power of the driving motor varies from about 4 to 50 H. P. for ordinary vehicles, ranging from the run-about to the touring car, up to as high as 200 H. P. for specially built racing cars. Automobiles are also commonly, and generally in British usage, called motor cars.

Autunite (n.) A lemon-yellow phosphate of uranium and calcium occurring in tabular crystals with basal cleavage, and in micalike scales. H., 2-2.5. Sp. gr., 3.05-3.19.

Azole (n.) Any of a large class of compounds characterized by a five-membered ring which contains an atom of nitrogen and at least one other noncarbon atom (nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur). The prefixes furo-, thio, and pyrro- are used to distinguish three subclasses of azoles, which may be regarded as derived respectively from furfuran, thiophene, and pyrrol by replacement of the CH group by nitrogen; as, furo-monazole. Names exactly analogous to those for the azines are also used; as, oxazole, diazole, etc.

-tin () = 1st Ammonite, 2.

Babiism (n.) The doctrine of a modern religious pantheistical sect in Persia, which was founded, about 1844, by Mirza Ali Mohammed ibn Rabhik (1820 -- 1850), who assumed the title of Bab-ed-Din (Per., Gate of the Faith). Babism is a mixture of Mohammedan, Christian, Jewish, and Parsi elements. This doctrine forbids concubinage and polygamy, and frees women from many of the degradations imposed upon them among the orthodox Mohammedans. Mendicancy, the use of intoxicating liquors and drugs, and slave dealing, are forbidden; asceticism is discountenanced.

Baconian (n.) One who maintains that Lord Bacon is the author of the works commonly attributed to Shakespeare.

Badger game () The method of blackmailing by decoying a person into a compromising situation and extorting money by threats of exposure.

Bahaudur (n.) A title of respect or honor given to European officers in East Indian state papers, and colloquially, and among the natives, to distinguished officials and other important personages.

Banjorine (n.) A kind of banjo, with a short neck, tuned a fourth higher than the common banjo; -- popularly so called.

Bardiglio (n.) An Italian marble of which the principal varieties occur in the neighborhood of Carrara and in Corsica. It commonly shows a dark gray or bluish ground traversed by veins.

Beaumontague (n.) A cement used in making joints, filling cracks, etc. For iron, the principal constituents are iron borings and sal ammoniac; for wood, white lead or litharge, whiting, and linseed oil.

Benefit society () A society or association formed for mutual insurance, as among tradesmen or in labor unions, to provide for relief in sickness, old age, and for the expenses of burial. Usually called friendly society in Great Britain.

Blackbird (n.) Among slavers and pirates, a negro or Polynesian.

Black Hand () A lawless or blackmailing secret society, esp. among Italians.

Blanket clause () A clause, as in a blanket mortgage or policy, that includes a group or class of things, rather than a number mentioned individually and having the burden, loss, or the like, apportioned among them.

Bordeaux mixture () A fungicidal mixture composed of blue vitriol, lime, and water. The formula in common use is: blue vitriol, 6 lbs.; lime, 4 lbs.; water, 35 -- 50 gallons.

Boulangism (n.) The spirit or principles of a French political movement identified with Gen. Georges Boulanger (d. 1891), whose militarism and advocacy of revenge on Germany attracted to him a miscellaneous party of monarchists and Republican malcontents.

Briolette (n.) An oval or pearshaped diamond having its entire surface cut in triangular facets.

Bromide (n.) A person who is conventional and commonplace in his habits of thought and conversation. [Slang]

Bull-roarer (n.) A contrivance consisting of a slat of wood tied to the end of a thong or string, with which the slat is whirled so as to cause an intermittent roaring noise. It is used as a toy, and among some races in certain religious rites.

Busk (n.) Among the Creek Indians, a feast of first fruits celebrated when the corn is ripe enough to be eaten. The feast usually continues four days. On the first day the new fire is lighted, by friction of wood, and distributed to the various households, an offering of green corn, including an ear brought from each of the four quarters or directions, is consumed, and medicine is brewed from snakeroot. On the second and third days the men physic with the medicine, the women bathe, the two sexes are taboo to one another, and all fast. On the fourth day there are feasting, dancing, and games.

Camass (n.) A small prairie in a forest; a small grassy plain among hills.

Capri (n.) Wine produced on the island of Capri, commonly a light, dry, white wine.

Carnic (a.) pertaining to or designating a hydroscopic monobasic acid, C10H15O5N3, obtained as a cleavage product from an acid of muscle tissue.

Carromata (n.) In the Philippines, a light, two-wheeled, boxlike vehicle usually drawn by a single native pony and used to convey passengers within city limits or for traveling. It is the common public carriage.

Cash register () A device for recording the amount of cash received, usually having an automatic adding machine and a money drawer and exhibiting the amount of the sale.

Centauromachy (n.) A fight in which centaurs take part, -- a common theme for relief sculpture, as in the Parthenon metopes.

Ceria (n.) Cerium oxide, CeO2, a white infusible substance constituting about one per cent of the material of the common incandescent mantle.

Chauffeur (n.) Brigands in bands, who, about 1793, pillaged, burned, and killed in parts of France; -- so called because they used to burn the feet of their victims to extort money.

Chemosynthesis (n.) Synthesis of organic compounds by energy derived from chemical changes or reactions. Chemosynthesis of carbohydrates occurs in the nitrite bacteria through the oxidation of ammonia to nitrous acid, and in the nitrate bacteria through the conversion of nitrous into nitric acid.

Chicalote (n.) A Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone platyceras), which has migrated into California.

Chico (n.) The common greasewood of the western United States (Sarcobatus vermiculatus).

Chupatty (n.) A kind of griddlecake of unleavened bread, used among the natives of India.

Cincinnus (n.) A form of monochasium in which the lateral branches arise alternately on opposite sides of the false axis; -- called also scorpioid cyme.

Cinematograph (n.) A machine, combining magic lantern and kinetoscope features, for projecting on a screen a series of pictures, moved rapidly (25 to 50 a second) and intermittently before an objective lens, and producing by persistence of vision the illusion of continuous motion; a moving-picture machine; also, any of several other machines or devices producing moving pictorial effects. Other common names for the cinematograph are animatograph, biograph, bioscope, electrograph, electroscope, kinematograph, kinetoscope, veriscope, vitagraph, vitascope, zoogyroscope, zoopraxiscope, etc.

Clip (n.) A gaff or hook for landing the fish, as in salmon fishing.

Coherer (n.) Any device in which an imperfectly conducting contact between pieces of metal or other conductors loosely resting against each other is materially improved in conductivity by the influence of Hertzian waves; -- so called by Sir O. J. Lodge in 1894 on the assumption that the impact of the electic waves caused the loosely connected parts to cohere, or weld together, a condition easily destroyed by tapping. A common form of coherer as used in wireless telegraphy consists of a tube containing filings (usually a pinch of nickel and silver filings in equal parts) between terminal wires or plugs (called conductor plugs).

Colony (n.) A cell family or group of common origin, mostly of unicellular organisms, esp. among the lower algae. They may adhere in chains or groups, or be held together by a gelatinous envelope.

Columbus Day () The 12th day of October, on which day in 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered America, landing on one of the Bahama Islands (probably the one now commonly called Watling Island), and naming it "San Salvador"; -- called also Discovery Day. This day is made a legal holiday in many States of The United States.

Commutation ticket () A ticket for transportation at a reduced rate in consideration of some special circumstance, as increase of travel; specif., a ticket for a certain number of, or for daily, trips between neighboring places at a reduced rate, such as are commonly used by those doing business in a city and living in a suburb. Commutation tickets are excepted from the prohibition against special rates contained in the Interstate Commerce Act of Feb. 4, 1887 (24 Stat. 379), and in 145 U. S. 263 it was held that party tickets were also excepted as being "obviously within the commuting principle."

Congreve (n.) Short for Congreve match, an early friction match, containing sulphur, potassium chlorate, and antimony sulphide.

Cooee (n.) A peculiar cry uttered by the Australian aborigines as a call to attract attention, and also in common use among the Australian colonists. In the actual call the first syllable is much prolonged (k/"-) and the second ends in a shrill, staccato /. To represent the sound itself the spelling cooee is generally used.

Coptic Church () The native church of Egypt or church of Alexandria, which in general organization and doctrines resembles the Roman Catholic Church, except that it holds to the Monophysitic doctrine which was condemned (a. d. 451) by the council of Chalcedon, and allows its priests to marry. The "pope and patriarch" has jurisdiction over the Abyssinian Church. Since the 7th century the Coptic Church has been so isolated from modifying influences that in many respects it is the most ancient monument of primitive Christian rites and ceremonies. But centuries of subjection to Moslem rule have weakened and degraded it.

Cordoba (n.) The monetary unit of Nicaragua, equivalent to the United States gold dollar.

Correspondence school () A school that teaches by correspondence, the instruction being based on printed instruction sheets and the recitation papers written by the student in answer to the questions or requirements of these sheets. In the broadest sense of the term correspondence school may be used to include any educational institution or department for instruction by correspondence, as in a university or other educational bodies, but the term is commonly applied to various educational institutions organized on a commercial basis, some of which offer a large variety of courses in general and technical subjects, conducted by specialists.

Cosmos (n.) A genus of composite plants closely related to Bidens, usually with very showy flowers, some with yellow, others with red, scarlet, purple, white, or lilac rays. They are natives of the warmer parts of America, and many species are cultivated. Cosmos bipinnatus and C. diversifolius are among the best-known species; C. caudatus, of the West Indies, is widely naturalized.

Coup (n.) Among some tribes of North American Indians, the act of striking or touching an enemy in warfare with the hand or at close quarters, as with a short stick, in such a manner as by custom to entitle the doer to count the deed an act of bravery; hence, any of various other deeds recognized by custom as acts of bravery or honor.

Coupstick (n.) A stick or switch used among some American Indians in making or counting a coup.

Crazing (n.) Fine cracks resulting from shrinkage on the surface of glazed pottery, concrete, or other material. The admired crackle in some Oriental potteries and porcelains is crazing produced in a foreseen and regulated way. In common pottery it is often the result of exposure to undue heat, and the beginning of disintegration.

Crownland (n.) In Austria-Hungary, one of the provinces, or largest administrative divisions of the monarchy; as, the crownland of Lower Austria.

Cucullus (n.) A hood-shaped organ, resembling a cowl or monk's hood, as certain concave and arched sepals or petals.

Culver's root () The root of a handsome erect herb (Leptandra, syn. Veronica, Virginica) common in most moist woods of North America , used as an active cathartic and emetic; also, the plant itself.

Dandie Dinmont (n.) Alt. of Dandie

Dandie (n.) In Scott's "Guy Mannering", a Border farmer of eccentric but fine character, who owns two terriers claimed to be the progenitors of the Dandie Dinmont terriers.

Debenture (n.) Any of various instruments issued, esp. by corporations, as evidences of debt. Such instruments (often called debenture bonds) are generally, through not necessarily, under seal, and are usually secured by a mortgage or other charge upon property; they may be registered or unregistered. A debenture secured by a mortgage on specific property is called a mortgage debenture; one secured by a floating charge (which see), a floating debenture; one not secured by any charge a naked debenture. In general the term debenture in British usage designates any security issued by companies other than their shares, including, therefore, what are in the United States commonly called bonds. When used in the United States debenture generally designates an instrument secured by a floating charge junior to other charges secured by fixed mortgages, or, specif., one of a series of securities secured by a group of securities held in trust for the benefit of the debenture holders.

Derecho (n.) A straight wind without apparent cyclonic tendency, usually accompanied with rain and often destructive, common in the prairie regions of the United States.

Diamond anniversary () Alt. of jubilee

Diamond State () Delaware; -- a nickname alluding to its small size.

Diaspora (n.) Lit., "Dispersion." -- applied collectively: (a) To those Jews who, after the Exile, were scattered through the Old World, and afterwards to Jewish Christians living among heathen. Cf. James i. 1. (b) By extension, to Christians isolated from their own communion, as among the Moravians to those living, usually as missionaries, outside of the parent congregation.

Doe, John () The fictitious lessee acting as plaintiff in the common-law action of ejectment, the fictitious defendant being usually denominated Richard Roe. Hence, a fictitious name for a party, real or fictitious, to any action or proceeding.

Duffer (n.) Any common domestic pigeon.

Dukhobortsy (n. pl.) A Russian religious sect founded about the middle of the 18th century at Kharkov. They believe that Christ was wholly human, but that his soul reappears from time to time in mortals. They accept the Ten Commandments and the "useful" portions of the Bible, but deny the need of rulers, priests, or churches, and have no confessions, icons, or marriage ceremonies. They are communistic, opposed to any violence, and unwilling to use the labor of animals. Driven out of Russia proper, many have emigrated to Cyprus and Canada. See Raskolnik, below.

Easter lily () The common white lily (Lilium candidum), called also Annunciation lily.

Eastern Church () That portion of the Christian church which prevails in the countries once comprised in the Eastern Roman Empire and the countries converted to Christianity by missionaries from them. Its full official title is The Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Eastern Church. It became estranged from the Western, or Roman, Church over the question of papal supremacy and the doctrine of the filioque, and a separation, begun in the latter part of the 9th century, became final in 1054. The Eastern Church consists of twelve (thirteen if the Bulgarian Church be included) mutually independent churches (including among these the Hellenic Church, or Church of Greece, and the Russian Church), using the vernacular (or some ancient form of it) in divine service and varying in many points of detail, but standing in full communion with each other and united as equals in a great federation. The highest five authorities are the patriarch of Constantinople, or ecumenical patriarch (whose position is not one of supremacy, but of precedence), the patriarch of Alexandria, the patriarch of Jerusalem, the patriarch of Antioch, and the Holy Synod of Russia. The Eastern Church accepts the first seven ecumenical councils (and is hence styled only schismatic, not heretical, by the Roman Catholic Church), has as its creed the Niceno-Constantinopolitan (without the later addition of the filioque, which, with the doctrine it represents, the church decisively rejects), baptizes infants with trine immersion, makes confirmation follow immediately upon baptism, administers the Communion in both kinds (using leavened bread) and to infants as well as adults, permits its secular clergy to marry before ordination and to keep their wives afterward, but not to marry a second time, selects its bishops from the monastic clergy only, recognizes the offices of bishop, priest, and deacon as the three necessary degrees of orders, venerates relics and icons, and has an elaborate ritual.

Empressement (n.) Demonstrative warmth or cordiality of manner; display of enthusiasm.

En rapport () In accord, harmony, or sympathy; having a mutual, esp. a private, understanding; of a hypnotic subject, being in such a mental state as to be especially subject to the influence of a particular person or persons.

Esperanto (n.) An artificial language, intended to be universal, devised by Dr. Zamenhof, a Russian, who adopted the pseudonym "Dr. Esperanto" in publishing his first pamphlet regarding it in 1887. The vocabulary is very largely based upon words common to the chief European languages, and sounds peculiar to any one language are eliminated. The spelling is phonetic, and the accent (stress) is always on the penult.

Fadaise (n.) A vapid or meaningless remark; a commonplace; nonsense.

Favier explosive () Any of several explosive mixtures, chiefly of ammonium nitrate and a nitrate derivative of naphthalene. They are stable, but require protection from moisture. As prepared it is a compressed cylinder of the explosive, filled with loose powder of the same composition, all inclosed in waterproof wrappers. It is used for mining.

Fiesta (n.) Among Spanish, a religious festival; a saint's day or holiday; also, a holiday or festivity.

Filiation (n.) One that is derived from a parent or source; an offshoot; as, the filiations are from a common stock.

Flannel flower () The common mullein.

Fossick (v. i.) To search for gold by picking at stone or earth or among roots in isolated spots, picking over abandoned workings, etc.; hence, to steal gold or auriferous matter from another's claim.

Frejol () The beanlike seed of any of several related plants, as the cowpea. Frijoles are an important article of diet among Spanish-American peoples, being used as an ingredient of many dishes.

Fumed oak () Oak given a weathered appearance by exposure in an air-tight compartment to fumes of ammonia from uncorked cans, being first given a coat of filler.

Function (n.) A religious ceremony, esp. one particularly impressive and elaborate.

Function (n.) A public or social ceremony or gathering; a festivity or entertainment, esp. one somewhat formal.

Gam (v. t.) To have a gam with; to pay a visit to, esp. among whalers at sea.

Gamete (n.) A sexual cell or germ cell; a conjugating cell which unites with another of like or unlike character to form a new individual. In Bot., gamete designates esp. the similar sex cells of the lower thallophytes which unite by conjugation, forming a zygospore. The gametes of higher plants are of two sorts, sperm (male) and egg (female); their union is called fertilization, and the resulting zygote an oospore. In Zool., gamete is most commonly used of the sexual cells of certain Protozoa, though also extended to the germ cells of higher forms.

Ganz system () A haulage system for canal boats, in which an electric locomotive running on a monorail has its adhesion materially increased by the pull of the tow rope on a series of inclined gripping wheels.

Genoa cake () A rich glazed cake, with almonds, pistachios, filberts, or other nuts; also, a rich currant cake with almonds on the top.

Gentlemen's agreement () An agreement binding only as a matter of honor; often, specif., such an agreement among the heads of industrial or merchantile enterprises, the terms of which could not be included and enforced in a legal contract.

Ghazi (n.) Among Mohammedans, a warrior champion or veteran, esp. in the destruction of infidels.

Gongorism (n.) An affected elegance or euphuism of style, for which the Spanish poet Gongora y Argote (1561-1627), among others of his time, was noted.

Graft (n.) Acquisition of money, position, etc., by dishonest or unjust means, as by actual theft or by taking advantage of a public office or any position of trust or employment to obtain fees, perquisites, profits on contracts, legislation, pay for work not done or service not performed, etc.; illegal or unfair practice for profit or personal advantage; also, anything thus gained.

Gringo (n.) Among Spanish Americans, a foreigner, esp. an Englishman or American; -- often used as a term of reproach.

Grolier (n.) The name by which Jean Grolier de Servier (1479-1565), a French bibliophile, is commonly known; -- used in naming a certain style of binding, a design, etc.

Guaiacol (n.) A colorless liquid, C7H8O2, with a peculiar odor. It is the methyl ether of pyrocatechin, and is obtained by distilling guaiacum from wood-tar creosote, and in other ways. It has been used in treating pulmonary tuberculosis.

Headwater (n.) The source and upper part of a stream; -- commonly used in the plural; as, the headwaters of the Missouri.

Helium (n.) An inert, monoatomic, gaseous element occurring in the atmosphere of the sun and stars, and in small quantities in the earth's atmosphere, in several minerals and in certain mineral waters. Symbol, He; at. wt., 4. Helium was first detected spectroscopically in the sun by Lockyer in 1868; it was first prepared by Ramsay in 1895. Helium has a density of 1.98 compared with hydrogen, and is more difficult to liquefy than the latter. Chemically, it belongs to the argon group and cannot be made to form compounds. It is a decomposition product of the radium emanation.

Heteroecious (a.) Passing through the different stages in its life history on an alternation of hosts, as the common wheat-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis), and certain other parasitic fungi; -- contrasted with autoecious.

Hindu, calendar () A lunisolar calendar of India, according to which the year is divided into twelve months, with an extra month inserted after every month in which two new moons occur (once in three years).

Hittite (n.) A member of an ancient people (or perhaps group of peoples) whose settlements extended from Armenia westward into Asia Minor and southward into Palestine. They are known to have been met along the Orontes as early as 1500 b. c., and were often at war with the Egyptians and Assyrians. Especially in the north they developed a considerable civilization, of which numerous monuments and inscriptions are extant. Authorities are not agreed as to their race. While several attempts have been made to decipher the Hittite characters, little progress has yet been made.

Hollandaise (n.) A sauce consisting essentially of a seasoned emulsion of butter and yolk of eggs with a little lemon juice or vinegar.

Hormone (n.) A chemical substance formed in one organ and carried in the circulation to another organ on which it exerts a stimulating effect; thus, according to Starling, the gastric glands are stimulated by a hormone from the pyloric mucous membrane.

Humpbacked salmon () A small salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) which ascends the rivers of the Pacific coast from California to Alaska, and also on the Asiatic side. In the breeding season the male has a large dorsal hump and distorted jaws.

Initiative (n.) The right or procedure by which legislation may be introduced or enacted directly by the people, as in the Swiss Confederation and in many of the States of the United States; -- chiefly used with the. The procedure of the initiative is essentially as follows: Upon the filing of a petition signed by a required number or percentage of qualified voters the desired measure must be submitted to a popular vote, and upon receiving the required majority (commonly a majority of those voting on the measure submitted) it becomes a law. In some States of the United States the initiative is only local; in others it is state-wide and includes the making of constitutional amendments.

Intercrop (n.) A crop grown among or between the rows of another crop; a catch crop.

Interdenominational (a.) Occurring between or among, or common to, different denominations; as, interdenominational fellowship or belief.

Invertase (n.) By extension, any enzyme which splits cane sugar, milk sugar, lactose, etc., into monosaccharides.

Jeffersonian simplicity () The absence of pomp or display which Jefferson aimed at in his administration as President (1801-1809), eschewing display or ceremony tending to distinguish the President from the people, as in going to the capital on horseback and with no escort, the abolition of court etiquette and the weekly levee, refusal to recognize titles of honor, etc.

Jewish calendar () A lunisolar calendar in use among Hebraic peoples, reckoning from the year 3761 b. c., the date traditionally given for the Creation.

Jumping disease () A convulsive tic similar to or identical with miryachit, observed among the woodsmen of Maine.

Keta (n.) A small salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) of inferior value, which in the autumn runs up all the larger rivers between San Francisco and Kamchatka.

Kid (n.) Among pugilists, thieves, etc., a youthful expert; -- chiefly used attributively; as, kid Jones.

-nos (pl. ) of Kimono

Kimono (n.) A kind of loose robe or gown tied with a sash, worn as an outer garment by Japanese men and women.

Kimono (n.) A similar gown worn as a dressing gown by women of Western nations.

Kiva (n.) A large chamber built under, or in, the houses of a Pueblo village, used as an assembly room in religious rites or as a men's dormitory. It is commonly lighted and entered from an opening in the roof.

Kolinsky (n.) Among furriers, any of several Asiatic minks; esp., Putorius sibiricus, the yellowish brown pelt of which is valued, esp. for the tail, used for making artists' brushes. Trade names for the fur are red sable and Tatar sable.

Kosher (a.) Ceremonially clean, according to Jewish law; -- applied to food, esp. to meat of animals slaughtered according to the requirements of Jewish law. Opposed to tref. Hence, designating a shop, store, house, etc., where such food is sold or used.

Larvate (a.) Masked; hence, concealed; obscure; -- applied in medicine to doubtful cases of some diseases; as, larvate pneumonis; larvate epilepsy.

Latah (n.) A convulsive tic or hysteric neurosis prevalent among Malays, similar to or identical with miryachit and jumping disease, the person affected performing various involuntary actions and making rapid inarticulate ejaculations in imitation of the actions and words of another person.

Lautverschiebung (n.) A somewhat similar set of changes taking place in the High German dialects (less fully in modern literary German) from the 6th to the 8th century, known as the second Lautverschiebung, the result of which form the striking differences between High German and The Low German Languages. The statement of these changes is commonly regarded as forming part of Grimm's law, because included in it as originally framed.

Libellee (n.) The party against whom a libel has been filed; -- corresponding to defendant in a common law action.

Liederkranz (n.) Lit., wreath of songs; -- used as the title of a group of songs, and esp. as the common name for German vocal clubs of men.

Lineup (n.) any arrangement of persons (rarely, of things), esp. when having a common purpose or sentiment; as, the line-up at a ticket-office window; the line-up of political factions.

Lingua Franca () Any hybrid or other language used over a wide area as a common or commercial tongue among peoples of different speech.

Lowboy (n.) A chest of drawers not more than four feet high; -- applied commonly to the lower half of a tallboy from which the upper half has been removed.

Mafia (n.) A secret society which organized in Sicily as a political organization, but is now widespread among Italians, and is used to further or protect private interests, reputedly by illegal methods.

Mallee (n.) A dwarf Australian eucalypt with a number of thin stems springing from a thickened stock. The most common species are Eucalyptus dumosa and E. Gracilis.

Manzanilla (n.) A kind of small roundish olive with a small freestone pit, a fine skin, and a peculiar bitterish flavor. Manzanillas are commonly pitted and stuffed with Spanish pimientos.

Mastabah () In Mohammedan countries, a fixed seat, common in dwellings and in public places.

Matelotte (n.) A stew, commonly of fish, flavored with wine, and served with a wine sauce containing onions, mushrooms, etc.

Maundy (n.) The ceremony of washing the feet of the poor on Maundy Thursday.

Maundy (n.) The alms distributed in connection with this ceremony or on Maundy Thursday.

Maundy coins () Alt. of money

money () Silver coins or money of the nominal value of 1d., 2d., 3d., and 4d., struck annually for the Maundy alms.

Medicine (n.) Among the North American Indians, any object supposed to give control over natural or magical forces, to act as a protective charm, or to cause healing; also, magical power itself; the potency which a charm, token, or rite is supposed to exert.

Medicine (n.) Hence, a similar object or agency among other savages.

Mixer (n.) A person who has social intercourse with others of many sorts; a person viewed as to his casual sociability; -- commonly used with some characterizing adjective; as, a good mixer; a bad mixer.

Mohammedan calendar () A lunar calendar reckoning from the year of the hegira, 622 a. d. Thirty of its years constitute a cycle, of which the 2d, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 21st, 24th, 26th, and 29th are leap years, having 355 days; the others are common, having 354 days.

Mohammedan year () The year used by Mohammedans, consisting of twelve lunar months without intercalation, so that they retrograde through all the seasons in about 32/ years. The Mohammedan era begins with the year 622 a.d., the first day of the Mohammedan year 1332 begin Nov. 30, 1913, acording to the Gregorian calendar.

Mon (n.) The badge of a family, esp. of a family of the ancient feudal nobility. The most frequent form of the mon is circular, and it commonly consists of conventionalized forms from nature, flowers, birds, insects, the lightnings, the waves of the sea, or of geometrical symbolic figures; color is only a secondary character. It appears on lacquer and pottery, and embroidered on, or woven in, fabrics. The imperial chrysanthemum, the mon of the reigning family, is used as a national emblem. Formerly the mon of the shoguns of the Tokugawa family was so used.

Mongoose (n.) A Madagascan lemur (Lemur mongos).

Monitor (n.) A monitor nozzle.

-rid () A simple sugar; any of a number of sugars (including the trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, etc.), not decomposable into simpler sugars by hydrolysis. Specif., as used by some, a hexose. The monosaccharides are all open-chain compounds containing hydroxyl groups and either an aldehyde group or a ketone group.

Morgan (n.) One of a celebrated breed of American trotting horses; -- so called from the name of the stud from which the breed originated in Vermont.

Mormon (n.) A member of a sect, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus of Latterday Saints, which has always rejected polygamy. It was organized in 1852, and is represented in about forty States and Territories of the United States.

Motor generator () The combination consisting of a generator and a driving motor mechanically connected, usually on a common bedplate and with the two shafts directly coupled or combined into a single shaft.

Movie (n.) A moving picture or a moving picture show; -- commonly used in pl.

Muggur () The common crocodile (Crocodilus palustris) of India, the East Indies, etc. It becomes twelve feet or more long.

Mumbo Jumbo (n.) Among the Mandingos of the western Sudan, a bugbear by means of which the women are terrified and disciplined by societies of the men, one of whom assumes a masquerade for the purpose; hence, loosely, any Negro idol, fetish, or bugaboo.

Mykiss (n.) A salmon (Salmo mykiss, syn. S. purpuratus) marked with black spots and a red throat, found in most of the rivers from Alaska to the Colorado River, and in Siberia; -- called also black-spotted trout, cutthroat trout, and redthroat trout.

Neapolitan ice cream () An ice or ice cream prepared in layers, as vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate ice cream, and orange or lemon water ice.

Neo-Greek (n.) A member of a body of French painters (F. les neo-Grecs) of the middle 19th century. The term is rather one applied by outsiders to certain artists of grave and refined style, such as Hamon and Aubert, than a name adopted by the artists themselves.

Nerka (n.) The most important salmon of Alaska (Oncorhinchus nerka), ascending in spring most rivers and lakes from Alaska to Oregon, Washington, and Idaho; -- called also red salmon, redfish, blueback, and sawqui.

Nero-antico (n.) A beautiful black marble found in fragments among Roman ruins, and usually thought to have come from ancient Laconia.

Nibelungs (n. pl.) In German mythology, the children of the mist, a race of dwarfs or demonic beings, the original possessors of the famous hoard and ring won by Siegfrid; also, the Burgundian kings in the Nibelungenlied.

Odal (n.) Among the early and medieval Teutonic peoples, esp. Scandinavians, the heritable land held by the various odalmen constituting a family or kindred of freeborn tribesmen; also, the ownership of such land. The odal was subject only to certain rights of the family or kindred in restricting the freedom of transfer or sale and giving certain rights of redemption in case of change of ownership by inheritance, etc., and perhaps to other rights of the kindred or the tribe. Survivals of the early odal estates and tenure exist in Orkney and Shetland, where it is usually called by the variant form udal.

Om (interj. & n.) A mystic syllable or ejaculation used by Hindus and Buddhists in religious rites, -- orig. among the Hindus an exclamation of assent, like Amen, then an invocation, and later a symbol of the trinity formed by Vishnu, Siva, and Brahma.

Ouananiche (n.) A small landlocked variety of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar ounaniche) of Lake St. John, Canada, and neighboring waters, noted for its vigor and activity, and habit of leaping from the water when hooked.

Outre (a.) Out of the common course or limits; extravagant; bizarre; as, an outre costume.

Padre (n.) A Christian priest or monk; -- used in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Spanish America.

Pajamas (n. pl.) Originally, in India, loose drawers or trousers, such as those worn, tied about the waist, by Mohammedan men and women; by extension, a similar garment adopted among Europeans, Americans, etc., for wear in the dressing room and during sleep; also, a suit consisting of drawers and a loose upper garment for such wear.

Paranoia (n.) A chronic form of insanity characterized by very gradual impairment of the intellect, systematized delusion, and usually by delusious of persecution or mandatory delusions producing homicidal tendency. In its mild form paranoia may consist in the well-marked crotchetiness exhibited in persons commonly called "cranks." Paranoiacs usually show evidences of bodily and nervous degeneration, and many have hallucinations, esp. of sight and hearing.

Pasteur's fluid () An artificial nutrient fluid invented by Pasteur for the study of alcoholic fermentation, but used also for the cultivation of bacteria and other organisms. It contains all the elements of protoplasm, and was originally made of the ash of yeast, some ammonia compound, sugar, and water.

Peag (n.) A kind of aboriginal shell money, or wampum, of the Atlantic coast of the United States; -- originally applied only to polished white cylindrical beads.

Phenalgin (n.) An ammoniated compound of phenyl and acetamide, used as an analgesic and antipyretic. It resembles phenacetin in its therapeutic action.

Philharmonic (n.) One who loves harmony or music;

Philharmonic (n.) short for Philharmonic Society, concert, assemblage, or the like.

Photoheliometer (n.) A double-lens instrument for measuring slight variations of the sun's diameter by photography, utilizing the common chord of two overlapping images.

Photonephograph (n.) A nephoscope registering by photography, commonly consisting of a pair of cameras used simultaneously.

Photosynthesis (n.) The process of constructive metabolism by which carbohydrates are formed from water vapor and the carbon dioxide of the air in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to the action of light. It was formerly called assimilation, but this is now commonly used as in animal physiology. The details of the process are not yet clearly known. Baeyer's theory is that the carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide, which, uniting with the hydrogen of the water in the cell, produces formaldehyde, the latter forming various sugars through polymerization. Vines suggests that the carbohydrates are secretion products of the chloroplasts, derived from decomposition of previously formed proteids. The food substances are usually quickly translocated, those that accumulate being changed to starch, which appears in the cells almost simultaneously with the sugars. The chloroplasts perform photosynthesis only in light and within a certain range of temperature, varying according to climate. This is the only way in which a plant is able to organize carbohydrates. All plants without a chlorophyll apparatus, as the fungi, must be parasitic or saprophytic.

Pilpul (n.) Among the Jews, penetrating investigation, disputation, and drawing of conclusions, esp. in Talmudic study.

Pintado (n.) A fish (Scomberomorus regalis) similar to, but larger than, the Spanish mackerel, and having elongated spots, common about Florida and the West Indies.

-zin () A crystalline substance, (C2H4NH)2, formed by action of ammonia on ethylene bromide, by reduction of pyrazine, etc. It is a strong base, and is used as a remedy for gout.

Plasmon (n.) A flourlike food preparation made from skim milk, and consisting essentially of the unaltered proteid of milk. It is also used in making biscuits and crackers, for mixing with cocoa, etc. A mixture of this with butter, water, and salt is called Plasmon butter, and resembles clotted cream in appearance.

Plate (n.) A small five-sided area (enveloping a diamond-shaped area one foot square) beside which the batter stands and which must be touched by some part of a player on completing a run; -- called also home base, or home plate.

Plebs (n.) The commonalty of ancient Rome who were citizens without the usual political rights; the plebeians; -- distinguished from the patricians.

Plebs (n.) Hence, the common people; the populace; -- construed as a pl.

Plum (n.) Something likened to a plum in desirableness; a good or choice thing of its kind, as among appointments, positions, parts of a book, etc.

Plunk (n.) A large sum of money.

Point (n.) One of the raised dots used in certain systems of printing and writing for the blind. The first practical system was that devised by Louis Braille in 1829, and still used in Europe (see Braille). Two modifications of this are current in the United States: New York point founded on three bases of equidistant points arranged in two lines (viz., : :: :::), and a later improvement, American Braille, embodying the Braille base (:::) and the New-York-point principle of using the characters of few points for the commonest letters.

Post-impressionism (n.) In the broadest sense, the theory or practice of any of several groups of recent painters, or of these groups taken collectively, whose work and theories have in common a tendency to reaction against the scientific and naturalistic character of impressionism and neo-impressionism. In a strict sense the term post-impressionism is used to denote the effort at self-expression, rather than representation, shown in the work of Cezanne, Matisse, etc.; but it is more broadly used to include cubism, the theory or practice of a movement in both painting and sculpture which lays stress upon volume as the important attribute of objects and attempts its expression by the use of geometrical figures or solids only; and futurism, a theory or practice which attempts to place the observer within the picture and to represent simultaneously a number of consecutive movements and impressions. In practice these theories and methods of the post-impressionists change with great rapidity and shade into one another, so that a picture may be both cubist and futurist in character. They tend to, and sometimes reach, a condition in which both representation and traditional decoration are entirely abolished and a work of art becomes a purely subjective expression in an arbitrary and personal language.

Pot-au-feu (n.) A dish of broth, meat, and vegetables prepared by boiling in a pot, -- a dish esp. common among the French.

Potlatch (n.) Among the Kwakiutl, Chimmesyan, and other Indians of the northwestern coast of North America, a ceremonial distribution by a man of gifts to his own and neighboring tribesmen, often, formerly, to his own impoverishment. Feasting, dancing, and public ceremonies accompany it.

Praline (n.) A confection made of nut kernels, usually of almonds, roasted in boiling sugar until brown and crisp.

Prime (a.) Having no common factor; -- used with to; as, 12 is prime to 25.

Primrose League () A league of both sexes among the Conservatives, founded in 1883. So called because primrose was (erroneously, it is said) taken to be the favorite flower of the Conservative statesman Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield.

Producer's surplus () Any profit above the normal rate of interest and wages accruing to a producer on account of some monopoly (temporary or permanent) of the means or materials of production; -- called also Producer's rent.

Progressive party () The political party formed, chiefly out of the Republican party, by the adherents of Theodore Roosevelt in the presidential campaign of 1912. The name Progressive party was chosen at the meeting held on Aug. 7, 1912, when the candidates were nominated and the platform adopted. Among the chief articles in the platform are those demanding direct primaries, preferential primaries for presidential nominations, direct election of United States senators, women's suffrage, and recall of judicial decisions in certain cases.

Prosit (interj.) Lit., may it do (you) good; -- a salutation used in well wishing, esp. among Germans, as in drinking healths.

Public school () In Great Britain, any of various schools maintained by the community, wholly or partly under public control, or maintained largely by endowment and not carried on chiefly for profit; specif., and commonly, any of various select and usually expensive endowed schools which give a liberal modern education or prepare pupils for the universities. Eton, Harrow, Rugby, and Winchester are of this class.

Pajamas (n. pl.) A garment, similar to the Oriental pyjama (which see), adopted among Europeans, Americans, and other Occidentals, for wear in the dressing room and during sleep; also, a suit of drawers and blouse for such wear.

Pylon (n.) A tower, commonly of steelwork, for supporting either end of a wire, as for a telegraph line, over a long span.

Quartered (a.) Quarter-sawed; -- said of timber, commonly oak.

Quichuan (a.) Designating, or pertaining to, a linguistic stock of South American Indians, including the majority of the civilized tribes of the ancient Peruvian Empire with some wild tribes never subjugated by the Incas. Most of these Indians are short, but heavy and strong. They are brachycephalic and of remarkably low cranial capacity. Nevertheless, they represent one of the highest of native American civilizations, characterized by agricultural, military, and administrative skill rather than by science or literature, although they were adept potters, weavers, and goldsmiths, and preserved by the aid of the mnemonic quipu a body of legendary lore in part written down since the introduction of writing.

Quill (n.) A roll of dried bark; as, a quill of cinnamon or of cinchona.

Rackarock (n.) A Sprengel explosive consisting of potassium chlorate and mono-nitrobenzene.

Raiffeisen (a.) Designating, or pertaining to, a form of cooperative bank founded among the German agrarian population by Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (1818-88); as, Raiffeisen banks, the Raiffeisen system, etc. The banks are unlimited-liability institutions making small loans at a low rate of interest, for a designated purpose, to worthy members only.

Rallies (v. t.) A French political group, also known as the Constitutional Right from its position in the Chambers, mainly monarchists who rallied to the support of the Republic in obedience to the encyclical put forth by Pope Leo XIII. in Feb., 1892.

Raskolnik (n.) The name applied by the Russian government to any subject of the Greek faith who dissents from the established church. The Raskolniki embrace many sects, whose common characteristic is a clinging to antique traditions, habits, and customs. The schism originated in 1667 in an ecclesiastical dispute as to the correctness of the translation of the religious books. The dissenters, who have been continually persecuted, are believed to number about 20,000,000, although the Holy Synod officially puts the number at about 2,000,000. They are officially divided into three groups according to the degree of their variance from orthodox beliefs and observances, as follows: I. "Most obnoxious." the Judaizers; the Molokane, who refuse to recognize civil authority or to take oaths; the Dukhobortsy, or Dukhobors, who are communistic, marry without ceremony, and believe that Christ was human, but that his soul reappears at intervals in living men; the Khlysty, who countenance anthropolatory, are ascetics, practice continual self-flagellation, and reject marriage; the Skoptsy, who practice castration; and a section of the Bezpopovtsy, or priestless sect, which disbelieve in prayers for the Czar and in marriage. II. "Obnoxious:" the Bezpopovtsy, who pray for the Czar and recognize marriage. III. "Least obnoxious:" the Popovtsy, who dissent from the orthodox church in minor points only.

Recall (n.) The right or procedure by which a public official, commonly a legislative or executive official, may be removed from office, before the end of his term of office, by a vote of the people to be taken on the filing of a petition signed by a required number or percentage of qualified voters.

Regent diamond () A famous diamond of fine quality, which weighs about 137 carats and is among the state jewels of France. It is so called from the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, to whom it was sold in 1717 by Pitt the English Governor of Madras (whence also called the Pitt diamond), who bought it of an Indian merchant in 1701.

Regie (n.) Any kind of government monopoly (tobacco, salt, etc.) used chiefly as a means of taxation. Such monopolies are largely employed in Austria, Italy, France, and Spain.

Remark () A print or proof so distinguished; -- commonly called a Remarque proof.

Rent (n.) Loosely, a return or profit from a differential advantage for production, as in case of income or earnings due to rare natural gifts creating a natural monopoly.

Reserve (n.) Usually, the uninvested cash kept on hand for this purpose, called the real reserve. In Great Britain the ultimate real reserve is the gold kept on hand in the Bank of England, largely represented by the notes in hand in its own banking department; and any balance which a bank has with the Bank of England is a part of its reserve. In the United States the reserve of a national bank consists of the amount of lawful money it holds on hand against deposits, which is required by law to be not less than 15 per cent (U. S. Rev. Stat. secs. 5191, 5192), three fifths of which the banks not in a reserve city (which see) may keep deposited as balances in national banks that are in reserve cities (U. S. Rev. Stat. sec. 5192).

Residencia (n.) In Spanish countries, a court or trial held, sometimes as long as six months, by a newly elected official, as the governor of a province, to examine into the conduct of a predecessor.

Riviere (n.) A necklace of diamonds or other precious stones, esp. one of several strings.

Rollichie () A kind of sausage, made in a bag of tripe, sliced and fried, famous among the Dutch of New Amsterdam and still known, esp. in New Jersey.

