Hyper-Hyphen hypertext dictionary -- based on Webster's Unabridged 1913
via Dailey, via Ralph Sutherland's OPTED, via Gutenberg, via Noah Webster

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Ven
A 1 () A registry mark given by underwriters (as at Lloyd's) to ships in first-class condition. Inferior grades are indicated by A 2 and A 3.

Ab (n.) The fifth month of the Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with August.

Abandoned (a.) Self-abandoned, or given up to vice; extremely wicked, or sinning without restraint; irreclaimably wicked ; as, an abandoned villain.

Abba (n.) Father; religious superior; -- in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch.

Abbe (n.) The French word answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress.

Abbess (n.) A female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the abbots have over the monks. See Abbey.

Abbreviator (n.) One of a college of seventy-two officers of the papal court whose duty is to make a short minute of a decision on a petition, or reply of the pope to a letter, and afterwards expand the minute into official form.

Abderian (a.) Given to laughter; inclined to foolish or incessant merriment.

Abdominal (a.) Of or pertaining to the abdomen; ventral; as, the abdominal regions, muscles, cavity.

Abdominales (n. pl.) A group including the greater part of fresh-water fishes, and many marine ones, having the ventral fins under the abdomen behind the pectorals.

Aberration (n.) A small periodical change of position in the stars and other heavenly bodies, due to the combined effect of the motion of light and the motion of the observer; called annual aberration, when the observer's motion is that of the earth in its orbit, and daily or diurnal aberration, when of the earth on its axis; amounting when greatest, in the former case, to 20.4'', and in the latter, to 0.3''. Planetary aberration is that due to the motion of light and the motion of the planet relative to the earth.

Ability (n.) The quality or state of being able; power to perform, whether physical, moral, intellectual, conventional, or legal; capacity; skill or competence in doing; sufficiency of strength, skill, resources, etc.; -- in the plural, faculty, talent.

Abortiveness (n.) The quality of being abortive.

Above (adv.) In a higher place; overhead; into or from heaven; as, the clouds above.

Abrahamic (a.) Pertaining to Abraham, the patriarch; as, the Abrachamic covenant.

Abrupt (a.) Without notice to prepare the mind for the event; sudden; hasty; unceremonious.

Absent (v. t.) To take or withdraw (one's self) to such a distance as to prevent intercourse; -- used with the reflexive pronoun.

Absoluteness (n.) The quality of being absolute; independence of everything extraneous; unlimitedness; absolute power; independent reality; positiveness.

Absolution (n.) An absolving, or setting free from guilt, sin, or penalty; forgiveness of an offense.

Absolution (n.) The exercise of priestly jurisdiction in the sacrament of penance, by which Catholics believe the sins of the truly penitent are forgiven.

Absolvent (a.) Absolving.

Absolvent (n.) An absolver.

Absorbency (n.) Absorptiveness.

Absorptiveness (n.) The quality of being absorptive; absorptive power.

Absorptivity (n.) Absorptiveness.

Abstersiveness (n.) The quality of being abstersive.

Abstractiveness (n.) The quality of being abstractive; abstractive property.

Abusive (a.) Given to misusing; also, full of abuses.

Abusiveness (n.) The quality of being abusive; rudeness of language, or violence to the person.

Acanthopterygii (n. pl.) An order of fishes having some of the rays of the dorsal, ventral, and anal fins unarticulated and spinelike, as the perch.

Accelerate (v. t.) To hasten, as the occurence of an event; as, to accelerate our departure.

Accent (n.) A special emphasis of a tone, even in the weaker part of the measure.

Accent (n.) A mark at the right hand of a number, indicating minutes of a degree, seconds, etc.; as, 12'27'', i. e., twelve minutes twenty seven seconds.

Accident (n.) Literally, a befalling; an event that takes place without one's foresight or expectation; an undesigned, sudden, and unexpected event; chance; contingency; often, an undesigned and unforeseen occurrence of an afflictive or unfortunate character; a casualty; a mishap; as, to die by an accident.

Accommodate (v. t.) To furnish with something desired, needed, or convenient; to favor; to oblige; as, to accommodate a friend with a loan or with lodgings.

Accommodate (v. t.) To show the correspondence of; to apply or make suit by analogy; to adapt or fit, as teachings to accidental circumstances, statements to facts, etc.; as, to accommodate prophecy to events.

Accommodation (n.) Whatever supplies a want or affords ease, refreshment, or convenience; anything furnished which is desired or needful; -- often in the plural; as, the accommodations -- that is, lodgings and food -- at an inn.

Account (n.) A statement in general of reasons, causes, grounds, etc., explanatory of some event; as, no satisfactory account has been given of these phenomena. Hence, the word is often used simply for reason, ground, consideration, motive, etc.; as, on no account, on every account, on all accounts.

Ache (n.) A name given to several species of plants; as, smallage, wild celery, parsley.

Acknowledgment (n.) Something given or done in return for a favor, message, etc.

Acquisitiveness (n.) The quality of being acquisitive; propensity to acquire property; desire of possession.

Acquisitiveness (n.) The faculty to which the phrenologists attribute the desire of acquiring and possessing.

Action (n.) The event or connected series of events, either real or imaginary, forming the subject of a play, poem, or other composition; the unfolding of the drama of events.

Action (n.) A suit or process, by which a demand is made of a right in a court of justice; in a broad sense, a judicial proceeding for the enforcement or protection of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or the punishment of a public offense.

Active (a.) Given to action; constantly engaged in action; energetic; diligent; busy; -- opposed to dull, sluggish, indolent, or inert; as, an active man of business; active mind; active zeal.

Active (a.) Given to action rather than contemplation; practical; operative; -- opposed to speculative or theoretical; as, an active rather than a speculative statesman.

Activeness (n.) The quality of being active; nimbleness; quickness of motion; activity.

Acuteness (n.) The faculty of nice discernment or perception; acumen; keenness; sharpness; sensitiveness; -- applied to the senses, or the understanding. By acuteness of feeling, we perceive small objects or slight impressions: by acuteness of intellect, we discern nice distinctions.

Ad- () As a prefix ad- assumes the forms ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-, assimilating the d with the first letter of the word to which ad- is prefixed. It remains unchanged before vowels, and before d, h, j, m, v. Examples: adduce, adhere, adjacent, admit, advent, accord, affect, aggregate, allude, annex, appear, etc. It becomes ac- before qu, as in acquiesce.

Adam (n.) The name given in the Bible to the first man, the progenitor of the human race.

Adamant (n.) A stone imagined by some to be of impenetrable hardness; a name given to the diamond and other substances of extreme hardness; but in modern mineralogy it has no technical signification. It is now a rhetorical or poetical name for the embodiment of impenetrable hardness.

Adaptive (a.) Suited, given, or tending, to adaptation; characterized by adaptation; capable of adapting.

Adaptiveness (n.) The quality of being adaptive; capacity to adapt.

Adder (n.) A small venomous serpent of the genus Vipera. The common European adder is the Vipera (/ Pelias) berus. The puff adders of Africa are species of Clotho.

Adducent (a.) Bringing together or towards a given point; -- a word applied to those muscles of the body which pull one part towards another. Opposed to abducent.

Adhesiveness (n.) The quality of sticking or adhering; stickiness; tenacity of union.

Adhesiveness (n.) Propensity to form and maintain attachments to persons, and to promote social intercourse.

Adjourn (v. t.) To put off or defer to another day, or indefinitely; to postpone; to close or suspend for the day; -- commonly said of the meeting, or the action, of convened body; as, to adjourn the meeting; to adjourn a debate.

Adjourn (v. i.) To suspend business for a time, as from one day to another, or for a longer period, or indefinitely; usually, to suspend public business, as of legislatures and courts, or other convened bodies; as, congress adjourned at four o'clock; the court adjourned without day.

Admittatur (n.) The certificate of admission given in some American colleges.

Adoration (n.) Homage paid to one in high esteem; profound veneration; intense regard and love; fervent devotion.

Adroit (a.) Dexterous in the use of the hands or in the exercise of the mental faculties; exhibiting skill and readiness in avoiding danger or escaping difficulty; ready in invention or execution; -- applied to persons and to acts; as, an adroit mechanic, an adroit reply.

Adscititious (a.) Supplemental; additional; adventitious; ascititious.

Adulterer (n.) A man who violates his religious covenant.

Adulterous (a.) Guilty of, or given to, adultery; pertaining to adultery; illicit.

Adultery (n.) Lewdness or unchastity of thought as well as act, as forbidden by the seventh commandment.

Ad valorem () A term used to denote a duty or charge laid upon goods, at a certain rate per cent upon their value, as stated in their invoice, -- in opposition to a specific sum upon a given quantity or number; as, an ad valorem duty of twenty per cent.

Advance (v. t.) To make earlier, as an event or date; to hasten.

Advancement (v. t.) Property given, usually by a parent to a child, in advance of a future distribution.

Advene (v. i.) To accede, or come (to); to be added to something or become a part of it, though not essential.

Advenient (a.) Coming from outward causes; superadded.

Advent (n.) The period including the four Sundays before Christmas.

Advent (n.) The first or the expected second coming of Christ.

Advent (n.) Coming; any important arrival; approach.

Adventist (n.) One of a religious body, embracing several branches, who look for the proximate personal coming of Christ; -- called also Second Adventists.

Adventitious (a.) Added extrinsically; not essentially inherent; accidental or causal; additional; supervenient; foreign.

Adventitious (a.) Out of the proper or usual place; as, adventitious buds or roots.

Adventitious (a.) Accidentally or sparingly spontaneous in a country or district; not fully naturalized; adventive; -- applied to foreign plants.

Adventitious (a.) Acquired, as diseases; accidental.

Adventive (a.) Accidental.

Adventive (a.) Adventitious.

Adventive (n.) A thing or person coming from without; an immigrant.

Adventual (a.) Relating to the season of advent.

Adventure (n.) That which happens without design; chance; hazard; hap; hence, chance of danger or loss.

Adventure (n.) Risk; danger; peril.

Adventure (n.) The encountering of risks; hazardous and striking enterprise; a bold undertaking, in which hazards are to be encountered, and the issue is staked upon unforeseen events; a daring feat.

Adventure (n.) A remarkable occurrence; a striking event; a stirring incident; as, the adventures of one's life.

Adventure (n.) A mercantile or speculative enterprise of hazard; a venture; a shipment by a merchant on his own account.

Adventured (imp. & p. p.) of Adventure

Adventuring (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Adventure

Adventure (n.) To risk, or hazard; jeopard; to venture.

Adventure (n.) To venture upon; to run the risk of; to dare.

Adventure (v. i.) To try the chance; to take the risk.

Adventureful (a.) Given to adventure.

Adventurer (n.) One who adventures; as, the merchant adventurers; one who seeks his fortune in new and hazardous or perilous enterprises.

Adventurer (n.) A social pretender on the lookout for advancement.

Adventuresome (a.) Full of risk; adventurous; venturesome.

Adventuress (n.) A female adventurer; a woman who tries to gain position by equivocal means.

Adventurous (n.) Inclined to adventure; willing to incur hazard; prone to embark in hazardous enterprise; rashly daring; -- applied to persons.

Adventurous (n.) Full of hazard; attended with risk; exposing to danger; requiring courage; rash; -- applied to acts; as, an adventurous undertaking, deed, song.

Adventurously (adv.) In an adventurous manner; venturesomely; boldly; daringly.

Adventurousness (n.) The quality or state of being adventurous; daring; venturesomeness.

Advice (n.) Information or notice given; intelligence; as, late advices from France; -- commonly in the plural.

Adytum (n.) The innermost sanctuary or shrine in ancient temples, whence oracles were given. Hence: A private chamber; a sanctum.

Affected (p. p. & a.) Given to false show; assuming or pretending to possess what is not natural or real.

Affecting (a.) Affected; given to false show.

Affirmation (n.) That which is asserted; an assertion; a positive statement; an averment; as, an affirmation, by the vender, of title to property sold, or of its quality.

Afflicting (a.) Grievously painful; distressing; afflictive; as, an afflicting event. -- Af*flict"ing*ly, adv.

Affordment (n.) Anything given as a help; bestowal.

Affrontiveness (n.) The quality that gives an affront or offense.

Afterclap (n.) An unexpected subsequent event; something disagreeable happening after an affair is supposed to be at an end.

Afternoon (n.) The part of the day which follows noon, between noon and evening.

Afterwise (a.) Wise after the event; wise or knowing, when it is too late.

Agallochum (n.) A soft, resinous wood (Aquilaria Agallocha) of highly aromatic smell, burnt by the orientals as a perfume. It is called also agalwood and aloes wood. The name is also given to some other species.

Agave (n.) A genus of plants (order Amaryllidaceae) of which the chief species is the maguey or century plant (A. Americana), wrongly called Aloe. It is from ten to seventy years, according to climate, in attaining maturity, when it produces a gigantic flower stem, sometimes forty feet in height, and perishes. The fermented juice is the pulque of the Mexicans; distilled, it yields mescal. A strong thread and a tough paper are made from the leaves, and the wood has many uses.

Age (n.) That part of the duration of a being or a thing which is between its beginning and any given time; as, what is the present age of a man, or of the earth?

Ageratum (n.) A genus of plants, one species of which (A. Mexicanum) has lavender-blue flowers in dense clusters.

Agio (n.) The premium or percentage on a better sort of money when it is given in exchange for an inferior sort. The premium or discount on foreign bills of exchange is sometimes called agio.

Agnomen (n.) An additional or fourth name given by the Romans, on account of some remarkable exploit or event; as, Publius Caius Scipio Africanus.

Agrimony (n.) The name is also given to various other plants; as, hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum); water agrimony (Bidens).

Agrypnotic (n.) Anything which prevents sleep, or produces wakefulness, as strong tea or coffee.

Aid (v. t.) To support, either by furnishing strength or means in cooperation to effect a purpose, or to prevent or to remove evil; to help; to assist.

Air (n.) Utterance abroad; publicity; vent.

Air (n.) A musical idea, or motive, rhythmically developed in consecutive single tones, so as to form a symmetrical and balanced whole, which may be sung by a single voice to the stanzas of a hymn or song, or even to plain prose, or played upon an instrument; a melody; a tune; an aria.

Air (n.) To expose to the air for the purpose of cooling, refreshing, or purifying; to ventilate; as, to air a room.

Air drill () A drill driven by the elastic pressure of condensed air; a pneumatic drill.

Air engine () An engine driven by heated or by compressed air.

Air pipe () A pipe for the passage of air; esp. a ventilating pipe.

Albeit (conj.) Even though; although; notwithstanding.

Alborak (n.) The imaginary milk-white animal on which Mohammed was said to have been carried up to heaven; a white mule.

Alcoholic (n.) A person given to the use of alcoholic liquors.

Alembic (n.) An apparatus formerly used in distillation, usually made of glass or metal. It has mostly given place to the retort and worm still.

Alisanders (n.) A name given to two species of the genus Smyrnium, formerly cultivated and used as celery now is; -- called also horse parsely.

Alexiterical (a.) Resisting poison; obviating the effects of venom; alexipharmic.

Algates (adv.) By any or means; at all events.

Alimentiveness (n.) The instinct or faculty of appetite for food.

Alkahest (n.) The fabled "universal solvent" of the alchemists; a menstruum capable of dissolving all bodies.

All (adv.) Even; just. (Often a mere intensive adjunct.)

Allege (v. t.) To bring forward with positiveness; to declare; to affirm; to assert; as, to allege a fact.

Allemande (n.) A dance in moderate twofold time, invented by the French in the reign of Louis XIV.; -- now mostly found in suites of pieces, like those of Bach and Handel.

Allhallows (n.) All the saints (in heaven).

Allhallow eve () The evening before Allhallows. See Halloween.

Allheal (n.) A name popularly given to the officinal valerian, and to some other plants.

Alliciency (n.) Attractive power; attractiveness.

Allopathy (n.) That system of medical practice which aims to combat disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the special disease treated; -- a term invented by Hahnemann to designate the ordinary practice, as opposed to homeopathy.

Allspice (n.) The berry of the pimento (Eugenia pimenta), a tree of the West Indies; a spice of a mildly pungent taste, and agreeably aromatic; Jamaica pepper; pimento. It has been supposed to combine the flavor of cinnamon, nutmegs, and cloves; and hence the name. The name is also given to other aromatic shrubs; as, the Carolina allspice (Calycanthus floridus); wild allspice (Lindera benzoin), called also spicebush, spicewood, and feverbush.

Allusiveness (n.) The quality of being allusive.

Almacantar (n.) A recently invented instrument for observing the heavenly bodies as they cross a given almacantar circle. See Almucantar.

Almadie (n.) A boat used at Calicut, in India, about eighty feet long, and six or seven broad.

Alms (n. sing. & pl.) Anything given gratuitously to relieve the poor, as money, food, or clothing; a gift of charity.

Aloft (adv.) In the top; at the mast head, or on the higher yards or rigging; overhead; hence (Fig. and Colloq.), in or to heaven.

Alopecist (n.) A practitioner who tries to prevent or cure baldness.

Also (adv. & conj.) Even as; as; so.

Alternate (a.) Designating the members in a series, which regularly intervene between the members of another series, as the odd or even numbers of the numerals; every other; every second; as, the alternate members 1, 3, 5, 7, etc. ; read every alternate line.

Alternativeness (n.) The quality of being alternative, or of offering a choice between two.

Altiscope (n.) An arrangement of lenses and mirrors which enables a person to see an object in spite of intervening objects.

Altitude (n.) Space extended upward; height; the perpendicular elevation of an object above its foundation, above the ground, or above a given level, or of one object above another; as, the altitude of a mountain, or of a bird above the top of a tree.

Amativeness (n.) The faculty supposed to influence sexual desire; propensity to love.

Ambulacral (a.) Of or pertaining to ambulacra; avenuelike; as, the ambulacral ossicles, plates, spines, and suckers of echinoderms.

Gum ammoniac (n.) The concrete juice (gum resin) of an umbelliferous plant, the Dorema ammoniacum. It is brought chiefly from Persia in the form of yellowish tears, which occur singly, or are aggregated into masses. It has a peculiar smell, and a nauseous, sweet taste, followed by a bitter one. It is inflammable, partially soluble in water and in spirit of wine, and is used in medicine as an expectorant and resolvent, and for the formation of certain plasters.

Amoebaeum (n.) A poem in which persons are represented at speaking alternately; as the third and seventh eclogues of Virgil.

Amorphism (n.) A state of being amorphous; esp. a state of being without crystallization even in the minutest particles, as in glass, opal, etc.

Amount (n.) The sum total of two or more sums or quantities; the aggregate; the whole quantity; a totality; as, the amount of 7 and 9 is 16; the amount of a bill; the amount of this year's revenue.

Amphiarthrosis (n.) A form of articulation in which the bones are connected by intervening substance admitting slight motion; symphysis.

Amphitrocha (n.) A kind of annelid larva having both a dorsal and a ventral circle of special cilia.

Anachorism (n.) An error in regard to the place of an event or a thing; a referring something to a wrong place.

Anachronism (n.) A misplacing or error in the order of time; an error in chronology by which events are misplaced in regard to each other, esp. one by which an event is placed too early; falsification of chronological relation.

Anadiplosis (n.) A repetition of the last word or any prominent word in a sentence or clause, at the beginning of the next, with an adjunct idea; as, "He retained his virtues amidst all his misfortunes -- misfortunes which no prudence could foresee or prevent."

Anagogical (a.) Mystical; having a secondary spiritual meaning; as, the rest of the Sabbath, in an anagogical sense, signifies the repose of the saints in heaven; an anagogical explication.

Anagraph (n.) An inventory; a record.

Analogue (n.) An organ which is equivalent in its functions to a different organ in another species or group, or even in the same group; as, the gill of a fish is the analogue of a lung in a quadruped, although the two are not of like structural relations.

Anapest (n.) A metrical foot consisting of three syllables, the first two short, or unaccented, the last long, or accented (/ / -); the reverse of the dactyl. In Latin d/-/-tas, and in English in-ter-vene#, are examples of anapests.

Ancient (a.) Dignified, like an aged man; magisterial; venerable.

Ancile (n.) The sacred shield of the Romans, said to have-fallen from heaven in the reign of Numa. It was the palladium of Rome.

Angel (n.) A minister or pastor of a church, as in the Seven Asiatic churches.

Angel (n.) An appellation given to a person supposed to be of angelic goodness or loveliness; a darling.