Roman calendar () The calendar of the ancient Romans, from which our modern calendars are derived. It is said to have consisted originally of ten months, Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December, having a total of 304 days. Numa added two months, Januarius at the beginning of the year, and Februarius at the end, making in all 355 days. He also ordered an intercalary month, Mercedinus, to be inserted every second year. Later the order of the months was changed so that January should come before February. Through abuse of power by the pontiffs to whose care it was committed, this calendar fell into confusion. It was replaced by the Julian calendar. In designating the days of the month, the Romans reckoned backward from three fixed points, the calends, the nones, and the ides. The calends were always the first day of the month. The ides fell on the 15th in March, May, July (Quintilis), and October, and on the 13th in other months. The nones came on the eighth day (the ninth, counting the ides) before the ides. Thus, Jan. 13 was called the ides of January, Jan. 12, the day before the ides, and Jan. 11, the third day before the ides (since the ides count as one), while Jan. 14 was the 19th day before the calends of February.

Roture (n.) A feudal tenure of lands by one who has no privileges of nobility, but is permitted to discharge all his obligations to his feudal lord or superior by a payment of rent in money or kind and without rendering any personal services.

Rudbeckia (n.) A genus of composite plants, the coneflowers, consisting of perennial herbs with showy pedunculate heads, having a hemispherical involucre, sterile ray flowers, and a conical chaffy receptacle. There are about thirty species, exclusively North American. Rudbeckia hirta, the black-eyed Susan, is a common weed in meadows.

Running load () Commonly, the whole weight of aeroplane and load divided by the span, or length from tip to tip.

Saint-Simonism (n.) A system of socialism in which the state owns all the property and the laborer is entitled to share according to the quality and amount of his work, founded by Saint Simon (1760-1825).

Samurai (n. pl. & sing.) In the former feudal system of Japan, the class or a member of the class, of military retainers of the daimios, constituting the gentry or lesser nobility. They possessed power of life and death over the commoners, and wore two swords as their distinguishing mark. Their special rights and privileges were abolished with the fall of feudalism in 1871.

Sastrugi () Incorrect, but common, var. of Zastrugi.

Scarabaeus (n.) A conventionalized representation of a beetle, with its legs held closely at its sides, carved in natural or made in baked clay, and commonly having an inscription on the flat underside.

Schatchen (n.) A person whose business is marriage brokage; a marriage broker, esp. among certain Jews.

Schnorrer (n.) Among the Jews, a beggar.

Scotch rite () The ceremonial observed by one of the Masonic systems, called in full the Ancient and Accepted Scotch Rite; also, the system itself, which confers thirty-three degrees, of which the first three are nearly identical with those of the York rite.

Serac (n.) A pinnacle of ice among the crevasses of a glacier; also, one of the blocks into which a glacier breaks on a steep grade.

Series (n.) A parcel of rough diamonds of assorted qualities.

Set (n.) A stone, commonly of granite, shaped like a short brick and usually somewhat larger than one, used for street paving. Commonly written sett.

Shin Shu () The leading and most progressive Buddhist sect of Japan, resting its faith rather upon Amida than Gautama Buddha. Rites and ceremonies are held useless without uprightness.

Shire horse () One of an English breed of heavy draft horses believed to be descended largely from the horses used in war in the days of heavy armor. They are the largest of the British draft breeds, and have long hair on the back of the cannons and fetlocks. Brown or bay with white on the face and legs is now the commonest color.

Shop (n.) any of the various places of business which are commonly called offices, as of a lawyer, doctor, broker, etc.

Shroffage (n.) A money dealer's commission; also, more commonly, the examination of coins, and the separation of the good from the debased.

Silk-stocking (a.) Wearing silk stockings (which among men were formerly worn chiefly by the luxurious or aristocratic); hence, elegantly dressed; aristocratic; luxurious; -- chiefly applied to men, often by way of reproach.

Silverite (n.) One who favors the use or establishment of silver as a monetary standard; -- so called by those who favor the gold standard.

Simon-pure (a.) Genuine; true; real; authentic; -- a term alluding to the comedy character Simon Pure, who is impersonated by another and is obliged to prove himself to be the "real Simon Pure."

Skat (n.) A three-handed card game played with 32 cards, of which two constitute the skat (sense 2), or widow. The players bid for the privilege of attempting any of several games or tasks, in most of which the player undertaking the game must take tricks counting in aggregate at least 61 (the counting cards being ace 11, ten 10, king 4, queen 3, jack 2). The four jacks are the best trumps, ranking club, spade, heart, diamond, and ten outranks king or queen (but when the player undertakes to lose all the tricks, the cards rank as in whist). The value of hands depends upon the game played, trump suit, points taken, and number of matadores.

Smelling salts () An aromatic preparation of carbonate of ammonia and, often, some scent, to avoid or relieve faintness, headache, or the like.

Solomon's seal () A mystic symbol consisting of two interlaced triangles forming a star with six points, often with one triangle dark and one light, symbolic of the union of soul and body.

Spectroheliogram (n.) A photograph of the sun made by monochromatic light, usually of the calcium line (k), and showing the sun's faculae and prominences.

Split (n.) Any of the three or four strips into which osiers are commonly cleft for certain kinds of work; -- usually in pl.

Stampede (n.) Any sudden unconcerted moving or acting together of a number of persons, as from some common impulse; as, a stampede to the gold regions; a stampede in a convention.

Suberization (n.) Conversion of the cell walls into cork tissue by development of suberin; -- commonly taking place in exposed tissues, as when a callus forms over a wound. Suberized cell walls are impervious to water.

Swastica (n.) A symbol or ornament in the form of a Greek cross with the ends of the arms at right angles all in the same direction, and each prolonged to the height of the parallel arm of the cross. A great many modified forms exist, ogee and volute as well as rectilinear, while various decorative designs, as Greek fret or meander, are derived from or closely associated with it. The swastika is found in remains from the Bronze Age in various parts of Europe, esp. at Hissarlik (Troy), and was in frequent use as late as the 10th century. It is found in ancient Persia, in India, where both Jains and Buddhists used (or still use) it as religious symbol, in China and Japan, and among Indian tribes of North, Central, and South America. It is usually thought to be a charm, talisman, or religious token, esp. a sign of good luck or benediction. Max MuLler distinguished from the swastika, with arms prolonged to the right, the suavastika, with arms prolonged to the left, but this distinction is not commonly recognized. Other names for the swastika are fylfot and gammadion.

Syndicalism (n.) The theory, plan, or practice of trade-union action (originally as advocated and practiced by the French Confederation Generale du Travail) which aims to abolish the present political and social system by means of the general strike (as distinguished from the local or sectional strike) and direct action of whatever kind (as distinguished from action which takes effect only through the medium of political action) -- direct action including any kind of action that is directly effective, whether it be a simple strike, a peaceful public demonstration, sabotage, or revolutionary violence. By the general strike and direct action syndicalism aims to establish a social system in which the means and processes of production are in the control of local organizations of workers, who are manage them for the common good.

Table d'hote () Now, commonly, a meal, usually of several courses, in a restaurant, hotel, or the like, for which one pays a fixed price irrespective of what one orders; -- often used adjectively; as, a table-d'hote meal.

Taboo (a.) Set apart or sacred by religious custom among certain races of Polynesia, New Zealand, etc., and forbidden to certain persons or uses; hence, prohibited under severe penalties; interdicted; as, food, places, words, customs, etc., may be taboo.

Talapoin (n.) A Buddhist monk or priest.

Tallboy (n.) A piece of household furniture common in the eighteenth century, usually in two separate parts, with larger drawers above and smaller ones below and raised on legs fifteen inches or more in height; -- called also highboy.

Tandem engine () A steam engine having two or more steam cylinders in line, with a common piston rod.

Tantra (n.) A ceremonial treatise related to Puranic and magic literature; esp., one of the sacred works of the worshipers of Sakti.

Telega (n.) A rude four-wheeled, springless wagon, used among the Russians.

Telharmonic (a.) Of or pertaining to telharmonium.

Telharmonium (n.) An instrument for producing music (Tel*har"mo*ny [/]), at a distant point or points by means of alternating currents of electricity controlled by an operator who plays on a keyboard. The music is produced by a receiving instrument similar or analogous to the telephone, but not held to the ear. The pitch corresponds with frequency of alternation of current.

Tetrose (n.) A monosaccharide derived from a certain alcohol.

Thallophyta (n. pl.) A phylum of plants of very diverse habit and structure, including the algae, fungi, and lichens. The simpler forms, as many blue-green algae, yeasts, etc., are unicellular and reproduce vegetatively or by means of asexual spores; in the higher forms the plant body is a thallus, which may be filamentous or may consist of plates of cells; it is commonly undifferentiated into stem, leaves, and roots, and shows no distinct tissue systems; the fronds of many algae, however, are modified to serve many of the functions of the above-named organs. Both asexual and sexual reproduction, often of a complex type, occur in these forms. The Thallophyta exist almost exclusively as gametophytes, the sporophyte being absent or rudimentary. By those who do not separate the Myxophyta from the Tallophyta as a distinct phylum the latter is treated as the lowermost group in the vegetable kingdom.

Thermoneurosis (n.) A neurosis caused by exposure to heat.

Thermoneurosis (n.) A neurosis causing rise or fall of a body's temperature.

Thermoneutrality (n.) Neutrality as regards heat effects.

Titi (n.) A tree of the southern United States (Cliftonia monophylla) having glossy leaves and racemes of fragrant white flowers succeeded by one-seeded drupes; -- called also black titi, buckwheat tree, and ironwood.

Tlinkit (n. pl.) The Indians of a seafaring group of tribes of southern Alaska comprising the Koluschan stock. Previous to deterioration from contact with the whites they were the foremost traders of the northwest. They built substantial houses of cedar adorned with totem poles, and were expert stone carvers and copper workers. Slavery, the potlatch, and the use of immense labrets were characteristic. Many now work in the salmon industry.

Tom and Jerry () A hot sweetened drink of rum and water spiced with cinnamon, cloves, etc., and beaten up with eggs.

Tontine insurance () Insurance in which the benefits of the insurance are distributed upon the tontine principle. Under the old, or full tontine, plan, all benefits were forfeited on lapsed policies, on the policies of those who died within the tontine period only the face of the policy was paid without any share of the surplus, and the survivor at the end of the tontine period received the entire surplus. This plan of tontine insurance has been replaced in the United States by the semitontine plan, in which the surplus is divided among the holders of policies in force at the termination of the tontine period, but the reverse for the paid-up value is paid on lapsed policies, and on the policies of those that have died the face is paid. Other modified forms are called free tontine, deferred dividend, etc., according to the nature of the tontine arrangement.

Torana (n.) A gateway, commonly of wood, but sometimes of stone, consisting of two upright pillars carrying one to three transverse lintels. It is often minutely carved with symbolic sculpture, and serves as a monumental approach to a Buddhist temple.

propeller () A propeller screw placed in front of the supporting planes of an aeroplane instead of behind them, so that it exerts a pull instead of a push. Hence, Tractor monoplane, Tractor biplane, etc.

Trade name () The name by which an article is called among traders, etc.; as, tin spirits is a common trade name in the dyeing industry for various solutions of tin salts.

Trade name () The name or style under which a concern or firm does business. This name becomes a part of the good will of a business; it is not protected by the registration acts, but a qualified common-law protection against its misuse exists, analogous to that existing in the case of trade-marks.

Tramontana (n.) A dry, cold, violent, northerly wind of the Adriatic.

Travois (n.) A primitive vehicle, common among the North American Indians, usually two trailing poles serving as shafts and bearing a platform or net for a load.

Tree burial () Disposal of the dead by placing the corpse among the branches of a tree or in a hollow trunk, a practice among many primitive peoples.

Tref (a.) Ceremonially unclean, according to the Jewish law; -- opposed to kosher.

Trust (n.) A business organization or combination consisting of a number of firms or corporations operating, and often united, under an agreement creating a trust (in sense 1), esp. one formed mainly for the purpose of regulating the supply and price of commodities, etc.; often, opprobriously, a combination formed for the purpose of controlling or monopolizing a trade, industry, or business, by doing acts in restraint or trade; as, a sugar trust. A trust may take the form of a corporation or of a body of persons or corporations acting together by mutual arrangement, as under a contract or a so-called gentlemen's agreement. When it consists of corporations it may be effected by putting a majority of their stock either in the hands of a board of trustees (whence the name trust for the combination) or by transferring a majority to a holding company. The advantages of a trust are partly due to the economies made possible in carrying on a large business, as well as the doing away with competition. In the United States severe statutes against trusts have been passed by the Federal government and in many States, with elaborate statutory definitions.

Tuatara (n.) A large iguanalike reptile (Sphenodon punctatum) formerly common in New Zealand, but now confined to certain islets near the coast. It reaches a length of two and a half feet, is dark olive-green with small white or yellowish specks on the sides, and has yellow spines along the back, except on the neck.

Urethane (n.) A white crystalline substance, NH2.COOC2H5, produced by the action of ammonia on ethyl carbonate or by heating urea nitrate and ethyl alcohol. It is used as a hypnotic, antipyretic, and antispasmodic. Hence, any ester of carbamic acid.

Vaudeville (n.) Loosely, and now commonly, variety (see above), as, to play in vaudeville; a vaudeville actor.

Vendor's lien () An implied lien (that is, one not created by mortgage or other express agreement) given in equity to a vendor of lands for the unpaid purchase money.

Vibrator (n.) A vibrating reed for transmitting or receiving pulsating currents in a harmonic telegraph system.

Vis major () A superior force which under certain circumstances is held to exempt from contract obligations; inevitable accident; -- a civil-law term used as nearly equivalent to, but broader than, the common-law term act of God (which see).

Wall Street () A street towards the southern end of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, extending from Broadway to the East River; -- so called from the old wall which extended along it when the city belonged to the Dutch. It is the chief financial center of the United States, hence the name is often used for the money market and the financial interests of the country.

Wash (n.) The dry bed of an intermittent stream, sometimes at the bottom of a caon; as, the Amargosa wash, Diamond wash; -- called also dry wash.

Water monkey () A jar or bottle, as of porous earthenware, in which water is cooled by evaporation.

Wealth (n.) In the private sense, all pooperty which has a money value.

Week-end (n.) The end of the week; specif., though loosely, the period observed commonly as a holiday, from Saturday noon or Friday night to Monday; as, to visit one for a week-end; also, a house party during a week-end.

Wiener Schnitzel () A veal cutlet variously seasoned garnished, often with lemon, sardines, and capers.

Wisdom literature () The class of ancient Hebrew writings which deal reflectively with general ethical and religious topics, as distinguished from the prophetic and liturgical literature, and from the law. It is comprised chiefly in the books of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, and Wisdom of Solomon. The "wisdom" (Hokhmah) of these writings consists in detached sage utterances on concrete issues of life, without the effort at philosophical system that appeared in the later Hellenistic reflective writing beginning with Philo Judaeus.

Workmen's compensation act () A statute fixing the compensation that a workman may recover from an employer in case of accident, esp. the British act of 6 Edw. VII. c. 58 (1906) giving to a workman, except in certain cases of "serious and willful misconduct," a right against his employer to a certain compensation on the mere occurrence of an accident where the common law gives the right only for negligence of the employer.

Xanthochroism (n.) Abnormal coloration of feathers in which yellow replaces the normal color, as in certain parrots. It is commonly due to lack of the dark pigment which with yellow forms green.

XP () The first two letters of the Greek word XRISTOS, Christ; -- an abbreviation used with the letters separate or, oftener, in a monogram, often inclosed in a circle, as a symbol or emblem of Christ. It use as an emblem was introduced by Constantine the Great, whence it is known as the Constantinian symbol, or monogram. See Labarum.

Yazoo Fraud () The grant by the State of Georgia, by Act of Jan. 7, 1795, of 35,000,000 acres of her western territory, for $500,000, to four companies known as the Yazoo Companies from the region granted ; -- commonly so called, the act being known as the Yazoo Frauds Act, because of alleged corruption of the legislature, every member but one being a shareholder in one or more of the companies. The act granting the land was repealed in 1796 by a new legislature, and the repealing provision was incorporated in the State constitution in 1798. In 1802 the territory was ceded to the United States. The claims of the purchasers, whom Georgia had refused to compensate, were sustained by the United States Supreme Court, which (1810) declared the repealing act of 1796 unconstitutional. Congress in 1814 ordered the lands sold and appropriated $5,000,000 to pay the claims.

York rite () The rite or ceremonial observed by one of the Masonic systems, deriving its name from the city of York, in England; also, the system itself, which, in England, confers only the first three degrees.

Young Men's Christian Association () An organization for promoting the spiritual, intellectual, social, and physical welfare of young men, founded, June 6, 1844, by George Williams (knighted therefor by Queen Victoria) in London. In 1851 it extended to the United States and Canada, and in 1855 representatives of similar organizations throughout Europe and America formed an international body. The movement has successfully expanded not only among young men in general, but also specifically among railroad men, in the army and navy, with provision for Indians and negroes, and a full duplication of all the various lines of oepration in the boys' departments.

Yuman (a.) Designating, or pertaining to, an important linguistic stock of North American Indians of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, nearly all agriculturists and adept potters and basket makers. Their usual dwelling is the brush wikiup, and in their native state they wear little clothing. The Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Walapi, and Yavapai are among the chief tribes, all of fine physique.

Zionism (n.) Among the Jews, a theory, plan, or movement for colonizing their own race in Palestine, the land of Zion, or, if that is impracticable, elsewhere, either for religious or nationalizing purposes; -- called also Zion movement.

Zoism (n.) Reverence for animal life or belief in animal powers and influences, as among savages.

O () Among the ancients, O was a mark of triple time, from the notion that the ternary, or number 3, is the most perfect of numbers, and properly expressed by a circle, the most perfect figure.

Oat (n.) A well-known cereal grass (Avena sativa), and its edible grain; -- commonly used in the plural and in a collective sense.

Ob- () A prefix signifying to, toward, before, against, reversely, etc.; also, as a simple intensive; as in oblige, to bind to; obstacle, something standing before; object, lit., to throw against; obovate, reversely, ovate. Ob- is commonly assimilated before c, f, g, and p, to oc-, of-, og-, and op-.

Obdiplostemonous (a.) Having twice as many stamens as petals, those of the outer set being opposite the petals; -- said of flowers.

Obdiplostemony (n.) The condition of being obdiplostemonous.

Obedience (n.) A cell (or offshoot of a larger monastery) governed by a prior.

Obedience (n.) One of the three monastic vows.

Obelisk (n.) An upright, four-sided pillar, gradually tapering as it rises, and terminating in a pyramid called pyramidion. It is ordinarily monolithic. Egyptian obelisks are commonly covered with hieroglyphic writing from top to bottom.

Obi (n.) A species of sorcery, probably of African origin, practiced among the negroes of the West Indies.

Oblati (n. pl.) Children dedicated in their early years to the monastic state.

Oblati (n. pl.) A class of persons, especially in the Middle Ages, who offered themselves and their property to a monastery.

Obliterate (v. t.) To wear out; to remove or destroy utterly by any means; to render imperceptible; as. to obliterate ideas; to obliterate the monuments of antiquity.

Obsequy (n.) The last duty or service to a person, rendered after his death; hence, a rite or ceremony pertaining to burial; -- now used only in the plural.

Observance (n.) An act, ceremony, or rite, as of worship or respect; especially, a customary act or service of attention; a form; a practice; a rite; a custom.

Obtund (v. t.) To reduce the edge, pungency, or violent action of; to dull; to blunt; to deaden; to quell; as, to obtund the acrimony of the gall.

Ochre (n.) A impure earthy ore of iron or a ferruginous clay, usually red (hematite) or yellow (limonite), -- used as a pigment in making paints, etc. The name is also applied to clays of other colors.

October (n.) The tenth month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

October (n.) Ale or cider made in that month.

Octroi (n.) A tax levied in money or kind at the gate of a French city on articles brought within the walls.

Oculomotor (a.) Of or pertaining to the movement of the eye; -- applied especially to the common motor nerves (or third pair of cranial nerves) which supply many of the muscles of the orbit.

Odd (superl.) Different from what is usual or common; unusual; singular; peculiar; unique; strange.

Oe () a diphthong, employed in the Latin language, and thence in the English language, as the representative of the Greek diphthong oi. In many words in common use, e alone stands instead of /. Classicists prefer to write the diphthong oe separate in Latin words.

Of (prep.) Denoting part of an aggregate or whole; belonging to a number or quantity mentioned; out of; from amongst; as, of this little he had some to spare; some of the mines were unproductive; most of the company.

Offering (n.) A sum of money offered, as in church service; as, a missionary offering. Specif.: (Ch. of Eng.) Personal tithes payable according to custom, either at certain seasons as Christmas or Easter, or on certain occasions as marriages or christenings.

Often (a.) Frequent; common; repeated.

Ogre (n.) An imaginary monster, or hideous giant of fairy tales, who lived on human beings; hence, any frightful giant; a cruel monster.

Oidium (n.) A genus of minute fungi which form a floccose mass of filaments on decaying fruit, etc. Many forms once referred to this genus are now believed to be temporary conditions of fungi of other genera, among them the vine mildew (Oidium Tuckeri), which has caused much injury to grapes.

Oleander (n.) A beautiful evergreen shrub of the Dogbane family, having clusters of fragrant red or white flowers. It is native of the East Indies, but the red variety has become common in the south of Europe. Called also rosebay, rose laurel, and South-sea rose.

Oleaster (n.) Any species of the genus Elaeagus. See Eleagnus. The small silvery berries of the common species (Elaeagnus hortensis) are called Trebizond dates, and are made into cakes by the Arabs.

Olivine (n.) A common name of the yellowish green mineral chrysolite, esp. the variety found in eruptive rocks.

Olusatrum (n.) An umbelliferous plant, the common Alexanders of Western Europe (Smyrnium Olusatrum).

Omen (v. t.) To divine or to foreshow by signs or portents; to have omens or premonitions regarding; to predict; to augur; as, to omen ill of an enterprise.

Onappo (n.) A nocturnal South American monkey (Callithrix discolor), noted for its agility; -- called also ventriloquist monkey.

One (a.) Single in kind; the same; a common.

Oneself (pron.) A reflexive form of the indefinite pronoun one. Commonly writen as two words, one's self.

Ootocoid (n.) A half oviparous, or an oviparous, mammal; a marsupial or monotreme.

Opelet (n.) A bright-colored European actinian (Anemonia, / Anthea, sulcata); -- so called because it does not retract its tentacles.

Operculum (n.) The lid closing the aperture of various species of shells, as the common whelk. See Illust. of Gastropoda.

Opetide (n.) The time after harvest when the common fields are open to all kinds of stock.

Ophiomorphite (n.) An ammonite.

Opisthopulmonate (a.) Having the pulmonary sac situated posteriorly; -- said of certain air-breathing Mollusca.

Opobalsamum (n.) The old name of the aromatic resinous juice of the Balsamodendron opobalsamum, now commonly called balm of Gilead. See under Balm.

Opossum (n.) Any American marsupial of the genera Didelphys and Chironectes. The common species of the United States is Didelphys Virginiana.

Ora (n.) A money of account among the Anglo-Saxons, valued, in the Domesday Book, at twenty pence sterling.

Orabassu (n.) A South American monkey of the genus Callithrix, esp.

Oracle (n.) Any person reputed uncommonly wise; one whose decisions are regarded as of great authority; as, a literary oracle.

Oral (a.) Uttered by the mouth, or in words; spoken, not written; verbal; as, oral traditions; oral testimony; oral law.

Orange (n.) The fruit of a tree of the genus Citrus (C. Aurantium). It is usually round, and consists of pulpy carpels, commonly ten in number, inclosed in a leathery rind, which is easily separable, and is reddish yellow when ripe.

Orangeade (n.) A drink made of orange juice and water, corresponding to lemonade; orange sherbet.

Oration (n.) An elaborate discourse, delivered in public, treating an important subject in a formal and dignified manner; especially, a discourse having reference to some special occasion, as a funeral, an anniversary, a celebration, or the like; -- distinguished from an argument in court, a popular harangue, a sermon, a lecture, etc.; as, Webster's oration at Bunker Hill.

Ordain (v. t.) To invest with ministerial or sacerdotal functions; to introduce into the office of the Christian ministry, by the laying on of hands, or other forms; to set apart by the ceremony of ordination.

Ordeal (n.) An ancient form of test to determine guilt or innocence, by appealing to a supernatural decision, -- once common in Europe, and still practiced in the East and by savage tribes.

Order (n.) Regular arrangement; any methodical or established succession or harmonious relation; method; system

Order (n.) Hence: A commission to purchase, sell, or supply goods; a direction, in writing, to pay money, to furnish supplies, to admit to a building, a place of entertainment, or the like; as, orders for blankets are large.

Order (n.) A body of persons having some common honorary distinction or rule of obligation; esp., a body of religious persons or aggregate of convents living under a common rule; as, the Order of the Bath; the Franciscan order.

Order (n.) An assemblage of genera having certain important characters in common; as, the Carnivora and Insectivora are orders of Mammalia.

Ordinance (n.) An established rite or ceremony.

Ordinarily (adv.) According to established rules or settled method; as a rule; commonly; usually; in most cases; as, a winter more than ordinarily severe.

Ordinary (a.) Common; customary; usual.

Ordinary (a.) Of common rank, quality, or ability; not distinguished by superior excellence or beauty; hence, not distinguished in any way; commonplace; inferior; of little merit; as, men of ordinary judgment; an ordinary book.

Ordinary (n.) The mass; the common run.

Ordinary (n.) That which is so common, or continued, as to be considered a settled establishment or institution.

Ordinary (n.) Anything which is in ordinary or common use.

Ordinate (v. t.) To appoint, to regulate; to harmonize.

Orgeat (n.) A sirup in which, formerly, a decoction of barley entered, but which is now prepared with an emulsion of almonds, -- used to flavor beverages or edibles.

Orgies (n. pl.) A sacrifice accompanied by certain ceremonies in honor of some pagan deity; especially, the ceremonies observed by the Greeks and Romans in the worship of Dionysus, or Bacchus, which were characterized by wild and dissolute revelry.

Orientate (v. t.) To arrange in order; to dispose or place (a body) so as to show its relation to other bodies, or the relation of its parts among themselves.

Orlo (n.) A wind instrument of music in use among the Spaniards.

Orpiment (n.) Arsenic sesquisulphide, produced artificially as an amorphous lemonyellow powder, and occurring naturally as a yellow crystalline mineral; -- formerly called auripigment. It is used in king's yellow, in white Indian fire, and in certain technical processes, as indigo printing.

Ort (n.) A morsel left at a meal; a fragment; refuse; -- commonly used in the plural.

Orthoclase (n.) Common or potash feldspar crystallizing in the monoclinic system and having two cleavages at right angles to each other. See Feldspar.

Orthoclastic (a.) Breaking in directions at right angles to each other; -- said of the monoclinic feldspars.

Orthodiagonal (n.) The diagonal or lateral axis in a monoclinic crystal which is at right angles with the vertical axis.

Orthopinacoid (n.) A name given to the two planes in the monoclinic system which are parallel to the vertical and orthodiagonal axes.

Osculate (v. t.) To touch closely, so as to have a common curvature at the point of contact. See Osculation, 2.

Osculate (v. i.) To have characters in common with two genera or families, so as to form a connecting link between them; to interosculate. See Osculant.

Otter (n.) Any carnivorous animal of the genus Lutra, and related genera. Several species are described. They have large, flattish heads, short ears, and webbed toes. They are aquatic, and feed on fish. Their fur is soft and valuable. The common otter of Europe is Lutra vulgaris; the American otter is L. Canadensis; other species inhabit South America and Asia.

Ouakari (n.) Any South American monkey of the genus Brachyurus, especially B. ouakari.

Ouarine (n.) A Brazilian monkey of the genus Mycetes.

Out (a.) Beyond possession, control, or occupation; hence, in, or into, a state of want, loss, or deprivation; -- used of office, business, property, knowledge, etc.; as, the Democrats went out and the Whigs came in; he put his money out at interest.

Out (a.) Beyond the bounds of what is true, reasonable, correct, proper, common, etc.; in error or mistake; in a wrong or incorrect position or opinion; in a state of disagreement, opposition, etc.; in an inharmonious relation.

Outfield (n.) The part of the field beyond the diamond, or infield. It is occupied by the fielders.

Outre (a.) Being out of the common course or limits; extravagant; bizarre.

Outrider (n.) A summoner whose office is to cite men before the sheriff.

Over (adv.) From one person or place to another regarded as on the opposite side of a space or barrier; -- used with verbs of motion; as, to sail over to England; to hand over the money; to go over to the enemy.

Overtone (n.) One of the harmonics faintly heard with and above a tone as it dies away, produced by some aliquot portion of the vibrating sting or column of air which yields the fundamental tone; one of the natural harmonic scale of tones, as the octave, twelfth, fifteenth, etc.; an aliquot or "partial" tone; a harmonic. See Harmonic, and Tone.

Ovipositor (n.) The organ with which many insects and some other animals deposit their eggs. Some ichneumon files have a long ovipositor fitted to pierce the eggs or larvae of other insects, in order to lay their own eggs within the same.

Oxamic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid NH2.C2O2.HO obtained as a fine crystalline powder, intermediate between oxalic acid and oxamide. Its ammonium salt is obtained by boiling oxamide with ammonia.

Oxamide (n) A white crystalline neutral substance (C2O2(NH2)2) obtained by treating ethyl oxalate with ammonia. It is the acid amide of oxalic acid. Formerly called also oxalamide.

Oxyammonia (n.) Same as Hydroxylamine.

Oxybenzoic (a.) Hydroxybenzoic; pertaining to, or designating, any one of several hydroxyl derivatives of benzonic acid, of which the commonest is salicylic acid.

Oxycalcium (a.) Of or pertaining to oxygen and calcium; as, the oxycalcium light. See Drummond light.

Oyster (n.) Any marine bivalve mollusk of the genus Ostrea. They are usually found adhering to rocks or other fixed objects in shallow water along the seacoasts, or in brackish water in the mouth of rivers. The common European oyster (Ostrea edulis), and the American oyster (Ostrea Virginiana), are the most important species.

Oyster-green (n.) A green membranous seaweed (Ulva) often found growing on oysters but common on stones, piles, etc.

Parchesi (n.) A game, somewhat resembling backgammon, originating in India.

Paddy (n.) Unhusked rice; -- commonly so called in the East Indies.

Padishah (n.) Chief ruler; monarch; sovereign; -- a title of the Sultan of Turkey, and of the Shah of Persia.

Page (n.) A serving boy; formerly, a youth attending a person of high degree, especially at courts, as a position of honor and education; now commonly, in England, a youth employed for doing errands, waiting on the door, and similar service in households; in the United States, a boy employed to wait upon the members of a legislative body.

Pains (n.) Labor; toilsome effort; care or trouble taken; -- plural in form, but used with a singular or plural verb, commonly the former.

Palace (n.) The residence of a sovereign, including the lodgings of high officers of state, and rooms for business, as well as halls for ceremony and reception.

Palaeotype (n.) A system of representing all spoken sounds by means of the printing types in common use.

Palanquin (n.) An inclosed carriage or litter, commonly about eight feet long, four feet wide, and four feet high, borne on the shoulders of men by means of two projecting poles, -- used in India, China, etc., for the conveyance of a single person from place to place.

Pall-mall (n.) A game formerly common in England, in which a wooden ball was driven with a mallet through an elevated hoop or ring of iron. The name was also given to the mallet used, to the place where the game was played, and to the street, in London, still called Pall Mall.

Palmatifid (a.) Palmate, with the divisions separated but little more than halfway to the common center.

Palmatilobed (a.) Palmate, with the divisions separated less than halfway to the common center.

Palmette (n.) A floral ornament, common in Greek and other ancient architecture; -- often called the honeysuckle ornament.

Paludism (n.) The morbid phenomena produced by dwelling among marshes; malarial disease or disposition.

Pandemonium (n.) The great hall or council chamber of demons or evil spirits.

Pandemonium (n.) An utterly lawless, riotous place or assemblage.

Pane (n.) One of the eight facets surrounding the table of a brilliant cut diamond.

Panel (n.) A piece of parchment or a schedule, containing the names of persons summoned as jurors by the sheriff; hence, more generally, the whole jury.

Pannier (n.) A bread basket; also, a wicker basket (used commonly in pairs) for carrying fruit or other things on a horse or an ass

Pantastomata (n. pl.) One of the divisions of Flagellata, including the monads and allied forms.

Papacy (n.) The Roman Catholic religion; -- commonly used by the opponents of the Roman Catholics in disparagement or in an opprobrious sense.

Papistical (a.) Of or pertaining to the Church of Rome and its doctrines and ceremonies; pertaining to popery; popish; -- used disparagingly.

Papistry (n.) The doctrine and ceremonies of the Church of Rome; popery.

Para (n.) A piece of Turkish money, usually copper, the fortieth part of a piaster, or about one ninth of a cent.

Paraconine (n.) A base resembling and isomeric with conine, and obtained as a colorless liquid from butyric aldehyde and ammonia.

Parade (v. t.) To assemble and form; to marshal; to cause to maneuver or march ceremoniously; as, to parade troops.

Paradise (n.) An open space within a monastery or adjoining a church, as the space within a cloister, the open court before a basilica, etc.

Paradox (n.) A tenet or proposition contrary to received opinion; an assertion or sentiment seemingly contradictory, or opposed to common sense; that which in appearance or terms is absurd, but yet may be true in fact.

Paragraph (n.) Originally, a marginal mark or note, set in the margin to call attention to something in the text, e. g., a change of subject; now, the character /, commonly used in the text as a reference mark to a footnote, or to indicate the place of a division into sections.

Parallelism (n.) Similarity of construction or meaning of clauses placed side by side, especially clauses expressing the same sentiment with slight modifications, as is common in Hebrew poetry; e. g.: --//At her feet he bowed, he fell:/Where he bowed, there he fell down dead. Judg. v. 27.

Paraphysis (n.) A minute jointed filament growing among the archegonia and antheridia of mosses, or with the spore cases, etc., of other flowerless plants.

Parasceve (n.) Among the Jews, the evening before the Sabbath.

Pardo (n.) A money of account in Goa, India, equivalent to about 2s. 6d. sterling. or 60 cts.

Paris (n.) A plant common in Europe (Paris quadrifolia); herb Paris; truelove. It has been used as a narcotic.

Parlance (n.) Conversation; discourse; talk; diction; phrase; as, in legal parlance; in common parlance.

Parliament (n.) The assembly of the three estates of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, viz., the lords spiritual, lords temporal, and the representatives of the commons, sitting in the House of Lords and the House of Commons, constituting the legislature, when summoned by the royal authority to consult on the affairs of the nation, and to enact and repeal laws.

Parlor (n.) The apartment in a monastery or nunnery where the inmates are permitted to meet and converse with each other, or with visitors and friends from without.

Parlor (n.) Commonly, in the United States, a drawing-room, or the room where visitors are received and entertained.

Parquet (n.) A body of seats on the floor of a music hall or theater nearest the orchestra; but commonly applied to the whole lower floor of a theater, from the orchestra to the dress circle; the pit.

Parr (n.) A young salmon in the stage when it has dark transverse bands; -- called also samlet, skegger, and fingerling.

Parsimonious (a.) Exhibiting parsimony; sparing in expenditure of money; frugal to excess; penurious; niggardly; stingy.

Parsimony (n.) Closeness or sparingness in the expenditure of money; -- generally in a bad sense; excessive frugality; niggardliness.

Part (n.) One of the different melodies of a concerted composition, which heard in union compose its harmony; also, the music for each voice or instrument; as, the treble, tenor, or bass part; the violin part, etc.

Partake (v. i.) To take a part, portion, lot, or share, in common with others; to have a share or part; to participate; to share; as, to partake of a feast with others.

Participate (a.) Acting in common; participating.

Participate (v. i.) To have a share in common with others; to take a part; to partake; -- followed by in, formely by of; as, to participate in a debate.

Participation (n.) The act or state of participating, or sharing in common with others; as, a participation in joy or sorrows.

Particular (a.) Of or pertaining to a single person, class, or thing; belonging to one only; not general; not common; hence, personal; peculiar; singular.

Partition (v.) The servance of common or undivided interests, particularly in real estate. It may be effected by consent of parties, or by compulsion of law.

Partition (v. t.) To divide into parts or shares; to divide and distribute; as, to partition an estate among various heirs.

Partnership (n.) A division or sharing among partners; joint possession or interest.

Partnership (n.) A contract between two or more competent persons for joining together their money, goods, labor, and skill, or any or all of them, under an understanding that there shall be a communion of profit between them, and for the purpose of carrying on a legal trade, business, or adventure.

Pass (v. t.) To put in circulation; to give currency to; as, to pass counterfeit money.

Passage (v. i.) Way; road; path; channel or course through or by which one passes; way of exit or entrance; way of access or transit. Hence, a common avenue to various apartments in a building; a hall; a corridor.

Pastille (n.) A small cone or mass made of paste of gum, benzoin, cinnamon, and other aromatics, -- used for fumigating or scenting the air of a room.

Patas (n.) A West African long-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ruber); the red monkey.

Patchouly (n.) A mintlike plant (Pogostemon Patchouli) of the East Indies, yielding an essential oil from which a highly valued perfume is made.

Patella (n.) A genus of marine gastropods, including many species of limpets. The shell has the form of a flattened cone. The common European limpet (Patella vulgata) is largely used for food.

Pathognomonic (a.) Specially or decisively characteristic of a disease; indicating with certainty a disease; as, a pathognomonic symptom.

Patience (n.) A kind of dock (Rumex Patientia), less common in America than in Europe; monk's rhubarb.

Patrimonial (a.) Of or pertaining to a patrimony; inherited from ancestors; as, a patrimonial estate.

Patrimonially (adv.) By inheritance.

Patrimonies (pl. ) of Patrimony

Patrimony (n.) A right or estate inherited from one's father; or, in a larger sense, from any ancestor.

Patrimony (n.) Formerly, a church estate or endowment.

Patripassian (n.) One of a body of believers in the early church who denied the independent preexistent personality of Christ, and who, accordingly, held that the Father suffered in the Son; a monarchian.

Pawn (n.) Anything delivered or deposited as security, as for the payment of money borrowed, or of a debt; a pledge. See Pledge, n., 1.

Pawn (v. t.) To give or deposit in pledge, or as security for the payment of money borrowed; to put in pawn; to pledge; as, to pawn one's watch.

Pawnbroker (n.) One who makes a business of lending money on the security of personal property pledged or deposited in his keeping.

Pawnor (n.) One who pawns or pledges anything as security for the payment of borrowed money or of a debt.

Pay (v. t.) To discharge, as a debt, demand, or obligation, by giving or doing what is due or required; to deliver the amount or value of to the person to whom it is owing; to discharge a debt by delivering (money owed).

Pay (n.) An equivalent or return for money due, goods purchased, or services performed; salary or wages for work or service; compensation; recompense; payment; hire; as, the pay of a clerk; the pay of a soldier.

Payee (n.) The person to whom money is to be, or has been, paid; the person named in a bill or note, to whom, or to whose order, the amount is promised or directed to be paid. See Bill of exchange, under Bill.

Peace (v.) Reconciliation; agreement after variance; harmony; concord.

Peach (n.) A well-known high-flavored juicy fruit, containing one or two seeds in a hard almond-like endocarp or stone; also, the tree which bears it (Prunus, / Amygdalus Persica). In the wild stock the fruit is hard and inedible.

Peacock (n.) In common usage, the species in general or collectively; a peafowl.

Peal (n.) A small salmon; a grilse; a sewin.

Pearl (n.) A size of type, between agate and diamond.

Pectin (n.) One of a series of carbohydrates, commonly called vegetable jelly, found very widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom, especially in ripe fleshy fruits, as apples, cranberries, etc. It is extracted as variously colored, translucent substances, which are soluble in hot water but become viscous on cooling.

Peculate (v. i.) To appropriate to one's own use the property of the public; to steal public moneys intrusted to one's care; to embezzle.

Peculation (n.) The act or practice of peculating, or of defrauding the public by appropriating to one's own use the money or goods intrusted to one's care for management or disbursement; embezzlement.

Peculiar (a.) One's own; belonging solely or especially to an individual; not possessed by others; of private, personal, or characteristic possession and use; not owned in common or in participation.

Pecuniarily (adv.) In a pecuniary manner; as regards money.

Pecuniary (a.) Relating to money; monetary; as, a pecuniary penalty; a pecuniary reward.

Pecunious (a.) Abounding in money; wealthy; rich.

Pedicel (n.) A stalk which supports one flower or fruit, whether solitary or one of many ultimate divisions of a common peduncle. See Peduncle, and Illust. of Flower.

Pediculus (n.) A genus of wingless parasitic Hemiptera, including the common lice of man. See Louse.

Pedimanous (a.) Having feet resembling hands, or with the first toe opposable, as the opossums and monkeys.

Pelagian (n.) A follower of Pelagius, a British monk, born in the later part of the 4th century, who denied the doctrines of hereditary sin, of the connection between sin and death, and of conversion through grace.

Pellitory (n.) The common name of the several species of the genus Parietaria, low, harmless weeds of the Nettle family; -- also called wall pellitory, and lichwort.

Pemmican (n.) Among the North American Indians, meat cut in thin slices, divested of fat, and dried in the sun.

Penitentiary (n.) A small building in a monastery where penitents confessed.

Penniless (a.) Destitute of money; impecunious; poor.

Pennyworth (n.) Hence: The full value of one's penny expended; due return for money laid out; a good bargain; a bargain.

Pension (n.) A certain sum of money paid to a clergyman in lieu of tithes.

Pensioner (n.) In the university of Cambridge, England, one who pays for his living in commons; -- corresponding to commoner at Oxford.

Pentabasic (a.) Capable of uniting with five molecules of a monacid base; having five acid hydrogen atoms capable of substitution by a basic radical; -- said of certain acids.

Pentacid (a.) Capable of neutralizing, or combining with, five molecules of a monobasic acid; having five hydrogen atoms capable of substitution by acid residues; -- said of certain complex bases.