Angelical (a.) Belonging to, or proceeding from, angels; resembling, characteristic of, or partaking of the nature of, an angel; heavenly; divine.

Angelus (n.) A form of devotion in which three Ave Marias are repeated. It is said at morning, noon, and evening, at the sound of a bell.

Angle (n.) A name given to four of the twelve astrological "houses."

Angora (n.) A city of Asia Minor (or Anatolia) which has given its name to a goat, a cat, etc.

Animate (v. t.) To give spirit or vigor to; to stimulate or incite; to inspirit; to rouse; to enliven.

Annals (n. pl.) A relation of events in chronological order, each event being recorded under the year in which it happened.

Annals (n. pl.) The record of a single event or item.

Anniversary (n.) The annual return of the day on which any notable event took place, or is wont to be celebrated; as, the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.

Anniversary (n.) The day on which Mass is said yearly for the soul of a deceased person; the commemoration of some sacred event, as the dedication of a church or the consecration of a pope.

Annuity (n.) A sum of money, payable yearly, to continue for a given number of years, for life, or forever; an annual allowance.

Ansa (n.) A name given to either of the projecting ends of Saturn's ring.

-ant () A suffix sometimes marking the agent for action; as, merchant, covenant, servant, pleasant, etc. Cf. -ent.

Antaphrodisiac (a.) Capable of blunting the venereal appetite.

Antaphrodisiac (n.) Anything that quells the venereal appetite.

Antecedent (a.) Going before in time; prior; anterior; preceding; as, an event antecedent to the Deluge; an antecedent cause.

Antecedent (n.) The earlier events of one's life; previous principles, conduct, course, history.

Antecommunion (n.) A name given to that part of the Anglican liturgy for the communion, which precedes the consecration of the elements.

Antevert (v. t.) To prevent.

Anthorism (n.) A description or definition contrary to that which is given by the adverse party.

Antiattrition (n.) Anything to prevent the effects of friction, esp. a compound lubricant for machinery, etc., often consisting of plumbago, with some greasy material; antifriction grease.

Anticipate (v. t.) To be before in doing; to do or take before another; to preclude or prevent by prior action.

Anticipation (n.) Previous view or impression of what is to happen; instinctive prevision; foretaste; antepast; as, the anticipation of the joys of heaven.

Antidote (n.) Whatever tends to prevent mischievous effects, or to counteract evil which something else might produce.

Antidote (v. t.) To counteract or prevent the effects of, by giving or taking an antidote.

Antihydrophobic (a.) Counteracting or preventing hydrophobia.

Antihypnotic (a.) Tending to prevent sleep.

Antilithic (a.) Tending to prevent the formation of urinary calculi, or to destroy them when formed.

Antilogarithm (n.) The number corresponding to a logarithm. The word has been sometimes, though rarely, used to denote the complement of a given logarithm; also the logarithmic cosine corresponding to a given logarithmic sine.

Antimacassar (n.) A cover for the back or arms of a chair or sofa, etc., to prevent them from being soiled by macassar or other oil from the hair.

Antiorgastic (a.) Tending to allay venereal excitement or desire; sedative.

Antiperiodic (n.) A remedy possessing the property of preventing the return of periodic paroxysms, or exacerbations, of disease, as in intermittent fevers.

Antiphrasis (n.) The use of words in a sense opposite to their proper meaning; as when a court of justice is called a court of vengeance.

Antiplastic (a.) Preventing or checking the process of healing, or granulation.

Antipyic (a.) Checking or preventing suppuration.

Antipyretic (a.) Efficacious in preventing or allaying fever.

Antipyrotic (n.) Anything of use in preventing or healing burns or pyrosis.

Antiseptical (a.) Counteracting or preventing putrefaction, or a putrescent tendency in the system; antiputrefactive.

Antiseptic (n.) A substance which prevents or retards putrefaction, or destroys, or protects from, putrefactive organisms; as, salt, carbolic acid, alcohol, cinchona.

Antisolar (a.) Opposite to the sun; -- said of the point in the heavens 180¡ distant from the sun.

Antispasmodic (n.) A medicine which prevents or allays spasms or convulsions.

Antivariolous (a.) Preventing the contagion of smallpox.

Antivenereal (a.) Good against venereal poison; antisyphilitic.

Antizymic (a.) Preventing fermentation.

Antizymotic (a.) Preventing fermentation or decomposition.

Anxiety (n.) Concern or solicitude respecting some thing or event, future or uncertain, which disturbs the mind, and keeps it in a state of painful uneasiness.

Anyhow (adv.) In any way or manner whatever; at any rate; in any event.

Anything (n.) Any object, act, state, event, or fact whatever; thing of any kind; something or other; aught; as, I would not do it for anything.

Aphrodisiacal (a.) Exciting venereal desire; provocative to venery.

Aphrodisiac (n.) That which (as a drug, or some kinds of food) excites to venery.

Apodal (n.) Destitute of the ventral fin, as the eels.

Apodes (n. pl.) An order of fishes without ventral fins, including the eels.

Apologue (n.) A story or relation of fictitious events, intended to convey some moral truth; a moral fable.

Apophyge (n.) The small hollow curvature given to the top or bottom of the shaft of a column where it expands to meet the edge of the fillet; -- called also the scape.

Apparatus (n.) Hence: A full collection or set of implements, or utensils, for a given duty, experimental or operative; any complex instrument or appliance, mechanical or chemical, for a specific action or operation; machinery; mechanism.

Appellativeness (n.) The quality of being appellative.

Appreciativeness (n.) The quality of being appreciative; quick recognition of excellence.

Apprehensiveness (n.) The quality or state of being apprehensive.

Apprenticeship (n.) The time an apprentice is serving (sometimes seven years, as from the age of fourteen to twenty-one).

Approach (v. i.) A way, passage, or avenue by which a place or buildings can be approached; an access.

Approbativeness (n.) The quality of being approbative.

Approbativeness (n.) Love of approbation.

Approximation (n.) An approach to a correct estimate, calculation, or conception, or to a given quantity, quality, etc.

Appulse (n.) The near approach of one heavenly body to another, or to the meridian; a coming into conjunction; as, the appulse of the moon to a star, or of a star to the meridian.

Apron (n.) A leaden plate that covers the vent of a cannon.

Apt (a.) Inclined; disposed customarily; given; ready; -- used of persons.

Aptera (n. pl.) Insects without wings, constituting the seventh Linnaen order of insects, an artificial group, which included Crustacea, spiders, centipeds, and even worms. These animals are now placed in several distinct classes and orders.

Aquarius (n.) The Water-bearer; the eleventh sign in the zodiac, which the sun enters about the 20th of January; -- so called from the rains which prevail at that season in Italy and the East.

Aqueduct (n.) A canal or passage; as, the aqueduct of Sylvius, a channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain.

Arcade (n.) An arched or covered passageway or avenue.

Archiannelida (n. pl.) A group of Annelida remarkable for having no external segments or distinct ventral nerve ganglions.

Ardent (a.) Warm, applied to the passions and affections; passionate; fervent; zealous; vehement; as, ardent love, feelings, zeal, hope, temper.

Area (n.) The superficial contents of any figure; the surface included within any given lines; superficial extent; as, the area of a square or a triangle.

Arendator (n.) In some provinces of Russia, one who farms the rents or revenues.

Argas (n.) A genus of venomous ticks which attack men and animals. The famous Persian Argas, also called Miana bug, is A. Persicus; that of Central America, called talaje by the natives, is A. Talaje.

Argot (n.) A secret language or conventional slang peculiar to thieves, tramps, and vagabonds; flash.

Argue (v. i.) To invent and offer reasons to support or overthrow a proposition, opinion, or measure; to use arguments; to reason.

Argumentative (a.) Given to argument; characterized by argument; disputatious; as, an argumentative writer.

Ark (n.) The oblong chest of acacia wood, overlaid with gold, which supported the mercy seat with its golden cherubs, and occupied the most sacred place in the sanctuary. In it Moses placed the two tables of stone containing the ten commandments. Called also the Ark of the Covenant.

Armature (n.) A piece of soft iron used to connect the two poles of a magnet, or electro-magnet, in order to complete the circuit, or to receive and apply the magnetic force. In the ordinary horseshoe magnet, it serves to prevent the dissipation of the magnetic force.

Armistice (n.) A cessation of arms for a short time, by convention; a temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement; a truce.

Arquebuse (n.) A sort of hand gun or firearm a contrivance answering to a trigger, by which the burning match was applied. The musket was a later invention.

Arrangement (n.) A piece so adapted; a transcription; as, a pianoforte arrangement of Beethoven's symphonies; an orchestral arrangement of a song, an opera, or the like.

Arras (n.) Tapestry; a rich figured fabric; especially, a screen or hangings of heavy cloth with interwoven figures.

Arrowroot (n.) A west Indian plant of the genus Maranta, esp. M. arundinacea, now cultivated in many hot countries. It said that the Indians used the roots to neutralize the venom in wounds made by poisoned arrows.

Arterialization (n.) The process of converting venous blood into arterial blood during its passage through the lungs, oxygen being absorbed and carbonic acid evolved; -- called also aeration and hematosis.

Arterialize (v. t.) To transform, as the venous blood, into arterial blood by exposure to oxygen in the lungs; to make arterial.

Artery (n.) One of the vessels or tubes which carry either venous or arterial blood from the heart. They have tricker and more muscular walls than veins, and are connected with them by capillaries.

Artiad (a.) Even; not odd; -- said of elementary substances and of radicals the valence of which is divisible by two without a remainder.

Article (n.) To bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; as, to article an apprentice to a mechanic.

Article (v. i.) To agree by articles; to stipulate; to bargain; to covenant.

Artificer (n.) One who makes or contrives; a deviser, inventor, or framer.

Artiodactyla (n. pl.) One of the divisions of the ungulate animals. The functional toes of the hind foot are even in number, and the third digit of each foot (corresponding to the middle finger in man) is asymmetrical and paired with the fourth digit, as in the hog, the sheep, and the ox; -- opposed to Perissodactyla.

Artiodactylous (a.) Even-toed.

Aruspex (n.) One of the class of diviners among the Etruscans and Romans, who foretold events by the inspection of the entrails of victims offered on the altars of the gods.