Pentacrinus (n.) A genus of large, stalked crinoids, of which several species occur in deep water among the West Indies and elsewhere.

Pentad (n.) Any element, atom, or radical, having a valence of five, or which can be combined with, substituted for, or compared with, five atoms of hydrogen or other monad; as, nitrogen is a pentad in the ammonium compounds.

Pentecost (n.) A solemn festival of the Jews; -- so called because celebrated on the fiftieth day (seven weeks) after the second day of the Passover (which fell on the sixteenth of the Jewish month Nisan); -- hence called, also, the Feast of Weeks. At this festival an offering of the first fruits of the harvest was made. By the Jews it was generally regarded as commemorative of the gift of the law on the fiftieth day after the departure from Egypt.

Penurious (a.) Excessively sparing in the use of money; sordid; stingy; miserly.

Penurious (a.) Destitute of money; suffering extreme want.

People (n.) The mass of comunity as distinguished from a special class; the commonalty; the populace; the vulgar; the common crowd; as, nobles and people.

Peppergrass (n.) The common pillwort of Europe (Pilularia globulifera). See Pillwort.

Pepperidge (n.) A North American tree (Nyssa multiflora) with very tough wood, handsome oval polished leaves, and very acid berries, -- the sour gum, or common tupelo. See Tupelo.

Peragration (n.) The act or state of passing through any space; as, the peragration of the moon in her monthly revolution.

Perch (n.) Any fresh-water fish of the genus Perca and of several other allied genera of the family Percidae, as the common American or yellow perch (Perca flavescens, / Americana), and the European perch (P. fluviatilis).

Perdix (n.) A genus of birds including the common European partridge. Formerly the word was used in a much wider sense to include many allied genera.

Perfunctory (a.) Done merely to get rid of a duty; performed mechanically and as a thing of rote; done in a careless and superficial manner; characterized by indifference; as, perfunctory admonitions.

Periastral (a.) Among or around the stars.

Periclinium (n.) The involucre which surrounds the common receptacle in composite flowers.

Pericope (n.) A selection or extract from a book; especially (Theol.), a selection from the Bible, appointed to be read in the churches or used as a text for a sermon.

Period (n.) A portion of time as limited and determined by some recurring phenomenon, as by the completion of a revolution of one of the heavenly bodies; a division of time, as a series of years, months, or days, in which something is completed, and ready to recommence and go on in the same order; as, the period of the sun, or the earth, or a comet.

Period (n.) A stated and recurring interval of time; more generally, an interval of time specified or left indefinite; a certain series of years, months, days, or the like; a time; a cycle; an age; an epoch; as, the period of the Roman republic.

Period (n.) A complete sentence, from one full stop to another; esp., a well-proportioned, harmonious sentence.

Peripneumonia (n.) Alt. of Peripneumony

Peripneumony (n.) Pneumonia.

Peripneumonic (a.) Of or pertaining to peripneumonia.

Periwinkle (n.) Any small marine gastropod shell of the genus Littorina. The common European species (Littorina littorea), in Europe extensively used as food, has recently become naturalized abundantly on the American coast. See Littorina.

Perjury (v.) At common law, a willfully false statement in a fact material to the issue, made by a witness under oath in a competent judicial proceeding. By statute the penalties of perjury are imposed on the making of willfully false affirmations.

Perpetrate (v. t.) To do or perform; to carry through; to execute, commonly in a bad sense; to commit (as a crime, an offense); to be guilty of; as, to perpetrate a foul deed.

Perpetration (n.) The act of perpetrating; a doing; -- commonly used of doing something wrong, as a crime.

Perquisite (n.) Things gotten by a man's own industry, or purchased with his own money, as opposed to things which come to him by descent.

Persimmon (n.) An American tree (Diospyros Virginiana) and its fruit, found from New York southward. The fruit is like a plum in appearance, but is very harsh and astringent until it has been exposed to frost, when it becomes palatable and nutritious.

Person (n.) Among Trinitarians, one of the three subdivisions of the Godhead (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost); an hypostasis.

Person (n.) A shoot or bud of a plant; a polyp or zooid of the compound Hydrozoa Anthozoa, etc.; also, an individual, in the narrowest sense, among the higher animals.

Peseta (n.) A Spanish silver coin, and money of account, equal to about nineteen cents, and divided into 100 centesimos.

Petalism (n.) A form of sentence among the ancient Syracusans by which they banished for five years a citizen suspected of having dangerous influence or ambition. It was similar to the ostracism in Athens; but olive leaves were used instead of shells for ballots.

Peter (n.) A common baptismal name for a man. The name of one of the apostles,

Petunia (n.) A genus of solanaceous herbs with funnelform or salver-shaped corollas. Two species are common in cultivation, Petunia violacera, with reddish purple flowers, and P. nyctaginiflora, with white flowers. There are also many hybrid forms with variegated corollas.

Pew (n.) Any structure shaped like a church pew, as a stall, formerly used by money lenders, etc.; a box in theater; a pen; a sheepfold.

Pewee (n.) A common American tyrant flycatcher (Sayornis phoebe, or S. fuscus). Called also pewit, and phoebe.

Pewter (n.) A hard, tough, but easily fusible, alloy, originally consisting of tin with a little lead, but afterwards modified by the addition of copper, antimony, or bismuth.

Phacops (n.) A genus of trilobites found in the Silurian and Devonian formations. Phacops bufo is one of the most common species.

Pharisaical (a.) Addicted to external forms and ceremonies; making a show of religion without the spirit of it; ceremonial; formal; hypocritical; self-righteous.

Pharisee (n.) One of a sect or party among the Jews, noted for a strict and formal observance of rites and ceremonies and of the traditions of the elders, and whose pretensions to superior sanctity led them to separate themselves from the other Jews.

Phase (n.) That which is exhibited to the eye; the appearance which anything manifests, especially any one among different and varying appearances of the same object.

Phenylamine (n.) Any one of certain class of organic bases regarded as formed from ammonia by the substitution of phenyl for hydrogen.

Philharmonic (a.) Loving harmony or music.

Philippic (n.) Hence: Any discourse or declamation abounding in acrimonious invective.

Philistine (a.) Uncultured; commonplace.

Phillipsite (n.) A hydrous silicate of aluminia, lime, and soda, a zeolitic mineral commonly occurring in complex twin crystals, often cruciform in shape; -- called also christianite.

Phlegmon (n.) Purulent inflammation of the cellular or areolar tissue.

Phlegmonous (a.) Having the nature or properties of phlegmon; as, phlegmonous pneumonia.

Phoca (n.) A genus of seals. It includes the common harbor seal and allied species. See Seal.

Phonography (n.) A representation of sounds by distinctive characters; commonly, a system of shorthand writing invented by Isaac Pitman, or a modification of his system, much used by reporters.

Phospham (n.) An inert amorphous white powder, PN2H, obtained by passing ammonia over heated phosphorus.

Phosphine (n.) A colorless gas, PH3, analogous to ammonia, and having a disagreeable odor resembling that of garlic. Called also hydrogen phosphide, and formerly, phosphureted hydrogen.

Phosphonium (n.) The hypothetical radical PH4, analogous to ammonium, and regarded as the nucleus of certain derivatives of phosphine.

Phthisipneumonia (n.) Alt. of Phthisipneumony

Phthisipneumony (n.) Pulmonary consumption.

Phthisis (n.) A wasting or consumption of the tissues. The term was formerly applied to many wasting diseases, but is now usually restricted to pulmonary phthisis, or consumption. See Consumption.

Phylactery (n.) Among the primitive Christians, a case in which the relics of the dead were inclosed.

Physa (n.) A genus of fresh-water Pulmonifera, having reversed spiral shells. See Pond snail, under Pond.

Physiognommonic (a.) Physiognomic.

Physnomy (n.) Physiogmony.

Physostomi (n. pl.) An order of fishes in which the air bladder is provided with a duct, and the ventral fins, when present, are abdominal. It includes the salmons, herrings, carps, catfishes, and others.

Piaster (n.) A silver coin of Spain and various other countries. See Peso. The Spanish piaster (commonly called peso, or peso duro) is of about the value of the American dollar. The Italian piaster, or scudo, was worth from 80 to 100 cents. The Turkish and Egyptian piasters are now worth about four and a half cents.

Pickpurse (n.) One who steals purses, or money from purses.

Picnic (v.) Formerly, an entertainment at which each person contributed some dish to a common table; now, an excursion or pleasure party in which the members partake of a collation or repast (usually in the open air, and from food carried by themselves).

Picoline (n.) Any one of three isometric bases (C6H7N) related to pyridine, and obtained from bone oil, acrolein ammonia, and coal-tar naphtha, as colorless mobile liquids of strong odor; -- called also methyl pyridine.

Picus (n.) A genus of woodpeckers, including some of the common American and European species.

Piedmont (a.) Noting the region of foothills near the base of a mountain chain.

Piedmontite (n.) A manganesian kind of epidote, from Piedmont. See Epidote.

Pietistical (a.) Of or pertaining to the Pietists; hence, in contempt, affectedly or demonstratively religious.

Pile (n.) A vertical series of alternate disks of two dissimilar metals, as copper and zinc, laid up with disks of cloth or paper moistened with acid water between them, for producing a current of electricity; -- commonly called Volta's pile, voltaic pile, or galvanic pile.

Pillage (v. i.) To strip of money or goods by open violence; to plunder; to spoil; to lay waste; as, to pillage the camp of an enemy.

Pillar (n.) The general and popular term for a firm, upright, insulated support for a superstructure; a pier, column, or post; also, a column or shaft not supporting a superstructure, as one erected for a monument or an ornament.

Pin (n.) Especially, a small, pointed and headed piece of brass or other wire (commonly tinned), largely used for fastening clothes, attaching papers, etc.

Pinch (v. t.) Figuratively: To cramp; to straiten; to oppress; to starve; to distress; as, to be pinched for money.

Pinching (a.) Compressing; nipping; griping; niggardly; as, pinching cold; a pinching parsimony.

Pineweed (n.) A low, bushy, nearly leafless herb (Hypericum Sarothra), common in sandy soil in the Eastern United States.

Pinic (a.) Of or pertaining to the pine; obtained from the pine; formerly, designating an acid which is the chief constituent of common resin, -- now called abietic, or sylvic, acid.

Pink (v. t.) A color resulting from the combination of a pure vivid red with more or less white; -- so called from the common color of the flower.

Pinnated (a.) Consisting of several leaflets, or separate portions, arranged on each side of a common petiole, as the leaves of a rosebush, a hickory, or an ash. See Abruptly pinnate, and Illust., under Abruptly.

Pion (n.) The edible seed of several species of pine; also, the tree producing such seeds, as Pinus Pinea of Southern Europe, and P. Parryana, cembroides, edulis, and monophylla, the nut pines of Western North America.

Pinpatch (n.) The common English periwinkle.

Pintado (n.) Any bird of the genus Numida. Several species are found in Africa. The common pintado, or Guinea fowl, the helmeted, and the crested pintados, are the best known. See Guinea fowl, under Guinea.

Pinworm (n.) A small nematoid worm (Oxyurus vermicularis), which is parasitic chiefly in the rectum of man. It is most common in children and aged persons.

Piper (n.) A common European gurnard (Trigla lyra), having a large head, with prominent nasal projection, and with large, sharp, opercular spines.

Piperidine (n.) An oily liquid alkaloid, C5H11N, having a hot, peppery, ammoniacal odor. It is related to pyridine, and is obtained by the decomposition of piperine.

Pistachio (n.) The nut of the Pistacia vera, a tree of the order Anacardiaceae, containing a kernel of a pale greenish color, which has a pleasant taste, resembling that of the almond, and yields an oil of agreeable taste and odor; -- called also pistachio nut. It is wholesome and nutritive. The tree grows in Arabia, Persia, Syria, and Sicily.

Pistil (n.) The seed-bearing organ of a flower. It consists of an ovary, containing the ovules or rudimentary seeds, and a stigma, which is commonly raised on an elongated portion called a style. When composed of one carpel a pistil is simple; when composed of several, it is compound. See Illust. of Flower, and Ovary.

Pit (n.) Formerly, that part of a theater, on the floor of the house, below the level of the stage and behind the orchestra; now, in England, commonly the part behind the stalls; in the United States, the parquet; also, the occupants of such a part of a theater.

Pitheci (n. pl.) A division of mammals including the apes and monkeys. Sometimes used in the sense of Primates.

Pithecoid (a.) Of or pertaining to the genus Pithecia, or subfamily Pithecinae, which includes the saki, ouakari, and other allied South American monkeys.

Place (n.) To put out at interest; to invest; to loan; as, to place money in a bank.

Plagionite (n.) A sulphide of lead and antimony, of a blackish lead-gray color and metallic luster.

Plain (superl.) Not highly cultivated; unsophisticated; free from show or pretension; simple; natural; homely; common.

Plank (v. t.) To lay down, as on a plank or table; to stake or pay cash; as, to plank money in a wager.

Plant (n.) To introduce and establish the principles or seeds of; as, to plant Christianity among the heathen.

Plasma (n.) A variety of quartz, of a color between grass green and leek green, which is found associated with common chalcedony. It was much esteemed by the ancients for making engraved ornaments.

-plastic () A combining form signifying developing, forming, growing; as, heteroplastic, monoplastic, polyplastic.

Plastide (n.) A formative particle of albuminous matter; a monad; a cytode. See the Note under Morphon.

Plate (n.) A piece of money, usually silver money.

Platitude (n.) The quality or state of being flat, thin, or insipid; flat commonness; triteness; staleness of ideas of language.

Platitude (n.) A thought or remark which is flat, dull, trite, or weak; a truism; a commonplace.

Platyrhini (n. pl.) A division of monkeys, including the American species, which have a broad nasal septum, thirty-six teeth, and usually a prehensile tail. See Monkey.

Plea (n.) A cause in court; a lawsuit; as, the Court of Common Pleas. See under Common.

Plebe (n.) The common people; the mob.

Plebeian (a.) Of or pertaining to the Roman plebs, or common people.

Plebeian (a.) Of or pertaining to the common people; vulgar; common; as, plebeian sports; a plebeian throng.

Plebeian (n.) One of the plebs, or common people of ancient Rome, in distinction from patrician.

Plebeian (n.) One of the common people, or lower rank of men.

Plebeianize (v. t.) To render plebeian, common, or vulgar.

Plebicolist (n.) One who flatters, or courts the favor of, the common people; a demagogue.

Plebiscitum (n.) A law enacted by the common people, under the superintendence of a tribune or some subordinate plebeian magistrate, without the intervention of the senate.

Pleuroperipneumony (n.) Pleuropneumonia.

Pleuropneumonia (n.) Inflammation of the pleura and lungs; a combination of pleurisy and pneumonia, esp. a kind of contagions and fatal lung plague of cattle.

Pliohippus (n.) An extinct genus of horses from the Pliocene deposits. Each foot had a single toe (or hoof), as in the common horse.

Plumbism (n.) A diseased condition, produced by the absorption of lead, common among workers in this metal or in its compounds, as among painters, typesetters, etc. It is characterized by various symptoms, as lead colic, lead line, and wrist drop. See under Colic, Lead, and Wrist.

Plurilocular (a.) having several divisions containing seeds; as, the lemon and the orange are plurilocular fruits.

Pluviose (n.) The fifth month of the French republican calendar adopted in 1793. It began January 20, and ended February 18. See Vendemiaire.

Pneumatophore (n.) One of the Pneumonophora.

Pneumo- () A combining form from Gr. pney`mwn, pney`monos, a lung; as, pneumogastric, pneumology.

Pneumococcus (n.) A form of micrococcus found in the sputum (and elsewhere) of persons suffering with pneumonia, and thought to be the cause of this disease.

Pneumonia (n.) Inflammation of the lungs.

Pneumonic (a.) Of or pertaining to the lungs; pulmonic.

Pneumonic (a.) Of or pertaining to pneumonia; as, pneumonic symptoms.

Pneumonic (n.) A medicine for affections of the lungs.

Pneumonitic (a.) Of or pertaining to pneumonitis.

Pneumonitis (n.) Inflammation of the lungs; pneumonia.

Pneumonometer (n.) A spirometer; a pneumometer.

Pneumonophora (n. pl.) The division of Siphonophora which includes the Physalia and allied genera; -- called also Pneumatophorae.

Pneumony (n.) See Pneumonia.

Poach (v. i.) To steal or pocket game, or to carry it away privately, as in a bag; to kill or destroy game contrary to law, especially by night; to hunt or fish unlawfully; as, to poach for rabbits or for salmon.

Poachard (n.) A common European duck (Aythya ferina); -- called also goldhead, poker, and fresh-water, / red-headed, widgeon.

Pocket (n.) A bag or pouch; especially; a small bag inserted in a garment for carrying small articles, particularly money; hence, figuratively, money; wealth.

Pocketbook (n.) A small book or case for carrying papers, money, etc., in the pocket; also, a notebook for the pocket.

Point (n.) Anything which tapers to a sharp, well-defined termination. Specifically: A small promontory or cape; a tract of land extending into the water beyond the common shore line.

Point (n.) One of the spaces on a backgammon board.

Point-devise (a.) Uncommonly nice and exact; precise; particular.

Polar (a.) Pertaining to, reckoned from, or having a common radiating point; as, polar coordinates.

Polemoniaceous (a.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (Polemoniaceae), which includes Polemonium, Phlox, Gilia, and a few other genera.

Polemonium (n.) A genus of gamopetalous perennial herbs, including the Jacob's ladder and the Greek valerian.

Policy (n.) A ticket or warrant for money in the public funds.

Polka (n.) A dance of Polish origin, but now common everywhere. It is performed by two persons in common time.

Pollute (v. t.) To render ceremonially unclean; to disqualify or unfit for sacred use or service, or for social intercourse.

Polyacid (a.) Capable of neutralizing, or of combining with, several molecules of a monobasic acid; having more than one hydrogen atom capable of being replaced by acid radicals; -- said of certain bases; as, calcium hydrate and glycerin are polyacid bases.

Polyandria (n. pl.) A Linnaean class of monoclinous or hermaphrodite plants, having many stamens, or any number above twenty, inserted in the receptacle.

Polyandry (n.) The possession by a woman of more than one husband at the same time; -- contrasted with monandry.

Polyarchist (n.) One who advocates polyarchy; -- opposed to monarchist.

Polybasic (a.) Capable of neutralizing, or of combining with, several molecules of a monacid base; having several hydrogen atoms capable of being replaced by basic radicals; -- said of certain acids; as, sulphuric acid is polybasic.

Polybasite (n.) An iron-black ore of silver, consisting of silver, sulphur, and antimony, with some copper and arsenic.

Polycrotism (n.) That state or condition of the pulse in which the pulse curve, or sphygmogram, shows several secondary crests or elevations; -- contrasted with monocrotism and dicrotism.

Polygamous (a.) Of or pertaining to polygamy; characterized by, or involving, polygamy; having a plurality of wives; as, polygamous marriages; -- opposed to monogamous.

Polygamy (n.) The having of a plurality of wives or husbands at the same time; usually, the marriage of a man to more than one woman, or the practice of having several wives, at the same time; -- opposed to monogamy; as, the nations of the East practiced polygamy. See the Note under Bigamy, and cf. Polyandry.

Polygeny (n.) The theory that living organisms originate in cells or embryos of different kinds, instead of coming from a single cell; -- opposed to monogenesis.

Polygenist (n.) One who maintains that animals of the same species have sprung from more than one original pair; -- opposed to monogenist.

Polymorphism (n.) Existence in many forms; the coexistence, in the same locality, of two or more distinct forms independent of sex, not connected by intermediate gradations, but produced from common parents.

Polymorphous (a.) Having, or occurring in, several distinct forms; -- opposed to monomorphic.

Poly-mountain (n.) The closely related Teucrium montanum, formerly called Polium montanum, a plant of Southern Europe.

Polyphonic (a.) Consisting of several tone series, or melodic parts, progressing simultaneously according to the laws of counterpoint; contrapuntal; as, a polyphonic composition; -- opposed to homophonic, or monodic.

Polyphony (n.) Composition in mutually related, equally important parts which share the melody among them; contrapuntal composition; -- opposed to homophony, in which the melody is given to one part only, the others filling out the harmony. See Counterpoint.

Polyphyletic (a.) Pertaining to, or characterized by, descent from more than one root form, or from many different root forms; polygenetic; -- opposed to monophyletic.

Polysulphide (n.) A sulphide having more than one atom of sulphur in the molecule; -- contrasted with monosulphide.

Polysyllable (n.) A word of many syllables, or consisting of more syllables than three; -- words of less than four syllables being called monosyllables, dissyllables, and trisyllables.

Polysyndeton (n.) A figure by which the conjunction is often repeated, as in the sentence, "We have ships and men and money and stores." Opposed to asyndeton.

Pomona (n.) The goddess of fruits and fruit trees.

Pool (n.) A small and rather deep collection of (usually) fresh water, as one supplied by a spring, or occurring in the course of a stream; a reservoir for water; as, the pools of Solomon.

Pool (n.) In rifle shooting, a contest in which each competitor pays a certain sum for every shot he makes, the net proceeds being divided among the winners.

Pool (n.) A combination of persons contributing money to be used for the purpose of increasing or depressing the market price of stocks, grain, or other commodities; also, the aggregate of the sums so contributed; as, the pool took all the wheat offered below the limit; he put $10,000 into the pool.

Pool (n.) An aggregation of properties or rights, belonging to different people in a community, in a common fund, to be charged with common liabilities.

Pool (v. t.) To put together; to contribute to a common fund, on the basis of a mutual division of profits or losses; to make a common interest of; as, the companies pooled their traffic.

Pooling (n.) The act of uniting, or an agreement to unite, an aggregation of properties belonging to different persons, with a view to common liabilities or profits.

Poorbox (n.) A receptacle in which money given for the poor is placed.

Pop (n.) An unintoxicating beverage which expels the cork with a pop from the bottle containing it; as, ginger pop; lemon pop, etc.

Populace (n.) The common people; the vulgar; the multitude, -- comprehending all persons not distinguished by rank, office, education, or profession.

Popular (a.) Of or pertaining to the common people, or to the whole body of the people, as distinguished from a select portion; as, the popular voice; popular elections.

Popular (a.) Suitable to common people; easy to be comprehended; not abstruse; familiar; plain.

Popular (a.) Adapted to the means of the common people; possessed or obtainable by the many; hence, cheap; common; ordinary; inferior; as, popular prices; popular amusements.

Popular (a.) Devoted to the common people; studious of the favor of the populace.

Popular (a.) Prevailing among the people; epidemic; as, a popular disease.

Popularity (n.) The quality or state of being adapted or pleasing to common, poor, or vulgar people; hence, cheapness; inferiority; vulgarity.

Popularization (n.) The act of making popular, or of introducing among the people.

Popularize (v. t.) To make popular; to make suitable or acceptable to the common people; to make generally known; as, to popularize philosophy.

Popularly (adv.) In a popular manner; so as to be generally favored or accepted by the people; commonly; currently; as, the story was popularity reported.

Populous (a.) Common; vulgar.

Porcupine (n.) Any Old Word rodent of the genus Hystrix, having the back covered with long, sharp, erectile spines or quills, sometimes a foot long. The common species of Europe and Asia (Hystrix cristata) is the best known.

Porime (n.) A theorem or proposition so easy of demonstration as to be almost self-evident.

Porphyrogenitism (n.) The principle of succession in royal families, especially among the Eastern Roman emperors, by which a younger son, if born after the accession of his father to the throne, was preferred to an elder son who was not so born.

Porte-cochere (n.) A large doorway allowing vehicles to drive into or through a building. It is common to have the entrance door open upon the passage of the porte-cochere. Also, a porch over a driveway before an entrance door.

Portemonnaie (n.) A small pocketbook or wallet for carrying money.

Portrait (n.) The likeness of a person, painted, drawn, or engraved; commonly, a representation of the human face painted from real life.

Port-royalist (n.) One of the dwellers in the Cistercian convent of Port Royal des Champs, near Paris, when it was the home of the Jansenists in the 17th century, among them being Arnauld, Pascal, and other famous scholars. Cf. Jansenist.

Pospolite (n.) A kind of militia in Poland, consisting of the gentry, which, in case of invasion, was summoned to the defense of the country.

Posse comitatus () The power of the county, or the citizens who may be summoned by the sheriff to assist the authorities in suppressing a riot, or executing any legal precept which is forcibly opposed.

Possess (v. t.) To put in possession; to make the owner or holder of property, power, knowledge, etc.; to acquaint; to inform; -- followed by of or with before the thing possessed, and now commonly used reflexively.

Possession (n.) The state of being possessed or controlled, as by an evil spirit, or violent passions; madness; frenzy; as, demoniacal possession.

Post-abdomen (n.) That part of a crustacean behind the cephalothorax; -- more commonly called abdomen.

Post-obit bond () A bond in which the obligor, in consideration of having received a certain sum of money, binds himself to pay a larger sum, on unusual interest, on the death of some specified individual from whom he has expectations.

Potassa (n.) Potassium hydroxide, commonly called caustic potash.

Potassamide (n.) A yellowish brown substance obtained by heating potassium in ammonia.

Potboiler (n.) A term applied derisively to any literary or artistic work, and esp. a painting, done simply for money and the means of living.

Potentate (a.) One who is potent; one who possesses great power or sway; a prince, sovereign, or monarch.

Pot-walloper (n.) A voter in certain boroughs of England, where, before the passage of the reform bill of 1832, the qualification for suffrage was to have boiled (walloped) his own pot in the parish for six months.

Pouch (n.) A small bag; usually, a leathern bag; as, a pouch for money; a shot pouch; a mail pouch, etc.

Pound (n.) A British denomination of money of account, equivalent to twenty shillings sterling, and equal in value to about $4.86. There is no coin known by this name, but the gold sovereign is of the same value.

Power (n.) Ability to act, regarded as latent or inherent; the faculty of doing or performing something; capacity for action or performance; capability of producing an effect, whether physical or moral: potency; might; as, a man of great power; the power of capillary attraction; money gives power.

Powpow (n.) A priest, or conjurer, among the North American Indians.

Powwow (v. i.) To use conjuration, with noise and confusion, for the cure of disease, etc., as among the North American Indians.

Prairial (n.) The ninth month of the French Republican calendar, which dated from September 22, 1792. It began May, 20, and ended June 18. See Vendemiaire.

Prawn (n.) Any one of numerous species of large shrimplike Crustacea having slender legs and long antennae. They mostly belong to the genera Pandalus, Palaemon, Palaemonetes, and Peneus, and are much used as food. The common English prawn is Palaemon serratus.

Preach (v. i.) To proclaim or publish tidings; specifically, to proclaim the gospel; to discourse publicly on a religious subject, or from a text of Scripture; to deliver a sermon.

Preach (v. t.) To proclaim by public discourse; to utter in a sermon or a formal religious harangue.

Preach (v. t.) To deliver or pronounce; as, to preach a sermon.

Preaching (n.) The act of delivering a religious discourse; the art of sermonizing; also, a sermon; a public religious discourse; serious, earnest advice.

Preachment (n.) A religious harangue; a sermon; -- used derogatively.

Preadmonish (v. t.) To admonish previously.

Preadmonition (n.) Previous warning or admonition; forewarning.

Preaudience (n.) Precedence of rank at the bar among lawyers.

Precedency (n.) The act or state of going or being before in rank or dignity, or the place of honor; right to a more honorable place; superior rank; as, barons have precedence of commoners.

Preceptor (n.) The head of a preceptory among the Knights Templars.

Precise (a.) Strictly adhering or conforming to rule; very nice or exact; punctilious in conduct or ceremony; formal; ceremonious.

Precisian (n.) An overprecise person; one rigidly or ceremoniously exact in the observance of rules; a formalist; -- formerly applied to the English Puritans.

Preconizate (v. t.) To proclaim; to publish; also, to summon; to call.

Preeminent (a.) Eminent above others; prominent among those who are eminent; superior in excellence; surpassing, or taking precedence of, others; rarely, surpassing others in evil, or in bad qualities; as, preeminent in guilt.

Prehensile (n.) Adapted to seize or grasp; seizing; grasping; as, the prehensile tail of a monkey.

Premium (n.) Something offered or given for the loan of money; bonus; -- sometimes synonymous with interest, but generally signifying a sum in addition to the capital.

Premium (n.) A sum of money paid to underwriters for insurance, or for undertaking to indemnify for losses of any kind.

Premonished (imp. & p. p.) of Premonish

Premonishing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Premonish

Premonish (v. t.) To forewarn; to admonish beforehand.

Premonishment (n.) Previous warning or admonition; forewarning.

Premonition (n.) Previous warning, notice, or information; forewarning; as, a premonition of danger.

Premonitor (n.) One who, or that which, gives premonition.

Premonitory (a.) Giving previous warning or notice; as, premonitory symptoms of disease.

Premonstrant (n.) A Premonstratensian.

Premonstrate (v. t.) To show beforehand; to foreshow.

Premonstratensian (n.) One of a religious order of regular canons founded by St. Norbert at Premontre, in France, in 1119. The members of the order are called also White Canons, Norbertines, and Premonstrants.

Premonstration (n.) A showing beforehand; foreshowing.

Premonstrator (n.) One who, or that which, premonstrates.

Prepositor (n.) A scholar appointed to inspect other scholars; a monitor.

Present (a.) To pass over, esp. in a ceremonious manner; to give in charge or possession; to deliver; to make over.

Present (a.) To make a gift of; to bestow; to give, generally in a formal or ceremonious manner; to grant; to confer.

Present (a.) To lay before a public body, or an official, for consideration, as before a legislature, a court of judicature, a corporation, etc.; as, to present a memorial, petition, remonstrance, or indictment.

Preserve (n.) That which is preserved; fruit, etc., seasoned and kept by suitable preparation; esp., fruit cooked with sugar; -- commonly in the plural.

Prest (n.) Ready money; a loan of money.

Prest (n.) A duty in money formerly paid by the sheriff on his account in the exchequer, or for money left or remaining in his hands.

Prestation (n.) A payment of money; a toll or duty; also, the rendering of a service.

Prestimony (n.) A fund for the support of a priest, without the title of a benefice. The patron in the collator.

Preternatural (a.) Beyond of different from what is natural, or according to the regular course of things, but not clearly supernatural or miraculous; strange; inexplicable; extraordinary; uncommon; irregular; abnormal; as, a preternatural appearance; a preternatural stillness; a preternatural presentation (in childbirth) or labor.

Pretor (n.) A civil officer or magistrate among the ancient Romans.

Price (n. & v.) The sum or amount of money at which a thing is valued, or the value which a seller sets on his goods in market; that for which something is bought or sold, or offered for sale; equivalent in money or other means of exchange; current value or rate paid or demanded in market or in barter; cost.

Priestess (n.) A woman who officiated in sacred rites among pagans.

Primage (n.) A charge in addition to the freight; originally, a gratuity to the captain for his particular care of the goods (sometimes called hat money), but now belonging to the owners or freighters of the vessel, unless by special agreement the whole or part is assigned to the captain.

Primates (n. pl.) The highest order of mammals. It includes man, together with the apes and monkeys. Cf. Pitheci.

Primogeniture (a.) The state of being the firstborn of the same parents; seniority by birth among children of the same family.

Primogeniture (a.) The exclusive right of inheritance which belongs to the eldest son. Thus in England the right of inheriting the estate of the father belongs to the eldest son, and in the royal family the eldest son of the sovereign is entitled to the throne by primogeniture. In exceptional cases, among the female children, the crown descends by right of primogeniture to the eldest daughter only and her issue.

Prince (a.) The one of highest rank; one holding the highest place and authority; a sovereign; a monarch; -- originally applied to either sex, but now rarely applied to a female.

Principal (n.) A capital sum of money, placed out at interest, due as a debt or used as a fund; -- so called in distinction from interest or profit.

Private (n.) A common soldier; a soldier below the grade of a noncommissioned officer.

Probable (a.) Rendering probable; supporting, or giving ground for, belief, but not demonstrating; as, probable evidence; probable presumption.

Procession (n.) The act of proceeding, moving on, advancing, or issuing; regular, orderly, or ceremonious progress; continuous course.

Procession (n.) That which is moving onward in an orderly, stately, or solemn manner; a train of persons advancing in order; a ceremonious train; a retinue; as, a procession of mourners; the Lord Mayor's procession.

Procession (n.) An orderly and ceremonial progress of persons, either from the sacristy to the choir, or from the choir around the church, within or without.

Proclitic (a.) Leaning forward; -- said of certain monosyllabic words which are so closely attached to the following word as not to have a separate accent.

Proctor (n.) An officer employed in admiralty and ecclesiastical causes. He answers to an attorney at common law, or to a solicitor in equity.

Procuration (n.) A sum of money paid formerly to the bishop or archdeacon, now to the ecclesiastical commissioners, by an incumbent, as a commutation for entertainment at the time of visitation; -- called also proxy.

Prodigal (a.) Given to extravagant expenditure; expending money or other things without necessity; recklessly or viciously profuse; lavish; wasteful; not frugal or economical; as, a prodigal man; the prodigal son; prodigal giving; prodigal expenses.

Prodigal (n.) One who expends money extravagantly, viciously, or without necessity; one that is profuse or lavish in any expenditure; a waster; a spendthrift.

Prodigality (n.) Extravagance in expenditure, particularly of money; excessive liberality; profusion; waste; -- opposed to frugality, economy, and parsimony.

Prodigy (n.) A production out of ordinary course of nature; an abnormal development; a monster.

Produce (v. t.) To yield or furnish; to gain; as, money at interest produces an income; capital produces profit.

Progression (n.) Regular or proportional advance in increase or decrease of numbers; continued proportion, arithmetical, geometrical, or harmonic.

Progression (n.) A regular succession of tones or chords; the movement of the parts in harmony; the order of the modulations in a piece from key to key.

Proletaire (n.) One of the common people; a low person; also, the common people as a class or estate in a country.

Proletarian (a.) Of or pertaining to the proletaries; belonging to the commonalty; hence, mean; vile; vulgar.

Proletary (n.) A citizen of the lowest class, who served the state, not with property, but only by having children; hence, a common person.

Prolix (a.) Extending to a great length; unnecessarily long; minute in narration or argument; excessively particular in detail; -- rarely used except with reference to discourse written or spoken; as, a prolix oration; a prolix poem; a prolix sermon.

Promiscuous (a.) Distributed or applied without order or discrimination; not restricted to an individual; common; indiscriminate; as, promiscuous love or intercourse.

Promise (v. t.) To engage to do, give, make, or to refrain from doing, giving, or making, or the like; to covenant; to engage; as, to promise a visit; to promise a cessation of hostilities; to promise the payment of money.

Promont (n.) Promontory.

Promontories (pl. ) of Promontory

Promontory (n.) A high point of land or rock projecting into the sea beyond the line of coast; a headland; a high cape.

Promontory (n.) A projecting part. Especially: (a) The projecting angle of the ventral side of the sacrum where it joins the last lumbar vertebra. (b) A prominence on the inner wall of the tympanum of the ear.

Prompter (n.) One who, or that which, prompts; one who admonishes or incites to action.

Proof (n.) That degree of evidence which convinces the mind of any truth or fact, and produces belief; a test by facts or arguments that induce, or tend to induce, certainty of the judgment; conclusive evidence; demonstration.

Proper (a.) Belonging to the natural or essential constitution; peculiar; not common; particular; as, every animal has his proper instincts and appetites.

Proper (a.) Pertaining to one of a species, but not common to the whole; not appellative; -- opposed to common; as, a proper name; Dublin is the proper name of a city.

Propertied (a.) Possessing property; holding real estate, or other investments of money.

Property (a.) That to which a person has a legal title, whether in his possession or not; thing owned; an estate, whether in lands, goods, or money; as, a man of large property, or small property.

Propine (n.) A gift; esp., drink money.

Proportion (n.) Harmonic relation between parts, or between different things of the same kind; symmetrical arrangement or adjustment; symmetry; as, to be out of proportion.

Proportion (n.) The equality or similarity of ratios, especially of geometrical ratios; or a relation among quantities such that the quotient of the first divided by the second is equal to that of the third divided by the fourth; -- called also geometrical proportion, in distinction from arithmetical proportion, or that in which the difference of the first and second is equal to the difference of the third and fourth.

Proposition (n.) A statement in terms of a truth to be demonstrated, or of an operation to be performed.

Proprietary (n.) A monk who had reserved goods and effects to himself, notwithstanding his renunciation of all at the time of profession.

Prosaical (a.) Dull; uninteresting; commonplace; unimaginative; prosy; as, a prosaic person.

Proscription (n.) The act of proscribing; a dooming to death or exile; outlawry; specifically, among the ancient Romans, the public offer of a reward for the head of a political enemy; as, under the triumvirate, many of the best Roman citizens fell by proscription.

Prose (n.) Hence, language which evinces little imagination or animation; dull and commonplace discourse.

Prosiphon (n.) A minute tube found in the protoconch of ammonites, and not connected with the true siphon.

Prosopulmonata (n. pl.) A division of pulmonate mollusks having the breathing organ situated on the neck, as in the common snail.

Prostitution (n.) The act or practice of prostituting or offering the body to an indiscriminate intercourse with men; common lewdness of a woman.

Protamin (n.) An amorphous nitrogenous substance found in the spermatic fluid of salmon. It is soluble in water, which an alkaline reaction, and unites with acids and metallic bases.

Protest (v.) A solemn declaration of opinion, commonly a formal objection against some act; especially, a formal and solemn declaration, in writing, of dissent from the proceedings of a legislative body; as, the protest of lords in Parliament.

Protestation (n.) Formerly, a declaration in common-law pleading, by which the party interposes an oblique allegation or denial of some fact, protesting that it does or does not exist, and at the same time avoiding a direct affirmation or denial.

Protonotary (n.) Formerly, a chief clerk in the Court of King's Bench and in the Court of Common Pleas, now superseded by the master.

Proto- () Sometimes used as equivalent to mono-, as indicating that the compound has but one atom of the element to the name of which it is prefixed. Also used adjectively.

Protoconch (n.) The embryonic shell, or first chamber, of ammonites and other cephalopods.

Provable (a.) Capable of being proved; demonstrable.

Provant (a.) Provided for common or general use, as in an army; hence, common in quality; inferior.

Prove (v. t.) To evince, establish, or ascertain, as truth, reality, or fact, by argument, testimony, or other evidence.

Proverb (n.) An old and common saying; a phrase which is often repeated; especially, a sentence which briefly and forcibly expresses some practical truth, or the result of experience and observation; a maxim; a saw; an adage.

Proverbial (a.) Mentioned or comprised in a proverb; used as a proverb; hence, commonly known; as, a proverbial expression; his meanness was proverbial.

Proverbially (adv.) In a proverbial manner; by way of proverb; hence, commonly; universally; as, it is proverbially said; the bee is proverbially busy.

Provincial (n.) A monastic superior, who, under the general of his order, has the direction of all the religious houses of the same fraternity in a given district, called a province of the order.

Provoke (v. t.) To call forth; to call into being or action; esp., to incense to action, a faculty or passion, as love, hate, or ambition; hence, commonly, to incite, as a person, to action by a challenge, by taunts, or by defiance; to exasperate; to irritate; to offend intolerably; to cause to retaliate.

Prowl (v. t.) To collect by plunder; as, to prowl money.

Proximo () In the next month after the present; -- often contracted to prox.; as, on the 3d proximo.

Prudent (a.) Frugal; economical; not extravagant; as, a prudent woman; prudent expenditure of money.

Psalter (n.) Specifically, the Book of Psalms as printed in the Book of Common Prayer; among the Roman Catholics, the part of the Breviary which contains the Psalms arranged for each day of the week.

Pseudo-monocotyledonous (a.) Having two coalescent cotyledons, as the live oak and the horse-chestnut.

Pseudostoma (n.) A group of cells resembling a stoma, but without any true aperture among them.

Pubes (n.) Hence (as more commonly used), the lower part of the hypogastric region; the pubic region.

Public (a.) Open to the knowledge or view of all; general; common; notorious; as, public report; public scandal.

Public (a.) Open to common or general use; as, a public road; a public house.

Publication (n.) That which is published or made known; especially, any book, pamphlet, etc., offered for sale or to public notice; as, a daily or monthly publication.

Puffer (n.) The common, or harbor, porpoise.

Puffin (n.) An arctic sea bird Fratercula arctica) allied to the auks, and having a short, thick, swollen beak, whence the name; -- called also bottle nose, cockandy, coulterneb, marrot, mormon, pope, and sea parrot.

Pug (n.) A name for a monkey.

Pug-faced (a.) Having a face like a monkey or a pug; monkey-faced.

Puisne (a.) Younger or inferior in rank; junior; associate; as, a chief justice and three puisne justices of the Court of Common Pleas; the puisne barons of the Court of Exchequer.

Pulmobranchiate (a. & n.) Same as Pulmonibranchiata, -ate.

Pulmogasteropoda (n. pl.) Same as Pulmonata.

Pulmonarian (n.) Any arachnid that breathes by lunglike organs, as the spiders and scorpions. Also used adjectively.

Pulmonary (a.) Of or pertaining to the lungs; affecting the lungs; pulmonic.

Pulmonary (a.) Lungwort.

Pulmonata (n. pl.) An extensive division, or sub-class, of hermaphrodite gastropods, in which the mantle cavity is modified into an air-breathing organ, as in Helix, or land snails, Limax, or garden slugs, and many pond snails, as Limnaea and Planorbis.

Pulmonate (a.) Having breathing organs that act as lungs.