As (n.) A Roman weight, answering to the libra or pound, equal to nearly eleven ounces Troy weight. It was divided into twelve ounces.

Asbestos (n.) A variety of amphibole or of pyroxene, occurring in long and delicate fibers, or in fibrous masses or seams, usually of a white, gray, or green-gray color. The name is also given to a similar variety of serpentine.

Ash-furnace (n.) Alt. of Ash-oven

Ash-oven (n.) A furnace or oven for fritting materials for glass making.

Asperate (v. t.) To make rough or uneven.

Asperity (n.) Roughness of surface; unevenness; -- opposed to smoothness.

Asperous (a.) Rough; uneven.

Aspic (n.) The venomous asp.

Aspic (n.) A European species of lavender (Lavandula spica), which produces a volatile oil. See Spike.

Assay (n.) Trial by danger or by affliction; adventure; risk; hardship; state of being tried.

Assemble (v. t.) To collect into one place or body; to bring or call together; to convene; to congregate.

Assemble (v. i.) To meet or come together, as a number of individuals; to convene; to congregate.

Assets (n. pl.) Effects of an insolvent debtor or bankrupt, applicable to the payment of debts.

Assiento (n.) A contract or convention between Spain and other powers for furnishing negro slaves for the Spanish dominions in America, esp. the contract made with Great Britain in 1713.

Assumption (n.) The taking of a person up into heaven.

Assumption (n.) A festival in honor of the ascent of the Virgin Mary into heaven.

Assurance (n.) Insurance; a contract for the payment of a sum on occasion of a certain event, as loss or death.

Assure (v. t.) To insure; to covenant to indemnify for loss, or to pay a specified sum at death. See Insure.

Astatic (a.) Having little or no tendency to take a fixed or definite position or direction: thus, a suspended magnetic needle, when rendered astatic, loses its polarity, or tendency to point in a given direction.

Astonishing (a.) Very wonderful; of a nature to excite astonishment; as, an astonishing event.

Astrogeny (n.) The creation or evolution of the stars or the heavens.

Astrography (n.) The art of describing or delineating the stars; a description or mapping of the heavens.

Astrologer (n.) One who practices astrology; one who professes to foretell events by the aspects and situation of the stars.

Astrology (n.) In its etymological signification, the science of the stars; among the ancients, synonymous with astronomy; subsequently, the art of judging of the influences of the stars upon human affairs, and of foretelling events by their position and aspects.

Astronomer (n.) One who is versed in astronomy; one who has a knowledge of the laws of the heavenly orbs, or the principles by which their motions are regulated, with their various phenomena.

Astyllen (n.) A small dam to prevent free passage of water in an adit or level.

Ate (n.) The goddess of mischievous folly; also, in later poets, the goddess of vengeance.

Atlantides (n. pl.) The Pleiades or seven stars, fabled to have been the daughters of Atlas.

Atmo (n.) The standard atmospheric pressure used in certain physical measurements calculations; conventionally, that pressure under which the barometer stands at 760 millimeters, at a temperature of 0¡ Centigrade, at the level of the sea, and in the latitude of Paris.

Atrabilarian (n.) A person much given to melancholy; a hypochondriac.

Attaint (v.) A writ which lies after judgment, to inquire whether a jury has given a false verdict in any court of record; also, the convicting of the jury so tried.

Attemptive (a.) Disposed to attempt; adventurous.

Atter (n.) Poison; venom; corrupt matter from a sore.

Attribute (n.) A conventional symbol of office, character, or identity, added to any particular figure; as, a club is the attribute of Hercules.

Aubade (n.) An open air concert in the morning, as distinguished from an evening serenade; also, a pianoforte composition suggestive of morning.

Auction (n.) A public sale of property to the highest bidder, esp. by a person licensed and authorized for the purpose; a vendue.

Audacious (a.) Daring; spirited; adventurous.

Audacity (n.) Daring spirit, resolution, or confidence; venturesomeness.

Audita querela () A writ which lies for a party against whom judgment is recovered, but to whom good matter of discharge has subsequently accrued which could not have been availed of to prevent such judgment.

Augmentation (n.) A additional charge to a coat of arms, given as a mark of honor.

Augur (n.) An official diviner who foretold events by the singing, chattering, flight, and feeding of birds, or by signs or omens derived from celestial phenomena, certain appearances of quadrupeds, or unusual occurrences.

Augur (n.) One who foretells events by omens; a soothsayer; a diviner; a prophet.

Augury (n.) The art or practice of foretelling events by observing the actions of birds, etc.; divination.

Auk (n.) A name given to various species of arctic sea birds of the family Alcidae. The great auk, now extinct, is Alca (/ Plautus) impennis. The razor-billed auk is A. torda. See Puffin, Guillemot, and Murre.

Auntter (n.) Adventure; hap.

Auntre (v. t.) To venture; to dare.

Auntrous (a.) Adventurous.

Aureole (n.) A celestial crown or accidental glory added to the bliss of heaven, as a reward to those (as virgins, martyrs, preachers, etc.) who have overcome the world, the flesh, and the devil.

Auricle (n.) The chamber, or one of the two chambers, of the heart, by which the blood is received and transmitted to the ventricle or ventricles; -- so called from its resemblance to the auricle or external ear of some quadrupeds. See Heart.

Austromancy (n.) Soothsaying, or prediction of events, from observation of the winds.

Autocratrix (n.) A female sovereign who is independent and absolute; -- a title given to the empresses of Russia.

Autopsorin (n.) That which is given under the doctrine of administering a patient's own virus.

Autotheist (n.) One given to self-worship.

Avena (n.) A genus of grasses, including the common oat (Avena sativa); the oat grasses.

Avenaceous (a.) Belonging to, or resembling, oats or the oat grasses.

Avenage (n.) A quantity of oats paid by a tenant to a landlord in lieu of rent.

Avener (n.) An officer of the king's stables whose duty it was to provide oats for the horses.

Avenged (imp. & p. p.) of Avenge

Avenging (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Avenge

Avenge (v. t.) To take vengeance for; to exact satisfaction for by punishing the injuring party; to vindicate by inflicting pain or evil on a wrongdoer.

Avenge (v. t.) To treat revengefully; to wreak vengeance on.

Avenge (v. i.) To take vengeance.

Avenge (n.) Vengeance; revenge.

Avengeance (n.) Vengeance.

Avengeful (a.) Vengeful.

Avengement (n.) The inflicting of retributive punishment; satisfaction taken.

Avenger (n.) One who avenges or vindicates; as, an avenger of blood.

Avenger (n.) One who takes vengeance.

Avengeress (n.) A female avenger.

Avenious (a.) Being without veins or nerves, as the leaves of certain plants.

Avenor (n.) See Avener.

Avens (n.) A plant of the genus Geum, esp. Geum urbanum, or herb bennet.

Aventail (n.) The movable front to a helmet; the ventail.

Aventine (a.) Pertaining to Mons Aventinus, one of the seven hills on which Rome stood.

Aventine (n.) A post of security or defense.

Aventre (v. t.) To thrust forward (at a venture), as a spear.

Aventure (n.) Accident; chance; adventure.

Aventure (n.) A mischance causing a person's death without felony, as by drowning, or falling into the fire.

Aventurine (n.) A kind of glass, containing gold-colored spangles. It was produced in the first place by the accidental (par aventure) dropping of some brass filings into a pot of melted glass.

Aventurine (n.) A variety of translucent quartz, spangled throughout with scales of yellow mica.

Avenue (n.) A way or opening for entrance into a place; a passage by which a place may by reached; a way of approach or of exit.

Avenue (n.) The principal walk or approach to a house which is withdrawn from the road, especially, such approach bordered on each side by trees; any broad passageway thus bordered.

Avenue (n.) A broad street; as, the Fifth Avenue in New York.

Average (v. t.) To divide among a number, according to a given proportion; as, to average a loss.

Avert (n.) To turn aside, or away; as, to avert the eyes from an object; to ward off, or prevent, the occurrence or effects of; as, how can the danger be averted? "To avert his ire."

Avertible (a.) Capable of being averted; preventable.

Awkward (a.) Wanting dexterity in the use of the hands, or of instruments; not dexterous; without skill; clumsy; wanting ease, grace, or effectiveness in movement; ungraceful; as, he was awkward at a trick; an awkward boy.

Awreke (v. t. & i.) To avenge. [Obs.] See Wreak.

Azyme (n.) Unleavened bread.

Azymite (n.) One who administered the Eucharist with unleavened bread; -- a name of reproach given by those of the Greek church to the Latins.

Azymous (a.) Unleavened; unfermented.

B () is the second letter of the English alphabet. (See Guide to Pronunciation, // 196, 220.) It is etymologically related to p, v, f, w and m , letters representing sounds having a close organic affinity to its own sound; as in Eng. bursar and purser; Eng. bear and Lat. ferre; Eng. silver and Ger. silber; Lat. cubitum and It. gomito; Eng. seven, Anglo-Saxon seofon, Ger. sieben, Lat. septem, Gr."epta`, Sanskrit saptan. The form of letter B is Roman, from Greek B (Beta), of Semitic origin. The small b was formed by gradual change from the capital B.

Babbler (n.) A name given to any one of family (Timalinae) of thrushlike birds, having a chattering note.

Bacchanalian (a.) Of or pertaining to the festival of Bacchus; relating to or given to reveling and drunkenness.

Backboard (n.) A board attached to the rim of a water wheel to prevent the water from running off the floats or paddies into the interior of the wheel.

Backing (n.) Support or aid given to a person or cause.

Backstaff (n.) An instrument formerly used for taking the altitude of the heavenly bodies, but now superseded by the quadrant and sextant; -- so called because the observer turned his back to the body observed.

Backstay (n.) A rope or strap used to prevent excessive forward motion.

Backwards (adv.) Toward, or in, past time or events; ago.

Bad (superl.) Wanting good qualities, whether physical or moral; injurious, hurtful, inconvenient, offensive, painful, unfavorable, or defective, either physically or morally; evil; vicious; wicked; -- the opposite of good; as, a bad man; bad conduct; bad habits; bad soil; bad health; bad crop; bad news.

Bad lands () Barren regions, especially in the western United States, where horizontal strata (Tertiary deposits) have been often eroded into fantastic forms, and much intersected by ca–ons, and where lack of wood, water, and forage increases the difficulty of traversing the country, whence the name, first given by the Canadian French, Mauvaises Terres (bad lands).

Bagatelle (n.) A game played on an oblong board, having, at one end, cups or arches into or through which balls are to be driven by a rod held in the hand of the player.

Bail (n.) The security given for the appearance of a prisoner in order to obtain his release from custody of the officer; as, the man is out on bail; to go bail for any one.

Bail bond () A bond or obligation given by a prisoner and his surety, to insure the prisoner's appearance in court, at the return of the writ.

Bairam (n.) The name of two Mohammedan festivals, of which one is held at the close of the fast called Ramadan, and the other seventy days after the fast.

Bake (v. t.) To prepare, as food, by cooking in a dry heat, either in an oven or under coals, or on heated stone or metal; as, to bake bread, meat, apples.

Baker (v. i.) A portable oven in which baking is done.

Baking (n.) The act or process of cooking in an oven, or of drying and hardening by heat or cold.

Balance (n.) The state of being in equipoise; equilibrium; even adjustment; steadiness.

Balance (n.) The seventh sign in the Zodiac, called Libra, which the sun enters at the equinox in September.

Balancement (n.) The act or result of balancing or adjusting; equipoise; even adjustment of forces.

Balkish (a.) Uneven; ridgy.

Ball (n.) A large pill, a form in which medicine is commonly given to horses; a bolus.

Ballast (a.) Any heavy substance, as stone, iron, etc., put into the hold to sink a vessel in the water to such a depth as to prevent capsizing.

Ballot (n.) The whole number of votes cast at an election, or in a given territory or electoral district.

Bandage (n.) A fillet or strip of woven material, used in dressing and binding up wounds, etc.

Bankrupt (n.) A trader who becomes unable to pay his debts; an insolvent trader; popularly, any person who is unable to pay his debts; an insolvent person.

Baptize (v. t.) To christen ( because a name is given to infants at their baptism); to give a name to; to name.

Bar (n.) Anything which obstructs, hinders, or prevents; an obstruction; a barrier.

Bar (n.) To restrict or confine, as if by a bar; to hinder; to obstruct; to prevent; to prohibit; as, to bar the entrance of evil; distance bars our intercourse; the statute bars my right; the right is barred by time; a release bars the plaintiff's recovery; -- sometimes with up.

Barb (n.) The point that stands backward in an arrow, fishhook, etc., to prevent it from being easily extracted. Hence: Anything which stands out with a sharp point obliquely or crosswise to something else.

Barilla (n.) A name given to several species of Salsola from which soda is made, by burning the barilla in heaps and lixiviating the ashes.

Barkbound (a.) Prevented from growing, by having the bark too firm or close.

Barker's mill () A machine, invented in the 17th century, worked by a form of reaction wheel. The water flows into a vertical tube and gushes from apertures in hollow horizontal arms, causing the machine to revolve on its axis.

Barm (n.) Foam rising upon beer, or other malt liquors, when fermenting, and used as leaven in making bread and in brewing; yeast.

Barrenness (n.) The condition of being barren; sterility; unproductiveness.

Barrier (n.) A fortress or fortified town, on the frontier of a country, commanding an avenue of approach.

Barter (n.) The thing given in exchange.

Basi- () A combining form, especially in anatomical and botanical words, to indicate the base or position at or near a base; forming a base; as, basibranchials, the most ventral of the cartilages or bones of the branchial arches; basicranial, situated at the base of the cranium; basifacial, basitemporal, etc.

Basil (n.) The name given to several aromatic herbs of the Mint family, but chiefly to the common or sweet basil (Ocymum basilicum), and the bush basil, or lesser basil (O. minimum), the leaves of which are used in cookery. The name is also given to several kinds of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum).

Basilisk (n.) A fabulous serpent, or dragon. The ancients alleged that its hissing would drive away all other serpents, and that its breath, and even its look, was fatal. See Cockatrice.

Basket (n.) A vessel made of osiers or other twigs, cane, rushes, splints, or other flexible material, interwoven.

Basset (n.) A game at cards, resembling the modern faro, said to have been invented at Venice.

Batfish (n.) A name given to several species of fishes: (a) The Malthe vespertilio of the Atlantic coast. (b) The flying gurnard of the Atlantic (Cephalacanthus spinarella). (c) The California batfish or sting ray (Myliobatis Californicus.)

Bath (n.) A city in the west of England, resorted to for its hot springs, which has given its name to various objects.

Bathybius (n.) A name given by Prof. Huxley to a gelatinous substance found in mud dredged from the Atlantic and preserved in alcohol. He supposed that it was free living protoplasm, covering a large part of the ocean bed. It is now known that the substance is of chemical, not of organic, origin.

Batten (n .) A strip of sawed stuff, or a scantling; as, (a) pl. (Com. & Arch.) Sawed timbers about 7 by 2 1/2 inches and not less than 6 feet long. Brande & C. (b) (Naut.) A strip of wood used in fastening the edges of a tarpaulin to the deck, also around masts to prevent chafing. (c) A long, thin strip used to strengthen a part, to cover a crack, etc.

Beached (p. p. & a.) Driven on a beach; stranded; drawn up on a beach; as, the ship is beached.

Bead (n.) A glassy drop of molten flux, as borax or microcosmic salt, used as a solvent and color test for several mineral earths and oxides, as of iron, manganese, etc., before the blowpipe; as, the borax bead; the iron bead, etc.

Beam (n.) A cylinder of wood, making part of a loom, on which weavers wind the warp before weaving; also, the cylinder on which the cloth is rolled, as it is woven; one being called the fore beam, the other the back beam.

Bean (n.) A name given to the seed of certain leguminous herbs, chiefly of the genera Faba, Phaseolus, and Dolichos; also, to the herbs.

Bearbind (n.) The bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis).

Beard (n.) A barb or sharp point of an arrow or other instrument, projecting backward to prevent the head from being easily drawn out.

Bedcord (n.) A cord or rope interwoven in a bedstead so as to support the bed.

Behn (n.) The Statice limonium, or sea lavender.

Behoove (v. t.) To be necessary for; to be fit for; to be meet for, with respect to necessity, duty, or convenience; -- mostly used impersonally.

Belch (v. i.) To eject violently from within; to cast forth; to emit; to give vent to; to vent.

Bellows (n. sing. & pl.) An instrument, utensil, or machine, which, by alternate expansion and contraction, or by rise and fall of the top, draws in air through a valve and expels it through a tube for various purposes, as blowing fires, ventilating mines, or filling the pipes of an organ with wind.

Below (adv.) On the earth, as opposed to the heavens.

Bendy (a.) Divided into an even number of bends; -- said of a shield or its charge.

Beneath (adv.) Below, as opposed to heaven, or to any superior region or position; as, in earth beneath.

Benefice (n.) An ecclesiastical living and church preferment, as in the Church of England; a church endowed with a revenue for the maintenance of divine service. See Advowson.

Benevolence (n.) An act of kindness; good done; charity given.

Bennet (a.) The common yellow-flowered avens of Europe (Geum urbanum); herb bennet. The name is sometimes given to other plants, as the hemlock, valerian, etc.

Benzine (n.) A liquid consisting mainly of the lighter and more volatile hydrocarbons of petroleum or kerosene oil, used as a solvent and for cleansing soiled fabrics; -- called also petroleum spirit, petroleum benzine. Varieties or similar products are gasoline, naphtha, rhigolene, ligroin, etc.

Benzol (n.) An impure benzene, used in the arts as a solvent, and for various other purposes. See Benzene.

Bergamot (n.) A coarse tapestry, manufactured from flock of cotton or hemp, mixed with ox's or goat's hair; -- said to have been invented at Bergamo, Italy. Encyc. Brit.

Bergmeal (n.) An earthy substance, resembling fine flour. It is composed of the shells of infusoria, and in Lapland and Sweden is sometimes eaten, mixed with flour or ground birch bark, in times of scarcity. This name is also given to a white powdery variety of calcite.

Berlin (n.) A four-wheeled carriage, having a sheltered seat behind the body and separate from it, invented in the 17th century, at Berlin.

Berth (n.) Convenient sea room.

Bessemer steel () Steel made directly from cast iron, by burning out a portion of the carbon and other impurities that the latter contains, through the agency of a blast of air which is forced through the molten metal; -- so called from Sir Henry Bessemer, an English engineer, the inventor of the process.

Bestowment (n.) That which is given or bestowed.

Bet (n.) That which is laid, staked, or pledged, as between two parties, upon the event of a contest or any contingent issue; the act of giving such a pledge; a wager.

Bet (v. t.) To stake or pledge upon the event of a contingent issue; to wager.

Betrap (v. t.) To draw into, or catch in, a trap; to insnare; to circumvent.

Betray (v. t.) To mislead; to expose to inconvenience not foreseen to lead into error or sin.

Betty (n.) A name of contempt given to a man who interferes with the duties of women in a household, or who occupies himself with womanish matters.

Bevel (n.) An instrument consisting of two rules or arms, jointed together at one end, and opening to any angle, for adjusting the surfaces of work to the same or a given inclination; -- called also a bevel square.

Bewreke (v. t.) To wreak; to avenge.

Bibber (n.) One given to drinking alcoholic beverages too freely; a tippler; -- chiefly used in composition; as, winebibber.

Bibliomancy (n.) A kind of divination, performed by selecting passages of Scripture at hazard, and drawing from them indications concerning future events.

Bicuspid (n.) One of the two double-pointed teeth which intervene between the canines (cuspids) and the molars, on each side of each jaw. See Tooth, n.

Beestings (n. pl.) The first milk given by a cow after calving.

Biggin (n.) A coffeepot with a strainer or perforated metallic vessel for holding the ground coffee, through which boiling water is poured; -- so called from Mr. Biggin, the inventor.

Bill (n.) A paper, written or printed, and posted up or given away, to advertise something, as a lecture, a play, or the sale of goods; a placard; a poster; a handbill.

Bind (v. t.) To prevent or restrain from customary or natural action; as, certain drugs bind the bowels.

Bind (v. t.) To bring (any one) under definite legal obligations; esp. under the obligation of a bond or covenant.

Bindweed (n.) A plant of the genus Convolvulus; as, greater bindweed (C. Sepium); lesser bindweed (C. arvensis); the white, the blue, the Syrian, bindweed. The black bryony, or Tamus, is called black bindweed, and the Smilax aspera, rough bindweed.