Pulmonate (a.) Pertaining to the Pulmonata.

Pulmonate (n.) One of the Pulmonata.

Pulmonated (a.) same as Pulmonate (a).

Pulmonibranchiata (n. pl.) Same as Pulmonata.

Pulmonibranchiate (a. & n.) Same as Pulmonate.

Pulmonic (a.) Relating to, or affecting the lungs; pulmonary.

Pulmonic (n.) A pulmonic medicine.

Pulmonifera (n. pl.) Same as Pulmonata.

Pulmoniferous (a.) Having lungs; pulmonate.

Pulsatilla (n.) A genus of ranunculaceous herbs including the pasque flower. This genus is now merged in Anemone. Some species, as Anemone Pulsatilla, Anemone pratensis, and Anemone patens, are used medicinally.

Puma (n.) A large American carnivore (Felis concolor), found from Canada to Patagonia, especially among the mountains. Its color is tawny, or brownish yellow, without spots or stripes. Called also catamount, cougar, American lion, mountain lion, and panther or painter.

Pump (v. t.) Figuratively, to draw out or obtain, as secrets or money, by persistent questioning or plying; to question or ply persistently in order to elicit something, as information, money, etc.

Punch (n.) A beverage composed of wine or distilled liquor, water (or milk), sugar, and the juice of lemon, with spice or mint; -- specifically named from the kind of spirit used; as rum punch, claret punch, champagne punch, etc.

Punctilio (n.) A nice point of exactness in conduct, ceremony, or proceeding; particularity or exactness in forms; as, the punctilios of a public ceremony.

Puncto (n.) A nice point of form or ceremony.

Punctualist (n.) One who is very exact in observing forms and ceremonies.

Pungency (n.) The quality or state of being pungent or piercing; keenness; sharpness; piquancy; as, the pungency of ammonia.

Pupivora (n. pl.) A group of parasitic Hymenoptera, including the ichneumon flies, which destroy the larvae and pupae of insects.

Puppy (n.) The young of a canine animal, esp. of the common dog; a whelp.

Purchase (v. t.) To obtain by paying money or its equivalent; to buy for a price; as, to purchase land, or a house.

Purchase (v. t.) The acquisition of title to, or properly in, anything for a price; buying for money or its equivalent.

Purchase (v. t.) That which is obtained for a price in money or its equivalent.

Purchaser (n.) One who purchases; one who acquires property for a consideration, generally of money; a buyer; a vendee.

Purge (v. t.) To clear from guilt, or from moral or ceremonial defilement; as, to purge one of guilt or crime.

Purification (n.) The act or operation of cleansing ceremonially, by removing any pollution or defilement.

Purify (v. t.) To free from ceremonial or legal defilement.

Purl (v. i.) To run swiftly round, as a small stream flowing among stones or other obstructions; to eddy; also, to make a murmuring sound, as water does in running over or through obstructions.

Purl (n.) A gentle murmur, as that produced by the running of a liquid among obstructions; as, the purl of a brook.

Purline (n.) In root construction, a horizontal member supported on the principals and supporting the common rafters.

Purling (n.) The motion of a small stream running among obstructions; also, the murmur it makes in so doing.

Purpresture (n.) Wrongful encroachment upon another's property; esp., any encroachment upon, or inclosure of, that which should be common or public, as highways, rivers, harbors, forts, etc.

Purpureo- () A combining form signifying of a purple or purple-red color. Specif. (Chem.), used in designating certain brilliant purple-red compounds of cobaltic chloride and ammonia, similar to the roseocobaltic compounds. See Cobaltic.

Purse (n.) A small bag or pouch, the opening of which is made to draw together closely, used to carry money in; by extension, any receptacle for money carried on the person; a wallet; a pocketbook; a portemonnaie.

Purse (n.) A sum of money offered as a prize, or collected as a present; as, to win the purse; to make up a purse.

Purse (n.) A specific sum of money

Purser (n.) A commissioned officer in the navy who had charge of the provisions, clothing, and public moneys on shipboard; -- now called paymaster.

Putative (a.) Commonly thought or deemed; supposed; reputed; as, the putative father of a child.

Pyramid (n.) A solid figure contained by a plane rectilineal figure as base and several triangles which have a common vertex and whose bases are sides of the base.

Pyrargyrite (n.) Ruby silver; dark red silver ore. It is a sulphide of antimony and silver, occurring in rhombohedral crystals or massive, and is of a dark red or black color with a metallic adamantine luster.

Pyridine (n.) A nitrogenous base, C5H5N, obtained from the distillation of bone oil or coal tar, and by the decomposition of certain alkaloids, as a colorless liquid with a peculiar pungent odor. It is the nucleus of a large number of organic substances, among which several vegetable alkaloids, as nicotine and certain of the ptomaines, may be mentioned. See Lutidine.

Pyrite (n.) A common mineral of a pale brass-yellow color and brilliant metallic luster, crystallizing in the isometric system; iron pyrites; iron disulphide.

Pyritohedron (n.) The pentagonal dodecahedron, a common form of pyrite.

Pyroantimonate (n.) A salt of pyroantimonic acid.

Pyroantimonic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid of antimony analogous to pyrophosphoric acid.

Pyrotritartaric (a.) Designating an acid which is more commonly called uric acid.

Pyroxene (n.) A common mineral occurring in monoclinic crystals, with a prismatic angle of nearly 90, and also in massive forms which are often laminated. It varies in color from white to dark green and black, and includes many varieties differing in color and composition, as diopside, malacolite, salite, coccolite, augite, etc. They are all silicates of lime and magnesia with sometimes alumina and iron. Pyroxene is an essential constituent of many rocks, especially basic igneous rocks, as basalt, gabbro, etc.

Quadrant (n.) An instrument for measuring altitudes, variously constructed and mounted for different specific uses in astronomy, surveying, gunnery, etc., consisting commonly of a graduated arc of 90, with an index or vernier, and either plain or telescopic sights, and usually having a plumb line or spirit level for fixing the vertical or horizontal direction.

Quadrille (n.) A dance having five figures, in common time, four couples of dancers being in each set.

Quadrin (n.) A small piece of money, in value about a farthing, or a half cent.

Quadrivalent (a.) Having a valence of four; capable of combining with, being replaced by, or compared with, four monad atoms; tetravalent; -- said of certain atoms and radicals; thus, carbon and silicon are quadrivalent elements.

Quadrumana (n. pl.) A division of the Primates comprising the apes and monkeys; -- so called because the hind foot is usually prehensile, and the great toe opposable somewhat like a thumb. Formerly the Quadrumana were considered an order distinct from the Bimana, which last included man alone.

Quail (n.) Any gallinaceous bird belonging to Coturnix and several allied genera of the Old World, especially the common European quail (C. communis), the rain quail (C. Coromandelica) of India, the stubble quail (C. pectoralis), and the Australian swamp quail (Synoicus australis).

Quarrel (n.) An arrow for a crossbow; -- so named because it commonly had a square head.

Quarrel (n.) A glazier's diamond.

Quarrel (n.) A four-sided cutting tool or chisel having a diamond-shaped end.

Quarter (n.) The fourth part of the moon's period, or monthly revolution; as, the first quarter after the change or full.

Quarter (v. t.) A small upright timber post, used in partitions; -- in the United States more commonly called stud.

Quartz (n.) A form of silica, or silicon dioxide (SiO2), occurring in hexagonal crystals, which are commonly colorless and transparent, but sometimes also yellow, brown, purple, green, and of other colors; also in cryptocrystalline massive forms varying in color and degree of transparency, being sometimes opaque.

Quartzoid (n.) A form of crystal common with quartz, consisting of two six-sided pyramids, base to base.

Queen (n.) A woman who is the sovereign of a kingdom; a female monarch; as, Elizabeth, queen of England; Mary, queen of Scots.

Queenliness (n.) The quality of being queenly; the; characteristic of a queen; stateliness; eminence among women in attractions or power.

Queer (n.) Counterfeit money.

Quenelle (n.) A kind of delicate forcemeat, commonly poached and used as a dish by itself or for garnishing.

Quermonious (a.) Complaining; querulous; apt to complain.

Querimony (n.) A complaint or complaining.

Questmonger (n.) One who lays informations, and encourages petty lawsuits.

Quet (n.) The common guillemot.

Quick (superl.) Impatient; passionate; hasty; eager; eager; sharp; unceremonious; as, a quick temper.

Quiet (a.) Not showy; not such as to attract attention; undemonstrative; as, a quiet dress; quiet colors; a quiet movement.

Quillaia bark () The bark of a rosaceous tree (Quillaja Saponaria), native of Chili. The bark is finely laminated, and very heavy with alkaline substances, and is used commonly by the Chilians instead of soap. Also called soap bark.

Quiname (a.) Growing in sets of five; -- said especially of leaves composed of five leaflets set at the end of a common petiole.

Quinnat (n.) The California salmon (Oncorhynchus choicha); -- called also chouicha, king salmon, chinnook salmon, and Sacramento salmon. It is of great commercial importance.

Quoin (n.) Originally, a solid exterior angle, as of a building; now, commonly, one of the selected pieces of material by which the corner is marked.

Rabbinist (n.) One among the Jews who adhered to the Talmud and the traditions of the rabbins, in opposition to the Karaites, who rejected the traditions.

Rabbit (n.) Any of the smaller species of the genus Lepus, especially the common European species (Lepus cuniculus), which is often kept as a pet, and has been introduced into many countries. It is remarkably prolific, and has become a pest in some parts of Australia and New Zealand.

Race (n.) The descendants of a common ancestor; a family, tribe, people, or nation, believed or presumed to belong to the same stock; a lineage; a breed.

Racer (n.) The common American black snake.

Rachitis (n.) Literally, inflammation of the spine, but commonly applied to the rickets. See Rickets.

Radiated (a.) Formed of, or arranged like, rays or radii; having parts or markings diverging, like radii, from a common center or axis; as, a radiated structure; a radiated group of crystals.

Radical (n.) A primitive word; a radix, root, or simple, underived, uncompounded word; an etymon.

Radix (n.) A primitive word, from which spring other words; a radical; a root; an etymon.

Radix (n.) A number or quantity which is arbitrarily made the fundamental number of any system; a base. Thus, 10 is the radix, or base, of the common system of logarithms, and also of the decimal system of numeration.

Rafter (n.) Originally, any rough and somewhat heavy piece of timber. Now, commonly, one of the timbers of a roof which are put on sloping, according to the inclination of the roof. See Illust. of Queen-post.

Ragweed (n.) A common American composite weed (Ambrosia artemisiaefolia) with finely divided leaves; hogweed.

Raise (v. t.) To bring together; to collect; to levy; to get together or obtain for use or service; as, to raise money, troops, and the like.

Ramadan (n.) The ninth Mohammedan month.

Ramadan (n.) The great annual fast of the Mohammedans, kept during daylight through the ninth month.

Ramson (n.) A broad-leaved species of garlic (Allium ursinum), common in European gardens; -- called also buckram.

Rana (n.) A genus of anurous batrachians, including the common frogs.

Random (n.) A roving motion; course without definite direction; want of direction, rule, or method; hazard; chance; -- commonly used in the phrase at random, that is, without a settled point of direction; at hazard.

Range (n.) To place (as a single individual) among others in a line, row, or order, as in the ranks of an army; -- usually, reflexively and figuratively, (in the sense) to espouse a cause, to join a party, etc.

Ransom (n.) The money or price paid for the redemption of a prisoner, or for goods captured by an enemy; payment for freedom from restraint, penalty, or forfeit.

Ranunculaceous (a.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (Ranunculaceae), of which the buttercup is the type, and which includes also the virgin's bower, the monkshood, larkspur, anemone, meadow rue, and peony.

Raphany (n.) A convulsive disease, attended with ravenous hunger, not uncommon in Sweden and Germany. It was so called because supposed to be caused by eating corn with which seeds of jointed charlock (Raphanus raphanistrum) had been mixed, but the condition is now known to be a form of ergotism.

Rare (superl.) Of an uncommon nature; unusually excellent; valuable to a degree seldom found.

Rarity (n.) That which is rare; an uncommon thing; a thing valued for its scarcity.

Rascal (v.) One of the rabble; a low, common sort of person or creature; collectively, the rabble; the common herd; also, a lean, ill-conditioned beast, esp. a deer.

Rascal (a.) Of or pertaining to the common herd or common people; low; mean; base.

Ratio (n.) The relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind. It is expressed by the quotient of the division of the first by the second; thus, the ratio of 3 to 6 is expressed by / or /; of a to b by a/b; or (less commonly) the second term is made the dividend; as, a:b = b/a.

Rattle (v. i.) To make a quick succession of sharp, inharmonious noises, as by the collision of hard and not very sonorous bodies shaken together; to clatter.

Rattlesnake (n.) Any one of several species of venomous American snakes belonging to the genera Crotalus and Caudisona, or Sistrurus. They have a series of horny interlocking joints at the end of the tail which make a sharp rattling sound when shaken. The common rattlesnake of the Northern United States (Crotalus horridus), and the diamond rattlesnake of the South (C. adamanteus), are the best known. See Illust. of Fang.

Ray (n.) One of a number of lines or parts diverging from a common point or center, like the radii of a circle; as, a star of six rays.

Razorbill (n.) A species of auk (Alca torda) common in the Arctic seas. See Auk, and Illust. in Appendix.

Ready (n.) Ready money; cash; -- commonly with the; as, he was well supplied with the ready.

Reaggravation (n.) The last monitory, published after three admonitions and before the last excommunication.

Real (n.) A small Spanish silver coin; also, a denomination of money of account, formerly the unit of the Spanish monetary system.

Realize (v. t.) To convert into actual money; as, to realize assets.

Realize (v. i.) To convert any kind of property into money, especially property representing investments, as shares in stock companies, bonds, etc.

Rear (v. t.) To raise; to lift up; to cause to rise, become erect, etc.; to elevate; as, to rear a monolith.

Reason (n.) Due exercise of the reasoning faculty; accordance with, or that which is accordant with and ratified by, the mind rightly exercised; right intellectual judgment; clear and fair deductions from true principles; that which is dictated or supported by the common sense of mankind; right conduct; right; propriety; justice.

Rebuke (v. t.) To check, silence, or put down, with reproof; to restrain by expression of disapprobation; to reprehend sharply and summarily; to chide; to reprove; to admonish.

Recall (v. t.) To call back; to summon to return; as, to recall troops; to recall an ambassador.

Receipt (n.) A writing acknowledging the taking or receiving of goods delivered; an acknowledgment of money paid.

Receipt (v. i.) To give a receipt, as for money paid.

Receive (v. t.) To take, as something that is offered, given, committed, sent, paid, or the like; to accept; as, to receive money offered in payment of a debt; to receive a gift, a message, or a letter.

Receiver (n.) A person appointed, ordinarily by a court, to receive, and hold in trust, money or other property which is the subject of litigation, pending the suit; a person appointed to take charge of the estate and effects of a corporation, and to do other acts necessary to winding up its affairs, in certain cases.

Receptacle (n.) The dilated apex of a pedicel which serves as a common support to a head of flowers.

Reception (n.) The act or manner of receiving, esp. of receiving visitors; entertainment; hence, an occasion or ceremony of receiving guests; as, a hearty reception; an elaborate reception.

Recital (n.) The act of reciting; the repetition of the words of another, or of a document; rehearsal; as, the recital of testimony.

Reclamation (n.) Representation made in opposition; remonstrance.

Recluse (a.) Shut up; sequestered; retired from the world or from public notice; solitary; living apart; as, a recluse monk or hermit; a recluse life.

Recluse (a.) A person who lives in seclusion from intercourse with the world, as a hermit or monk; specifically, one of a class of secluded devotees who live in single cells, usually attached to monasteries.

Recognize (v. t.) To show appreciation of; as, to recognize services by a testimonial.

Reconcile (v. t.) To cause to be friendly again; to conciliate anew; to restore to friendship; to bring back to harmony; to cause to be no longer at variance; as, to reconcile persons who have quarreled.

Reconciliation (n.) The act of reconciling, or the state of being reconciled; reconcilenment; restoration to harmony; renewal of friendship.

Reconciliation (n.) Reduction to congruence or consistency; removal of inconsistency; harmony.

Record (v. t.) Testimony; witness; attestation.

Record (v. t.) That which serves to perpetuate a knowledge of acts or events; a monument; a memorial.

Recoupe (v. t.) To get an equivalent or compensation for; as, to recoup money lost at the gaming table; to recoup one's losses in the share market.

Recover (v. t.) To gain as a compensation; to obtain in return for injury or debt; as, to recover damages in trespass; to recover debt and costs in a suit at law; to obtain title to by judgement in a court of law; as, to recover lands in ejectment or common recovery; to gain by legal process; as, to recover judgement against a defendant.

Recoveree (n.) The person against whom a judgment is obtained in common recovery.

Recoveror (n.) The demandant in a common recovery after judgment.

Rector (n.) The superior officer or chief of a convent or religious house; and among the Jesuits the superior of a house that is a seminary or college.

Recurved (a.) Curved in an opposite or uncommon direction; bent back; as, a bird with a recurved bill; flowers with recurved petals.

Redeemable (a.) Capable of being redeemed; subject to repurchase; held under conditions permitting redemption; as, a pledge securing the payment of money is redeemable.

Redeemable (a.) Subject to an obligation of redemtion; conditioned upon a promise of redemtion; payable; due; as, bonds, promissory notes, etc. , redeemabble in gold, or in current money, or four months after date.

Redemonstrate (v. t.) To demonstrate again, or anew.

Redemptionist (n.) A monk of an order founded in 1197; -- so called because the order was especially devoted to the redemption of Christians held in captivity by the Mohammedans. Called also Trinitarian.

Redfish (n.) The blueback salmon of the North Pacific; -- called also nerka. See Blueback (b).

Redhorn (n.) Any species of a tribe of butterflies (Fugacia) including the common yellow species and the cabbage butterflies. The antennae are usually red.

Redoubt (n.) A small, and usually a roughly constructed, fort or outwork of varying shape, commonly erected for a temporary purpose, and without flanking defenses, -- used esp. in fortifying tops of hills and passes, and positions in hostile territory.

Redpoll (n.) Any one of several species of small northern finches of the genus Acanthis (formerly Aegiothus), native of Europe and America. The adults have the crown red or rosy. The male of the most common species (A. linarius) has also the breast and rump rosy. Called also redpoll linnet. See Illust. under Linnet.

Redpoll (n.) The common European linnet.

Redshank (n.) A common Old World limicoline bird (Totanus calidris), having the legs and feet pale red. The spotted redshank (T. fuscus) is larger, and has orange-red legs. Called also redshanks, redleg, and clee.

Redskin (n.) A common appellation for a North American Indian; -- so called from the color of the skin.

Reduce (n.) To change the form of a quantity or expression without altering its value; as, to reduce fractions to their lowest terms, to a common denominator, etc.

Reed (n.) A name given to many tall and coarse grasses or grasslike plants, and their slender, often jointed, stems, such as the various kinds of bamboo, and especially the common reed of Europe and North America (Phragmites communis).

Reed (n.) One of the thin pieces of metal, the vibration of which produce the tones of a melodeon, accordeon, harmonium, or seraphine; also attached to certain sets or registers of pipes in an organ.

Reeding (n.) The nurling on the edge of a coin; -- commonly called milling.

Refectory (n.) A room for refreshment; originally, a dining hall in monasteries or convents.

Reformado (v. t.) A monk of a reformed order.

Refutation (n.) The act or process of refuting or disproving, or the state of being refuted; proof of falsehood or error; the overthrowing of an argument, opinion, testimony, doctrine, or theory, by argument or countervailing proof.

Refute (v. t.) To disprove and overthrow by argument, evidence, or countervailing proof; to prove to be false or erroneous; to confute; as, to refute arguments; to refute testimony; to refute opinions or theories; to refute a disputant.

Regnal (a.) Of or pertaining to the reign of a monarch; as, regnal years.

Regrant (n.) A renewed of a grant; as, the regrant of a monopoly.

Regular (a.) Belonging to a monastic order or community; as, regular clergy, in distinction dfrom the secular clergy.

Regulize (v. t.) To reduce to regulus; to separate, as a metal from extraneous matter; as, to regulize antimony.

Rei (n.) A portuguese money of account, in value about one tenth of a cent.

Reis (n.) The word is used as a Portuguese designation of money of account, one hundred reis being about equal in value to eleven cents.

Reis (n.) A common title in the East for a person in authority, especially the captain of a ship.

Relieve (v. t.) To raise up something in; to introduce a contrast or variety into; to remove the monotony or sameness of.

Religieux (n. m.) A person bound by monastic vows; a nun; a monk.

Religion (n.) The outward act or form by which men indicate their recognition of the existence of a god or of gods having power over their destiny, to whom obedience, service, and honor are due; the feeling or expression of human love, fear, or awe of some superhuman and overruling power, whether by profession of belief, by observance of rites and ceremonies, or by the conduct of life; a system of faith and worship; a manifestation of piety; as, ethical religions; monotheistic religions; natural religion; revealed religion; the religion of the Jews; the religion of idol worshipers.

Religion (n.) A monastic or religious order subject to a regulated mode of life; the religious state; as, to enter religion.

Religious (n.) A person bound by monastic vows, or sequestered from secular concern, and devoted to a life of piety and religion; a monk or friar; a nun.

Remarkable (a.) Worthy of being remarked or noticed; noticeable; conspicuous; hence, uncommon; extraordinary.

Remembrance (n.) Something to be remembered; counsel; admoni//on; instruction.

Remission (n.) Act of sending in payment, as money; remittance.

Remit (v. t.) To transmit or send, esp. to a distance, as money in payment of a demand, account, draft, etc.; as, he remitted the amount by mail.

Remit (v. i.) To send money, as in payment.

Remittance (n.) The act of transmitting money, bills, or the like, esp. to a distant place, as in satisfaction of a demand, or in discharge of an obligation.

Remonetization (n.) The act of remonetizing.

Remonetize (v. t.) To restore to use as money; as, to remonetize silver.

Remonstrance (n.) The act of remonstrating

Remonstrance (n.) A pointing out; manifestation; proof; demonstration.

Remonstrance (n.) Earnest presentation of reason in opposition to something; protest; expostulation.

Remonstrance (n.) Same as Monstrance.

Remonstrant (a.) Inclined or tending to remonstrate; expostulatory; urging reasons in opposition to something.

Remonstrant (n.) One who remonstrates

Remonstrant (n.) one of the Arminians who remonstrated against the attacks of the Calvinists in 1610, but were subsequently condemned by the decisions of the Synod of Dort in 1618. See Arminian.

Remonstrantly (adv.) In a remonstrant manner.

Remonstrated (imp. & p. p.) of Remonstrate

Remonstrating (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Remonstrate

Remonstrate (v. t.) To point out; to show clearly; to make plain or manifest; hence, to prove; to demonstrate.

Remonstrate (v. i.) To present and urge reasons in opposition to an act, measure, or any course of proceedings; to expostulate; as, to remonstrate with a person regarding his habits; to remonstrate against proposed taxation.

Remonstration (n.) The act of remonstrating; remonstrance.

Remonstrative (a.) Having the character of a remonstrance; expressing remonstrance.

Remonstrator (n.) One who remonstrates; a remonsrant.

Remontant (a.) Rising again; -- applied to a class of roses which bloom more than once in a season; the hybrid perpetual roses, of which the Jacqueminot is a well-known example.

Remontoir (n.) See under Escapement.

Renegade (n.) A common vagabond; a worthless or wicked fellow.

Rent (n.) Figuratively, a schism; a rupture of harmony; a separation; as, a rent in the church.

Rent (n.) A certain periodical profit, whether in money, provisions, chattels, or labor, issuing out of lands and tenements in payment for the use; commonly, a certain pecuniary sum agreed upon between a tenant and his landlord, paid at fixed intervals by the lessee to the lessor, for the use of land or its appendages; as, rent for a farm, a house, a park, etc.

Repay (v. t.) To pay back; to refund; as, to repay money borrowed or advanced.

Repayment (n.) The money or other thing repaid.

Repeal (v. t.) To recall; to summon again, as persons.

Repertory (n.) A place in which things are disposed in an orderly manner, so that they can be easily found, as the index of a book, a commonplace book, or the like.

Replace (v. t.) To refund; to repay; to restore; as, to replace a sum of money borrowed.

Report (v. t.) To give an account of; to relate; to tell; to circulate publicly, as a story; as, in the common phrase, it is reported.

Report (v. t.) A story or statement circulating by common talk; a rumor; hence, fame; repute; reputation.

Reportingly (adv.) By report or common fame.

Repose (v.) That harmony or moderation which affords rest for the eye; -- opposed to the scattering and division of a subject into too many unconnected parts, and also to anything which is overstrained; as, a painting may want repose.

Republic (a.) Common weal.

Republic (a.) A state in which the sovereign power resides in the whole body of the people, and is exercised by representatives elected by them; a commonwealth. Cf. Democracy, 2.

Repute (n.) Specifically: Good character or reputation; credit or honor derived from common or public opinion; -- opposed to disrepute.

Reputedly (adv.) In common opinion or estimation; by repute.

Requisition (n.) A formal application by one officer to another for things needed in the public service; as, a requisition for clothing, troops, or money.

Requisition (n.) A written or normal call; an invitation; a summons; as, a reqisition for a public meeting.

Requisition (v. t.) To present a requisition to; to summon request; as, to requisition a person to be a candidate.

Reset (v. t.) To set again; as, to reset type; to reset copy; to reset a diamond.

Resolve (v. i.) To express, as an opinion or determination, by resolution and vote; to declare or decide by a formal vote; -- followed by a clause; as, the house resolved (or, it was resolved by the house) that no money should be apropriated (or, to appropriate no money).

Resource (n.) Pecuniary means; funds; money, or any property that can be converted into supplies; available means or capabilities of any kind.

Respondent (n.) One who answers in certain suits or proceedings, generally those which are not according to the course of the common law, as in equity and admiralty causes, in petitions for partition, and the like; -- distinquished from appellant.

Restore (v. t.) To renew; to reestablish; as, to restore harmony among those who are variance.

Resummon (v. t.) To summon again.

Resummons (n.) A second summons.

Retribution (n.) That which is given in repayment or compensation; return suitable to the merits or deserts of, as an action; commonly, condign punishment for evil or wrong.

Return (v. t.) To repay; as, to return borrowed money.

Return (v. t.) To lead in response to the lead of one's partner; as, to return a trump; to return a diamond for a club.

Return (n.) The act of returning (transitive), or sending back to the same place or condition; restitution; repayment; requital; retribution; as, the return of anything borrowed, as a book or money; a good return in tennis.

Revolver (n.) One who, or that which, revolves; specifically, a firearm ( commonly a pistol) with several chambers or barrels so arranged as to revolve on an axis, and be discharged in succession by the same lock; a repeater.

Reward (v. t.) To give in return, whether good or evil; -- commonly in a good sense; to requite; to recompense; to repay; to compensate.

Reward (n.) Compensation or remuneration for services; a sum of money paid or taken for doing, or forbearing to do, some act.

Rheic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid (commonly called chrysophanic acid) found in rhubarb (Rheum).

Rhesus (n.) A monkey; the bhunder.

Rhino (n.) Gold and silver, or money.

Rhodammonium (a.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, rhodium and ammonia; -- said of certain complex compounds.

Rhodanic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid (commonly called sulphocyanic acid) which frms a red color with ferric salts.

Rhodomontade (n.) See Rodomontade.

Rhodomontader (n.) See Rodomontador.

Rhyme (n.) An expression of thought in numbers, measure, or verse; a composition in verse; a rhymed tale; poetry; harmony of language.

Rhynchocephala (n. pl.) An order of reptiles having biconcave vertebrae, immovable quadrate bones, and many other peculiar osteological characters. Hatteria is the only living genus, but numerous fossil genera are known, some of which are among the earliest of reptiles. See Hatteria. Called also Rhynchocephalia.

Rhythm (n.) The harmonious flow of vocal sounds.

Ribbon (n.) A fillet or narrow woven fabric, commonly of silk, used for trimming some part of a woman's attire, for badges, and other decorative purposes.

Rich (superl.) Having an abundance of material possessions; possessed of a large amount of property; well supplied with land, goods, or money; wealthy; opulent; affluent; -- opposed to poor.

Rich (superl.) Full of sweet and harmonius sounds; as, a rich voice; rich music.

Riches (a.) That which makes one rich; an abundance of land, goods, money, or other property; wealth; opulence; affluence.

Rig (v. t.) To dress; to equip; to clothe, especially in an odd or fanciful manner; -- commonly followed by out.

Right (a.) In some legislative bodies of Europe (as in France), those members collectively who are conservatives or monarchists. See Center, 5.

Rigorous (a.) Manifesting, exercising, or favoring rigor; allowing no abatement or mitigation; scrupulously accurate; exact; strict; severe; relentless; as, a rigorous officer of justice; a rigorous execution of law; a rigorous definition or demonstration.

Rinderpest (n.) A highly contagious distemper or murrain, affecting neat cattle, and less commonly sheep and goats; -- called also cattle plague, Russian cattle plague, and steppe murrain.

Ring (n.) A chime, or set of bells harmonically tuned.

Ringneck (n.) Any one of several species of small plovers of the genus Aegialitis, having a ring around the neck. The ring is black in summer, but becomes brown or gray in winter. The semipalmated plover (Ae. semipalmata) and the piping plover (Ae. meloda) are common North American species. Called also ring plover, and ring-necked plover.

Rip (v. t.) To divide or separate the parts of, by cutting or tearing; to tear or cut open or off; to tear off or out by violence; as, to rip a garment by cutting the stitches; to rip off the skin of a beast; to rip up a floor; -- commonly used with up, open, off.

Rite (n.) The act of performing divine or solemn service, as established by law, precept, or custom; a formal act of religion or other solemn duty; a solemn observance; a ceremony; as, the rites of freemasonry.

Ritual (n.) Hence, the code of ceremonies observed by an organization; as, the ritual of the freemasons.

Rival (n.) A person having a common right or privilege with another; a partner.

Roadbed (n.) In railroads, the bed or foundation on which the superstructure (ties, rails, etc.) rests; in common roads, the whole material laid in place and ready for travel.

Roadster (n.) A bicycle or tricycle adapted for common roads rather than for the racing track.

Robber (n.) One who robs; in law, one who feloniously takes goods or money from the person of another by violence or by putting him in fear.

Robinia (n.) A genus of leguminous trees including the common locust of North America (Robinia Pseudocacia).

Roc (n.) A monstrous bird of Arabian mythology.

Rochet (n.) A linen garment resembling the surplise, but with narrower sleeves, also without sleeves, worn by bishops, and by some other ecclesiastical dignitaries, in certain religious ceremonies.

Rockfish (n.) Any one of several California scorpaenoid food fishes of the genus Sebastichthys, as the red rockfish (S. ruber). They are among the most important of California market fishes. Called also rock cod, and garrupa.

Rodomont (n.) A vain or blustering boaster; a braggart; a braggadocio.

Rodomont (a.) Bragging; vainly boasting.

Rodomontade (n.) Vain boasting; empty bluster or vaunting; rant.

Rodomontade (v. i.) To boast; to brag; to bluster; to rant.

Rodomontadist (n.) One who boasts.

Rodomontado (n.) Rodomontade.

Rodomontador (n.) A rodomontadist.

Rogue (n.) A worthless plant occuring among seedlings of some choice variety.

Rollic (v. i.) To move or play in a careless, swaggering manner, with a frolicsome air; to frolic; to sport; commonly in the form rollicking.

Romany (n.) The language spoken among themselves by the gypsies.

Romeite (n.) A mineral of a hyacinth or honey-yellow color, occuring in square octahedrons. It is an antimonate of calcium.

Romic (n.) A method of notation for all spoken sounds, proposed by Mr. Sweet; -- so called because it is based on the common Roman-letter alphabet. It is like the palaeotype of Mr. Ellis in the general plan, but simpler.

Romish (a.) Belonging or relating to Rome, or to the Roman Catholic Church; -- frequently used in a disparaging sense; as, the Romish church; the Romish religion, ritual, or ceremonies.

Rondo (n.) A composition, vocal or instrumental, commonly of a lively, cheerful character, in which the first strain recurs after each of the other strains.

Root (n.) The descending, and commonly branching, axis of a plant, increasing in length by growth at its extremity only, not divided into joints, leafless and without buds, and having for its offices to fix the plant in the earth, to supply it with moisture and soluble matters, and sometimes to serve as a reservoir of nutriment for future growth. A true root, however, may never reach the ground, but may be attached to a wall, etc., as in the ivy, or may hang loosely in the air, as in some epiphytic orchids.

Root (n.) The fundamental tone of any chord; the tone from whose harmonics, or overtones, a chord is composed.

Rose (n.) A diamond. See Rose diamond, below.

Rosebay (n.) An herb (Epilobium spicatum) with showy purple flowers, common in Europe and North America; -- called also great willow herb.

Rose-colored (a.) Uncommonly beautiful; hence, extravagantly fine or pleasing; alluring; as, rose-colored anticipations.

Rose-cut (a.) Cut flat on the reverse, and with a convex face formed of triangular facets in rows; -- said of diamonds and other precious stones. See Rose diamond, under Rose. Cf. Brilliant, n.

Roseo- () A prefix (also used adjectively) signifying rose-red; specifically used to designate certain rose-red compounds (called roseo-cobaltic compounds) of cobalt with ammonia. Cf. Luteo-.

Rostrum (n.) The pipe to convey the distilling liquor into its receiver in the common alembic.

Rot (v. i.) To undergo a process common to organic substances by which they lose the cohesion of their parts and pass through certain chemical changes, giving off usually in some stages of the process more or less offensive odors; to become decomposed by a natural process; to putrefy; to decay.

Rotate (a.) Having the parts spreading out like a wheel; wheel-shaped; as, a rotate spicule or scale; a rotate corolla, i.e., a monopetalous corolla with a flattish border, and no tube or a very short one.

Rotche (n.) A very small arctic sea bird (Mergulus alle, or Alle alle) common on both coasts of the Atlantic in winter; -- called also little auk, dovekie, rotch, rotchie, and sea dove.

Rotunda (a.) A round building; especially, one that is round both on the outside and inside, like the Pantheon at Rome. Less properly, but very commonly, used for a large round room; as, the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington.

Rough (n.) Not polished; uncut; -- said of a gem; as, a rough diamond.

Rouncy (n.) A common hackney horse; a nag.

Round (n.) A walk performed by a guard or an officer round the rampart of a garrison, or among sentinels, to see that the sentinels are faithful and all things safe; also, the guard or officer, with his attendants, who performs this duty; -- usually in the plural.

Roundabout (n.) A horizontal wheel or frame, commonly with wooden horses, etc., on which children ride; a merry-go-round.

Roundfish (n.) A lake whitefish (Coregonus quadrilateralis), less compressed than the common species. It is very abundant in British America and Alaska.

Rout (n.) A disorderly and tumultuous crowd; a mob; hence, the rabble; the herd of common people.

Royalist (n.) An adherent of a king (as of Charles I. in England, or of the Bourbons in france); one attached to monarchical government.

Rub (n.) A stone, commonly flat, used to sharpen cutting tools; a whetstone; -- called also rubstone.

Rubiaceous (a.) Of or pertaining to a very large natural order of plants (Rubiaceae) named after the madder (Rubia tinctoria), and including about three hundred and seventy genera and over four thousand species. Among them are the coffee tree, the trees yielding peruvian bark and quinine, the madder, the quaker ladies, and the trees bearing the edible fruits called genipap and Sierre Leone peach, besides many plants noted for the beauty or the fragrance of their blossoms.

Ruble (n.) The unit of monetary value in Russia. It is divided into 100 copecks, and in the gold coin of the realm (as in the five and ten ruble pieces) is worth about 77 cents. The silver ruble is a coin worth about 60 cents.

Rubythroat (n.) Any one of numerous species of humming birds belonging to Trochilus, Calypte, Stellula, and allies, in which the male has on the throat a brilliant patch of red feathers having metallic reflections; esp., the common humming bird of the Eastern United States (Trochilus colubris).

Ruck (n.) The common sort, whether persons or things; as, the ruck in a horse race.

Ruddock (n.) A piece of gold money; -- probably because the gold of coins was often reddened by copper alloy. Called also red ruddock, and golden ruddock.

Rug (a.) A piece of thick, nappy fabric, commonly made of wool, -- used for various purposes, as for covering and ornamenting part of a bare floor, for hanging in a doorway as a potiere, for protecting a portion of carpet, for a wrap to protect the legs from cold, etc.

Rule (a.) Ordibary course of procedure; usual way; comon state or condition of things; as, it is a rule to which there are many exeptions.

Rule (n.) To establish or settle by, or as by, a rule; to fix by universal or general consent, or by common practice.

Rule-monger (n.) A stickler for rules; a slave of rules

Rumor (n.) A flying or popular report; the common talk; hence, public fame; notoriety.

Rump (n.) Among butchers, the piece of beef between the sirloin and the aitchbone piece. See Illust. of Beef.

Run (a.) To be played on the stage a number of successive days or nights; as, the piece ran for six months.

Runer (n.) A bard, or learned man, among the ancient Goths.

Runner (n.) A slender trailing branch which takes root at the joints or end and there forms new plants, as in the strawberry and the common cinquefoil.

Rupee (n.) A silver coin, and money of account, in the East Indies.

Ruta-baga (n.) A kind of turnip commonly with a large and long or ovoid yellowish root; a Swedish turnip. See Turnip.

Rutaceous (a.) Of or pertaining to plants of a natural order (Rutaceae) of which the rue is the type, and which includes also the orange, lemon, dittany, and buchu.

Rutic (a.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, rue (Ruta); as, rutic acid, now commonly called capric acid.

Sabbat (n.) In mediaeval demonology, the nocturnal assembly in which demons and sorcerers were thought to celebrate their orgies.

Sabbath (n.) The seventh year, observed among the Israelites as one of rest and festival.

Sacellum (n.) A small monumental chapel in a church.

Sachet (n.) A scent bag, or perfume cushion, to be laid among handkerchiefs, garments, etc., to perfume them.

Sacrament (n.) The oath of allegiance taken by Roman soldiers; hence, a sacred ceremony used to impress an obligation; a solemn oath-taking; an oath.

Sacramentary (n.) An ancient book of the Roman Catholic Church, written by Pope Gelasius, and revised, corrected, and abridged by St. Gregory, in which were contained the rites for Mass, the sacraments, the dedication of churches, and other ceremonies. There are several ancient books of the same kind in France and Germany.

Sacred (a.) Set apart by solemn religious ceremony; especially, in a good sense, made holy; set apart to religious use; consecrated; not profane or common; as, a sacred place; a sacred day; sacred service.

Sacrilege (n.) The sin or crime of violating or profaning sacred things; the alienating to laymen, or to common purposes, what has been appropriated or consecrated to religious persons or uses.

Sadducee (n.) One of a sect among the ancient Jews, who denied the resurrection, a future state, and the existence of angels.

Sadh (n.) A member of a monotheistic sect of Hindoos. Sadhs resemble the Quakers in many respects.

Safe (n.) A strong and fireproof receptacle (as a movable chest of steel, etc., or a closet or vault of brickwork) for containing money, valuable papers, or the like.

Saga (n.) A Scandinavian legend, or heroic or mythic tradition, among the Norsemen and kindred people; a northern European popular historical or religious tale of olden time.

Sagamore (n.) The head of a tribe among the American Indians; a chief; -- generally used as synonymous with sachem, but some writters distinguished between them, making the sachem a chief of the first rank, and a sagamore one of the second rank.

Sagenitic (a.) Resembling sagenite; -- applied to quartz when containing acicular crystals of other minerals, most commonly rutile, also tourmaline, actinolite, and the like.

Saic (n.) A kind of ketch very common in the Levant, which has neither topgallant sail nor mizzen topsail.

Sailor (n.) One who follows the business of navigating ships or other vessels; one who understands the practical management of ships; one of the crew of a vessel; a mariner; a common seaman.

Saimir (n.) The squirrel monkey.

Saint (v. t.) To make a saint of; to enroll among the saints by an offical act, as of the pope; to canonize; to give the title or reputation of a saint to (some one).

Saint-Simonian (n.) A follower of the Count de St. Simon, who died in 1825, and who maintained that the principle of property held in common, and the just division of the fruits of common labor among the members of society, are the true remedy for the social evils which exist.

Saint-Simonianism (n.) The principles, doctrines, or practice of the Saint-Simonians; -- called also Saint- Simonism.

Saki (n.) Any one of several species of South American monkeys of the genus Pithecia. They have large ears, and a long hairy tail which is not prehensile.

Salal-berry (n.) The edible fruit of the Gaultheria Shallon, an ericaceous shrub found from California northwards. The berries are about the size of a common grape and of a dark purple color.

Salam (n.) A salutation or compliment of ceremony in the east by word or act; an obeisance, performed by bowing very low and placing the right palm on the forehead.

Salary (n.) The recompense or consideration paid, or stipulated to be paid, to a person at regular intervals for services; fixed wages, as by the year, quarter, or month; stipend; hire.

Sale (v. t.) The act of selling; the transfer of property, or a contract to transfer the ownership of property, from one person to another for a valuable consideration, or for a price in money.

Salifiable (a.) Capable of neutralizing an acid to form a salt; -- said of bases; thus, ammonia is salifiable.

Saliniform (a.) Having the form or the qualities of a salt, especially of common salt.

Salmiac (n.) Sal ammoniac. See under Sal.

Salmons (pl. ) of Salmon

Salmon (pl. ) of Salmon

Salmon (v.) Any one of several species of fishes of the genus Salmo and allied genera. The common salmon (Salmo salar) of Northern Europe and Eastern North America, and the California salmon, or quinnat, are the most important species. They are extensively preserved for food. See Quinnat.

Salmon (v.) A reddish yellow or orange color, like the flesh of the salmon.

Salmon (a.) Of a reddish yellow or orange color, like that of the flesh of the salmon.

Salmonet (n.) A salmon of small size; a samlet.

Salmonoid (a.) Like, or pertaining to, the Salmonidae, a family of fishes including the trout and salmon.

Salmonoid (n.) Any fish of the family Salmonidae.

Saltant (v.) In a leaping position; springing forward; -- applied especially to the squirrel, weasel, and rat, also to the cat, greyhound, monkey, etc.

Salutatorian (n.) The student who pronounces the salutatory oration at the annual Commencement or like exercises of a college, -- an honor commonly assigned to that member of the graduating class who ranks second in scholarship.

Salute (v. t.) Hence, to give a sign of good will; to compliment by an act or ceremony, as a kiss, a bow, etc.

Salute (v.) A sign, token, or ceremony, expressing good will, compliment, or respect, as a kiss, a bow, etc.

Sameness (n.) Hence, want of variety; tedious monotony.

Samphire (n.) A fleshy, suffrutescent, umbelliferous European plant (Crithmum maritimum). It grows among rocks and on cliffs along the seacoast, and is used for pickles.

Sanctified (a.) Made holy; also, made to have the air of sanctity; sanctimonious.

Sanctimonial (a.) Sanctimonious.

Sanctimonious (a.) Possessing sanctimony; holy; sacred; saintly.

Sanctimonious (a.) Making a show of sanctity; affecting saintliness; hypocritically devout or pious.

Sanctimony (n.) Holiness; devoutness; scrupulous austerity; sanctity; especially, outward or artificial saintliness; assumed or pretended holiness; hypocritical devoutness.

Sanction (n.) Solemn or ceremonious ratification; an official act of a superior by which he ratifies and gives validity to the act of some other person or body; establishment or furtherance of anything by giving authority to it; confirmation; approbation.

Sanderling (n.) A small gray and brown sandpiper (Calidris arenaria) very common on sandy beaches in America, Europe, and Asia. Called also curwillet, sand lark, stint, and ruddy plover.

Sandstone (n.) A rock made of sand more or less firmly united. Common or siliceous sandstone consists mainly of quartz sand.

Sanidine (n.) A variety of orthoclase feldspar common in certain eruptive rocks, as trachyte; -- called also glassy feldspar.

Sanies (n.) A thin, serous fluid commonly discharged from ulcers or foul wounds.

Sapajou (n.) Any one of several species of South American monkeys of the genus Cebus, having long and prehensile tails. Some of the species are called also capuchins. The bonnet sapajou (C. subcristatus), the golden-handed sapajou (C. chrysopus), and the white-throated sapajou (C. hypoleucus) are well known species. See Capuchin.

Sarabaite (n.) One of certain vagrant or heretical Oriental monks in the early church.

Saracen (n.) Anciently, an Arab; later, a Mussulman; in the Middle Ages, the common term among Christians in Europe for a Mohammedan hostile to the crusaders.

Sarcobasis (n.) A fruit consisting of many dry indehiscent cells, which contain but few seeds and cohere about a common style, as in the mallows.

Sarcophagus (n.) A species of limestone used among the Greeks for making coffins, which was so called because it consumed within a few weeks the flesh of bodies deposited in it. It is otherwise called lapis Assius, or Assian stone, and is said to have been found at Assos, a city of Lycia.

Sardine (n.) Any one of several small species of herring which are commonly preserved in olive oil for food, especially the pilchard, or European sardine (Clupea pilchardus). The California sardine (Clupea sagax) is similar. The American sardines of the Atlantic coast are mostly the young of the common herring and of the menhaden.

Satanophany (n.) An incarnation of Satan; a being possessed by a demon.

Satinwood (n.) The hard, lemon-colored, fragrant wood of an East Indian tree (Chloroxylon Swietenia). It takes a lustrous finish, and is used in cabinetwork. The name is also given to the wood of a species of prickly ash (Xanthoxylum Caribaeum) growing in Florida and the West Indies.

Satyr (n.) Any one of many species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae. Their colors are commonly brown and gray, often with ocelli on the wings. Called also meadow browns.

Saucer (n.) A small dish, commonly deeper than a plate, in which a cup is set at table.

Sauvegarde (n.) The monitor.

Savingly (adv.) In a saving manner; with frugality or parsimony.

Savingness (n.) The quality of being saving; carefulness not to expend money uselessly; frugality; parsimony.

Savoy (n.) A variety of the common cabbage (Brassica oleracea major), having curled leaves, -- much cultivated for winter use.

Saxatile (a.) Of or pertaining to rocks; living among rocks; as, a saxatile plant.

Scabious (a.) Any plant of the genus Scabiosa, several of the species of which are common in Europe. They resemble the Compositae, and have similar heads of flowers, but the anthers are not connected.

Scad (n.) A small carangoid fish (Trachurus saurus) abundant on the European coast, and less common on the American. The name is applied also to several allied species.

Scald (n.) One of the ancient Scandinavian poets and historiographers; a reciter and singer of heroic poems, eulogies, etc., among the Norsemen; more rarely, a bard of any of the ancient Teutonic tribes.

Scammoniate (a.) Made from scammony; as, a scammoniate aperient.

Scammony (n.) A species of bindweed or Convolvulus (C. Scammonia).

Scammony (n.) An inspissated sap obtained from the root of the Convolvulus Scammonia, of a blackish gray color, a nauseous smell like that of old cheese, and a somewhat acrid taste. It is used in medicine as a cathartic.

Scansores (n. pl.) An artifical group of birds formerly regarded as an order. They are distributed among several orders by modern ornithologists.

Scant (superl.) Sparing; parsimonious; chary.

Scantily (adv.) In a scanty manner; not fully; not plentifully; sparingly; parsimoniously.

Scanty (a.) Sparing; niggardly; parsimonious.

Scaphism (n.) An ancient mode of punishing criminals among the Persians, by confining the victim in a trough, with his head and limbs smeared with honey or the like, and exposed to the sun and to insects until he died.

Scaphite (n.) Any fossil cephalopod shell of the genus Scaphites, belonging to the Ammonite family and having a chambered boat-shaped shell. Scaphites are found in the Cretaceous formation.

Scarce (superl.) Not plentiful or abundant; in small quantity in proportion to the demand; not easily to be procured; rare; uncommon.

Scarce (superl.) Sparing; frugal; parsimonious; stingy.

Scattering (a.) Going or falling in various directions; not united or aggregated; divided among many; as, scattering votes.

Sceptre (n.) A staff or baton borne by a sovereign, as a ceremonial badge or emblem of authority; a royal mace.

Scherzo (n.) A playful, humorous movement, commonly in 3-4 measure, which often takes the place of the old minuet and trio in a sonata or a symphony.

Schism (n.) Division or separation; specifically (Eccl.), permanent division or separation in the Christian church; breach of unity among people of the same religious faith; the offense of seeking to produce division in a church without justifiable cause.

Schist (n.) Any crystalline rock having a foliated structure (see Foliation) and hence admitting of ready division into slabs or slates. The common kinds are mica schist, and hornblendic schist, consisting chiefly of quartz with mica or hornblende and often feldspar.

Scholium (n.) A remark or observation subjoined to a demonstration or a train of reasoning.

School (n.) A place of primary instruction; an establishment for the instruction of children; as, a primary school; a common school; a grammar school.

School (n.) The disciples or followers of a teacher; those who hold a common doctrine, or accept the same teachings; a sect or denomination in philosophy, theology, science, medicine, politics, etc.

School (v. t.) To tutor; to chide and admonish; to reprove; to subject to systematic discipline; to train.

Scimitar (n.) A saber with a much curved blade having the edge on the convex side, -- in use among Mohammedans, esp., the Arabs and persians.

Scissorstail (n.) A tyrant flycatcher (Milvulus forficatus) of the Southern United States and Mexico, which has a deeply forked tail. It is light gray above, white beneath, salmon on the flanks, and fiery red at the base of the crown feathers.

Sciurus (n.) A genus of rodents comprising the common squirrels.

Scomber (n.) A genus of acanthopterygious fishes which includes the common mackerel.

Scorpion (n.) Any one of numerous species of pulmonate arachnids of the order Scorpiones, having a suctorial mouth, large claw-bearing palpi, and a caudal sting.

Scot (n.) A portion of money assessed or paid; a tax or contribution; a mulct; a fine; a shot.

Scotale (n.) The keeping of an alehouse by an officer of a forest, and drawing people to spend their money for liquor, for fear of his displeasure.

Scour (n.) Diarrhoea or dysentery among cattle.

Scramble (n.) The act of jostling and pushing for something desired; eager and unceremonious struggle for what is thrown or held out; as, a scramble for office.

Scrambler (n.) A greedy and unceremonious contestant.

Scrape (v. t.) To collect by, or as by, a process of scraping; to gather in small portions by laborious effort; hence, to acquire avariciously and save penuriously; -- often followed by together or up; as, to scrape money together.

Scrape (v. i.) To play awkwardly and inharmoniously on a violin or like instrument.

Scrapepenny (n.) One who gathers and hoards money in trifling sums; a miser.

Screw (n.) An unsound or worn-out horse, useful as a hack, and commonly of good appearance.

Scriptorium (n.) In an abbey or monastery, the room set apart for writing or copying manuscripts; in general, a room devoted to writing.

Scrivener (n.) One whose business is to place money at interest; a broker.

Scrub (n.) One of the common live stock of a region of no particular breed or not of pure breed, esp. when inferior in size, etc.

Scudo (n.) A silver coin, and money of account, used in Italy and Sicily, varying in value, in different parts, but worth about 4 shillings sterling, or about 96 cents; also, a gold coin worth about the same.

Scull (n.) The common skua gull.

Scumbling (n.) A mode of obtaining a softened effect, in painting and drawing, by the application of a thin layer of opaque color to the surface of a painting, or part of the surface, which is too bright in color, or which requires harmonizing.

Scup (n.) A marine sparoid food fish (Stenotomus chrysops, or S. argyrops), common on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It appears bright silvery when swimming in the daytime, but shows broad blackish transverse bands at night and when dead. Called also porgee, paugy, porgy, scuppaug.

Scurvy (n.) A disease characterized by livid spots, especially about the thighs and legs, due to extravasation of blood, and by spongy gums, and bleeding from almost all the mucous membranes. It is accompanied by paleness, languor, depression, and general debility. It is occasioned by confinement, innutritious food, and hard labor, but especially by lack of fresh vegetable food, or confinement for a long time to a limited range of food, which is incapable of repairing the waste of the system. It was formerly prevalent among sailors and soldiers.

Scutage (n.) Shield money; commutation of service for a sum of money. See Escuage.

Scylla (n.) A dangerous rock on the Italian coast opposite the whirpool Charybdis on the coast of Sicily, -- both personified in classical literature as ravenous monsters. The passage between them was formerly considered perilous; hence, the saying "Between Scylla and Charybdis," signifying a great peril on either hand.

Sea bass () A California food fish (Cynoscion nobile); -- called also white sea bass, and sea salmon.

Sea bream () Any one of several species of sparoid fishes, especially the common European species (Pagellus centrodontus), the Spanish (P. Oweni), and the black sea bream (Cantharus lineatus); -- called also old wife.

Sea calf () The common seal.

Sea clam () Any one of the large bivalve mollusks found on the open seacoast, especially those of the family Mactridae, as the common American species. (Mactra, / Spisula, solidissima); -- called also beach clam, and surf clam.

Sea cucumber () Any large holothurian, especially one of those belonging to the genus Pentacta, or Cucumaria, as the common American and European species. (P. frondosa).

Sea dog () The common seal.

Sea flewer () A sea anemone, or any related anthozoan.

Sea hen () the common guillemot; -- applied also to various other sea birds.

Sea king () One of the leaders among the Norsemen who passed their lives in roving the seas in search of plunder and adventures; a Norse pirate chief. See the Note under Viking.

Seal (v. t.) Among the Mormons, to confirm or set apart as a second or additional wife.

Sea lamprey () The common lamprey.

Sea lemon () Any one of several species of nudibranchiate mollusks of the genus Doris and allied genera, having a smooth, thick, convex yellow body.

Sea lion () Any one of several large species of seals of the family Otariidae native of the Pacific Ocean, especially the southern sea lion (Otaria jubata) of the South American coast; the northern sea lion (Eumetopias Stelleri) found from California to Japan; and the black, or California, sea lion (Zalophus Californianus), which is common on the rocks near San Francisco.

Seaman (n.) One whose occupation is to assist in the management of ships at sea; a mariner; a sailor; -- applied both to officers and common mariners, but especially to the latter. Opposed to landman, or landsman.

Sea monk () See Monk seal, under Monk.

Sea monster () Any large sea animal.

Seannachie (n.) A bard among the Highlanders of Scotland, who preserved and repeated the traditions of the tribes; also, a genealogist.

Sea otter () An aquatic carnivore (Enhydris lutris, / marina) found in the North Pacific Ocean. Its fur is highly valued, especially by the Chinese. It is allied to the common otter, but is larger, with feet more decidedly webbed.

Sea pie () A dish of crust or pastry and meat or fish, etc., cooked together in alternate layers, -- a common food of sailors; as, a three-decker sea pie.

Sea pigeon () The common guillemot.

Sea salmon () A young pollock.

Sea salmon () The spotted squeteague.

Sea salmon () See Sea bass (b).

Sea salt () Common salt, obtained from sea water by evaporation.

Sea snail () A small fish of the genus Liparis, having a ventral sucker. It lives among stones and seaweeds.

Sea swallow () The common tern.

Sea trout () Any one of several species of true trouts which descend rivers and enter the sea after spawning, as the European bull trout and salmon trout, and the eastern American spotted trout.

Sea trout () The common squeteague, and the spotted squeteague.

Seawant (n.) The name used by the Algonquin Indians for the shell beads which passed among the Indians as money.

Sebat (n.) The eleventh month of the ancient Hebrew year, approximately corresponding with February.

Sect (n.) Those following a particular leader or authority, or attached to a certain opinion; a company or set having a common belief or allegiance distinct from others; in religion, the believers in a particular creed, or upholders of a particular practice; especially, in modern times, a party dissenting from an established church; a denomination; in philosophy, the disciples of a particular master; a school; in society and the state, an order, rank, class, or party.

Section (n.) The figure made up of all the points common to a superficies and a solid which meet, or to two superficies which meet, or to two lines which meet. In the first case the section is a superficies, in the second a line, and in the third a point.

Sector (n.) A mathematical instrument, consisting of two rulers connected at one end by a joint, each arm marked with several scales, as of equal parts, chords, sines, tangents, etc., one scale of each kind on each arm, and all on lines radiating from the common center of motion. The sector is used for plotting, etc., to any scale.

Secular (a.) Not regular; not bound by monastic vows or rules; not confined to a monastery, or subject to the rules of a religious community; as, a secular priest.

Secular (n.) A secular ecclesiastic, or one not bound by monastic rules.

Secularization (n.) The act of rendering secular, or the state of being rendered secular; conversion from regular or monastic to secular; conversion from religious to lay or secular possession and uses; as, the secularization of church property.

Secularize (v. t.) To convert from regular or monastic into secular; as, to secularize a priest or a monk.

Secularize (v. t.) To convert from spiritual or common use; as, to secularize a church, or church property.

Secure (a.) Confident in opinion; not entertaining, or not having reason to entertain, doubt; certain; sure; -- commonly with of; as, secure of a welcome.

Seedy (superl.) Having a peculiar flavor supposed to be derived from the weeds growing among the vines; -- said of certain kinds of French brandy.

Seesaw (n.) A play among children in which they are seated upon the opposite ends of a plank which is balanced in the middle, and move alternately up and down.

Sego (n.) A liliaceous plant (Calochortus Nuttallii) of Western North America, and its edible bulb; -- so called by the Ute Indians and the Mormons.

Seigniorage (n.) Something claimed or taken by virtue of sovereign prerogative; specifically, a charge or toll deducted from bullion brought to a mint to be coined; the difference between the cost of a mass of bullion and the value as money of the pieces coined from it.

Seld (a.) Rare; uncommon; unusual.

Select (v. t.) To choose and take from a number; to take by preference from among others; to pick out; to cull; as, to select the best authors for perusal.

Sell (v. t.) To transfer to another for an equivalent; to give up for a valuable consideration; to dispose of in return for something, especially for money.

Semester (n.) A period of six months; especially, a term in a college or uneversity which divides the year into two terms.

Semicirque (n.) A semicircular hollow or opening among trees or hills.

Semimetal (n.) An element possessing metallic properties in an inferior degree and not malleable, as arsenic, antimony, bismuth, molybdenum, uranium, etc.

Semimonthly (a.) Coming or made twice in a month; as, semimonthly magazine; a semimonthly payment.

Semimonthly (n.) Something done or made every half month; esp., a semimonthly periodical.

Semimonthly (adv.) In a semimonthly manner; at intervals of half a month.

Semi-Pelagian (n.) A follower of John Cassianus, a French monk (died about 448), who modified the doctrines of Pelagius, by denying human merit, and maintaining the necessity of the Spirit's influence, while, on the other hand, he rejected the Augustinian doctrines of election, the inability of man to do good, and the certain perseverance of the saints.

Semiproof (n.) Half proof; evidence from the testimony of a single witness.

Semitone (n.) Half a tone; -- the name commonly applied to the smaller intervals of the diatonic scale.

Sempervivum (n.) A genus of fleshy-leaved plants, of which the houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum) is the commonest species.

Senate (n.) A body of elders appointed or elected from among the nobles of the nation, and having supreme legislative authority.

Seneschal (n.) An officer in the houses of princes and dignitaries, in the Middle Ages, who had the superintendence of feasts and domestic ceremonies; a steward. Sometimes the seneschal had the dispensing of justice, and was given high military commands.

Sensible (a.) Possessing or containing sense or reason; giftedwith, or characterized by, good or common sense; intelligent; wise.

Sensorium (n.) The seat of sensation; the nervous center or centers to which impressions from the external world must be conveyed before they can be perceived; the place where external impressions are localized, and transformed into sensations, prior to being reflected to other parts of the organism; hence, the whole nervous system, when animated, so far as it is susceptible of common or special sensations.

Sentence (n.) In civil and admiralty law, the judgment of a court pronounced in a cause; in criminal and ecclesiastical courts, a judgment passed on a criminal by a court or judge; condemnation pronounced by a judgical tribunal; doom. In common law, the term is exclusively used to denote the judgment in criminal cases.

Separate (v. t.) To set apart; to select from among others, as for a special use or service.

Sepia (n.) The common European cuttlefish.

Sepia (n.) A genus comprising the common cuttlefish and numerous similar species. See Illustr. under Cuttlefish.

Sept (n.) A clan, tribe, or family, proceeding from a common progenitor; -- used especially of the ancient clans in Ireland.

September (n.) The ninth month of the year, containing thurty days.

Septifragal (a.) Breaking from the partitions; -- said of a method of dehiscence in which the valves of a pod break away from the partitions, and these remain attached to the common axis.

Sepulchral (a.) Of or pertaining to burial, to the grave, or to monuments erected to the memory of the dead; as, a sepulchral stone; a sepulchral inscription.

Sequence (n.) Any succession of chords (or harmonic phrase) rising or falling by the regular diatonic degrees in the same scale; a succession of similar harmonic steps.

Serge (n.) A large wax candle used in the ceremonies of various churches.

Sermocination (n.) The making of speeches or sermons; sermonizing.

Sermocinator (n.) One who makes sermons or speeches.

Sermon (n.) A discourse or address; a talk; a writing; as, the sermons of Chaucer.

Sermon (n.) Specifically, a discourse delivered in public, usually by a clergyman, for the purpose of religious instruction and grounded on some text or passage of Scripture.

Sermon (n.) Hence, a serious address; a lecture on one's conduct or duty; an exhortation or reproof; a homily; -- often in a depreciatory sense.

Sermon (v. i.) To speak; to discourse; to compose or deliver a sermon.

Sermon (v. t.) To discourse to or of, as in a sermon.

Sermon (v. t.) To tutor; to lecture.

Sermoneer (n.) A sermonizer.

Sermoner (n.) A preacher; a sermonizer.

Sermonet (n.) A short sermon.

Sermonic (a.) Alt. of Sermonical

Sermonical (a.) Like, or appropriate to, a sermon; grave and didactic.

Sermoning (n.) The act of discoursing; discourse; instruction; preaching.

Sermonish (a.) Resembling a sermon.

Sermonist (n.) See Sermonizer.

Sermonized (imp. & p. p.) of Sermonize

Sermonizing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Sermonize

Sermonize (v. i.) To compose or write a sermon or sermons; to preach.

Sermonize (v. i.) To inculcate rigid rules.

Sermonize (v. t.) To preach or discourse to; to affect or influence by means of a sermon or of sermons.

Sermonizer (n.) One who sermonizes.

Serve (v. t.) To bring to notice, deliver, or execute, either actually or constructively, in such manner as the law requires; as, to serve a summons.

Serve (v. t.) To make legal service opon (a person named in a writ, summons, etc.); as, to serve a witness with a subp/na.

Service (n.) Office of devotion; official religious duty performed; religious rites appropriate to any event or ceremonial; as, a burial service.

Servitude (n.) A right whereby one thing is subject to another thing or person for use or convenience, contrary to the common right.

Sesquialtera (n.) A stop on the organ, containing several ranks of pipes which reenforce some of the high harmonics of the ground tone, and make the sound more brilliant.

Sesterce (n.) A Roman coin or denomination of money, in value the fourth part of a denarius, and originally containing two asses and a half, afterward four asses, -- equal to about two pence sterling, or four cents.

Set (n.) A number of persons associated by custom, office, common opinion, quality, or the like; a division; a group; a clique.

Settlement (n.) That which is bestowed formally and permanently; the sum secured to a person; especially, a jointure made to a woman at her marriage; also, in the United States, a sum of money or other property formerly granted to a pastor in additional to his salary.

Sew (v. t.) To inclose by sewing; -- sometimes with up; as, to sew money in a bag.

Sewen (n.) A British trout usually regarded as a variety (var. Cambricus) of the salmon trout.

Shadbird (n.) The common European sandpiper.

Shaft (n.) A column, an obelisk, or other spire-shaped or columnar monument.

Shaman (n.) A priest of Shamanism; a wizard among the Shamanists.

Shamanism (n.) The type of religion which once prevalied among all the Ural-Altaic peoples (Tungusic, Mongol, and Turkish), and which still survives in various parts of Northern Asia. The Shaman, or wizard priest, deals with good as well as with evil spirits, especially the good spirits of ancestors.

Share (v.) Especially, the part allotted or belonging to one, of any property or interest owned by a number; a portion among others; an apportioned lot; an allotment; a dividend.

Share (v. t.) To part among two or more; to distribute in portions; to divide.

Share (v. t.) To partake of, use, or experience, with others; to have a portion of; to take and possess in common; as, to share a shelter with another.

Sharp (superl.) Affecting the sense as if pointed or cutting, keen, penetrating, acute: to the taste or smell, pungent, acid, sour, as ammonia has a sharp taste and odor; to the hearing, piercing, shrill, as a sharp sound or voice; to the eye, instantaneously brilliant, dazzling, as a sharp flash.

Shastra (n.) A treatise for authoritative instruction among the Hindoos; a book of institutes; especially, a treatise explaining the Vedas.

Shathmont (n.) A shaftment.

Shaveling (n.) A man shaved; hence, a monk, or other religious; -- used in contempt.

Shears (n.) An instrument consisting of two blades, commonly with bevel edges, connected by a pivot, and working on both sides of the material to be cut, -- used for cutting cloth and other substances.

Sheartail (n.) The common tern.

Sheathe (v. t.) To obtund or blunt, as acrimonious substances, or sharp particles.

Sheep's-eye (n.) A modest, diffident look; a loving glance; -- commonly in the plural.

Shekel (n.) A jocose term for money.

Shekinah (n.) The visible majesty of the Divine Presence, especially when resting or dwelling between the cherubim on the mercy seat, in the Tabernacle, or in the Temple of Solomon; -- a term used in the Targums and by the later Jews, and adopted by Christians.

Sheldfowl (n.) The common sheldrake.

Sherbet (n.) A refreshing drink, common in the East, made of the juice of some fruit, diluted, sweetened, and flavored in various ways; as, orange sherbet; lemon sherbet; raspberry sherbet, etc.

Shilling (n.) A silver coin, and money of account, of Great Britain and its dependencies, equal to twelve pence, or the twentieth part of a pound, equivalent to about twenty-four cents of the United States currency.

Shilling (n.) In the United States, a denomination of money, differing in value in different States. It is not now legally recognized.

Shin (v. i.) To run about borrowing money hastily and temporarily, as for the payment of one's notes at the bank.

Shiner (n.) A bright piece of money.

Shiner (n.) The common Lepisma, or furniture bug.

Shingle (n.) Round, water-worn, and loose gravel and pebbles, or a collection of roundish stones, such as are common on the seashore and elsewhere.

Shinplaster (n.) Formerly, a jocose term for a bank note greatly depreciated in value; also, for paper money of a denomination less than a dollar.

Shire (n.) A portion of Great Britain originally under the supervision of an earl; a territorial division, usually identical with a county, but sometimes limited to a smaller district; as, Wiltshire, Yorkshire, Richmondshire, Hallamshire.

Shirt (n.) A loose under-garment for the upper part of the body, made of cotton, linen, or other material; -- formerly used of the under-garment of either sex, now commonly restricted to that worn by men and boys.

Shoot (v. i.) To protrude; to jut; to project; to extend; as, the land shoots into a promontory.

Short (superl.) Insufficiently provided; inadequately supplied; scantily furnished; lacking; not coming up to a resonable, or the ordinary, standard; -- usually with of; as, to be short of money.

Shortage (n.) Amount or extent of deficiency, as determined by some requirement or standard; as, a shortage in money accounts.

Shovelboard (n.) A board on which a game is played, by pushing or driving pieces of metal or money to reach certain marks; also, the game itself. Called also shuffleboard, shoveboard, shovegroat, shovelpenny.

Shovelnose (n.) The common sand shark. See under Snad.

Show (v. t.) To make apparent or clear, as by evidence, testimony, or reasoning; to prove; to explain; also, to manifest; to evince; as, to show the truth of a statement; to show the causes of an event.

Shrike (v. i.) Any one of numerous species of oscinine birds of the family Laniidae, having a strong hooked bill, toothed at the tip. Most shrikes are insectivorous, but the common European gray shrike (Lanius excubitor), the great northern shrike (L. borealis), and several others, kill mice, small birds, etc., and often impale them on thorns, and are, on that account called also butcher birds. See under Butcher.

Shroff (n.) A banker, or changer of money.

Shrub (n.) A liquor composed of vegetable acid, especially lemon juice, and sugar, with spirit to preserve it.

Shuffle (v. t.) To shove one way and the other; to push from one to another; as, to shuffle money from hand to hand.

Shufflecap (n.) A play performed by shaking money in a hat or cap.

Shuffler (n.) Either one of the three common American scaup ducks. See Scaup duck, under Scaup.

Sida (n.) A genus of malvaceous plants common in the tropics. All the species are mucilaginous, and some have tough ligneous fibers which are used as a substitute for hemp and flax.

Siderosis (n.) A sort of pneumonia occuring in iron workers, produced by the inhalation of particles of iron.

Sight (v. t.) A great number, quantity, or sum; as, a sight of money.

Sign (n.) Something serving to indicate the existence, or preserve the memory, of a thing; a token; a memorial; a monument.

Signalize (a.) To make signal or eminent; to render distinguished from what is common; to distinguish.

Significate (n.) One of several things signified by a common term.

Signore (n.) Sir; Mr.; -- a title of address or respect among the Italians. Before a noun the form is Signor.

Signora (n.) Madam; Mrs; -- a title of address or respect among the Italians.

Signorina (n.) Miss; -- a title of address among the Italians.

Silicon (n.) A nonmetalic element analogous to carbon. It always occurs combined in nature, and is artificially obtained in the free state, usually as a dark brown amorphous powder, or as a dark crystalline substance with a meetallic luster. Its oxide is silica, or common quartz, and in this form, or as silicates, it is, next to oxygen, the most abundant element of the earth's crust. Silicon is characteristically the element of the mineral kingdom, as carbon is of the organic world. Symbol Si. Atomic weight 28. Called also silicium.

Silly (n.) Proceeding from want of understanding or common judgment; characterized by weakness or folly; unwise; absurd; stupid; as, silly conduct; a silly question.

Siluroid (n.) Belonging to the Siluroidei, or Nematognathi, an order of fishes including numerous species, among which are the American catfishes and numerous allied fresh-water species of the Old World, as the sheatfish (Silurus glanis) of Europe.

Silver (n.) A soft white metallic element, sonorous, ductile, very malleable, and capable of a high degree of polish. It is found native, and also combined with sulphur, arsenic, antimony, chlorine, etc., in the minerals argentite, proustite, pyrargyrite, ceragyrite, etc. Silver is one of the "noble" metals, so-called, not being easily oxidized, and is used for coin, jewelry, plate, and a great variety of articles. Symbol Ag (Argentum). Atomic weight 107.7. Specific gravity 10.5.

Silver (n.) Coin made of silver; silver money.

Silverless (a.) Having no silcver; hence, without money; impecunious.

Silversides (n.) Any one of several species of small fishes of the family Atherinidae, having a silvery stripe along each side of the body. The common species of the American coast (Menidia notata) is very abundant. Called also silverside, sand smelt, friar, tailor, and tinker.

Simian (a.) Of or pertaining to the family Simiadae, which, in its widest sense, includes all the Old World apes and monkeys; also, apelike.

Simian (n.) Any Old World monkey or ape.

Semious (a.) Of or pertaining to the Sim/; monkeylike.

Simoniac (n.) One who practices simony, or who buys or sells preferment in the church.

Simoniacal (a.) Of or pertaining to simony; guilty of simony; consisting of simony.

Simonial (a.) Simoniacal.

Simonian (n.) One of the followers of Simon Magus; also, an adherent of certain heretical sects in the early Christian church.

Simonious (a.) Simoniacal.

Simonist (n.) One who practices simony.

Simony (n.) The crime of buying or selling ecclesiastical preferment; the corrupt presentation of any one to an ecclesiastical benefice for money or reward.

Simpai (n.) A long-tailed monkey (Semnopitchecus melalophus) native of Sumatra. It has a crest of black hair. The forehead and cheeks are fawn color, the upper parts tawny and red, the under parts white. Called also black-crested monkey, and sinpae.

Simplicity (n.) Freedom from subtlety or abstruseness; clearness; as, the simplicity of a doctrine; the simplicity of an explanation or a demonstration.

Sinamine (n.) A bitter white crystalline nitrogenous substance, obtained indirectly from oil of mustard and ammonia; -- called also allyl melamine.

Since (adv.) From a definite past time until now; as, he went a month ago, and I have not seen him since.

Single (v. t.) To select, as an individual person or thing, from among a number; to choose out from others; to separate.

Singsong (n.) A drawling or monotonous tone, as of a badly executed song.

Singsong (a.) Drawling; monotonous.

Singular (a.) Standing by itself; out of the ordinary course; unusual; uncommon; strange; as, a singular phenomenon.

Singularly (adv.) In a singular manner; in a manner, or to a degree, not common to others; extraordinarily; as, to be singularly exact in one's statements; singularly considerate of others.

Siphonarid (n.) Any one of numerous species of limpet-shaped pulmonate gastropods of the genus Siphonaria. They cling to rocks between high and low water marks and have both lunglike organs and gills.

Siren (n.) Any long, slender amphibian of the genus Siren or family Sirenidae, destitute of hind legs and pelvis, and having permanent external gills as well as lungs. They inhabit the swamps, lagoons, and ditches of the Southern United States. The more common species (Siren lacertina) is dull lead-gray in color, and becames two feet long.

Sirvente (n.) A peculiar species of poetry, for the most part devoted to moral and religious topics, and commonly satirical, -- often used by the troubadours of the Middle Ages.

Sist (v. t.) To cause to take a place, as at the bar of a court; hence, to cite; to summon; to bring into court.

Sivan (n.) The third month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year; -- supposed to correspond nearly with our month of June.

Size (n.) An allowance of food and drink from the buttery, aside from the regular dinner at commons; -- corresponding to battel at Oxford.

Sized (a.) Having a particular size or magnitude; -- chiefly used in compounds; as, large-sized; common-sized.

Skean (n.) A knife or short dagger, esp. that in use among the Highlanders of Scotland. [Variously spelt.]

Skeelgoose (n.) The common European sheldrake.

Skieldrake (n.) The common European sheldrake.

Skeleton (n.) The heads and outline of a literary production, especially of a sermon.

Skeleton (a.) Consisting of, or resembling, a skeleton; consisting merely of the framework or outlines; having only certain leading features of anything; as, a skeleton sermon; a skeleton crystal.

Skilling (n.) A money od account in Sweden, Norwey, Denmark, and North Germany, and also a coin. It had various values, from three fourths of a cent in Norway to more than two cents in Lubeck.

Skimmer (n.) Any species of longwinged marine birds of the genus Rhynchops, allied to the terns, but having the lower mandible compressed and much longer than the upper one. These birds fly rapidly along the surface of the water, with the lower mandible immersed, thus skimming out small fishes. The American species (R. nigra) is common on the southern coasts of the United States. Called also scissorbill, and shearbill.

Skimp (v. i.) To save; to be parsimonious or niggardly.

Skin (v. t.) To strip of money or property; to cheat.

Skink (n.) Any one of numerous species of regularly scaled harmless lizards of the family Scincidae, common in the warmer parts of all the continents.

Skip (v. i.) To leap lightly; to move in leaps and hounds; -- commonly implying a sportive spirit.

Skipjack (n.) A name given to several kinds of a fish, as the common bluefish, the alewife, the bonito, the butterfish, the cutlass fish, the jurel, the leather jacket, the runner, the saurel, the saury, the threadfish, etc.

Skirling (n.) A small trout or salmon; -- a name used loosely.

Skive (n.) The iron lap used by diamond polishers in finishing the facets of the gem.

Skowitz (n.) The silver salmon.

Skylark (n.) A lark that mounts and sings as it files, especially the common species (Alauda arvensis) found in Europe and in some parts of Asia, and celebrated for its melodious song; -- called also sky laverock. See under Lark.

Slang (n.) Any long, narrow piece of land; a promontory.

Slapper (n.) Anything monstrous; a whopper.

Slapping (a.) Very large; monstrous; big.

Slavism (n.) The common feeling and interest of the Slavonic race.

Sleigh (n.) A vehicle moved on runners, and used for transporting persons or goods on snow or ice; -- in England commonly called a sledge.

Slide (n.) An apparatus in the trumpet and trombone by which the sounding tube is lengthened and shortened so as to produce the tones between the fundamental and its harmonics.

Slip (n.) A counterfeit piece of money, being brass covered with silver.

Slop (v. i.) Ready-made clothes; also, among seamen, clothing, bedding, and other furnishings.

Slough (n.) The skin, commonly the cast-off skin, of a serpent or of some similar animal.

Slug (n.) Any one of numerous species of terrestrial pulmonate mollusks belonging to Limax and several related genera, in which the shell is either small and concealed in the mantle, or altogether wanting. They are closely allied to the land snails.

Slype (n.) A narrow passage between two buildings, as between the transept and chapter house of a monastery.

Smack (n.) A small sailing vessel, commonly rigged as a sloop, used chiefly in the coasting and fishing trade.

Smart (v. i.) Smart money (see below).

Smeir (n.) A salt glaze on pottery, made by adding common salt to an earthenware glaze.

Smelt (n.) Any one of numerous species of small silvery salmonoid fishes of the genus Osmerus and allied genera, which ascend rivers to spawn, and sometimes become landlocked in lakes. They are esteemed as food, and have a peculiar odor and taste.

Smolt (n.) A young salmon two or three years old, when it has acquired its silvery color.

Smut (v. t.) An affection of cereal grains producing a swelling which is at length resolved into a powdery sooty mass. It is caused by parasitic fungi of the genus Ustilago. Ustilago segetum, or U. Carbo, is the commonest kind; that of Indian corn is Ustilago maydis.

Snakestone (n.) An ammonite; -- so called from its form, which resembles that of a coiled snake.

Snap (v. t.) Any circumstance out of which money may be made or an advantage gained.

Snatch (n.) To take or seize hastily, abruptly, or without permission or ceremony; as, to snatch a loaf or a kiss.

Snippack (n.) The common snipe.

Snowbird (n.) An arctic finch (Plectrophenax, / Plectrophanes, nivalis) common, in winter, both in Europe and the United States, and often appearing in large flocks during snowstorms. It is partially white, but variously marked with chestnut and brown. Called also snow bunting, snowflake, snowfleck, and snowflight.

Snuffer (n.) The common porpoise.

Soapwort (n.) A common plant (Saponaria officinalis) of the Pink family; -- so called because its bruised leaves, when agitated in water, produce a lather like that from soap. Called also Bouncing Bet.

Socialism (n.) A theory or system of social reform which contemplates a complete reconstruction of society, with a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor. In popular usage, the term is often employed to indicate any lawless, revolutionary social scheme. See Communism, Fourierism, Saint-Simonianism, forms of socialism.

Society (n.) The persons, collectively considered, who live in any region or at any period; any community of individuals who are united together by a common bond of nearness or intercourse; those who recognize each other as associates, friends, and acquaintances.

Sodalite (n.) A mineral of a white to blue or gray color, occuring commonly in dodecahedrons, also massive. It is a silicate of alumina and soda with some chlorine.

Sodamide (n.) A greenish or reddish crystalline substance, NaNH2, obtained by passing ammonia over heated sodium.

Sodium (n.) A common metallic element of the alkali group, in nature always occuring combined, as in common salt, in albite, etc. It is isolated as a soft, waxy, white, unstable metal, so readily oxidized that it combines violently with water, and to be preserved must be kept under petroleum or some similar liquid. Sodium is used combined in many salts, in the free state as a reducer, and as a means of obtaining other metals (as magnesium and aluminium) is an important commercial product. Symbol Na (Natrium). Atomic weight 23. Specific gravity 0.97.

Solan goose () The common gannet.

Solanine (n.) A poisonous alkaloid glucoside extracted from the berries of common nightshade (Solanum nigrum), and of bittersweet, and from potato sprouts, as a white crystalline substance having an acrid, burning taste; -- called also solonia, and solanina.

Sole (n.) Any one of several species of flatfishes of the genus Solea and allied genera of the family Soleidae, especially the common European species (Solea vulgaris), which is a valuable food fish.

Solemn (a.) Stately; ceremonious; grand.

Solemn (a.) Made in form; ceremonious; as, solemn war; conforming with all legal requirements; as, probate in solemn form.

Solemnity (n.) A rite or ceremony performed with religious reverence; religious or ritual ceremony; as, the solemnity of a funeral, a sacrament.

Solemnity (n.) ceremony adapted to impress with awe.

Solemnity (n.) Ceremoniousness; impressiveness; seriousness; grave earnestness; formal dignity; gravity.

Solemnizate (v. t.) To solemnize; as, to solemnizate matrimony.

Solemnize (v. t.) To perform with solemn or ritual ceremonies, or according to legal forms.

Solemnize (v. t.) To dignify or honor by ceremonies; to celebrate.

Solicit (v. t.) To awake or excite to action; to rouse desire in; to summon; to appeal to; to invite.

Solid (n.) A substance that is held in a fixed form by cohesion among its particles; a substance not fluid.

Solidare (n.) A small piece of money.

Soliloquy (n.) The act of talking to one's self; a discourse made by one in solitude to one's self; monologue.

Solitaire (n.) A single diamond in a setting; also, sometimes, a precious stone of any kind set alone.

Solomon (n.) One of the kings of Israel, noted for his superior wisdom and magnificent reign; hence, a very wise man.

Some (a.) About; near; more or less; -- used commonly with numerals, but formerly also with a singular substantive of time or distance; as, a village of some eighty houses; some two or three persons; some hour hence.

Somne (v. t.) To summon.

Somner (n.) A summoner; esp., one who summons to an ecclesiastical court.

Somnour (n.) A summoner; an apparitor; a sompnour.

Somonaunce (n.) Alt. of Somonce

Somonce (n.) A summons; a citation.

Sommonour (n.) A summoner.

Sompne (v. t.) To summon; to cite.

Sompnour (n.) A summoner.

Soorma (n.) A preparation of antimony with which Mohammedan men anoint their eyelids.

Sophora (n.) A tree (Sophora Japonica) of Eastern Asia, resembling the common locust; occasionally planted in the United States.

Soprano (n.) The treble; the highest vocal register; the highest kind of female or boy's voice; the upper part in harmony for mixed voices.

Soprano (n.) A singer, commonly a woman, with a treble voice.

Sora (n.) A North American rail (Porzana Carolina) common in the Eastern United States. Its back is golden brown, varied with black and white, the front of the head and throat black, the breast and sides of the head and neck slate-colored. Called also American rail, Carolina rail, Carolina crake, common rail, sora rail, soree, meadow chicken, and orto.

Sorex (n.) A genus of small Insectivora, including the common shrews.

Sort (v. i.) To suit; to fit; to be in accord; to harmonize.

Soulili (n.) A long-tailed, crested Javan monkey (Semnopithecus mitratus). The head, the crest, and the upper surface of the tail, are black.