Bisulcate (a.) Cloven; said of a foot or hoof.

Bite (v.) A blank on the edge or corner of a page, owing to a portion of the frisket, or something else, intervening between the type and paper.

Bitumen (n.) By extension, any one of the natural hydrocarbons, including the hard, solid, brittle varieties called asphalt, the semisolid maltha and mineral tars, the oily petroleums, and even the light, volatile naphthas.

Biventral (a.) Having two bellies or protuberances; as, a biventral, or digastric, muscle, or the biventral lobe of the cerebellum.

Black (a.) In a less literal sense: Enveloped or shrouded in darkness; very dark or gloomy; as, a black night; the heavens black with clouds.

Blackbird (n.) In England, a species of thrush (Turdus merula), a singing bird with a fin note; the merle. In America the name is given to several birds, as the Quiscalus versicolor, or crow blackbird; the Agelaeus phoeniceus, or red-winged blackbird; the cowbird; the rusty grackle, etc. See Redwing.

Black book () A book compiled in the twelfth century, containing a description of the court of exchequer of England, an official statement of the revenues of the crown, etc.

Black-jack (n.) A name given by English miners to sphalerite, or zinc blende; -- called also false galena. See Blende.

Black-letter (a.) Given to the study of books in black letter; that is, of old books; out of date.

Blacklist (v. t.) To put in a black list as deserving of suspicion, censure, or punishment; esp. to put in a list of persons stigmatized as insolvent or untrustworthy, -- as tradesmen and employers do for mutual protection; as, to blacklist a workman who has been discharged. See Black list, under Black, a.

Blacksnake (n.) A snake of a black color, of which two species are common in the United States, the Bascanium constrictor, or racer, sometimes six feet long, and the Scotophis Alleghaniensis, seven or eight feet long.

Blackwood (n.) A name given to several dark-colored timbers. The East Indian black wood is from the tree Dalbergia latifolia.

Blancard (n.) A kind of linen cloth made in Normandy, the thread of which is partly blanches before it is woven.

Blank (n.) A kind of base silver money, first coined in England by Henry V., and worth about 8 pence; also, a French coin of the seventeenth century, worth about 4 pence.

Blanket (a.) A heavy, loosely woven fabric, usually of wool, and having a nap, used in bed clothing; also, a similar fabric used as a robe; or any fabric used as a cover for a horse.

Blast (v. t.) To injure, as by a noxious wind; to cause to wither; to stop or check the growth of, and prevent from fruit-bearing, by some pernicious influence; to blight; to shrivel.

Blencher (n.) One who, or that which, scares another; specifically, a person stationed to prevent the escape of the deer, at a hunt. See Blancher.

Blessed (a.) Hallowed; consecrated; worthy of blessing or adoration; heavenly; holy.

Blessed (a.) Enjoying, or pertaining to, spiritual happiness, or heavenly felicity; as, the blessed in heaven.

Blessedness (n.) The state of being blessed; happiness; felicity; bliss; heavenly joys; the favor of God.

Blight (v. t.) To affect with blight; to blast; to prevent the growth and fertility of.

Blinker (n.) A blinder for horses; a flap of leather on a horse's bridle to prevent him from seeing objects as his side hence, whatever obstructs sight or discernment.

Bliss (n.) Orig., blithesomeness; gladness; now, the highest degree of happiness; blessedness; exalted felicity; heavenly joy.

Block (v. t.) A grooved pulley or sheave incased in a frame or shell which is provided with a hook, eye, or strap, by which it may be attached to an object. It is used to change the direction of motion, as in raising a heavy object that can not be conveniently reached, and also, when two or more such sheaves are compounded, to change the rate of motion, or to exert increased force; -- used especially in the rigging of ships, and in tackles.

Block (n.) To obstruct so as to prevent passage or progress; to prevent passage from, through, or into, by obstructing the way; -- used both of persons and things; -- often followed by up; as, to block up a road or harbor.

Blockade (v. t.) The shutting up of a place by troops or ships, with the purpose of preventing ingress or egress, or the reception of supplies; as, the blockade of the ports of an enemy.

Blockade (v. t. ) To shut up, as a town or fortress, by investing it with troops or vessels or war for the purpose of preventing ingress or egress, or the introduction of supplies. See note under Blockade, n.

Blockade (n.) Hence, to shut in so as to prevent egress.

Bloodletting (n.) The act or process of letting blood or bleeding, as by opening a vein or artery, or by cupping or leeches; -- esp. applied to venesection.

Bloody (a.) Given, or tending, to the shedding of blood; having a cruel, savage disposition; murderous; cruel.

Bloody hand () A hand stained with the blood of a deer, which, in the old forest laws of England, was sufficient evidence of a man's trespass in the forest against venison.

Blotting paper () A kind of thick, bibulous, unsized paper, used to absorb superfluous ink from freshly written manuscript, and thus prevent blots.

Blower (n.) A device for producing a current of air; as: (a) A metal plate temporarily placed before the upper part of a grate or open fire. (b) A machine for producing an artificial blast or current of air by pressure, as for increasing the draft of a furnace, ventilating a building or shaft, cleansing gram, etc.

Blubber (v. t.) To give vent to (tears) or utter (broken words or cries); -- with forth or out.

Blue (n.) One of the seven colors into which the rays of light divide themselves, when refracted through a glass prism; the color of the clear sky, or a color resembling that, whether lighter or darker; a pigment having such color. Sometimes, poetically, the sky.

Blue-john (n.) A name given to fluor spar in Derbyshire, where it is used for ornamental purposes.

Bluets (a.) A name given to several different species of plants having blue flowers, as the Houstonia coerulea, the Centaurea cyanus or bluebottle, and the Vaccinium angustifolium.

Blusterous (a.) Inclined to bluster; given to blustering; blustering.

Board (n.) A table at which a council or court is held. Hence: A council, convened for business, or any authorized assembly or meeting, public or private; a number of persons appointed or elected to sit in council for the management or direction of some public or private business or trust; as, the Board of Admiralty; a board of trade; a board of directors, trustees, commissioners, etc.

Boastful (a.) Given to, or full of, boasting; inclined to boast; vaunting; vainglorious; self-praising.

Boat (n.) Hence, any vessel; usually with some epithet descriptive of its use or mode of propulsion; as, pilot boat, packet boat, passage boat, advice boat, etc. The term is sometimes applied to steam vessels, even of the largest class; as, the Cunard boats.

Bobbinwork (n.) Work woven with bobbins.

Bode (v. t.) To indicate by signs, as future events; to be the omen of; to portend to presage; to foreshow.

Bohemian (n.) Of or pertaining to a social gypsy or "Bohemian" (see Bohemian, n., 3); vagabond; unconventional; free and easy.

Bohemian (n.) A restless vagabond; -- originally, an idle stroller or gypsy (as in France) thought to have come from Bohemia; in later times often applied to an adventurer in art or literature, of irregular, unconventional habits, questionable tastes, or free morals.

Bold (n.) Forward to meet danger; venturesome; daring; not timorous or shrinking from risk; brave; courageous.

Bold (n.) Somewhat overstepping usual bounds, or conventional rules, as in art, literature, etc.; taking liberties in composition or expression; as, the figures of an author are bold.

Bold eagle () an Australian eagle (Aquila audax), which destroys lambs and even the kangaroo.

Bologna (n.) A city of Italy which has given its name to various objects.

Bolster (n.) A cushioned or a piece of soft wood covered with tarred canvas, placed on the trestletrees and against the mast, for the collars of the shrouds to rest on, to prevent chafing.

Bolster (n.) Anything used to prevent chafing.

Bombardon (n.) Originally, a deep-toned instrument of the oboe or bassoon family; thence, a bass reed stop on the organ. The name bombardon is now given to a brass instrument, the lowest of the saxhorns, in tone resembling the ophicleide.

Bonchretien (n.) A name given to several kinds of pears. See Bartlett.

Bonnet (n.) A frame of wire netting over a locomotive chimney, to prevent escape of sparks.

Bonus (n.) A premium given for a loan, or for a charter or other privilege granted to a company; as the bank paid a bonus for its charter.

Boodle (n.) Money given in payment for votes or political influence; bribe money; swag.

Bookish (a.) Given to reading; fond of study; better acquainted with books than with men; learned from books.

Bockland (n.) Charter land held by deed under certain rents and free services, which differed in nothing from free socage lands. This species of tenure has given rise to the modern freeholds.

Boomerang (n.) A very singular missile weapon used by the natives of Australia and in some parts of India. It is usually a curved stick of hard wood, from twenty to thirty inches in length, from two to three inches wide, and half or three quarters of an inch thick. When thrown from the hand with a quick rotary motion, it describes very remarkable curves, according to the shape of the instrument and the manner of throwing it, often moving nearly horizontally a long distance, then curving upward to a considerable height, and finally taking a retrograde direction, so as to fall near the place from which it was thrown, or even far in the rear of it.

Boomslange (n.) A large South African tree snake (Bucephalus Capensis). Although considered venomous by natives, it has no poison fangs.

Boot (n.) That which is given to make an exchange equal, or to make up for the deficiency of value in one of the things exchanged.

Boottree (n.) An instrument to stretch and widen the leg of a boot, consisting of two pieces, together shaped like a leg, between which, when put into the boot, a wedge is driven.

Borough (n.) The pledge or surety thus given.

Boston (n.) A game at cards, played by four persons, with two packs of fifty-two cards each; -- said to be so called from Boston, Massachusetts, and to have been invented by officers of the French army in America during the Revolutionary war.

Bo tree () The peepul tree; esp., the very ancient tree standing at Anurajahpoora in Ceylon, grown from a slip of the tree under which Gautama is said to have received the heavenly light and so to have become Buddha.

Bottine (n.) An appliance resembling a small boot furnished with straps, buckles, etc., used to correct or prevent distortions in the lower extremities of children.

Boulevard (n.) A public walk or street occupying the site of demolished fortifications. Hence: A broad avenue in or around a city.

Bounty (n.) That which is given generously or liberally.

Bounty (n.) A premium offered or given to induce men to enlist into the public service; or to encourage any branch of industry, as husbandry or manufactures.

Bowie knife () A knife with a strong blade from ten to fifteen inches long, and double-edged near the point; -- used as a hunting knife, and formerly as a weapon in the southwestern part of the United States. It was named from its inventor, Colonel James Bowie. Also, by extension, any large sheath knife.