Soup (n.) A liquid food of many kinds, usually made by boiling meat and vegetables, or either of them, in water, -- commonly seasoned or flavored; strong broth.

Sovereign (n.) The person, body, or state in which independent and supreme authority is vested; especially, in a monarchy, a king, queen, or emperor.

Sowens (n. pl.) A nutritious article of food, much used in Scotland, made from the husk of the oat by a process not unlike that by which common starch is made; -- called flummery in England.

Spadefish (n.) An American market fish (Chaetodipterus faber) common on the southern coasts; -- called also angel fish, moonfish, and porgy.

Spanker (n.) Something very large, or larger than common; a whopper, as a stout or tall person.

Spare (v. i.) To be frugal; not to be profuse; to live frugally; to be parsimonious.

Spare (v. t.) Sparing; frugal; parsimonious; chary.

Spare (n.) Parsimony; frugal use.

Sparkle (n.) Brilliancy; luster; as, the sparkle of a diamond.

Sparkler (n.) One who scatters; esp., one who scatters money; an improvident person.

Sparling (n.) A young salmon.

Sparrow (n.) One of many species of small singing birds of the family Fringilligae, having conical bills, and feeding chiefly on seeds. Many sparrows are called also finches, and buntings. The common sparrow, or house sparrow, of Europe (Passer domesticus) is noted for its familiarity, its voracity, its attachment to its young, and its fecundity. See House sparrow, under House.

Sparteine (n.) A narcotic alkaloid extracted from the tops of the common broom (Cytisus scoparius, formerly Spartium scoparium), as a colorless oily liquid of aniline-like odor and very bitter taste.

Spary (a.) Sparing; parsimonious.

Spatter-dock (n.) The common yellow water lily (Nuphar advena).

Speaker (n.) One who is the mouthpiece of others; especially, one who presides over, or speaks for, a delibrative assembly, preserving order and regulating the debates; as, the Speaker of the House of Commons, originally, the mouthpiece of the House to address the king; the Speaker of a House of Representatives.

Special (a.) Particular; peculiar; different from others; extraordinary; uncommon.

Special (a.) Appropriate; designed for a particular purpose, occasion, or person; as, a special act of Parliament or of Congress; a special sermon.

Specially (adv.) For a particular purpose; as, a meeting of the legislature is specially summoned.

Specie (n.) Coin; hard money.

Species (n.) A group of individuals agreeing in common attributes, and designated by a common name; a conception subordinated to another conception, called a genus, or generic conception, from which it differs in containing or comprehending more attributes, and extending to fewer individuals. Thus, man is a species, under animal as a genus; and man, in its turn, may be regarded as a genus with respect to European, American, or the like, as species.

Speck (n.) A very small thing; a particle; a mite; as, specks of dust; he has not a speck of money.

Speck (n.) A small etheostomoid fish (Ulocentra stigmaea) common in the Eastern United States.

Specksioneer (n.) The chief harpooner, who also directs in cutting up the speck, or blubber; -- so called among whalers.

Speculative (a.) Involving, or formed by, speculation; ideal; theoretical; not established by demonstration.

Speech (n.) Talk; mention; common saying.

Spend (v. t.) To weigh or lay out; to dispose of; to part with; as, to spend money for clothing.

Spend (v. i.) To expend money or any other possession; to consume, use, waste, or part with, anything; as, he who gets easily spends freely.

Spendthrift (n.) One who spends money profusely or improvidently; a prodigal; one who lavishes or wastes his estate. Also used figuratively.

Sphere (v. t.) To place in a sphere, or among the spheres; to insphere.

Sphinx (n.) On Greek art and mythology, a she-monster, usually represented as having the winged body of a lion, and the face and breast of a young woman.

Spice (n.) A vegetable production of many kinds, fragrant or aromatic and pungent to the taste, as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, allspice, ginger, cloves, etc., which are used in cookery and to flavor sauces, pickles, etc.

Spicknel (n.) An umbelliferous herb (Meum Athamanticum) having finely divided leaves, common in Europe; -- called also baldmoney, mew, and bearwort.

Spill (n.) A little sum of money.

Spinage (n.) A common pot herb (Spinacia oleracea) belonging to the Goosefoot family.

Spinelle (n.) A mineral occuring in octahedrons of great hardness and various colors, as red, green, blue, brown, and black, the red variety being the gem spinel ruby. It consist essentially of alumina and magnesia, but commonly contains iron and sometimes also chromium.

Spirillum (n.) A genus of common motile microorganisms (Spirobacteria) having the form of spiral-shaped filaments. One species is said to be the cause of relapsing fever.

Spirit (n.) Any one of the four substances, sulphur, sal ammoniac, quicksilver, or arsenic (or, according to some, orpiment).

Spiritualism (n.) A belief that departed spirits hold intercourse with mortals by means of physical phenomena, as by rappng, or during abnormal mental states, as in trances, or the like, commonly manifested through a person of special susceptibility, called a medium; spiritism; the doctrines and practices of spiritualists.

Spiritualist (n.) One who believes in direct intercourse with departed spirits, through the agency of persons commonly called mediums, by means of physical phenomena; one who attempts to maintain such intercourse; a spiritist.

Splashboard (n.) A guard in the front part of vehicle, to prevent splashing by a mud or water from the horse's heels; -- in the United States commonly called dashboard.

Splendor (n.) Magnifience; pomp; parade; as, the splendor of equipage, ceremonies, processions, and the like.

Splurge (n.) A blustering demonstration, or great effort; a great display.

Spoil (n.) Public offices and their emoluments regarded as the peculiar property of a successful party or faction, to be bestowed for its own advantage; -- commonly in the plural; as to the victor belong the spoils.

Spoilsmonger (n.) One who promises or distributes public offices and their emoluments as the price of services to a party or its leaders.

Spoon (v. i.) To act with demonstrative or foolish fondness, as one in love.

Spooney (a.) Weak-minded; demonstratively fond; as, spooney lovers.

Sport (n.) Diversion of the field, as fowling, hunting, fishing, racing, games, and the like, esp. when money is staked.

Spot (n.) A variety of the common domestic pigeon, so called from a spot on its head just above its beak.

Spousal (a.) Of or pertaining to a spouse or marriage; nuptial; matrimonial; conjugal; bridal; as, spousal rites; spousal ornaments.

Sprag (n.) A young salmon.

Sprat (n.) A small European herring (Clupea sprattus) closely allied to the common herring and the pilchard; -- called also garvie. The name is also applied to small herring of different kinds.

Spring (v. i.) The season of the year when plants begin to vegetate and grow; the vernal season, usually comprehending the months of March, April, and May, in the middle latitudes north of the equator.

Sprod (n.) A salmon in its second year.

Square (n.) Fig.: The relation of harmony, or exact agreement; equality; level.

Squat (v. t.) To settle on another's land without title; also, to settle on common or public lands.

Squeezer (n.) One who, or that which, squeezes; as, a lemon squeezer.

Squeteague (n.) An American sciaenoid fish (Cynoscion regalis), abundant on the Atlantic coast of the United States, and much valued as a food fish. It is of a bright silvery color, with iridescent reflections. Called also weakfish, squitee, chickwit, and sea trout. The spotted squeteague (C. nebulosus) of the Southern United States is a similar fish, but the back and upper fins are spotted with black. It is called also spotted weakfish, and, locally, sea trout, and sea salmon.

Squirrel (v. i.) Any one of numerous species of small rodents belonging to the genus Sciurus and several allied genera of the family Sciuridae. Squirrels generally have a bushy tail, large erect ears, and strong hind legs. They are commonly arboreal in their habits, but many species live in burrows.

Stacte (n.) One of the sweet spices used by the ancient Jews in the preparation of incense. It was perhaps an oil or other form of myrrh or cinnamon, or a kind of storax.

Stair (n.) One step of a series for ascending or descending to a different level; -- commonly applied to those within a building.

Stair (n.) A series of steps, as for passing from one story of a house to another; -- commonly used in the plural; but originally used in the singular only.

Stake-driver (n.) The common American bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus); -- so called because one of its notes resembles the sound made in driving a stake into the mud. Called also meadow hen, and Indian hen.

Stale (v. i.) Worn out by use or familiarity; having lost its novelty and power of pleasing; trite; common.

Stamp (v. t.) Money, esp. paper money.

Stargaser (n.) Any one of several species of spiny-rayed marine fishes belonging to Uranoscopus, Astroscopus, and allied genera, of the family Uranoscopidae. The common species of the Eastern United States are Astroscopus anoplus, and A. guttatus. So called from the position of the eyes, which look directly upward.

Starmonger (n.) A fortune teller; an astrologer; -- used in contempt.

Starvedly (adv.) In the condition of one starved or starving; parsimoniously.

Stasmia (pl. ) of Stasimon

Stasimon (n.) In the Greek tragedy, a song of the chorus, continued without the interruption of dialogue or anapaestics.

State (n.) Any body of men united by profession, or constituting a community of a particular character; as, the civil and ecclesiastical states, or the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons, in Great Britain. Cf. Estate, n., 6.

State (n.) A form of government which is not monarchial, as a republic.

State (n.) In the United States, one of the commonwealth, or bodies politic, the people of which make up the body of the nation, and which, under the national constitution, stands in certain specified relations with the national government, and are invested, as commonwealth, with full power in their several spheres over all matters not expressly inhibited.

Statemonger (n.) One versed in politics, or one who dabbles in state affairs.

States-general (n.) In France, before the Revolution, the assembly of the three orders of the kingdom, namely, the clergy, the nobility, and the third estate, or commonalty.

Statute (n.) An act of the legislature of a state or country, declaring, commanding, or prohibiting something; a positive law; the written will of the legislature expressed with all the requisite forms of legislation; -- used in distinction fraom common law. See Common law, under Common, a.

Steamer (n.) A road locomotive for use on common roads, as in agricultural operations.

Steelhead (n.) A North Pacific salmon (Salmo Gairdneri) found from Northern California to Siberia; -- called also hardhead, and preesil.

Steelyard (n.) A form of balance in which the body to be weighed is suspended from the shorter arm of a lever, which turns on a fulcrum, and a counterpoise is caused to slide upon the longer arm to produce equilibrium, its place upon this arm (which is notched or graduated) indicating the weight; a Roman balance; -- very commonly used also in the plural form, steelyards.

Steer (a.) A young male of the ox kind; especially, a common ox; a castrated taurine male from two to four years old. See the Note under Ox.

Stela (n.) A small column or pillar, used as a monument, milestone, etc.

Stellated (a.) Starlike; having similar parts radiating from a common center; as, stellate flowers.

Stellify (v. t.) To turn into a star; to cause to appear like a star; to place among the stars, or in heaven.

Stellion (n.) A lizard (Stellio vulgaris), common about the Eastern Mediterranean among ruins. In color it is olive-green, shaded with black, with small stellate spots. Called also hardim, and star lizard.

Stentor (n.) Any species of ciliated Infusoria belonging to the genus Stentor and allied genera, common in fresh water. The stentors have a bell-shaped, or cornucopia-like, body with a circle of cilia around the spiral terminal disk. See Illust. under Heterotricha.

Stentor (n.) A howling monkey, or howler.

Stephanite (n.) A sulphide of antimony and silver of an iron-black color and metallic luster; called also black silver, and brittle silver ore.

Stereograph (n.) Any picture, or pair of pictures, prepared for exhibition in the stereoscope. Stereographs are now commonly made by means of photography.

Stereomonoscope (n.) An instrument with two lenses, by which an image of a single picture projected upon a screen of ground glass is made to present an appearance of relief, and may be viewed by several persons at once.

Sterling (n.) Any English coin of standard value; coined money.

Sterling (n.) A certain standard of quality or value for money.

Sterling (a.) Belonging to, or relating to, the standard British money of account, or the British coinage; as, a pound sterling; a shilling sterling; a penny sterling; -- now chiefly applied to the lawful money of England; but sterling cost, sterling value, are used.

Stibial (a.) Like, or having the qualities of, antimony; antimonial.

Stibialism (n.) Antimonial intoxication or poisoning.

Stibiated (a.) Combined or impregnated with antimony (stibium).

Stibic (a.) Antimonic; -- used with reference to certain compounds of antimony.

Stibiconite (n.) A native oxide of antimony occurring in masses of a yellow color.

Stibine (n.) Antimony hydride, or hydrogen antimonide, a colorless gas produced by the action of nascent hydrogen on antimony. It has a characteristic odor and burns with a characteristic greenish flame. Formerly called also antimoniureted hydrogen.

Stibious (a.) Antimonious.

Stibium (n.) The technical name of antimony.

Stibnite (n.) A mineral of a lead-gray color and brilliant metallic luster, occurring in prismatic crystals; sulphide of antimony; -- called also antimony glance, and gray antimony.

Stibonium (n.) The hypothetical radical SbH4, analogous to ammonium; -- called also antimonium.

Stickler (v. t.) One who pertinaciously contends for some trifling things, as a point of etiquette; an unreasonable, obstinate contender; as, a stickler for ceremony.

Stigma (v. t.) That part of a pistil which has no epidermis, and is fitted to receive the pollen. It is usually the terminal portion, and is commonly somewhat glutinous or viscid. See Illust. of Stamen and of Flower.

Stigma (v. t.) One of the apertures of the pulmonary sacs of arachnids. See Illust. of Scorpion.

Stilbite (n.) A common mineral of the zeolite family, a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime, usually occurring in sheaflike aggregations of crystals, also in radiated masses. It is of a white or yellowish color, with pearly luster on the cleavage surface. Called also desmine.

Stinkweed (n.) Stramonium. See Jamestown weed, and Datura.

Stipend (n.) Settled pay or compensation for services, whether paid daily, monthly, or annually.

Stiver (n.) A Dutch coin, and money of account, of the value of two cents, or about one penny sterling; hence, figuratively, anything of little worth.

Stock (n.) The part of a tally formerly struck in the exchequer, which was delivered to the person who had lent the king money on account, as the evidence of indebtedness. See Counterfoil.

Stock (n.) Money or capital which an individual or a firm employs in business; fund; in the United States, the capital of a bank or other company, in the form of transferable shares, each of a certain amount; money funded in government securities, called also the public funds; in the plural, property consisting of shares in joint-stock companies, or in the obligations of a government for its funded debt; -- so in the United States, but in England the latter only are called stocks, and the former shares.

Stock (n.) Any cruciferous plant of the genus Matthiola; as, common stock (Matthiola incana) (see Gilly-flower); ten-weeks stock (M. annua).

Stock (a.) Used or employed for constant service or application, as if constituting a portion of a stock or supply; standard; permanent; standing; as, a stock actor; a stock play; a stock sermon.

Stockdove (n.) A common European wild pigeon (Columba aenas), so called because at one time believed to be the stock of the domestic pigeon, or, according to some, from its breeding in the stocks, or trunks, of trees.

Stockwork (n.) A metalliferous deposit characterized by the impregnation of the mass of rock with many small veins or nests irregularly grouped. This kind of deposit is especially common with tin ore. Such deposits are worked in floors or stories.

Stone (n.) A monument to the dead; a gravestone.

Stone (n.) A stand or table with a smooth, flat top of stone, commonly marble, on which to arrange the pages of a book, newspaper, etc., before printing; -- called also imposing stone.

Stonechat (n.) A small, active, and very common European singing bird (Pratincola rubicola); -- called also chickstone, stonechacker, stonechatter, stoneclink, stonesmith.

Stonecrop (n.) Any low succulent plant of the genus Sedum, esp. Sedum acre, which is common on bare rocks in Europe, and is spreading in parts of America. See Orpine.

Stoolball (n.) A kind of game with balls, formerly common in England, esp. with young women.

Storax (n.) Any one of a number of similar complex resins obtained from the bark of several trees and shrubs of the Styrax family. The most common of these is liquid storax, a brown or gray semifluid substance of an agreeable aromatic odor and balsamic taste, sometimes used in perfumery, and in medicine as an expectorant.

Stork (n.) Any one of several species of large wading birds of the family Ciconidae, having long legs and a long, pointed bill. They are found both in the Old World and in America, and belong to Ciconia and several allied genera. The European white stork (Ciconia alba) is the best known. It commonly makes its nests on the top of a building, a chimney, a church spire, or a pillar. The black stork (C. nigra) is native of Asia, Africa, and Europe.

Strait (superl.) Parsimonious; niggargly; mean.

Strait-handed (a.) Parsimonious; sparing; niggardly.

Stramonium (n.) A poisonous plant (Datura Stramonium); stinkweed. See Datura, and Jamestown weed.

Stramony (n.) Stramonium.

Strange (superl.) Not according to the common way; novel; odd; unusual; irregular; extraordinary; unnatural; queer.

Strapper (n.) A person or thing of uncommon size.

Strawberry (n.) A fragrant edible berry, of a delicious taste and commonly of a red color, the fruit of a plant of the genus Fragaria, of which there are many varieties. Also, the plant bearing the fruit. The common American strawberry is Fragaria virginiana; the European, F. vesca. There are also other less common species.

Street (a.) Originally, a paved way or road; a public highway; now commonly, a thoroughfare in a city or village, bordered by dwellings or business houses.

Streetwalker (n.) A common prostitute who walks the streets to find customers.

Strike (v. t.) To take forcibly or fraudulently; as, to strike money.

Strike (v. t.) To borrow money of; to make a demand upon; as, he struck a friend for five dollars.

Strike (v. i.) To steal money.

Strike (n.) The extortion of money, or the attempt to extort money, by threat of injury; blackmailing.

Strombus (n.) A genus of marine gastropods in which the shell has the outer lip dilated into a broad wing. It includes many large and handsome species commonly called conch shells, or conchs. See Conch.

Struvite (n.) A crystalline mineral found in guano. It is a hydrous phosphate of magnesia and ammonia.

Stupa (n.) A mound or monument commemorative of Buddha.

Sturgeon (n.) Any one of numerous species of large cartilaginous ganoid fishes belonging to Acipenser and allied genera of the family Acipenseridae. They run up rivers to spawn, and are common on the coasts and in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe, and Asia. Caviare is prepared from the roe, and isinglass from the air bladder.

Style (v. t.) The pin, or gnomon, of a dial, the shadow of which indicates the hour. See Gnomon.

Stylommatophora (n. pl.) A division of Pulmonata in which the eyes are situated at the tips of the tentacles. It includes the common land snails and slugs. See Illust. under Snail.

Stylus (n.) That needle-shaped part at the tip of the playing arm of phonograph which sits in the groove of a phonograph record while it is turning, to detect the undulations in the phonograph groove and convert them into vibrations which are transmitted to a system (since 1920 electronic) which converts the signal into sound; also called needle. The stylus is frequently composed of metal or diamond.

Subalmoner (n.) An under almoner.

Subarration (n.) The ancient custom of betrothing by the bestowal, on the part of the man, of marriage gifts or tokens, as money, rings, or other presents, upon the woman.

Subcontrary (a.) Having, or being in, a contrary order; -- said of a section of an oblique cone having a circular base made by a plane not parallel to the base, but so inclined to the axis that the section is a circle; applied also to two similar triangles when so placed as to have a common angle at the vertex, the opposite sides not being parallel.

Submonish (v. t.) To suggest; to prompt.

Submonition (n.) Suggestion; prompting.

Subordinary (n.) One of several heraldic bearings somewhat less common than an ordinary. See Ordinary.

Subpulmonary (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the lungs.

Subscription (n.) The acceptance of articles, or other tests tending to promote uniformity; esp. (Ch. of Eng.), formal assent to the Thirty-nine Articles and the Book of Common Prayer, required before ordination.

Subsidize (v. t.) To furnish with a subsidy; to purchase the assistance of by the payment of a subsidy; to aid or promote, as a private enterprise, with public money; as, to subsidize a steamship line.

Subsidy (n.) Support; aid; cooperation; esp., extraordinary aid in money rendered to the sovereign or to a friendly power.

Subsidy (n.) Specifically: A sum of money paid by one sovereign or nation to another to purchase the cooperation or the neutrality of such sovereign or nation in war.

Substituted (a.) Containing substitutions or replacements; having been subjected to the process of substitution, or having some of its parts replaced; as, alcohol is a substituted water; methyl amine is a substituted ammonia.

Substyle (n.) A right line on which the style, or gnomon, of a dial is erected; being the common section of the face of the dial and a plane perpendicular to it passing through the style.

Succinimide (n.) A white crystalline nitrogenous substance, C2H4.(CO)2.NH, obtained by treating succinic anhydride with ammonia gas. It is a typical imido acid, and forms a series of salts. See Imido acid, under Imido.

Succuba (n.) A female demon or fiend. See Succubus.

Succubus (n.) A demon or fiend; especially, a lascivious spirit supposed to have sexual intercourse with the men by night; a succuba. Cf. Incubus.

Sucker (n.) Any one of numerous species of North American fresh-water cyprinoid fishes of the family Catostomidae; so called because the lips are protrusile. The flesh is coarse, and they are of little value as food. The most common species of the Eastern United States are the northern sucker (Catostomus Commersoni), the white sucker (C. teres), the hog sucker (C. nigricans), and the chub, or sweet sucker (Erimyzon sucetta). Some of the large Western species are called buffalo fish, red horse, black horse, and suckerel.

Suckling (v. t.) A small kind of yellow clover (Trifolium filiforme) common in Southern Europe.

Sucrose (n.) A common variety of sugar found in the juices of many plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, sugar maple, beet root, etc. It is extracted as a sweet, white crystalline substance which is valuable as a food product, and, being antiputrescent, is largely used in the preservation of fruit. Called also saccharose, cane sugar, etc. By extension, any one of the class of isomeric substances (as lactose, maltose, etc.) of which sucrose proper is the type.

Sudden (a.) Happening without previous notice or with very brief notice; coming unexpectedly, or without the common preparation; immediate; instant; speedy.

Sudra (n.) The lowest of the four great castes among the Hindoos. See Caste.

Suffrage (n.) Testimony; attestation; witness; approval.

Sufism (n.) A refined mysticism among certain classes of Mohammedans, particularly in Persia, who hold to a kind of pantheism and practice extreme asceticism in their lives.

Suit (n.) One of the four sets of cards which constitute a pack; -- each set consisting of thirteen cards bearing a particular emblem, as hearts, spades, cubs, or diamonds.

Suiting (n.) Among tailors, cloth suitable for making entire suits of clothes.

Sula (n.) A genus of sea birds including the booby and the common gannet.

Sulphantimonate (n.) A salt of sulphantimonic acid.

Sulphantimonic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical sulphacid of antimony (called also thioantimonic acid) analogous to sulpharsenic acid.

Sulphantimonious (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical sulphacid of antimony (called also thioantimonious acid) analogous to sulpharsenious acid.

Sulphantimonite (n.) A salt of sulphantimonious acid.

Sulphur (n.) Any one of numerous species of yellow or orange butterflies of the subfamily Pierinae; as, the clouded sulphur (Eurymus, / Colias, philodice), which is the common yellow butterfly of the Eastern United States.

Sum (n.) A quantity of money or currency; any amount, indefinitely; as, a sum of money; a small sum, or a large sum.

Summoned (imp. & p. p.) of Summon

Summoning (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Summon

Summon (v. t.) To call, bid, or cite; to notify to come to appear; -- often with up.

Summon (v. t.) To give notice to, or command to appear, as in court; to cite by authority; as, to summon witnesses.

Summon (v. t.) To call upon to surrender, as a fort.

Summoner (v. t.) One who summons; one who cites by authority; specifically, a petty officer formerly employed to summon persons to appear in court; an apparitor.

Summonses (pl. ) of Summons

Summons (v.) The act of summoning; a call by authority, or by the command of a superior, to appear at a place named, or to attend to some duty.

Summons (v.) A warning or citation to appear in court; a written notification signed by the proper officer, to be served on a person, warning him to appear in court at a day specified, to answer to the plaintiff, testify as a witness, or the like.

Summons (v.) A demand to surrender.

Summons (v. t.) To summon.

Sumner (n.) A summoner.

Sunbonnet (n.) A bonnet, generally made of some thin or light fabric, projecting beyond the face, and commonly having a cape, -- worn by women as a protection against the sun.

Sunday (n.) The first day of the week, -- consecrated among Christians to rest from secular employments, and to religious worship; the Christian Sabbath; the Lord's Day.

Sundial (n.) An instrument to show the time of day by means of the shadow of a gnomon, or style, on a plate.

Sunfish (n.) Any one of numerous species of perch-like North American fresh-water fishes of the family Centrachidae. They have a broad, compressed body, and strong dorsal spines. Among the common species of the Eastern United States are Lepomis gibbosus (called also bream, pondfish, pumpkin seed, and sunny), the blue sunfish, or dollardee (L. pallidus), and the long-eared sunfish (L. auritus). Several of the species are called also pondfish.

Sunflower (n.) Any plant of the genus Helianthus; -- so called probably from the form and color of its flower, which is large disk with yellow rays. The commonly cultivated sunflower is Helianthus annuus, a native of America.

Superexaltation (n.) Elevation above the common degree.

Superexcellent (a.) Excellent in an uncommon degree; very excellent.

Superior (n.) The head of a monastery, convent, abbey, or the like.

Supply (v. t.) To give; to bring or furnish; to provide; as, to supply money for the war.

Supply (n.) An amount of money provided, as by Parliament or Congress, to meet the annual national expenditures; generally in the plural; as, to vote supplies.

Support (v. t.) To verify; to make good; to substantiate; to establish; to sustain; as, the testimony is not sufficient to support the charges; the evidence will not support the statements or allegations.

Supporter (n.) A figure, sometimes of a man, but commonly of some animal, placed on either side of an escutcheon, and exterior to it. Usually, both supporters of an escutcheon are similar figures.

Supravulgar (a.) Being above the vulgar or common people.

Surcharge (v. t.) To overstock; especially, to put more cattle into, as a common, than the person has a right to do, or more than the herbage will sustain. Blackstone.

Surcharge (n.) The putting, by a commoner, of more beasts on the common than he has a right to.

Surface (n.) The exterior part of anything that has length and breadth; one of the limits that bound a solid, esp. the upper face; superficies; the outside; as, the surface of the earth; the surface of a diamond; the surface of the body.

Surrender (v. i.) To give up one's self into the power of another; to yield; as, the enemy, seeing no way of escape, surrendered at the first summons.

Surrey (n.) A four-wheeled pleasure carriage, (commonly two-seated) somewhat like a phaeton, but having a straight bottom.

Surrogate (n.) The deputy of an ecclesiastical judge, most commonly of a bishop or his chancellor, especially a deputy who grants marriage licenses.

Suspect (v. t.) To imagine to exist; to have a slight or vague opinion of the existence of, without proof, and often upon weak evidence or no evidence; to mistrust; to surmise; -- commonly used regarding something unfavorable, hurtful, or wrong; as, to suspect the presence of disease.

Sustaltic (a.) Mournful; -- said of a species of music among the ancient Greeks.

Suture (n.) The line of union, or seam, in an immovable articulation, like those between the bones of the skull; also, such an articulation itself; synarthrosis. See Harmonic suture, under Harmonic.

Swallet (n.) Water breaking in upon the miners at their work; -- so called among tin miners.

Swallow (n.) Any one of numerous species of swifts which resemble the true swallows in form and habits, as the common American chimney swallow, or swift.

Sweat (v. t.) To get something advantageous, as money, property, or labor from (any one), by exaction or oppression; as, to sweat a spendthrift; to sweat laborers.

Sweep (n.) The almond furnace.

Sweepstakes (sing. / pl.) The whole money or other things staked at a horse race, a given sum being put up for each horse, all of which goes to the winner, or is divided among several, as may be previously agreed.

Sweet (superl.) Pleasing to the ear; soft; melodious; harmonious; as, the sweet notes of a flute or an organ; sweet music; a sweet voice; a sweet singer.

Sweetener (n.) One who, or that which, sweetens; one who palliates; that which moderates acrimony.

Swig (n.) A beverage consisting of warm beer flavored with spices, lemon, etc.

Swing (n.) A line, cord, or other thing suspended and hanging loose, upon which anything may swing; especially, an apparatus for recreation by swinging, commonly consisting of a rope, the two ends of which are attached overhead, as to the bough of a tree, a seat being placed in the loop at the bottom; also, any contrivance by which a similar motion is produced for amusement or exercise.

Sycamore (n.) A large tree (Ficus Sycomorus) allied to the common fig. It is found in Egypt and Syria, and is the sycamore, or sycamine, of Scripture.

Sycee (n.) Silver, pounded into ingots of the shape of a shoe, and used as currency. The most common weight is about one pound troy.

Syllogism (n.) The regular logical form of every argument, consisting of three propositions, of which the first two are called the premises, and the last, the conclusion. The conclusion necessarily follows from the premises; so that, if these are true, the conclusion must be true, and the argument amounts to demonstration

Sylvic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, pine or its products; specifically, designating an acid called also abeitic acid, which is the chief ingredient of common resin (obtained from Pinus sylvestris, and other species).

Symbol (n.) That which is thrown into a common fund; hence, an appointed or accustomed duty.

Symbol (n.) An abbreviation standing for the name of an element and consisting of the initial letter of the Latin or New Latin name, or sometimes of the initial letter with a following one; as, C for carbon, Na for sodium (Natrium), Fe for iron (Ferrum), Sn for tin (Stannum), Sb for antimony (Stibium), etc. See the list of names and symbols under Element.

Symbolize (v. i.) To have a resemblance of qualities or properties; to correspond; to harmonize.

Symmetrical (a.) Having a common measure; commensurable.

Sympathize (v. i.) To have a common feeling, as of bodily pleasure or pain.

Sympathize (v. i.) To agree; to be in accord; to harmonize.

Symphonious (a.) Agreeing in sound; accordant; harmonious.

Symphonize (v. i.) To agree; to be in harmony.

Symphony (n.) A consonance or harmony of sounds, agreeable to the ear, whether the sounds are vocal or instrumental, or both.

Symposium (n.) A collection of short essays by different authors on a common topic; -- so called from the appellation given to the philosophical dialogue by the Greeks.

Synagogue (n.) The council of, probably, 120 members among the Jews, first appointed after the return from the Babylonish captivity; -- called also the Great Synagogue, and sometimes, though erroneously, the Sanhedrin.

Synaptase (n.) A ferment resembling diastase, found in bitter almonds. Cf. Amygdalin, and Emulsin.

Synclinal (a.) Inclined downward from opposite directions, so as to meet in a common point or line.

Synclinal (a.) Formed by strata dipping toward a common line or plane; as, a synclinal trough or valley; a synclinal fold; -- opposed to anticlinal.

Synodal (n.) A tribute in money formerly paid to the bishop or archdeacon, at the time of his Easter visitation, by every parish priest, now made to the ecclesiastical commissioners; a procuration.

Synodical (a.) Pertaining to conjunction, especially to the period between two successive conjunctions; extending from one conjunction, as of the moon or a planet with the sun, to the next; as, a synodical month (see Lunar month, under Month); the synodical revolution of the moon or a planet.

Synonym (n.) One of two or more words (commonly words of the same language) which are equivalents of each other; one of two or more words which have very nearly the same signification, and therefore may often be used interchangeably. See under Synonymous.

System (n.) An assemblage of objects arranged in regular subordination, or after some distinct method, usually logical or scientific; a complete whole of objects related by some common law, principle, or end; a complete exhibition of essential principles or facts, arranged in a rational dependence or connection; a regular union of principles or parts forming one entire thing; as, a system of philosophy; a system of government; a system of divinity; a system of botany or chemistry; a military system; the solar system.

System (n.) One of the stellate or irregular clusters of intimately united zooids which are imbedded in, or scattered over, the surface of the common tissue of many compound ascidians.

Systemic (a.) Of or relating to a system; common to a system; as, the systemic circulation of the blood.

Systemic (a.) Of or pertaining to the general system, or the body as a whole; as, systemic death, in distinction from local death; systemic circulation, in distinction from pulmonic circulation; systemic diseases.

Syzygy (n.) The point of an orbit, as of the moon or a planet, at which it is in conjunction or opposition; -- commonly used in the plural.

Tabard (n.) A sort of tunic or mantle formerly worn for protection from the weather. When worn over the armor it was commonly emblazoned with the arms of the wearer, and from this the name was given to the garment adopted for heralds.

Tabellion (n.) A secretary or notary under the Roman empire; also, a similar officer in France during the old monarchy.

Tabernacular (a.) Of or pertaining to huts or booths; hence, common; low.

Table (n.) The board on the opposite sides of which backgammon and draughts are played.

Table (n.) One of the divisions of a backgammon board; as, to play into the right-hand table.

Table (n.) The games of backgammon and of draughts.

Table (n.) The upper flat surface of a diamond or other precious stone, the sides of which are cut in angles.

Table (v. t.) To lay or place on a table, as money.

Table d'hote () A common table for guests at a hotel; an ordinary.

Tablespoon (n.) A spoon of the largest size commonly used at the table; -- distinguished from teaspoon, dessert spoon, etc.

Tablet (n.) A solid kind of electuary or confection, commonly made of dry ingredients with sugar, and usually formed into little flat squares; -- called also lozenge, and troche, especially when of a round or rounded form.

Taboo (n.) A total prohibition of intercourse with, use of, or approach to, a given person or thing under pain of death, -- an interdict of religious origin and authority, formerly common in the islands of Polynesia; interdiction.

Tachyglossa (n. pl.) A division of monotremes which comprises the spiny ant-eaters of Australia and New Guinea. See Illust. under Echidna.

Tael (n.) A denomination of money, in China, worth nearly six shillings sterling, or about a dollar and forty cents; also, a weight of one ounce and a third.

Taenia (n.) A genus of intestinal worms which includes the common tapeworms of man. See Tapeworm.

Tajassu (n.) The common, or collared, peccary.

Talapoin (n.) A small African monkey (Cercopithecus, / Miopithecus, talapoin) -- called also melarhine.

Talent (v. t.) Among the ancient Greeks, a weight and a denomination of money equal to 60 minae or 6,000 drachmae. The Attic talent, as a weight, was about 57 lbs. avoirdupois; as a denomination of silver money, its value was 243 15s. sterling, or about $1,180.

Talent (v. t.) Among the Hebrews, a weight and denomination of money. For silver it was equivalent to 3,000 shekels, and in weight was equal to about 93/ lbs. avoirdupois; as a denomination of silver, it has been variously estimated at from 340 to 396 sterling, or about $1,645 to $1,916. For gold it was equal to 10,000 gold shekels.

Tales (n.) Persons added to a jury, commonly from those in or about the courthouse, to make up any deficiency in the number of jurors regularly summoned, being like, or such as, the latter.

Tales (syntactically sing.) The writ by which such persons are summoned.

Talipot (n.) A beautiful tropical palm tree (Corypha umbraculifera), a native of Ceylon and the Malabar coast. It has a trunk sixty or seventy feet high, bearing a crown of gigantic fan-shaped leaves which are used as umbrellas and as fans in ceremonial processions, and, when cut into strips, as a substitute for writing paper.

Talpa (n.) A genus of small insectivores including the common European mole.

Tamarin (n.) Any one of several species of small squirrel-like South American monkeys of the genus Midas, especially M. ursulus.

Tambour (n.) A small frame, commonly circular, and somewhat resembling a tambourine, used for stretching, and firmly holding, a portion of cloth that is to be embroidered; also, the embroidery done upon such a frame; -- called also, in the latter sense, tambour work.

Tambourin (n.) An old Provencal dance of a lively character, common on the stage.

Tanager (n.) Any one of numerous species of bright-colored singing birds belonging to Tanagra, Piranga, and allied genera. The scarlet tanager (Piranga erythromelas) and the summer redbird (Piranga rubra) are common species of the United States.

Tangfish (n.) The common harbor seal.

Tansy (n.) Any plant of the composite genus Tanacetum. The common tansy (T. vulgare) has finely divided leaves, a strong aromatic odor, and a very bitter taste. It is used for medicinal and culinary purposes.

Tansy (n.) A dish common in the seventeenth century, made of eggs, sugar, rose water, cream, and the juice of herbs, baked with butter in a shallow dish.

Tare (n.) A weed that grows among wheat and other grain; -- alleged by modern naturalists to be the Lolium temulentum, or darnel.

Tarente (n.) A harmless lizard of the Gecko family (Platydactylus Mauritianicus) found in Southern Europe and adjacent countries, especially among old walls and ruins.

Taring (n.) The common tern; -- called also tarret, and tarrock.

Tarrock (n.) The common guillemot.

Tarrock (n.) The common tern.

Tatting (n.) A kind of lace made from common sewing thread, with a peculiar stitch.

Tattoo (n.) An indelible mark or figure made by puncturing the skin and introducing some pigment into the punctures; -- a mode of ornamentation practiced by various barbarous races, both in ancient and modern times, and also by some among civilized nations, especially by sailors.

Tau (n.) The common American toadfish; -- so called from a marking resembling the Greek letter tau (/).

Taurus (n.) A genus of ruminants comprising the common domestic cattle.

Tax (n.) To subject to the payment of a tax or taxes; to impose a tax upon; to lay a burden upon; especially, to exact money from for the support of government.

Tchawytcha (n.) The quinnat salmon.

Tea (n.) A decoction or infusion of tea leaves in boiling water; as, tea is a common beverage.

Teach (v. t.) To accustom; to guide; to show; to admonish.

Tebeth (n.) The tenth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, answering to a part of December with a part of January.

Teem (v. t.) To pour; -- commonly followed by out; as, to teem out ale.

Teetee (n.) Any one of several species of small, soft-furred South American monkeys belonging to Callithrix, Chrysothrix, and allied genera; as, the collared teetee (Callithrix torquatus), and the squirrel teetee (Chrysothrix sciurea). Called also pinche, titi, and saimiri. See Squirrel monkey, under Squirrel.

Telamones (n. pl.) Same as Atlantes.

Teleocephial (n. pl.) An extensive order of bony fishes including most of the common market species, as bass, salmon, cod, perch, etc.

Tell (v. t.) To mention one by one, or piece by piece; to recount; to enumerate; to reckon; to number; to count; as, to tell money.

Teller (n.) One of four officers of the English Exchequer, formerly appointed to receive moneys due to the king and to pay moneys payable by the king.

Teller (n.) An officer of a bank who receives and counts over money paid in, and pays money out on checks.

Tempest (n.) An extensive current of wind, rushing with great velocity and violence, and commonly attended with rain, hail, or snow; a furious storm.

Templar (n.) One belonged to a certain order or degree among the Freemasons, called Knights Templars. Also, one of an order among temperance men, styled Good Templars.

Temple (n.) Hence, among Christians, an edifice erected as a place of public worship; a church.

Templet (n.) A gauge, pattern, or mold, commonly a thin plate or board, used as a guide to the form of the work to be executed; as, a mason's or a wheelwright's templet.

Tenant (n.) One who holds or possesses lands, or other real estate, by any kind of right, whether in fee simple, in common, in severalty, for life, for years, or at will; also, one who has the occupation or temporary possession of lands or tenements the title of which is in another; -- correlative to landlord. See Citation from Blackstone, under Tenement, 2.

Tender (n.) An offer, either of money to pay a debt, or of service to be performed, in order to save a penalty or forfeiture, which would be incurred by nonpayment or nonperformance; as, the tender of rent due, or of the amount of a note, with interest.

Tender (n.) The thing offered; especially, money offered in payment of an obligation.

Tenement (n.) Any species of permanent property that may be held, so as to create a tenancy, as lands, houses, rents, commons, an office, an advowson, a franchise, a right of common, a peerage, and the like; -- called also free / frank tenements.

Tenor (n.) The higher of the two kinds of voices usually belonging to adult males; hence, the part in the harmony adapted to this voice; the second of the four parts in the scale of sounds, reckoning from the base, and originally the air, to which the other parts were auxillary.

Teratogeny (n.) The formation of monsters.

Teratoid (a.) Resembling a monster; abnormal; of a pathological growth, exceedingly complex or highly organized.

Teratology (n.) That branch of biological science which treats of monstrosities, malformations, or deviations from the normal type of structure, either in plants or animals.

Termonology (n.) Terminology.

Terrane (n.) A group of rocks having a common age or origin; -- nearly equivalent to formation, but used somewhat less comprehensively.

Terricolae (n. pl.) A division of annelids including the common earthworms and allied species.

Tertiary (n.) A member of the Third Order in any monastic system; as, the Franciscan tertiaries; the Dominican tertiaries; the Carmelite tertiaries. See Third Order, under Third.

Testification (n.) The act of testifying, or giving testimony or evidence; as, a direct testification of our homage to God.

Testifier (n.) One who testifies; one who gives testimony, or bears witness to prove anything; a witness.

Testify (v. i.) To make a solemn declaration, verbal or written, to establish some fact; to give testimony for the purpose of communicating to others a knowledge of something not known to them.

Testify (v. i.) To make a solemn declaration under oath or affirmation, for the purpose of establishing, or making proof of, some fact to a court; to give testimony in a cause depending before a tribunal.

Testify (v. t.) To bear witness to; to support the truth of by testimony; to affirm or declare solemny.

Testimonial (a.) A writing or certificate which bears testimony in favor of one's character, good conduct, ability, etc., or of the value of a thing.

Testimonial (a.) Something, as money or plate, presented to a preson as a token of respect, or of obligation for services rendered.

Testimonial (a.) Relating to, or containing, testimony.

Testimonies (pl. ) of Testimony

Testimony (n.) A solemn declaration or affirmation made for the purpose of establishing or proving some fact.

Testimony (n.) Affirmation; declaration; as, these doctrines are supported by the uniform testimony of the fathers; the belief of past facts must depend on the evidence of human testimony, or the testimony of historians.

Testimony (n.) Open attestation; profession.

Testimony (n.) Witness; evidence; proof of some fact.

Testimony (n.) The two tables of the law.

Testimony (n.) Hence, the whole divine revelation; the sacre/ Scriptures.

Testimony (v. t.) To witness; to attest; to prove by testimony.

Tethyodea (n. pl.) A division of Tunicata including the common attached ascidians, both simple and compound. Called also Tethioidea.

Tetrabasic (a.) Capable of neutralizing four molecules of a monacid base; having four hydrogen atoms capable of replacement by bases; quadribasic; -- said of certain acids; thus, normal silicic acid, Si(OH)4, is a tetrabasic acid.

Tetrabranchiata (n. pl.) An order of Cephalopoda having four gills. Among living species it includes only the pearly nautilus. Numerous genera and species are found in the fossil state, such as Ammonites, Baculites, Orthoceras, etc.

Tetracid (a.) Capable of neutralizing four molecules of a monobasic acid; having four hydrogen atoms capable of replacement ba acids or acid atoms; -- said of certain bases; thus, erythrine, C4H6(OH)4, is a tetracid alcohol.

Tetradite (n.) A person in some way remarkable with regard to the number four, as one born on the fourth day of the month, or one who reverenced four persons in the Godhead.

Tetradrachma (n.) A silver coin among the ancient Greeks, of the value of four drachms.

Tetragrammaton (n.) The mystic number four, which was often symbolized to represent the Deity, whose name was expressed by four letters among some ancient nations; as, the Hebrew JeHoVaH, Greek qeo`s, Latin deus, etc.

Tetrahedrite (n.) A sulphide of antimony and copper, with small quantities of other metals. It is a very common ore of copper, and some varieties yield a considerable presentage of silver. Called also gray copper ore, fahlore, and panabase.

Tetraneumona (n. pl.) A division of Arachnida including those spiders which have four lungs, or pulmonary sacs. It includes the bird spiders (Mygale) and the trapdoor spiders. See Mygale.

Tetrapnuemonian (n.) One of the Tetrapneumona.

Text (n.) A verse or passage of Scripture, especially one chosen as the subject of a sermon, or in proof of a doctrine.

Tammuz (n.) A deity among the ancient Syrians, in honor of whom the Hebrew idolatresses held an annual lamentation. This deity has been conjectured to be the same with the Phoenician Adon, or Adonis.

Tammuz (n.) The fourth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, -- supposed to correspond nearly with our month of July.

That (pron., a., conj., & adv.) As a demonstrative pronoun (pl. Those), that usually points out, or refers to, a person or thing previously mentioned, or supposed to be understood. That, as a demonstrative, may precede the noun to which it refers; as, that which he has said is true; those in the basket are good apples.

That (pron., a., conj., & adv.) As an adjective, that has the same demonstrative force as the pronoun, but is followed by a noun.

That (pron., a., conj., & adv.) As a conjunction, that retains much of its force as a demonstrative pronoun.

Theatre (n.) Any room adapted to the exhibition of any performances before an assembly, as public lectures, scholastic exercises, anatomical demonstrations, surgical operations, etc.

Theatine (n.) One of an order of Italian monks, established in 1524, expressly to oppose Reformation, and to raise the tone of piety among Roman Catholics. They hold no property, nor do they beg, but depend on what Providence sends. Their chief employment is preaching and giving religious instruction.

Theocracy (n.) The state thus governed, as the Hebrew commonwealth before it became a kingdom.

Theology (n.) The science of God or of religion; the science which treats of the existence, character, and attributes of God, his laws and government, the doctrines we are to believe, and the duties we are to practice; divinity; (as more commonly understood) "the knowledge derivable from the Scriptures, the systematic exhibition of revealed truth, the science of Christian faith and life."

Theomachy (n.) A battle or strife among the gods.

Theomancy (n.) A kind of divination drawn from the responses of oracles among heathen nations.

Theorem (n.) A statement of a principle to be demonstrated.

Theorica (n. pl.) Public moneys expended at Athens on festivals, sacrifices, and public entertainments (especially theatrical performances), and in gifts to the people; -- also called theoric fund.

Thermidor (n.) The eleventh month of the French republican calendar, -- commencing July 19, and ending August 17. See the Note under Vendemiaire.

Thermopile (n.) An instrument of extreme sensibility, used to determine slight differences and degrees of heat. It is composed of alternate bars of antimony and bismuth, or any two metals having different capacities for the conduction of heat, connected with an astatic galvanometer, which is very sensibly affected by the electric current induced in the system of bars when exposed even to the feeblest degrees of heat.

Theurgy (n.) A kind of magical science or art developed in Alexandria among the Neoplatonists, and supposed to enable man to influence the will of the gods by means of purification and other sacramental rites.

Thimbleberry (n.) A kind of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis), common in America.

Thine (pron. & a.) A form of the possessive case of the pronoun thou, now superseded in common discourse by your, the possessive of you, but maintaining a place in solemn discourse, in poetry, and in the usual language of the Friends, or Quakers.

Third-penny (n.) A third part of the profits of fines and penalties imposed at the country court, which was among the perquisites enjoyed by the earl.

Thirteenth (a.) Next in order after the twelfth; the third after the tenth; -- the ordinal of thirteen; as, the thirteenth day of the month.

Thirtieth (a.) Next in order after the twenty-ninth; the tenth after the twentieth; -- the ordinal of thirty; as, the thirtieth day of the month.

Thirty (a.) Being three times ten; consisting of one more than twenty-nine; twenty and ten; as, the month of June consists of thirty days.

This (pron. & a.) As a demonstrative pronoun, this denotes something that is present or near in place or time, or something just mentioned, or that is just about to be mentioned.

This (pron. & a.) As an adjective, this has the same demonstrative force as the pronoun, but is followed by a noun; as, this book; this way to town.

Thoracica (n. pl.) A division of cirripeds including those which have six thoracic segments, usually bearing six pairs of cirri. The common barnacles are examples.

Thorium (n.) A metallic element found in certain rare minerals, as thorite, pyrochlore, monazite, etc., and isolated as an infusible gray metallic powder which burns in the air and forms thoria; -- formerly called also thorinum. Symbol Th. Atomic weight 232.0.

Thorough bass () The representation of chords by figures placed under the base; figured bass; basso continuo; -- sometimes used as synonymous with harmony.

Thoroughgoing (a.) Going all lengths; extreme; thoroughplaced; -- less common in this sense.

Thoth (n.) The god of eloquence and letters among the ancient Egyptians, and supposed to be the inventor of writing and philosophy. He corresponded to the Mercury of the Romans, and was usually represented as a human figure with the head of an ibis or a lamb.

Thriftless (a.) Without thrift; not prudent or prosperous in money affairs.

Throat (n.) The orifice of a tubular organ; the outer end of the tube of a monopetalous corolla; the faux, or fauces.

Throne (n.) A chair of state, commonly a royal seat, but sometimes the seat of a prince, bishop, or other high dignitary.

Through (prep.) Among or in the midst of; -- used to denote passage; as, a fish swims through the water; the light glimmers through a thicket.

Thrum (v. i.) To play rudely or monotonously on a stringed instrument with the fingers; to strum.

Thrum (v. i.) Hence, to make a monotonous drumming noise; as, to thrum on a table.

Thrum (v. t.) To play, as a stringed instrument, in a rude or monotonous manner.

Thrum (v. t.) Hence, to drum on; to strike in a monotonous manner; to thrum the table.

Thrush (n.) An affection of the mouth, fauces, etc., common in newly born children, characterized by minute ulcers called aphthae. See Aphthae.

Thus (n.) The commoner kind of frankincense, or that obtained from the Norway spruce, the long-leaved pine, and other conifers.

Thy (pron.) Of thee, or belonging to thee; the more common form of thine, possessive case of thou; -- used always attributively, and chiefly in the solemn or grave style, and in poetry. Thine is used in the predicate; as, the knife is thine. See Thine.

Thysbe (n.) A common clearwing moth (Hemaris thysbe).

Thyself (pron.) An emphasized form of the personal pronoun of the second person; -- used as a subject commonly with thou; as, thou thyself shalt go; that is, thou shalt go, and no other. It is sometimes used, especially in the predicate, without thou, and in the nominative as well as in the objective case.

Tical (n.) A money of account in China, reckoning at about $1.60; also, a weight of about four ounces avoirdupois.

Ticket (v.) A certificate or token of a share in a lottery or other scheme for distributing money, goods, or the like.

Tickle (v. t.) To touch lightly, so as to produce a peculiar thrilling sensation, which commonly causes laughter, and a kind of spasm which become dengerous if too long protracted.

Ticktack (n.) A kind of backgammon played both with men and pegs; tricktrack.

Ticpolonga (n.) A very venomous viper (Daboia Russellii), native of Ceylon and India; -- called also cobra monil.

Tiers etat () The third estate, or commonalty, in France, answering to the commons in Great Britain; -- so called in distinction from, and as inferior to, the nobles and clergy.

Tig (n.) A game among children. See Tag.

Tight (superl.) Close; parsimonious; saving; as, a man tight in his dealings.

Tight (superl.) Pressing; stringent; not easy; firmly held; dear; -- said of money or the money market. Cf. Easy, 7.

Till (n.) A money drawer in a shop or store.

Tilley seed () The seeds of a small tree (Croton Pavana) common in the Malay Archipelago. These seeds furnish croton oil, like those of Croton Tiglium.

Time (n.) The measured duration of sounds; measure; tempo; rate of movement; rhythmical division; as, common or triple time; the musician keeps good time.

Time (v. t.) To measure, as in music or harmony.

Timoneer (n.) A helmsman.

Tincture (n.) A solution (commonly colored) of medicinal substance in alcohol, usually more or less diluted; spirit containing medicinal substances in solution.

Tindal (n.) A petty officer among lascars, or native East Indian sailors; a boatswain's mate; a cockswain.

Tinkle (n.) The common guillemot.

'T is () A common contraction of it is.

Tisri (n.) The seventh month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, answering to a part of September with a part of October.

Toadfish (n.) Any marine fish of the genus Batrachus, having a large, thick head and a wide mouth, and bearing some resemblance to a toad. The American species (Batrachus tau) is very common in shallow water. Called also oyster fish, and sapo.

Token (n.) A piece of metal intended for currency, and issued by a private party, usually bearing the name of the issuer, and redeemable in lawful money. Also, a coin issued by government, esp. when its use as lawful money is limited and its intrinsic value is much below its nominal value.

Token (n.) Ten and a half quires, or, commonly, 250 sheets, of paper printed on both sides; also, in some cases, the same number of sheets printed on one side, or half the number printed on both sides.

Toll (v. t.) To call, summon, or notify, by tolling or ringing.

Toluidine (n.) Any one of three metameric amido derivatives of toluene analogous to aniline, and called respectively orthtoluidine, metatoluidine, and paratoluidine; especially, the commonest one, or paratoluidine, which is obtained as a white crystalline substance.

Toman (n.) A money of account in Persia, whose value varies greatly at different times and places. Its average value may be reckoned at about two and a half dollars.

Tomb (n.) A monument erected to inclose the body and preserve the name and memory of the dead.

Tommy (n.) A truck, or barter; the exchange of labor for goods, not money.

Ton (n.) The common tunny, or house mackerel.

Tone (n.) The general effect of a picture produced by the combination of light and shade, together with color in the case of a painting; -- commonly used in a favorable sense; as, this picture has tone.

Tonsil (n.) One of the two glandular organs situated in the throat at the sides of the fauces. The tonsils are sometimes called the almonds, from their shape.

Tonsure (n.) The first ceremony used for devoting a person to the service of God and the church; the first degree of the clericate, given by a bishop, abbot, or cardinal priest, consisting in cutting off the hair from a circular space at the back of the head, with prayers and benedictions; hence, entrance or admission into minor orders.

Tontine (n.) An annuity, with the benefit of survivorship, or a loan raised on life annuities with the benefit of survivorship. Thus, an annuity is shared among a number, on the principle that the share of each, at his death, is enjoyed by the survivors, until at last the whole goes to the last survivor, or to the last two or three, according to the terms on which the money is advanced. Used also adjectively; as, tontine insurance.

Top (n.) A child's toy, commonly in the form of a conoid or pear, made to spin on its point, usually by drawing off a string wound round its surface or stem, the motion being sometimes continued by means of a whip.

Tope (n.) A moundlike Buddhist sepulcher, or memorial monument, often erected over a Buddhist relic.

Topic (n.) One of the various general forms of argument employed in probable as distinguished from demonstrative reasoning, -- denominated by Aristotle to`poi (literally, places), as being the places or sources from which arguments may be derived, or to which they may be referred; also, a prepared form of argument, applicable to a great variety of cases, with a supply of which the ancient rhetoricians and orators provided themselves; a commonplace of argument or oratory.

Topic (n.) A treatise on forms of argument; a system or scheme of forms or commonplaces of argument or oratory; as, the Topics of Aristotle.

Topical (n.) Resembling a topic, or general maxim; hence, not demonstrative, but merely probable, as an argument.

Toque (n.) A variety of the bonnet monkey.

Torchwort (n.) The common mullein, the stalks of which, dipped in suet, anciently served for torches. Called also torch, and hig-taper.

Tornado (n.) A violent whirling wind; specifically (Meteorol.), a tempest distinguished by a rapid whirling and slow progressive motion, usually accompaned with severe thunder, lightning, and torrents of rain, and commonly of short duration and small breadth; a small cyclone.

Tossy (a.) Tossing the head, as in scorn or pride; hence, proud; contemptuous; scornful; affectedly indifferent; as, a tossy commonplace.

Tourmaline (n.) A mineral occurring usually in three-sided or six-sided prisms terminated by rhombohedral or scalenohedral planes. Black tourmaline (schorl) is the most common variety, but there are also other varieties, as the blue (indicolite), red (rubellite), also green, brown, and white. The red and green varieties when transparent are valued as jewels.

Tournois (n.) A former French money of account worth 20 sous, or a franc. It was thus called in distinction from the Paris livre, which contained 25 sous.

Tous-les-mois (n.) A kind of starch with very large, oval, flattened grains, often sold as arrowroot, and extensively used for adulterating cocoa. It is made from the rootstocks of a species of Canna, probably C. edulis, the tubers of which are edible every month in the year.

Town (adv. & prep.) The court end of London;-- commonly with the.

Trade (v.) Specifically: The act or business of exchanging commodities by barter, or by buying and selling for money; commerce; traffic; barter.

Trade union () An organized combination among workmen for the purpose of maintaining their rights, privileges, and interests with respect to wages, hours of labor, customs, etc.

Traditionary (n.) One, among the Jews, who acknowledges the authority of traditions, and explains the Scriptures by them.

Traffic (v. i.) To pass goods and commodities from one person to another for an equivalent in goods or money; to buy or sell goods; to barter; to trade.

Tramontane (a.) Lying or being beyond the mountains; coming from the other side of the mountains; hence, foreign; barbarous.

Tramontane (n.) One living beyond the mountains; hence, a foreigner; a stranger.

Transept (n.) The transversal part of a church, which crosses at right angles to the greatest length, and between the nave and choir. In the basilicas, this had often no projection at its two ends. In Gothic churches these project these project greatly, and should be called the arms of the transept. It is common, however, to speak of the arms themselves as the transepts.

Transmit (v. t.) To cause to pass over or through; to communicate by sending; to send from one person or place to another; to pass on or down as by inheritance; as, to transmit a memorial; to transmit dispatches; to transmit money, or bills of exchange, from one country to another.

Transparent (a.) Having the property of transmitting rays of light, so that bodies can be distinctly seen through; pervious to light; diaphanous; pellucid; as, transparent glass; a transparent diamond; -- opposed to opaque.

Transpiration (n.) The act or process of transpiring or excreting in the form of vapor; exhalation, as through the skin or other membranes of the body; as, pulmonary transpiration, or the excretion of aqueous vapor from the lungs. Perspiration is a form of transpiration.

Trapezohedron (n.) A tetartohedral solid of the hexagonal system, bounded by six trapezoidal planes. The faces of this form are common on quartz crystals.

Trappist (n.) A monk belonging to a branch of the Cistercian Order, which was established by Armand de Rance in 1660 at the monastery of La Trappe in Normandy. Extreme austerity characterizes their discipline. They were introduced permanently into the United States in 1848, and have monasteries in Iowa and Kentucky.

Treasure (n.) Wealth accumulated; especially, a stock, or store of money in reserve.

Treasure (v. t.) To collect and deposit, as money or other valuable things, for future use; to lay up; to hoard; usually with up; as, to treasure up gold.

Treasurer (n.) One who has the care of a treasure or treasure or treasury; an officer who receives the public money arising from taxes and duties, or other sources of revenue, takes charge of the same, and disburses it upon orders made by the proper authority; one who has charge of collected funds; as, the treasurer of a society or corporation.

Treasure-trove (n.) Any money, bullion, or the like, found in the earth, or otherwise hidden, the owner of which is not known. In England such treasure belongs to the crown; whereas similar treasure found in the sea, or upon the surface of the land, belongs to the finder if no owner appears.

Treasury (n.) A place or building in which stores of wealth are deposited; especially, a place where public revenues are deposited and kept, and where money is disbursed to defray the expenses of government; hence, also, the place of deposit and disbursement of any collected funds.

Tree (n.) A piece of timber, or something commonly made of timber; -- used in composition, as in axletree, boottree, chesstree, crosstree, whiffletree, and the like.

Triacid (a.) Capable of neutralizing three molecules of a monobasic acid or the equivalent; having three hydrogen atoms which may be acid radicals; -- said of certain bases; thus, glycerin is a triacid base.

Triad (n.) The common chord, consisting of a tone with its third and fifth, with or without the octave.

Tribasic (a.) Capable of neutralizing three molecules of a monacid base, or their equivalent; having three hydrogen atoms capable of replacement by basic elements on radicals; -- said of certain acids; thus, citric acid is a tribasic acid.

Tribe (n.) A number of species or genera having certain structural characteristics in common; as, a tribe of plants; a tribe of animals.

Tribute (n.) An annual or stated sum of money or other valuable thing, paid by one ruler or nation to another, either as an acknowledgment of submission, or as the price of peace and protection, or by virtue of some treaty; as, the Romans made their conquered countries pay tribute.

Tribute (n.) A personal contribution, as of money, praise, service, etc., made in token of services rendered, or as that which is due or deserved; as, a tribute of affection.

Trichite (n.) A kind of crystallite resembling a bunch of hairs, common in obsidian. See Illust. of Crystallite.

Trichomanes (n.) Any fern of the genus Trichomanes. The fronds are very delicate and often translucent, and the sporangia are borne on threadlike receptacles rising from the middle of cup-shaped marginal involucres. Several species are common in conservatories; two are native in the United States.

Tricktrack (n.) An old game resembling backgammon.

Tridactyle (a.) Having three fingers or toes, or composed of three movable parts attached to a common base.

Trident (n.) A kind of scepter or spear with three prongs, -- the common attribute of Neptune.

Trifle (v. t.) To spend in vanity; to fritter away; to waste; as, to trifle away money.

Trilithon (n.) A monument consisting of three stones; especially, such a monument forming a kind of doorway, as among the ancient Celts.

Trilobite (n.) Any one of numerous species of extinct arthropods belonging to the order Trilobita. Trilobites were very common in the Silurian and Devonian periods, but became extinct at the close of the Paleozoic. So named from the three lobes usually seen on each segment.

Trimester (n.) A term or period of three months.

Trimestrial (a.) Of or pertaining to a trimester, or period of three months; occurring once in every three months; quarterly.

Trimethylamine (n.) A colorless volatile alkaline liquid, N.(CH3)3, obtained from herring brine, beet roots, etc., with a characteristic herringlike odor. It is regarded as a substituted ammonia containing three methyl groups.

Trimorphous (a.) Of, pertaining to, or characterized by, trimorphism; -- contrasted with monomorphic, dimorphic, and polymorphic.

Trimorphism (n.) The coexistence among individuals of the same species of three distinct forms, not connected, as a rule, by intermediate gradations; the condition among individuals of the same species of having three different shapes or proportions of corresponding parts; -- contrasted with polymorphism, and dimorphism.

Trinitarian (n.) One of a monastic order founded in Rome in 1198 by St. John of Matha, and an old French hermit, Felix of Valois, for the purpose of redeeming Christian captives from the Mohammedans.

Triple-tail (n.) An edible fish (Lobotes Surinamensis) found in the warmer parts of all the oceans, and common on the southern and middle coasts of the United States. When living it is silvery gray, and becomes brown or blackish when dead. Its dorsal and anal fins are long, and extend back on each side of the tail. It has large silvery scales which are used in the manufacture of fancy work. Called also, locally, black perch, grouper, and flasher.

Trite (a.) Worn out; common; used until so common as to have lost novelty and interest; hackneyed; stale; as, a trite remark; a trite subject.

Triton (n.) Any one of many species of marine gastropods belonging to Triton and allied genera, having a stout spiral shell, often handsomely colored and ornamented with prominent varices. Some of the species are among the largest of all gastropods. Called also trumpet shell, and sea trumpet.

Triton (n.) Any one of numerous species of aquatic salamanders. The common European species are Hemisalamandra cristata, Molge palmata, and M. alpestris, a red-bellied species common in Switzerland. The most common species of the United States is Diemyctylus viridescens. See Illust. under Salamander.

Triumph (n.) A magnificent and imposing ceremonial performed in honor of a general who had gained a decisive victory over a foreign enemy.

Trivalent (a.) Having a valence of three; capable of being combined with, substituted for, or compared with, three atoms of hydrogen; -- said of triad atoms or radicals; thus, nitrogen is trivalent in ammonia.

Trivial (a.) Found anywhere; common.

Trivial (a.) Ordinary; commonplace; trifling; vulgar.

Troglodytes (n.) A genus of singing birds including the common wrens.

Trombone (n.) The common European bittern.

Trout (n.) Any one of numerous species of fishes belonging to Salmo, Salvelinus, and allied genera of the family Salmonidae. They are highly esteemed as game fishes and for the quality of their flesh. All the species breed in fresh water, but after spawning many of them descend to the sea if they have an opportunity.

Trout (n.) Any one of several species of marine fishes more or less resembling a trout in appearance or habits, but not belonging to the same family, especially the California rock trouts, the common squeteague, and the southern, or spotted, squeteague; -- called also salt-water trout, sea trout, shad trout, and gray trout. See Squeteague, and Rock trout under Rock.

Truck (n.) The practice of paying wages in goods instead of money; -- called also truck system.

Trumpet (n.) A wind instrument of great antiquity, much used in war and military exercises, and of great value in the orchestra. In consists of a long metallic tube, curved (once or twice) into a convenient shape, and ending in a bell. Its scale in the lower octaves is limited to the first natural harmonics; but there are modern trumpets capable, by means of valves or pistons, of producing every tone within their compass, although at the expense of the true ringing quality of tone.

Trust (a.) Held in trust; as, trust property; trustmoney.

Tuberculosis (n.) A constitutional disease characterized by the production of tubercles in the internal organs, and especially in the lungs, where it constitutes the most common variety of pulmonary consumption.

Tucan (n.) The Mexican pocket gopher (Geomys Mexicanus). It resembles the common pocket gopher of the Western United States, but is larger. Called also tugan, and tuza.

Tuition (n.) The money paid for instruction; the price or payment for instruction.

Tullibee (n.) A whitefish (Coregonus tullibee) found in the Great Lakes of North America; -- called also mongrel whitefish.

Tumble (v. t.) To turn over; to turn or throw about, as for examination or search; to roll or move in a rough, coarse, or unceremonious manner; to throw down or headlong; to precipitate; -- sometimes with over, about, etc.; as, to tumble books or papers.

Tunable (a.) Capable of being tuned, or made harmonious; hence, harmonious; musical; tuneful.

Tune (n.) A rhythmical, melodious, symmetrical series of tones for one voice or instrument, or for any number of voices or instruments in unison, or two or more such series forming parts in harmony; a melody; an air; as, a merry tune; a mournful tune; a slow tune; a psalm tune. See Air.

Tune (n.) The state of giving the proper, sound or sounds; just intonation; harmonious accordance; pitch of the voice or an instrument; adjustment of the parts of an instrument so as to harmonize with itself or with others; as, the piano, or the organ, is not in tune.

Tune (n.) Order; harmony; concord; fit disposition, temper, or humor; right mood.

Tune (v. t.) To put into a state adapted to produce the proper sounds; to harmonize, to cause to be in tune; to correct the tone of; as, to tune a piano or a violin.

Tune (v. t.) To give tone to; to attune; to adapt in style of music; to make harmonious.

Tune (v. t.) To sing with melody or harmony.

Tune (v. i.) To utter inarticulate harmony with the voice; to sing without pronouncing words; to hum.

Tuneful (a.) Harmonious; melodious; musical; as, tuneful notes.

Tuneless (a.) Without tune; inharmonious; unmusical.

Tunic (n.) Any similar garment worm by ancient or Oriental peoples; also, a common name for various styles of loose-fitting under-garments and over-garments worn in modern times by Europeans and others.

Tunny (n.) Any one of several species of large oceanic fishes belonging to the Mackerel family, especially the common or great tunny (Orcynus / Albacora thynnus) native of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It sometimes weighs a thousand pounds or more, and is extensively caught in the Mediterranean. On the American coast it is called horse mackerel. See Illust. of Horse mackerel, under Horse.

Turbine (n.) A water wheel, commonly horizontal, variously constructed, but usually having a series of curved floats or buckets, against which the water acts by its impulse or reaction in flowing either outward from a central chamber, inward from an external casing, or from above downward, etc.; -- also called turbine wheel.

Turbot (n.) Any one of numerous species of flounders more or less related to the true turbots, as the American plaice, or summer flounder (see Flounder), the halibut, and the diamond flounder (Hypsopsetta guttulata) of California.

Turn (n.) An embellishment or grace (marked thus, /), commonly consisting of the principal note, or that on which the turn is made, with the note above, and the semitone below, the note above being sounded first, the principal note next, and the semitone below last, the three being performed quickly, as a triplet preceding the marked note. The turn may be inverted so as to begin with the lower note, in which case the sign is either placed on end thus /, or drawn thus /.

Turnerite (n.) A variety of monazite.

Turnstone (n.) Any species of limicoline birds of the genera Strepsilas and Arenaria, allied to the plovers, especially the common American and European species (Strepsilas interpres). They are so called from their habit of turning up small stones in search of mollusks and other aquatic animals. Called also brant bird, sand runner, sea quail, sea lark, sparkback, and skirlcrake.

Turnus (n.) A common, large, handsome, American swallowtail butterfly, now regarded as one of the forms of Papilio, / Jasoniades, glaucus. The wings are yellow, margined and barred with black, and with an orange-red spot near the posterior angle of the hind wings. Called also tiger swallowtail. See Illust. under Swallowtail.

Turrilite (n.) Any fossil ammonite of the genus Turrilites. The shell forms an open spiral with the later whorls separate.

Turtledove (n.) Any one of numerous species of pigeons belonging to Turtur and allied genera, native of various parts of the Old World; especially, the common European species (Turtur vulgaris), which is noted for its plaintive note, affectionate disposition, and devotion to its mate.

Turtlehead (n.) An American perennial herb (Chelone glabra) having white flowers shaped like the head of a turtle. Called also snakehead, shell flower, and balmony.

Tussah silk () A silk cloth made from the cocoons of a caterpillar other than the common silkworm, much used in Bengal and China.

Twain (a. & n.) Two; -- nearly obsolete in common discourse, but used in poetry and burlesque.

Twelfth-cake (n.) An ornamented cake distributed among friends or visitors on the festival of Twelfth-night.

Twelvemonth (n.) A year which consists of twelve calendar months.

Twopence (n.) A small coin, and money of account, in England, equivalent to two pennies, -- minted to a fixed annual amount, for almsgiving by the sovereign on Maundy Thursday.

-type (n.) A combining form signifying impressed form; stamp; print; type; typical form; representative; as in stereotype phototype, ferrotype, monotype.

Type (n.) A general form or structure common to a number of individuals; hence, the ideal representation of a species, genus, or other group, combining the essential characteristics; an animal or plant possessing or exemplifying the essential characteristics of a species, genus, or other group. Also, a group or division of animals having a certain typical or characteristic structure of body maintained within the group.

Typhomania (n.) A low delirium common in typhus fever.

Tyrant (n.) Specifically, a monarch, or other ruler or master, who uses power to oppress his subjects; a person who exercises unlawful authority, or lawful authority in an unlawful manner; one who by taxation, injustice, or cruel punishment, or the demand of unreasonable services, imposes burdens and hardships on those under his control, which law and humanity do not authorize, or which the purposes of government do not require; a cruel master; an oppressor.

Uhlan (n.) One of a certain description of militia among the Tartars.

Ullmannite (n.) A brittle mineral of a steel-gray color and metallic luster, containing antimony, arsenic, sulphur, and nickel.

Ultimo () In the month immediately preceding the present; as, on the 1st ultimo; -- usually abbreviated to ult. Cf. Proximo.

Ultra- (a.) A prefix from the Latin ultra beyond (see Ulterior), having in composition the signification beyond, on the other side, chiefly when joined with words expressing relations of place; as, ultramarine, ultramontane, ultramundane, ultratropical, etc. In other relations it has the sense of excessively, exceedingly, beyond what is common, natural, right, or proper; as, ultraconservative; ultrademocratic, ultradespotic, ultraliberal, ultraradical, etc.

Ultramontane () Being beyond the mountains; specifically, being beyond the Alps, in respect to the one who speaks.

Ultramontane (n.) One who resides beyond the mountains, especially beyond the Alps; a foreigner.

Ultramontane (n.) One who maintains extreme views favoring the pope's supremacy. See Ultramontanism.

Ultramontanism (n.) The principles of those within the Roman Catholic Church who maintain extreme views favoring the pope's supremacy; -- so used by those living north of the Alps in reference to the Italians; -- rarely used in an opposite sense, as referring to the views of those living north of the Alps and opposed to the papal claims. Cf. Gallicanism.

Ultramontanist (n.) One who upholds ultramontanism.

Umbel (n.) A kind of flower cluster in which the flower stalks radiate from a common point, as in the carrot and milkweed. It is simple or compound; in the latter case, each peduncle bears another little umbel, called umbellet, or umbellule.

Umber (n.) A brown or reddish pigment used in both oil and water colors, obtained from certain natural clays variously colored by the oxides of iron and manganese. It is commonly heated or burned before being used, and is then called burnt umber; when not heated, it is called raw umber. See Burnt umber, below.

Umbra (n.) The fainter part of a sun spot; -- now more commonly called penumbra.

Unaccustomed (a.) Not usual; uncommon; strange; new.

Unanimous (a.) Being of one mind; agreeing in opinion, design, or determination; consentient; not discordant or dissentient; harmonious; as, the assembly was unanimous; the members of the council were unanimous.

Unappropriate (v. t.) To take from private possession; to restore to the possession or right of all; as, to unappropriate a monopoly.

Unappropriated (a.) Not granted for, or applied to, any specific purpose; as, the unappropriated moneys in the treasury.

Unatonable (a.) Not capable of being brought into harmony; irreconcilable.

Unclean (a.) Ceremonially impure; needing ritual cleansing.

Uncommon (a.) Not common; unusual; infrequent; rare; hence, remarkable; strange; as, an uncommon season; an uncommon degree of cold or heat; uncommon courage.

Uncouth (a.) Uncommon; rare; exquisite; elegant.

Uncurrent (a.) Not current. Specifically: Not passing in common payment; not receivable at par or full value; as, uncurrent notes.

Uncut (a.) Not ground, or otherwise cut, into a certain shape; as, an uncut diamond.

Undergrowth (n.) That which grows under trees; specifically, shrubs or small trees growing among large trees.

Undermoneyed (a.) Bribed.

Undersized (a.) Of a size less than is common.

Understanding (n.) An agreement of opinion or feeling; adjustment of differences; harmony; anything mutually understood or agreed upon; as, to come to an understanding with another.

Underwood (n.) Small trees and bushes that grow among large trees; coppice; underbrush; -- formerly used in the plural.

Undulation (n.) A motion to and fro, up and down, or from side to side, in any fluid or elastic medium, propagated continuously among its particles, but with no translation of the particles themselves in the direction of the propagation of the wave; a wave motion; a vibration.

Unequal (a.) Not equal; not matched; not of the same size, length, breadth, quantity, strength, talents, acquirements, age, station, or the like; as, the fingers are of unequal length; peers and commoners are unequal in rank.

Unessential (n.) Something not constituting essence, or something which is not of absolute necessity; as, forms are among the unessentials of religion.

Unharmonious (a.) Inharmonious; unsymmetrical; also, unmusical; discordant.

Unicorn (n.) A fabulous animal with one horn; the monoceros; -- often represented in heraldry as a supporter.

Uniformity (n.) Conformity to a pattern or rule; resemblance, consonance, or agreement; as, the uniformity of different churches in ceremonies or rites.

Uniformly (adv.) In a uniform manner; without variation or diversity; by a regular, constant, or common ratio of change; with even tenor; as, a temper uniformly mild.

Unilateral (a.) Pertaining to one side; one-sided; as, a unilateral raceme, in which the flowers grow only on one side of a common axis, or are all turned to one side.

Unimpeachable (a.) Not impeachable; not to be called in question; exempt from liability to accusation; free from stain, guilt, or fault; irreproachable; blameless; as, an unimpeachable reputation; unimpeachable testimony.

Unimuscular (a.) Having only one adductor muscle, and one muscular impression on each valve, as the oyster; monomyarian.

Uninfringible (a.) That may not be infringed; as, an uninfringible monopoly.

Uniocular (a.) Of, pertaining to, or seated in, one eye; monocular.

Union (n.) Agreement and conjunction of mind, spirit, will, affections, or the like; harmony; concord.

Unionism (n.) The principles, or the system, of combination among workmen engaged in the same occupation or trade.

Unison (n.) Harmony; agreement; concord; union.

Unitarian (n.) A monotheist.

Unite (v. t.) Hence, to join by a legal or moral bond, as families by marriage, nations by treaty, men by opinions; to join in interest, affection, fellowship, or the like; to cause to agree; to harmonize; to associate; to attach.

Unity (n.) Concord; harmony; conjunction; agreement; uniformity; as, a unity of proofs; unity of doctrine.

Univalent (a.) Having a valence of one; capable of combining with, or of being substituted for, one atom of hydrogen; monovalent; -- said of certain atoms and radicals.

Unkingship (n.) The quality or condition of being unkinged; abolition of monarchy.

Unmoneyed (a.) Destitute of money; not rich.

Unmonopolize (v. t.) To recover or release from the state of being monopolized.

Unowed (a.) Not owed; as, to pay money unowed.

Unpursed (a.) Robbed of a purse, or of money.

Unsaturated (a.) Capable of taking up, or of uniting with, certain other elements or compounds, without the elimination of any side product; thus, aldehyde, ethylene, and ammonia are unsaturated.

Unsparing (a.) Not sparing; not parsimonious; liberal; profuse.

Until (prep.) To; up to; till; before; -- used of time; as, he staid until evening; he will not come back until the end of the month.

Untold (a.) Not numbered or counted; as, untold money.

Untraded (a.) Not traded in or bartered; hence, not hackneyed; unusual; not common.

Untune (v. t.) To make incapable of harmony, or of harmonious action; to put out of tune.

Unusual (a.) Not usual; uncommon; rare; as, an unusual season; a person of unusual grace or erudition.

Unwonted (a.) Uncommon; unusual; infrequent; rare; as, unwonted changes.

Upas (n.) A tree (Antiaris toxicaria) of the Breadfruit family, common in the forests of Java and the neighboring islands. Its secretions are poisonous, and it has been fabulously reported that the atmosphere about it is deleterious. Called also bohun upas.

Upher (n.) A fir pole of from four to seven inches diameter, and twenty to forty feet long, sometimes roughly hewn, used for scaffoldings, and sometimes for slight and common roofs, for which use it is split.

Upupa (n.) A genus of birds which includes the common hoopoe.

Uralite (n.) Amphibole resulting from the alternation of pyroxene by paramorphism. It is not uncommon in massive eruptive rocks.

Urate (n.) A salt of uric acid; as, sodium urate; ammonium urate.

Urchin (n.) A pert or roguish child; -- now commonly used only of a boy.

Urethane (n.) A white crystalline substance, NH2.CO.OC2H5, produced by the action of ammonia on ethyl carbonate. It is used somewhat in medicine as a hypnotic. By extension, any one of the series of related substances of which urethane proper is the type.

Urim (n.) A part or decoration of the breastplate of the high priest among the ancient Jews, by which Jehovah revealed his will on certain occasions. Its nature has been the subject of conflicting conjectures.

Ursus (n.) A genus of Carnivora including the common bears.

Urtica (n.) A genus of plants including the common nettles. See Nettle, n.

Urva (n.) The crab-eating ichneumon (Herpestes urva), native of India. The fur is black, annulated with white at the tip of each hair, and a white streak extends from the mouth to the shoulder.

Usance (v. t.) Interest paid for money; usury.

Use (v. t.) Common occurrence; ordinary experience.

Use (v. t.) The premium paid for the possession and employment of borrowed money; interest; usury.

Usnea (n.) A genus of lichens, most of the species of which have long, gray, pendulous, and finely branched fronds. Usnea barbata is the common bearded lichen which grows on branches of trees in northern forests.

Usquebaugh (a.) A liquor compounded of brandy, or other strong spirit, raisins, cinnamon and other spices.

Usual (n.) Such as is in common use; such as occurs in ordinary practice, or in the ordinary course of events; customary; ordinary; habitual; common.

Usucaption (n.) The acquisition of the title or right to property by the uninterrupted possession of it for a certain term prescribed by law; -- the same as prescription in common law.

Usurer (n.) One who lends money and takes interest for it; a money lender.

Usurer (n.) One who lends money at a rate of interest beyond that established by law; one who exacts an exorbitant rate of interest for the use of money.

Usurious (a.) Practicing usury; taking illegal or exorbitant interest for the use of money; as, a usurious person.

Usurpation (n.) The act of usurping, or of seizing and enjoying; an authorized, arbitrary assumption and exercise of power, especially an infringing on the rights of others; specifically, the illegal seizure of sovereign power; -- commonly used with of, also used with on or upon; as, the usurpation of a throne; the usurpation of the supreme power.

Usury (v. t.) A premium or increase paid, or stipulated to be paid, for a loan, as of money; interest.

Usury (v. t.) Interest in excess of a legal rate charged to a borrower for the use of money.

Utes (n. pl.) An extensive tribe of North American Indians of the Shoshone stock, inhabiting Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, and adjacent regions. They are subdivided into several subordinate tribes, some of which are among the most degraded of North American Indians.

Utmost (a.) Being in the greatest or highest degree, quantity, number, or the like; greatest; as, the utmost assiduity; the utmost harmony; the utmost misery or happiness.

Utter (a.) hence, to put in circulation, as money; to put off, as currency; to cause to pass in trade; -- often used, specifically, of the issue of counterfeit notes or coins, forged or fraudulent documents, and the like; as, to utter coin or bank notes.

Uvitonic (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid which is obtained as a white crystalline substance by the action of ammonia on pyrotartaric acid.

Vadimony (n.) A bond or pledge for appearance before a judge on a certain day.

Vaisya (n.) The third of the four great original castes among the Hindus, now either extinct or partially represented by the mercantile class of Banyas. See the Note under Caste, 1.

Valence (n.) The degree of combining power of an atom (or radical) as shown by the number of atoms of hydrogen (or of other monads, as chlorine, sodium, etc.) with which it will combine, or for which it can be substituted, or with which it can be compared; thus, an atom of hydrogen is a monad, and has a valence of one; the atoms of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are respectively dyads, triads, and tetrads, and have a valence respectively of two, three, and four.

Valeridine (n.) A base, C10H19N, produced by heating valeric aldehyde with ammonia. It is probably related to the conine alkaloids.

Value (n.) Worth estimated by any standard of purchasing power, especially by the market price, or the amount of money agreed upon as an equivalent to the utility and cost of anything.

Vandal (n.) One of a Teutonic race, formerly dwelling on the south shore of the Baltic, the most barbarous and fierce of the northern nations that plundered Rome in the 5th century, notorious for destroying the monuments of art and literature.

Vandalism (n.) The spirit or conduct of the Vandals; ferocious cruelty; hostility to the arts and literature, or willful destruction or defacement of their monuments.

Vansire (n.) An ichneumon (Herpestes galera) native of Southern Africa and Madagascar. It is reddish brown or dark brown, grizzled with white. Called also vondsira, and marsh ichneumon.

Varan (n.) The monitor. See Monitor, 3.

Varanus (n.) A genus of very large lizards native of Asia and Africa. It includes the monitors. See Monitor, 3.

Variation (n.) Repetition of a theme or melody with fanciful embellishments or modifications, in time, tune, or harmony, or sometimes change of key; the presentation of a musical thought in new and varied aspects, yet so that the essential features of the original shall still preserve their identity.

Various (a.) Variegated; diversified; not monotonous.

Varuna (n.) The god of the waters; the Indian Neptune. He is regarded as regent of the west, and lord of punishment, and is represented as riding on a sea monster, holding in his hand a snaky cord or noose with which to bind offenders, under water.

Vasculum (n.) A tin box, commonly cylindrical or flattened, used in collecting plants.

Vase-shaped (a.) Formed like a vase, or like a common flowerpot.

Vast (superl.) Very great in numbers, quantity, or amount; as, a vast army; a vast sum of money.

Vaticanism (n.) The doctrine of papal supremacy; extreme views in support of the authority of the pope; ultramontanism; -- a term used only by persons who are not Roman Catholics.