Boycott (n.) The process, fact, or pressure of boycotting; a combining to withhold or prevent dealing or social intercourse with a tradesman, employer, etc.; social and business interdiction for the purpose of coercion.

Brace (n.) A piece of material used to transmit, or change the direction of, weight or pressure; any one of the pieces, in a frame or truss, which divide the structure into triangular parts. It may act as a tie, or as a strut, and serves to prevent distortion of the structure, and transverse strains in its members. A boiler brace is a diagonal stay, connecting the head with the shell.

Brachystochrone (n.) A curve, in which a body, starting from a given point, and descending solely by the force of gravity, will reach another given point in a shorter time than it could by any other path. This curve of quickest descent, as it is sometimes called, is, in a vacuum, the same as the cycloid.

Brain (n.) The whitish mass of soft matter (the center of the nervous system, and the seat of consciousness and volition) which is inclosed in the cartilaginous or bony cranium of vertebrate animals. It is simply the anterior termination of the spinal cord, and is developed from three embryonic vesicles, whose cavities are connected with the central canal of the cord; the cavities of the vesicles become the central cavities, or ventricles, and the walls thicken unequally and become the three segments, the fore-, mid-, and hind-brain.

Bramah press () A hydrostatic press of immense power, invented by Joseph Bramah of London. See under Hydrostatic.

Branch (n.) A warrant or commission given to a pilot, authorizing him to pilot vessels in certain waters.

Brandy (n.) A strong alcoholic liquor distilled from wine. The name is also given to spirit distilled from other liquors, and in the United States to that distilled from cider and peaches. In northern Europe, it is also applied to a spirit obtained from grain.

Brattice (n.) A wall of separation in a shaft or gallery used for ventilation.

Braveness (n.) The quality of state or being brave.

Breadfruit (n.) The fruit of a tree (Artocarpus incisa) found in the islands of the Pacific, esp. the South Sea islands. It is of a roundish form, from four to six or seven inches in diameter, and, when baked, somewhat resembles bread, and is eaten as food, whence the name.

Breasting (n.) The curved channel in which a breast wheel turns. It is closely adapted to the curve of the wheel through about a quarter of its circumference, and prevents the escape of the water until it has spent its force upon the wheel. See Breast wheel.

Breastplough (n.) A kind of plow, driven by the breast of the workman; -- used to cut or pare turf.

Breathing (n.) Breathing place; vent.

Breeze fly (n.) A fly of various species, of the family Tabanidae, noted for buzzing about animals, and tormenting them by sucking their blood; -- called also horsefly, and gadfly. They are among the largest of two-winged or dipterous insects. The name is also given to different species of botflies.

Breviary (n.) A book containing the daily public or canonical prayers of the Roman Catholic or of the Greek Church for the seven canonical hours, namely, matins and lauds, the first, third, sixth, and ninth hours, vespers, and compline; -- distinguished from the missal.

Bribe (n.) A price, reward, gift, or favor bestowed or promised with a view to prevent the judgment or corrupt the conduct of a judge, witness, voter, or other person in a position of trust.

Bribe (v. t.) To give or promise a reward or consideration to (a judge, juror, legislator, voter, or other person in a position of trust) with a view to prevent the judgment or corrupt the conduct; to induce or influence by a bribe; to give a bribe to.

Bridgehead (n.) A fortification commanding the extremity of a bridge nearest the enemy, to insure the preservation and usefulness of the bridge, and prevent the enemy from crossing; a tete-de-pont.

Brighten (a.) To make acute or witty; to enliven.

Brisk (v. t. & i.) To make or become lively; to enliven; to animate; to take, or cause to take, an erect or bold attitude; -- usually with up.

Brob (n.) A peculiar brad-shaped spike, to be driven alongside the end of an abutting timber to prevent its slipping.

Brocade (n.) Silk stuff, woven with gold and silver threads, or ornamented with raised flowers, foliage, etc.; -- also applied to other stuffs thus wrought and enriched.

Brocaded (a.) Woven or worked, as brocade, with gold and silver, or with raised flowers, etc.

Broche (a.) Woven with a figure; as, broche goods.

Broken (v. t.) Disconnected; not continuous; also, rough; uneven; as, a broken surface.

Brokenness (n.) The state or quality of being broken; unevenness.

Brokerage (n.) The fee, reward, or commission, given or changed for transacting business as a broker.

Brunonian (a.) Pertaining to, or invented by, Brown; -- a term applied to a system of medicine promulgated in the 18th century by John Brown, of Scotland, the fundamental doctrine of which was, that life is a state of excitation produced by the normal action of external agents upon the body, and that disease consists in excess or deficiency of excitation.

Buccaneer (n.) A robber upon the sea; a pirate; -- a term applied especially to the piratical adventurers who made depredations on the Spaniards in America in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Buccaneer (v. i.) To act the part of a buccaneer; to live as a piratical adventurer or sea robber.

Bucket shop () An office or a place where facilities are given for betting small sums on current prices of stocks, petroleum, etc.

Buckeye (n.) A name given to several American trees and shrubs of the same genus (Aesculus) as the horse chestnut.

Buckler (n.) A block of wood or plate of iron made to fit a hawse hole, or the circular opening in a half-port, to prevent water from entering when the vessel pitches.

Budget (n.) A bag or sack with its contents; hence, a stock or store; an accumulation; as, a budget of inventions.

Bulb (n.) A name given to some parts that resemble in shape certain bulbous roots; as, the bulb of the aorta.

Bulletin (n.) A brief statement of facts respecting some passing event, as military operations or the health of some distinguished personage, issued by authority for the information of the public.

Bump (n.) One of the protuberances on the cranium which are associated with distinct faculties or affections of the mind; as, the bump of "veneration;" the bump of "acquisitiveness."

Bundle (n.) A number of things bound together, as by a cord or envelope, into a mass or package convenient for handling or conveyance; a loose package; a roll; as, a bundle of straw or of paper; a bundle of old clothes.

Bungarum (n.) A venomous snake of India, of the genus Bungarus, allied to the cobras, but without a hood.

Burghbrech (n.) The offense of violating the pledge given by every inhabitant of a tithing to keep the peace; breach of the peace.

Burl (n.) An overgrown knot, or an excrescence, on a tree; also, veneer made from such excrescences.

Burnettize (v. t.) To subject (wood, fabrics, etc.) to a process of saturation in a solution of chloride of zinc, to prevent decay; -- a process invented by Sir William Burnett.

Burnous (n.) A cloaklike garment and hood woven in one piece, worn by Arabs.

Burr (n.) A broad iron ring on a tilting lance just below the gripe, to prevent the hand from slipping.

Bursary (n.) A scholarship or charitable foundation in a university, as in Scotland; a sum given to enable a student to pursue his studies.

Burse (n.) A fund or foundation for the maintenance of needy scholars in their studies; also, the sum given to the beneficiaries.

Bush (n.) A piece of copper, screwed into a gun, through which the venthole is bored.

But (v. t.) A push, thrust, or sudden blow, given by the head of an animal; as, the butt of a ram.

Butterfish (n.) A name given to several different fishes, in allusion to their slippery coating of mucus, as the Stromateus triacanthus of the Atlantic coast, the Epinephelus punctatus of the southern coast, the rock eel, and the kelpfish of New Zealand.

Buy (v. t.) To acquire or procure by something given or done in exchange, literally or figuratively; to get, at a cost or sacrifice; to buy pleasure with pain.

Bygone (n.) Something gone by or past; a past event.

By-stroke (n.) An accidental or a slyly given stroke.

Cabala (n.) A kind of occult theosophy or traditional interpretation of the Scriptures among Jewish rabbis and certain mediaeval Christians, which treats of the nature of god and the mystery of human existence. It assumes that every letter, word, number, and accent of Scripture contains a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation for ascertaining these occult meanings. The cabalists pretend even to foretell events by this means.

Cache (n.) A hole in the ground, or hiding place, for concealing and preserving provisions which it is inconvenient to carry.

Caesious (a.) Of the color of lavender; pale blue with a slight mixture of gray.

Cake (n.) A small mass of dough baked; especially, a thin loaf from unleavened dough; as, an oatmeal cake; johnnycake.

Cake (n.) A sweetened composition of flour and other ingredients, leavened or unleavened, baked in a loaf or mass of any size or shape.

Cake (v. i.) To concrete or consolidate into a hard mass, as dough in an oven; to coagulate.

Calamity (n.) Any great misfortune or cause of misery; -- generally applied to events or disasters which produce extensive evil, either to communities or individuals.

Calcar (n.) A kind of oven, or reverberatory furnace, used for the calcination of sand and potash, and converting them into frit.

Calcar (n.) A curved ridge in the floor of the leteral ventricle of the brain; the calcar avis, hippocampus minor, or ergot.

Calculating (a.) Given to contrivance or forethought; forecasting; scheming; as, a cool calculating disposition.

Calendar (n.) An orderly list or enumeration of persons, things, or events; a schedule; as, a calendar of state papers; a calendar of bills presented in a legislative assembly; a calendar of causes arranged for trial in court; a calendar of a college or an academy.

Calender (n.) A machine, used for the purpose of giving cloth, paper, etc., a smooth, even, and glossy or glazed surface, by cold or hot pressure, or for watering them and giving them a wavy appearance. It consists of two or more cylinders revolving nearly in contact, with the necessary apparatus for moving and regulating.

Calenture (n.) A name formerly given to various fevers occuring in tropics; esp. to a form of furious delirium accompanied by fever, among sailors, which sometimes led the affected person to imagine the sea to be a green field, and to throw himself into it.

Calk (v. t.) To drive tarred oakum into the seams between the planks of (a ship, boat, etc.), to prevent leaking. The calking is completed by smearing the seams with melted pitch.

Calk (n.) A sharp-pointed piece of iron or steel projecting downward on the shoe of a horse or an ox, to prevent the animal from slipping; -- called also calker, calkin.

Calk (n.) An instrument with sharp points, worn on the sole of a shoe or boot, to prevent slipping.

Calk (v. i.) To furnish with calks, to prevent slipping on ice; as, to calk the shoes of a horse or an ox.

Calliopsis (n.) A popular name given to a few species of the genus Coreopsis, especially to C. tinctoria of Arkansas.