Vaticanist (n.) One who strongly adheres to the papal authority; an ultramontanist.

Veadar (n.) The thirteenth, or intercalary, month of the Jewish ecclesiastical calendar, which is added about every third year.

Vedanta (n.) A system of philosophy among the Hindus, founded on scattered texts of the Vedas, and thence termed the "Anta," or end or substance.

Veery (n.) An American thrush (Turdus fuscescens) common in the Northern United States and Canada. It is light tawny brown above. The breast is pale buff, thickly spotted with brown. Called also Wilson's thrush.

Vegetal (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, that class of vital phenomena, such as digestion, absorption, assimilation, secretion, excretion, circulation, generation, etc., which are common to plants and animals, in distinction from sensation and volition, which are peculiar to animals.

Vegetality (n.) The quality or state of being vegetal, or exhibiting those physiological phenomena which are common to plants and animals. See Vegetal, a., 2.

Velocipede (n.) A light road carriage propelled by the feet of the rider. Originally it was propelled by striking the tips of the toes on the roadway, but commonly now by the action of the feet on a pedal or pedals connected with the axle of one or more of the wheels, and causing their revolution. They are made in many forms, with two, three, or four wheels. See Bicycle, and Tricycle.

Velvetleaf (n.) A name given to several plants which have soft, velvety leaves, as the Abutilon Avicennae, the Cissampelos Pareira, and the Lavatera arborea, and even the common mullein.

Venal (a.) Capable of being bought or obtained for money or other valuable consideration; made matter of trade or barter; held for sale; salable; mercenary; purchasable; hireling; as, venal services.

Venality (n.) The quality or state of being venal, or purchasable; mercenariness; prostitution of talents, offices, or services, for money or reward; as, the venality of a corrupt court; the venality of an official.

Vendemiaire (n.) The first month of the French republican calendar, dating from September 22, 1792.

Venire facias () A writ in the nature of a summons to cause the party indicted on a penal statute to appear. Called also venire.

Ventose (a.) The sixth month of the calendar adopted by the first French republic. It began February 19, and ended March 20. See Vend/miaire.

Verbal (a.) Expressed in words, whether spoken or written, but commonly in spoken words; hence, spoken; oral; not written; as, a verbal contract; verbal testimony.

Vernacular (n.) The vernacular language; one's mother tongue; often, the common forms of expression in a particular locality.

Verseman (n.) Same as Versemonger.

Versemonger (n.) A writer of verses; especially, a writer of commonplace poetry; a poetaster; a rhymer; -- used humorously or in contempt.

Version (n.) A translation; that which is rendered from another language; as, the Common, or Authorized, Version of the Scriptures (see under Authorized); the Septuagint Version of the Old Testament.

Verumontanum (n.) An elevation, or crest, in the wall of the urethra where the seminal ducts enter it.

Vervet (n.) A South African monkey (Cercopithecus pygerythrus, / Lelandii). The upper parts are grayish green, finely specked with black. The cheeks and belly are reddish white.

Vesicle (n.) A small cavity, nearly spherical in form, and usually of the size of a pea or smaller, such as are common in some volcanic rocks. They are produced by the liberation of watery vapor in the molten mass.

Vespa (n.) A genus of Hymenoptera including the common wasps and hornets.

Vespertilio (n.) A genus of bats including some of the common small insectivorous species of North America and Europe.

Vespertiliones (n. pl.) A tribe of bats including the common insectivorous bats of America and Europe, belonging to Vespertilio and allied genera. They lack a nose membrane.

Vessel (n.) A general name for any hollow structure made to float upon the water for purposes of navigation; especially, one that is larger than a common rowboat; as, a war vessel; a passenger vessel.

Vest (n.) To invest; to put; as, to vest money in goods, land, or houses.

Vesuvianite (n.) A mineral occurring in tetragonal crystals, and also massive, of a brown to green color, rarely sulphur yellow and blue. It is a silicate of alumina and lime with some iron magnesia, and is common at Vesuvius. Also called idocrase.

Vetch (n.) Any leguminous plant of the genus Vicia, some species of which are valuable for fodder. The common species is V. sativa.

Viking (n.) One belonging to the pirate crews from among the Northmen, who plundered the coasts of Europe in the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries.

Viridite (n.) A greenish chloritic mineral common in certain igneous rocks, as diabase, as a result of alternation.

Visit (v. t.) The act of visiting, or going to see a person or thing; a brief stay of business, friendship, ceremony, curiosity, or the like, usually longer than a call; as, a visit of civility or respect; a visit to Saratoga; the visit of a physician.

Vivianite (n.) A hydrous phosphate of iron of a blue to green color, growing darker on exposure. It occurs in monoclinic crystals, also fibrous, massive, and earthy.

V moth () A common gray European moth (Halia vauaria) having a V-shaped spot of dark brown on each of the fore wings.

Vocation (n.) A call; a summons; a citation; especially, a designation or appointment to a particular state, business, or profession.

Void (a.) Being without; destitute; free; wanting; devoid; as, void of learning, or of common use.

Volge (n.) The common sort of people; the crowd; the mob.

Volvox (n.) A genus of minute, pale-green, globular, organisms, about one fiftieth of an inch in diameter, found rolling through water, the motion being produced by minute colorless cilia. It has been considered as belonging to the flagellate Infusoria, but is now referred to the vegetable kingdom, and each globule is considered a colony of many individuals. The commonest species is Volvox globator, often called globe animalcule.

Voodooism (n.) A degraded form of superstition and sorcery, said to include human sacrifices and cannibalism in some of its rites. It is prevalent among the negroes of Hayti, and to some extent in the United States, and is regarded as a relic of African barbarism.

Vote (n.) A wish, choice, or opinion, of a person or a body of persons, expressed in some received and authorized way; the expression of a wish, desire, will, preference, or choice, in regard to any measure proposed, in which the person voting has an interest in common with others, either in electing a person to office, or in passing laws, rules, regulations, etc.; suffrage.

Vote (v. t.) To declare by general opinion or common consent, as if by a vote; as, he was voted a bore.

Vouch (v. t.) To call; to summon.

Vouch (v. i.) To bear witness; to give testimony or full attestation.

Vouchee (n.) The person who is vouched, or called into court to support or make good his warranty of title in the process of common recovery.

Voucher (n.) The tenant in a writ of right; one who calls in another to establish his warranty of title. In common recoveries, there may be a single voucher or double vouchers.

Vulgar (a.) Of or pertaining to the mass, or multitude, of people; common; general; ordinary; public; hence, in general use; vernacular.

Vulgar (a.) Belonging or relating to the common people, as distinguished from the cultivated or educated; pertaining to common life; plebeian; not select or distinguished; hence, sometimes, of little or no value.

Vulgar (n.) One of the common people; a vulgar person.

Vulgar (n.) The vernacular, or common language.

Vulgarization (n.) The act or process of making vulgar, or common.

Vulgarize (v. t. & i.) To make vulgar, or common.

Vulgate (a.) An ancient Latin version of the Scripture, and the only version which the Roman Church admits to be authentic; -- so called from its common use in the Latin Church.

Wade (v. i.) Hence, to move with difficulty or labor; to proceed /lowly among objects or circumstances that constantly /inder or embarrass; as, to wade through a dull book.

Wafer (n.) A thin cake or piece of bread (commonly unleavened, circular, and stamped with a crucifix or with the sacred monogram) used in the Eucharist, as in the Roman Catholic Church.

Wager (v. t.) A contract by which two parties or more agree that a certain sum of money, or other thing, shall be paid or delivered to one of them, on the happening or not happening of an uncertain event.

Wahabee (n.) A follower of Abdel Wahab (b. 1691; d. 1787), a reformer of Mohammedanism. His doctrines prevail particularly among the Bedouins, and the sect, though checked in its influence, extends to most parts of Arabia, and also into India.

Wait (v. t.) To attend on; to accompany; especially, to attend with ceremony or respect.

Wake (n.) The sitting up of persons with a dead body, often attended with a degree of festivity, chiefly among the Irish.

Waldenses (n. pl.) A sect of dissenters from the ecclesiastical system of the Roman Catholic Church, who in the 13th century were driven by persecution to the valleys of Piedmont, where the sect survives. They profess substantially Protestant principles.

Wallet (n.) A pocketbook for keeping money about the person.

Wallflower (n.) A perennial, cruciferous plant (Cheiranthus Cheiri), with sweet-scented flowers varying in color from yellow to orange and deep red. In Europe it very common on old walls.

Wamp (n.) The common American eider.

Wampum (n.) Beads made of shells, used by the North American Indians as money, and also wrought into belts, etc., as an ornament.

Wanderoo (n.) A large monkey (Macacus silenus) native of Malabar. It is black, or nearly so, but has a long white or gray beard encircling the face. Called also maha, silenus, neelbhunder, lion-tailed baboon, and great wanderoo.

Warine (n.) A South American monkey, one of the sapajous.

Warmonger (n.) One who makes ar a trade or business; a mercenary.

Warn (v. t.) To make ware or aware; to give previous information to; to give notice to; to notify; to admonish; hence, to notify or summon by authority; as, to warn a town meeting; to warn a tenant to quit a house.

Warner (n.) One who warns; an admonisher.

Warning (a.) Giving previous notice; cautioning; admonishing; as, a warning voice.

Warning (n.) Caution against danger, or against faults or evil practices which incur danger; admonition; monition.

Warrant (n.) A writing which authorizes a person to receive money or other thing.

Warranty (n.) A covenant real, whereby the grantor of an estate of freehold and his heirs were bound to warrant and defend the title, and, in case of eviction by title paramount, to yield other lands of equal value in recompense. This warranty has long singe become obsolete, and its place supplied by personal covenants for title. Among these is the covenant of warranty, which runs with the land, and is in the nature of a real covenant.

Washer (n.) The common raccoon.

Wastrel (n.) Waste land or common land.

Water (n.) A solution in water of a gaseous or readily volatile substance; as, ammonia water.

Water (n.) The limpidity and luster of a precious stone, especially a diamond; as, a diamond of the first water, that is, perfectly pure and transparent. Hence, of the first water, that is, of the first excellence.

Water adder () The common, harmless American water snake (Tropidonotus sipedon). See Illust. under Water Snake.

Water agrimony () A kind of bur marigold (Bidens tripartita) found in wet places in Europe.

Water bug () Any one of numerous species of large, rapacious, aquatic, hemipterous insects belonging to Belostoma, Benacus, Zaitha, and other genera of the family Belostomatidae. Their hind legs are long and fringed, and act like oars. Some of these insects are of great size, being among the largest existing Hemiptera. Many of them come out of the water and fly about at night.

Water chicken () The common American gallinule.

Water hen () The common American coot.

Water junket () The common sandpiper.

Water laverock () The common sandpiper.

Water lemon () The edible fruit of two species of passion flower (Passiflora laurifolia, and P. maliformis); -- so called in the West Indies.

Water lizard () Any aquatic lizard of the genus Varanus, as the monitor of the Nile. See Monitor, n., 3.

Water locust () A thorny leguminous tree (Gleditschia monosperma) which grows in the swamps of the Mississippi valley.

Waterman (n.) A water demon.

Water monitor () A very large lizard (Varanaus salvator) native of India. It frequents the borders of streams and swims actively. It becomes five or six feet long. Called also two-banded monitor, and kabaragoya. The name is also applied to other aquatic monitors.

Water rail () Any one of numerous species of rails of the genus Rallus, as the common European species (Rallus aquaticus). See Illust. of Rail.

Water rattler () The diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus); -- so called from its preference for damp places near water.

Water shrew () Any one of several species of shrews having fringed feet and capable of swimming actively. The two common European species (Crossopus fodiens, and C. ciliatus) are the best known. The most common American water shrew, or marsh shrew (Neosorex palustris), is rarely seen, owing to its nocturnal habits.

Water snail () Any aquatic pulmonate gastropod belonging to Planorbis, Limnaea, and allied genera; a pond snail.

Water snake () A common North American colubrine snake (Tropidonotus sipedon) which lives chiefly in the water.

Water thrush () A North American bird of the genus Seiurus, belonging to the Warbler family, especially the common species (S. Noveboracensis).

Water torch () The common cat-tail (Typha latifolia), the spike of which makes a good torch soaked in oil.

Waybill (n.) A list of passengers in a public vehicle, or of the baggage or gods transported by a common carrier on a land route. When the goods are transported by water, the list is called a bill of lading.

Waybread (n.) The common dooryard plantain (Plantago major).

Weak (v. i.) Lacking in elements of political strength; not wielding or having authority or energy; deficient in the resources that are essential to a ruler or nation; as, a weak monarch; a weak government or state.

Weal (adv.) The body politic; the state; common wealth.

Wealthy (superl.) Having wealth; having large possessions, or larger than most men, as lands, goods, money, or securities; opulent; affluent; rich.

Wed (n.) To take for husband or for wife by a formal ceremony; to marry; to espouse.

Wed (v. i.) To contact matrimony; to marry.

Wedding (n.) Nuptial ceremony; nuptial festivities; marriage; nuptials.

Wedlock (v. i.) The ceremony, or the state, of marriage; matrimony.

Weet-weet (n.) The common European sandpiper.

Welfare (n.) Well-doing or well-being in any respect; the enjoyment of health and the common blessings of life; exemption from any evil or calamity; prosperity; happiness.

Welsher (n.) One who cheats at a horse race; one who bets, without a chance of being able to pay; one who receives money to back certain horses and absconds with it.

Were (n.) A fine for slaying a man; the money value set upon a man's life; weregild.

Wernerite (n.) The common grayish or white variety of soapolite.

West (n.) Formerly, that part of the United States west of the Alleghany mountains; now, commonly, the whole region west of the Mississippi river; esp., that part which is north of the Indian Territory, New Mexico, etc. Usually with the definite article.

Whopper (n.) Something uncommonly large of the kind; something astonishing; -- applied especially to a bold lie.

Whopping (a.) Very large; monstrous; astonishing; as, a whapping story.

What (pron., a., & adv.) Used adverbially, in part; partly; somewhat; -- with a following preposition, especially, with, and commonly with repetition.

Whelk (n.) Any one numerous species of large marine gastropods belonging to Buccinum and allied genera; especially, Buccinum undatum, common on the coasts both of Europe and North America, and much used as food in Europe.

Whewellite (n.) Calcium oxalate, occurring in colorless or white monoclinic crystals.

Which (a.) A interrogative pronoun, used both substantively and adjectively, and in direct and indirect questions, to ask for, or refer to, an individual person or thing among several of a class; as, which man is it? which woman was it? which is the house? he asked which route he should take; which is best, to live or to die? See the Note under What, pron., 1.

Whinberry (n.) The English bilberry; -- so called because it grows on moors among the whins, or furze.

Whinchat (n.) A small warbler (Pratincola rubetra) common in Europe; -- called also whinchacker, whincheck, whin-clocharet.

Whirlpool (n.) A sea monster of the whale kind.

Whistle (v. i.) The shrill sound made by wind passing among trees or through crevices, or that made by bullet, or the like, passing rapidly through the air; the shrill noise (much used as a signal, etc.) made by steam or gas escaping through a small orifice, or impinging against the edge of a metallic bell or cup.

Whitebait (n.) The young of several species of herrings, especially of the common herring, esteemed a great delicacy by epicures in England.

Whitebeam (n.) The common beam tree of England (Pyrus Aria); -- so called from the white, woolly under surface of the leaves.

Whitefish (n.) Any one of several species of Coregonus, a genus of excellent food fishes allied to the salmons. They inhabit the lakes of the colder parts of North America, Asia, and Europe. The largest and most important American species (C. clupeiformis) is abundant in the Great Lakes, and in other lakes farther north. Called also lake whitefish, and Oswego bass.

White friar () A mendicant monk of the Carmelite order, so called from the white cloaks worn by the order. See Carmelite.

Whitethroat (n.) Any one of several species of Old World warblers, esp. the common European species (Sylvia cinerea), called also strawsmear, nettlebird, muff, and whitecap, the garden whitethroat, or golden warbler (S. hortensis), and the lesser whitethroat (S. curruca).

Whiteweed (n.) A perennial composite herb (Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum) with conspicuous white rays and a yellow disk, a common weed in grass lands and pastures; -- called also oxeye daisy.

Whitewort (n.) A kind of Solomon's seal (Polygonum officinale).

Whiting (n.) A common European food fish (Melangus vulgaris) of the Codfish family; -- called also fittin.

Whiting (n.) Any one of several species of North American marine sciaenoid food fishes belonging to genus Menticirrhus, especially M. Americanus, found from Maryland to Brazil, and M. littoralis, common from Virginia to Texas; -- called also silver whiting, and surf whiting.

Whitmonday (n.) The day following Whitsunday; -- called also Whitsun Monday.

Whittuesday (n.) The day following Whitmonday; -- called also Whitsun Tuesday.

Wheremaster (n.) A man who practices lewdness; a lecher; a whoremonger.

Whoremonger (n.) A whoremaster; a lecher; a man who frequents the society of whores.

Widgeon (n.) Any one of several species of fresh-water ducks, especially those belonging to the subgenus Mareca, of the genus Anas. The common European widgeon (Anas penelope) and the American widgeon (A. Americana) are the most important species. The latter is called also baldhead, baldpate, baldface, baldcrown, smoking duck, wheat, duck, and whitebelly.

Wike (n.) A temporary mark or boundary, as a bough of a tree set up in marking out or dividing anything, as tithes, swaths to be mowed in common ground, etc.; -- called also wicker.

Willock (n.) The common guillemot.

Win (a.) To gain by superiority in competition or contest; to obtain by victory over competitors or rivals; as, to win the prize in a gate; to win money; to win a battle, or to win a country.

Wind (v. i.) To have a circular course or direction; to crook; to bend; to meander; as, to wind in and out among trees.

Wind-broken (a.) Having the power of breathing impaired by the rupture, dilatation, or running together of air cells of the lungs, so that while the inspiration is by one effort, the expiration is by two; affected with pulmonary emphysema or with heaves; -- said of a horse.

Windflower (n.) The anemone; -- so called because formerly supposed to open only when the wind was blowing. See Anemone.

Winning (n.) The money, etc., gained by success in competition or contest, esp, in gambling; -- usually in the plural.

Winninish (n.) The land-locked variety of the common salmon.

Wireworm (n.) One of the larvae of various species of snapping beetles, or elaters; -- so called from their slenderness and the uncommon hardness of the integument. Wireworms are sometimes very destructive to the roots of plants. Called also wire grub.

Wistit (n.) A small South American monkey; a marmoset.

Witch (n.) One who exercises more than common power of attraction; a charming or bewitching person; also, one given to mischief; -- said especially of a woman or child.

With (prep.) To denote association in respect of situation or environment; hence, among; in the company of.

Witness (v. i.) Attestation of a fact or an event; testimony.

Witness (v. i.) One who sees the execution of an instrument, and subscribes it for the purpose of confirming its authenticity by his testimony; one who witnesses a will, a deed, a marriage, or the like.

Witness (v. t.) To give testimony to; to testify to; to attest.

Witness (v. i.) To bear testimony; to give evidence; to testify.

Wolf (a.) Any one of several species of wild and savage carnivores belonging to the genus Canis and closely allied to the common dog. The best-known and most destructive species are the European wolf (Canis lupus), the American gray, or timber, wolf (C. occidentalis), and the prairie wolf, or coyote. Wolves often hunt in packs, and may thus attack large animals and even man.

Wolfsbane (n.) A poisonous plant (Aconitum Lycoctonum), a kind of monkshood; also, by extension, any plant or species of the genus Aconitum. See Aconite.

Wombat (n.) Any one of three species of Australian burrowing marsupials of the genus Phascolomys, especially the common species (P. ursinus). They are nocturnal in their habits, and feed mostly on roots.

Woodbury-type (n.) A process in photographic printing, in which a relief pattern in gelatin, which has been hardened after certain operations, is pressed upon a plate of lead or other soft metal. An intaglio impression in thus produced, from which pictures may be directly printed, but by a slower process than in common printing.

Woodchuck (n.) A common large North American marmot (Arctomys monax). It is usually reddish brown, more or less grizzled with gray. It makes extensive burrows, and is often injurious to growing crops. Called also ground hog.

Wood-layer (n.) A young oak, or other timber plant, laid down in a hedge among the whitethorn or other plants used in hedges.

Woodmonger (n.) A wood seller.

Wood tick () Any one of several species of ticks of the genus Ixodes whose young cling to bushes, but quickly fasten themselves upon the bodies of any animal with which they come in contact. When they attach themselves to the human body they often produce troublesome sores. The common species of the Northern United States is Ixodes unipunctata.

Worldly (a.) Relating to the world; human; common; as, worldly maxims; worldly actions.

Worth (a.) That quality of a thing which renders it valuable or useful; sum of valuable qualities which render anything useful and sought; value; hence, often, value as expressed in a standard, as money; equivalent in exchange; price.

Would (v. t.) Commonly used as an auxiliary verb, either in the past tense or in the conditional or optative present. See 2d & 3d Will.

Wranny (n.) The common wren.

Writ (n.) An instrument in writing, under seal, in an epistolary form, issued from the proper authority, commanding the performance or nonperformance of some act by the person to whom it is directed; as, a writ of entry, of error, of execution, of injunction, of mandamus, of return, of summons, and the like.

Write (v. t.) To make known by writing; to record; to prove by one's own written testimony; -- often used reflexively.

Wryneck (n.) Any one of several species of Old World birds of the genus Jynx, allied to the woodpeckers; especially, the common European species (J. torguilla); -- so called from its habit of turning the neck around in different directions. Called also cuckoo's mate, snakebird, summer bird, tonguebird, and writheneck.

Wych-elm (n.) A species of elm (Ulmus montana) found in Northern and Western Europe; Scotch elm.

Xanthoprotein (n.) A yellow acid substance formed by the action of hot nitric acid on albuminous or proteid matter. It is changed to a deep orange-yellow color by the addition of ammonia.

Xenodochium (n.) In the Middle Ages, a room in a monastery for the reception and entertainment of strangers and pilgrims, and for the relief of paupers. [Called also Xenodocheion.]

Xeraphim (n.) An old money of account in Bombay, equal to three fifths of a rupee.

Xerophagy (n.) Among the primitive Christians, the living on a diet of dry food in Lent and on other fasts.

Xiphias (n.) A genus of fishes comprising the common swordfish.

Xylophone (n.) An instrument common among the Russians, Poles, and Tartars, consisting of a series of strips of wood or glass graduated in length to the musical scale, resting on belts of straw, and struck with two small hammers. Called in Germany strohfiedel, or straw fiddle.

Xylotrya (n.) A genus of marine bivalves closely allied to Teredo, and equally destructive to timber. One species (Xylotrya fimbriata) is very common on the Atlantic coast of the United States.

Yam (n.) A large, esculent, farinaceous tuber of various climbing plants of the genus Dioscorea; also, the plants themselves. Mostly natives of warm climates. The plants have netted-veined, petioled leaves, and pods with three broad wings. The commonest species is D. sativa, but several others are cultivated.

Yataghan (n.) A long knife, or short saber, common among Mohammedan nations, usually having a double curve, sometimes nearly straight.

Year (n.) The time of the apparent revolution of the sun trough the ecliptic; the period occupied by the earth in making its revolution around the sun, called the astronomical year; also, a period more or less nearly agreeing with this, adopted by various nations as a measure of time, and called the civil year; as, the common lunar year of 354 days, still in use among the Mohammedans; the year of 360 days, etc. In common usage, the year consists of 365 days, and every fourth year (called bissextile, or leap year) of 366 days, a day being added to February on that year, on account of the excess above 365 days (see Bissextile).

Yellowbird (n.) The common yellow warbler; -- called also summer yellowbird. See Illust. of Yellow warbler, under Yellow, a.

Yellowfish (n.) A rock trout (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) found on the coast of Alaska; -- called also striped fish, and Atka mackerel.

Yellowhammer (n.) A common European finch (Emberiza citrinella). The color of the male is bright yellow on the breast, neck, and sides of the head, with the back yellow and brown, and the top of the head and the tail quills blackish. Called also yellow bunting, scribbling lark, and writing lark.

Yellows (n.) A group of butterflies in which the predominating color is yellow. It includes the common small yellow butterflies. Called also redhorns, and sulphurs. See Sulphur.

Yellowtail (n.) Any one of several species of marine carangoid fishes of the genus Seriola; especially, the large California species (S. dorsalis) which sometimes weighs thirty or forty pounds, and is highly esteemed as a food fish; -- called also cavasina, and white salmon.

Yellowthroat (n.) Any one of several species of American ground warblers of the genus Geothlypis, esp. the Maryland yellowthroat (G. trichas), which is a very common species.

Yellowwood (n.) The wood of any one of several different kinds of trees; also, any one of the trees themselves. Among the trees so called are the Cladrastis tinctoria, an American leguminous tree; the several species of prickly ash (Xanthoxylum); the Australian Flindersia Oxleyana, a tree related to the mahogany; certain South African species of Podocarpus, trees related to the yew; the East Indian Podocarpus latifolia; and the true satinwood (Chloroxylon Swietenia). All these Old World trees furnish valuable timber.

Yeoman (n.) A common man, or one of the commonly of the first or most respectable class; a freeholder; a man free born.

Yezdegerdian (a.) Of or pertaining to Yezdegerd, the last Sassanian monarch of Persia, who was overthrown by the Mohammedans; as, the Yezdegerdian era, which began on the 16th of June, a. d. 632. The era is still used by the Parsees.

Yield (v. t.) To give in return for labor expended; to produce, as payment or interest on what is expended or invested; to pay; as, money at interest yields six or seven per cent.

Ymel (prep.) Among.

Yodle (v. t. & i.) To sing in a manner common among the Swiss and Tyrolese mountaineers, by suddenly changing from the head voice, or falsetto, to the chest voice, and the contrary; to warble.

Yoga (n.) A species of asceticism among the Hindoos, which consists in a complete abstraction from all worldly objects, by which the votary expects to obtain union with the universal spirit, and to acquire superhuman faculties.

Yourself (pron.) An emphasized or reflexive form of the pronoun of the second person; -- used as a subject commonly with you; as, you yourself shall see it; also, alone in the predicate, either in the nominative or objective case; as, you have injured yourself.

Za (n.) An old solfeggio name for B flat; the seventh harmonic, as heard in the or aeolian string; -- so called by Tartini. It was long considered a false, but is the true note of the chord of the flat seventh.

Zamang (n.) An immense leguminous tree (Pithecolobium Saman) of Venezuela. Its branches form a hemispherical mass, often one hundred and eighty feet across. The sweet pulpy pods are used commonly for feeding cattle. Also called rain tree.

Zampogna (n.) A sort of bagpipe formerly in use among Italian peasants. It is now almost obsolete.

Zaphrentis (n.) An extinct genus of cyathophylloid corals common in the Paleozoic formations. It is cup-shaped with numerous septa, and with a deep pit in one side of the cup.

Zebu (n.) A bovine mammal (Ros Indicus) extensively domesticated in India, China, the East Indies, and East Africa. It usually has short horns, large pendulous ears, slender legs, a large dewlap, and a large, prominent hump over the shoulders; but these characters vary in different domestic breeds, which range in size from that of the common ox to that of a large mastiff.

Zend (n.) Properly, the translation and exposition in the Huzv/resh, or literary Pehlevi, language, of the Avesta, the Zoroastrian sacred writings; as commonly used, the language (an ancient Persian dialect) in which the Avesta is written.

Zest (n.) A piece of orange or lemon peel, or the aromatic oil which may be squeezed from such peel, used to give flavor to liquor, etc.

Zest (v. t.) To cut into thin slips, as the peel of an orange, lemon, etc.; to squeeze, as peel, over the surface of anything.

Zif (n.) The second month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, corresponding to our May.

Zinkenite (n.) A steel-gray metallic mineral, a sulphide of antimony and lead.

Zinnia (n.) Any plant of the composite genus Zinnia, Mexican herbs with opposite leaves and large gay-colored blossoms. Zinnia elegans is the commonest species in cultivation.

Zirconoid (n.) A double eight-sided pyramid, a form common with tetragonal crystals; -- so called because this form often occurs in crystals of zircon.

Zoanthropy (n.) A kind of monomania in which the patient believes himself transformed into one of the lower animals.

Zohar (n.) A Jewish cabalistic book attributed by tradition to Rabbi Simon ben Yochi, who lived about the end of the 1st century, a. d. Modern critics believe it to be a compilation of the 13th century.

Zollverein (n.) Literally, a customs union; specifically, applied to the several customs unions successively formed under the leadership of Prussia among certain German states for establishing liberty of commerce among themselves and common tariff on imports, exports, and transit.

Zonure (n.) Any one of several of South African lizards of the genus Zonura, common in rocky situations.

Zoocytium (n.) The common support, often branched, of certain species of social Infusoria.

Zoophyte (v. i.) Any one of numerous species of invertebrate animals which more or less resemble plants in appearance, or mode of growth, as the corals, gorgonians, sea anemones, hydroids, bryozoans, sponges, etc., especially any of those that form compound colonies having a branched or treelike form, as many corals and hydroids.

Zostera (n.) A genus of plants of the Naiadaceae, or Pondweed family. Zostera marina is commonly known as sea wrack, and eelgrass.


/home/ddailey/public_html/data/wordstudy/v003/wb1913_z.html A () An adjective, commonly called the indefinite article, and signifying one or any, but less emphatically.

Aard-vark (n.) An edentate mammal, of the genus Orycteropus, somewhat resembling a pig, common in some parts of Southern Africa. It burrows in the ground, and feeds entirely on ants, which it catches with its long, slimy tongue.

Ab (n.) The fifth month of the Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with August.

Abb (n.) Among weavers, yarn for the warp. Hence, abb wool is wool for the abb.

Abbe (n.) The French word answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress.

Abbess (n.) A female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the abbots have over the monks. See Abbey.

Abbey (n.) A monastery or society of persons of either sex, secluded from the world and devoted to religion and celibacy; also, the monastic building or buildings.

Abbey (n.) The church of a monastery.

Abdication (n.) The act of abdicating; the renunciation of a high office, dignity, or trust, by its holder; commonly the voluntary renunciation of sovereign power; as, abdication of the throne, government, power, authority.

Abib (n.) The first month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, corresponding nearly to our April. After the Babylonish captivity this month was called Nisan.

Abide (v. i.) To stay; to continue in a place; to have one\'s abode; to dwell; to sojourn; -- with with before a person, and commonly with at or in before a place.

Abietite (n.) A substance resembling mannite, found in the needles of the common silver fir of Europe (Abies pectinata).

Abnormity (n.) Departure from the ordinary type; irregularity; monstrosity.

Abraxas (n.) A mystical word used as a charm and engraved on gems among the ancients; also, a gem stone thus engraved.

Abrupt (a.) Without notice to prepare the mind for the event; sudden; hasty; unceremonious.

Abruptness (n.) Suddenness; unceremonious haste or vehemence; as, abruptness of style or manner.

Absinthe (n.) The plant absinthium or common wormwood.

Absinthic (a.) Relating to the common wormwood or to an acid obtained from it.

Absinthium (n.) The common wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), an intensely bitter plant, used as a tonic and for making the oil of wormwood.

Absolute (a.) Loosed from any limitation or condition; uncontrolled; unrestricted; unconditional; as, absolute authority, monarchy, sovereignty, an absolute promise or command; absolute power; an absolute monarch.

Absonous (a.) Discordant; inharmonious; incongruous.

Abstract (a.) To take secretly or dishonestly; to purloin; as, to abstract goods from a parcel, or money from a till.

Absurd (a.) Contrary to reason or propriety; obviously and fiatly opposed to manifest truth; inconsistent with the plain dictates of common sense; logically contradictory; nonsensical; ridiculous; as, an absurd person, an absurd opinion; an absurd dream.

Academy (n.) An institution for the study of higher learning; a college or a university. Popularly, a school, or seminary of learning, holding a rank between a college and a common school.

Accite (v. t.) To cite; to summon.

Accolade (n.) A ceremony formerly used in conferring knighthood, consisting am embrace, and a slight blow on the shoulders with the flat blade of a sword.

Accommodate (v. t.) To bring into agreement or harmony; to reconcile; to compose; to adjust; to settle; as, to accommodate differences, a dispute, etc.

Accommodation (n.) A loan of money.

Accompaniment (n.) A part performed by instruments, accompanying another part or parts performed by voices; the subordinate part, or parts, accompanying the voice or a principal instrument; also, the harmony of a figured bass.

Accomplished (a.) Complete in acquirements as the result usually of training; -- commonly in a good sense; as, an accomplished scholar, an accomplished villain.

Accord (v. t.) Agreement or concurrence of opinion, will, or action; harmony of mind; consent; assent.

Accord (v. t.) Harmony of sounds; agreement in pitch and tone; concord; as, the accord of tones.

Accord (v. t.) Agreement, harmony, or just correspondence of things; as, the accord of light and shade in painting.

Accord (v. t.) To bring to an agreement, as persons; to reconcile; to settle, adjust, harmonize, or compose, as things; as, to accord suits or controversies.

Accord (v. i.) To agree; to correspond; to be in harmony; -- followed by with, formerly also by to; as, his disposition accords with his looks.

Accordance (n.) Agreement; harmony; conformity.

Accordant (a.) Agreeing; consonant; harmonious; corresponding; conformable; -- followed by with or to.

According (p. a.) Agreeing; in agreement or harmony; harmonious.

Account (v. i.) To render or receive an account or relation of particulars; as, an officer must account with or to the treasurer for money received.

Accrue (n.) To come to by way of increase; to arise or spring as a growth or result; to be added as increase, profit, or damage, especially as the produce of money lent.

Accumulate (v. t.) To heap up in a mass; to pile up; to collect or bring together; to amass; as, to accumulate a sum of money.

Accuracy (n.) The state of being accurate; freedom from mistakes, this exemption arising from carefulness; exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; precision; exactness; nicety; correctness; as, the value of testimony depends on its accuracy.

Ace (n.) A unit; a single point or spot on a card or die; the card or die so marked; as, the ace of diamonds.

Acetamide (n.) A white crystalline solid, from ammonia by replacement of an equivalent of hydrogen by acetyl.

Achatina (n.) A genus of land snails, often large, common in the warm parts of America and Africa.

Achievement (n.) An escutcheon or ensign armorial; now generally applied to the funeral shield commonly called hatchment.

Acidity (n.) The quality of being sour; sourness; tartness; sharpness to the taste; as, the acidity of lemon juice.

Aconite (n.) The herb wolfsbane, or monkshood; -- applied to any plant of the genus Aconitum (tribe Hellebore), all the species of which are poisonous.

Acridness (n.) The quality of being acrid or pungent; irritant bitterness; acrimony; as, the acridity of a plant, of a speech.

Acrimonious (a.) Acrid; corrosive; as, acrimonious gall.

Acrimonious (a.) Caustic; bitter-tempered\' sarcastic; as, acrimonious dispute, language, temper.

Acrimoniously (adv.) In an acrimonious manner.

Acrimoniousness (n.) The quality of being acrimonious; asperity; acrimony.

Acrimonies (pl. ) of Acrimony

Acrimony (n.) A quality of bodies which corrodes or destroys others; also, a harsh or biting sharpness; as, the acrimony of the juices of certain plants.

Acrimony (n.) Sharpness or severity, as of language or temper; irritating bitterness of disposition or manners.

Acromonogrammatic (a.) Having each verse begin with the same letter as that with which the preceding verse ends.

Actinia (n.) An animal of the class Anthozoa, and family Actinidae. From a resemblance to flowers in form and color, they are often called animal flowers and sea anemones. [See Polyp.].

Actiniform (a.) Having a radiated form, like a sea anemone.

Actinozoa (n. pl.) A group of Coelenterata, comprising the Anthozoa and Ctenophora. The sea anemone, or actinia, is a familiar example.

Actuate (v. t.) To put into action or motion; to move or incite to action; to influence actively; to move as motives do; -- more commonly used of persons.

Adamant (n.) A stone imagined by some to be of impenetrable hardness; a name given to the diamond and other substances of extreme hardness; but in modern mineralogy it has no technical signification. It is now a rhetorical or poetical name for the embodiment of impenetrable hardness.

Adamantine (a.) Like the diamond in hardness or luster.

Adansonia (n.) A genus of great trees related to the Bombax. There are two species, A. digitata, the baobab or monkey-bread of Africa and India, and A. Gregorii, the sour gourd or cream-of-tartar tree of Australia. Both have a trunk of moderate height, but of enormous diameter, and a wide-spreading head. The fruit is oblong, and filled with pleasantly acid pulp. The wood is very soft, and the bark is used by the natives for making ropes and cloth.

Adar (n.) The twelfth month of the Hebrew ecclesiastical year, and the sixth of the civil. It corresponded nearly with March.

Adder (n.) A small venomous serpent of the genus Vipera. The common European adder is the Vipera (/ Pelias) berus. The puff adders of Africa are species of Clotho.

Adder (n.) In America, the term is commonly applied to several harmless snakes, as the milk adder, puffing adder, etc.

Adderwort (n.) The common bistort or snakeweed (Polygonum bistorta).

Adduct (v. t.) To draw towards a common center or a middle line.

Adelphous (a.) Having coalescent or clustered filaments; -- said of stamens; as, adelphous stamens. Usually in composition; as, monadelphous.

Adiaphorist (n.) One of the German Protestants who, with Melanchthon, held some opinions and ceremonies to be indifferent or nonessential, which Luther condemned as sinful or heretical.

Adjourn (v. t.) To put off or defer to another day, or indefinitely; to postpone; to close or suspend for the day; -- commonly said of the meeting, or the action, of convened body; as, to adjourn the meeting; to adjourn a debate.

Adlegation (n.) A right formerly claimed by the states of the German Empire of joining their own ministers with those of the emperor in public treaties and negotiations to the common interest of the empire.

Admeasure (v. t.) To determine the proper share of, or the proper apportionment; as, to admeasure dower; to admeasure common of pasture.

Admeasure (v. t.) Formerly, the adjustment of proportion, or ascertainment of shares, as of dower or pasture held in common. This was by writ of admeasurement, directed to the sheriff.

Admonished (imp. & p. p.) of Admonish

Admonishing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Admonish

Admonish (v. t.) To warn or notify of a fault; to reprove gently or kindly, but seriously; to exhort.

Admonish (v. t.) To counsel against wrong practices; to cation or advise; to warn against danger or an offense; -- followed by of, against, or a subordinate clause.

Admonish (v. t.) To instruct or direct; to inform; to notify.

Admonisher (n.) One who admonishes.

Admonishment (n.) Admonition.

Admonition (n.) Gentle or friendly reproof; counseling against a fault or error; expression of authoritative advice; friendly caution or warning.

Admonitioner (n.) Admonisher.

Admonitive (a.) Admonitory.

Admonitor (n.) Admonisher; monitor.

Admonitorial (a.) Admonitory.

Admonitory (a.) That conveys admonition; warning or reproving; as, an admonitory glance.

Admonitrix (n.) A female admonitor.

Adoption (n.) Admission to a more intimate relation; reception; as, the adoption of persons into hospitals or monasteries, or of one society into another.

Adularia (n.) A transparent or translucent variety of common feldspar, or orthoclase, which often shows pearly opalescent reflections; -- called by lapidaries moonstone.

Advance (v. t.) To furnish, as money or other value, before it becomes due, or in aid of an enterprise; to supply beforehand; as, a merchant advances money on a contract or on goods consigned to him.

Advance (v.) A furnishing of something before an equivalent is received (as money or goods), towards a capital or stock, or on loan; payment beforehand; the money or goods thus furnished; money or value supplied beforehand.

Advancement (v. t.) An advance of money or value; payment in advance. See Advance, 5.

Advantage (n.) Interest of money; increase; overplus (as the thirteenth in the baker\'s dozen).

Adversaria (n. pl.) A miscellaneous collection of notes, remarks, or selections; a commonplace book; also, commentaries or notes.

Advertisement (n.) Admonition; advice; warning.

Advice (n.) Information or notice given; intelligence; as, late advices from France; -- commonly in the plural.

Advoke (v. t.) To summon; to call.

Aerate (v. t.) To supply or impregnate with common air; as, to aerate soil; to aerate water.

Aetiology (n.) The science, doctrine, or demonstration of causes; esp., the investigation of the causes of any disease; the science of the origin and development of things.

Affection (n.) Disease; morbid symptom; malady; as, a pulmonary affection.

Affirmative (a.) Confirmative; ratifying; as, an act affirmative of common law.

Africander (n.) One born in Africa, the offspring of a white father and a "colored" mother. Also, and now commonly in Southern Africa, a native born of European settlers.

Afreet (n.) A powerful evil jinnee, demon, or monstrous giant.

Agaric (n.) A fungus of the genus Agaricus, of many species, of which the common mushroom is an example.

Aggregate (a.) Composed of several florets within a common involucre, as in the daisy; or of several carpels formed from one flower, as in the raspberry.

Aggregate (a.) United into a common organized mass; -- said of certain compound animals.

Aggrieve (v. t.) To give pain or sorrow to; to afflict; hence, to oppress or injure in one\'s rights; to bear heavily upon; -- now commonly used in the passive TO be aggrieved.

Agio (n.) The premium or percentage on a better sort of money when it is given in exchange for an inferior sort. The premium or discount on foreign bills of exchange is sometimes called agio.

Agist (v. t.) To take to graze or pasture, at a certain sum; -- used originally of the feeding of cattle in the king\'s forests, and collecting the money for the same.

Agistor (n.) Formerly, an officer of the king\'s forest, who had the care of cattle agisted, and collected the money for the same; -- hence called gisttaker,