Calotype (n.) A method of taking photographic pictures, on paper sensitized with iodide of silver; -- also called Talbotype, from the inventor, Mr. Fox. Talbot.

Cameralistic (a.) Of or pertaining to finance and public revenue.

Cameralistics (n.) The science of finance or public revenue.

Camera lucida () An instrument which by means of a prism of a peculiar form, or an arrangement of mirrors, causes an apparent image of an external object or objects to appear as if projected upon a plane surface, as of paper or canvas, so that the outlines may conveniently traced. It is generally used with the microscope.

Cameronian (n.) A follower of the Rev. Richard Cameron, a Scotch Covenanter of the time of Charles II.

Camlet (n.) A woven fabric originally made of camel's hair, now chiefly of goat's hair and silk, or of wool and cotton.

Camphine (n.) Rectified oil of turpentine, used for burning in lamps, and as a common solvent in varnishes.

Cancelli (v. t.) An interwoven or latticed wall or inclosure; latticework, rails, or crossbars, as around the bar of a court of justice, between the chancel and the nave of a church, or in a window.

Candytuft (n.) An annual plant of the genus Iberis, cultivated in gardens. The name was originally given to the I. umbellata, first, discovered in the island of Candia.

Cane (n.) A name given to several peculiar palms, species of Calamus and Daemanorops, having very long, smooth flexible stems, commonly called rattans.

Canker (v. i.) To be or become diseased, or as if diseased, with canker; to grow corrupt; to become venomous.

Cankered (a.) Affected mentally or morally as with canker; sore, envenomed; malignant; fretful; ill-natured.

Canna (n.) A measure of length in Italy, varying from six to seven feet. See Cane, 4.

Canon (n.) The collection of books received as genuine Holy Scriptures, called the sacred canon, or general rule of moral and religious duty, given by inspiration; the Bible; also, any one of the canonical Scriptures. See Canonical books, under Canonical, a.

Canoness (n.) A woman who holds a canonry in a conventual chapter.

Canonization (n.) The final process or decree (following beatifacation) by which the name of a deceased person is placed in the catalogue (canon) of saints and commended to perpetual veneration and invocation.

Canonry (n. pl.) A benefice or prebend in a cathedral or collegiate church; a right to a place in chapter and to a portion of its revenues; the dignity or emoluments of a canon.

Canvas (n.) A coarse cloth so woven as to form regular meshes for working with the needle, as in tapestry, or worsted work.

Canzone (n.) A song or air for one or more voices, of Provencal origin, resembling, though not strictly, the madrigal.

Capacity (n.) The power of receiving and holding ideas, knowledge, etc.; the comprehensiveness of the mind; the receptive faculty; capability of undestanding or feeling.

Caracara (n.) A south American bird of several species and genera, resembling both the eagles and the vultures. The caracaras act as scavengers, and are also called carrion buzzards.

Caravel (n.) A name given to several kinds of vessels.

Carbuncle (n.) A beautiful gem of a deep red color (with a mixture of scarlet) called by the Greeks anthrax; found in the East Indies. When held up to the sun, it loses its deep tinge, and becomes of the color of burning coal. The name belongs for the most part to ruby sapphire, though it has been also given to red spinel and garnet.

Caroline (n.) A silver coin once current in some parts of Italy, worth about seven cents.

Carnal (a.) Of or pertaining to the body or its appetites; animal; fleshly; sensual; given to sensual indulgence; lustful; human or worldly as opposed to spiritual.

Carnal (a.) Flesh-devouring; cruel; ravenous; bloody.

Carpet (n.) A heavy woven or felted fabric, usually of wool, but also of cotton, hemp, straw, etc.; esp. a floor covering made in breadths to be sewed together and nailed to the floor, as distinguished from a rug or mat; originally, also, a wrought cover for tables.

Carpetbagger (n.) An adventurer; -- a term of contempt for a Northern man seeking private gain or political advancement in the southern part of the United States after the Civil War (1865).

Carroty (a.) Like a carrot in color or in taste; -- an epithet given to reddish yellow hair, etc.

Carte blanche () A blank paper, with a person's signature, etc., at the bottom, given to another person, with permission to superscribe what conditions he pleases. Hence: Unconditional terms; unlimited authority.

Carven (a.) Wrought by carving; ornamented by carvings; carved.

Carvene (n.) An oily substance, C10H16, extracted from oil caraway.

Case (n.) That which befalls, comes, or happens; an event; an instance; a circumstance, or all the circumstances; condition; state of things; affair; as, a strange case; a case of injustice; the case of the Indian tribes.

Cassican (n.) An American bird of the genus Cassicus, allied to the starlings and orioles, remarkable for its skillfully constructed and suspended nest; the crested oriole. The name is also sometimes given to the piping crow, an Australian bird.

Cassidony (n.) The French lavender (Lavandula Stoechas)

Cast (n.) A throw of dice; hence, a chance or venture.

Casuist (n.) One who is skilled in, or given to, casuistry.

Casus (n.) An event; an occurrence; an occasion; a combination of circumstances; a case; an act of God. See the Note under Accident.

Catalepsis (n.) A sudden suspension of sensation and volition, the body and limbs preserving the position that may be given them, while the action of the heart and lungs continues.

Cataract (n.) An opacity of the crystalline lens, or of its capsule, which prevents the passage of the rays of light and impairs or destroys the sight.

Catastrophe (n.) An event producing a subversion of the order or system of things; a final event, usually of a calamitous or disastrous nature; hence, sudden calamity; great misfortune.

Catastrophe (n.) The final event in a romance or a dramatic piece; a denouement, as a death in a tragedy, or a marriage in a comedy.

Catfish (n.) A name given in the United States to various species of siluroid fishes; as, the yellow cat (Amiurus natalis); the bind cat (Gronias nigrilabrus); the mud cat (Pilodictic oilwaris), the stone cat (Noturus flavus); the sea cat (Arius felis), etc. This name is also sometimes applied to the wolf fish. See Bullhrad.

Cat's-eye (n.) A variety of quartz or chalcedony, exhibiting opalescent reflections from within, like the eye of a cat. The name is given to other gems affording like effects, esp. the chrysoberyl.

Caucus (n.) A meeting, especially a preliminary meeting, of persons belonging to a party, to nominate candidates for public office, or to select delegates to a nominating convention, or to confer regarding measures of party policy; a political primary meeting.

Causticily (n.) The quality of being caustic; corrosiveness; as, the causticity of potash.

Cautionary (a.) Given as a pledge or as security.

Caveat (n.) A notice given by an interested party to some officer not to do a certain act until the party is heard in opposition; as, a caveat entered in a probate court to stop the proving of a will or the taking out of letters of administration, etc.

Caveat (n.) A description of some invention, designed to be patented, lodged in the patent office before the patent right is applied for, and operating as a bar to the issue of letters patent to any other person, respecting the same invention.

Cavendish (n.) Leaf tobacco softened, sweetened, and pressed into plugs or cakes.

Caw (v. i.) To cry like a crow, rook, or raven.

Caw (n.) The cry made by the crow, rook, or raven.

Celestial (a.) Belonging to the aerial regions, or visible heavens.

Celestial (a.) Of or pertaining to the spiritual heaven; heavenly; divine.

Celestial (n.) An inhabitant of heaven.

Celestify (v. t.) To make like heaven.

Cell (n.) A very small and close apartment, as in a prison or in a monastery or convent; the hut of a hermit.

Cell (n.) A small religious house attached to a monastery or convent.

Celsius (n.) The Celsius thermometer or scale, so called from Anders Celsius, a Swedish astronomer, who invented it. It is the same as the centigrade thermometer or scale.

Cenobite (n.) One of a religious order, dwelling in a convent, or a community, in opposition to an anchoret, or hermit, who lives in solitude.

Censor (n.) One given to fault-finding; a censurer.

Centaur (n.) A constellation in the southern heavens between Hydra and the Southern Cross.

Centaury (n.) A gentianaceous plant not fully identified. The name is usually given to the Erytheraea Centaurium and the Chlora perfoliata of Europe, but is also extended to the whole genus Sabbatia, and even to the unrelated Centaurea.

Centenary (n.) A commemoration or celebration of an event which occurred a hundred years before.

Centennial (a.) Relating to, or associated with, the commemoration of an event that happened a hundred years before; as, a centennial ode.

Centennial (n.) The celebration of the hundredth anniversary of any event; a centenary.

Centreboard (n.) A movable or sliding keel formed of a broad board or slab of wood or metal which may be raised into a water-tight case amidships, when in shallow water, or may be lowered to increase the area of lateral resistance and prevent leeway when the vessel is beating to windward. It is used in vessels of all sizes along the coast of the United States

Centiped (n.) A species of the Myriapoda; esp. the large, flattened, venomous kinds of the order Chilopoda, found in tropical climates. they are many-jointed, and have a great number of feet.

Century (n.) A period of a hundred years; as, this event took place over two centuries ago.

Ceremony (n.) Ar act or series of acts, often of a symbolical character, prescribed by law, custom, or authority, in the conduct of important matters, as in the performance of religious duties, the transaction of affairs of state, and the celebration of notable events; as, the ceremony of crowning a sovereign; the ceremonies observed in consecrating a church; marriage and baptismal ceremonies.

Cessavit (n.) A writ given by statute to recover lands when the tenant has for two years failed to perform the conditions of his tenure.

Chafeweed (n.) The cudweed (Gnaphalium), used to prevent or cure chafing.

Chain (n.) A series of things linked together; or a series of things connected and following each other in succession; as, a chain of mountains; a chain of events or ideas.

Chain wheel () An inversion of the chain pump, by which it becomes a motor driven by water.

Champerty (n.) The prosecution or defense of a suit, whether by furnishing money or personal services, by one who has no legitimate concern therein, in consideration of an agreement that he shall receive, in the event of success, a share of the matter in suit; maintenance with the addition of an agreement to divide the thing in suit. See Maintenance.

Chance (n.) The supposed effect of such an agent; something that befalls, as the result of unknown or unconsidered forces; the issue of uncertain conditions; an event not calculated upon; an unexpected occurrence; a happening; accident; fortuity; casualty.

Chance (v. t.) To take the chances of; to venture upon; -- usually with it as object.

Chancre (n.) A venereal sore or ulcer; specifically, the initial lesion of true syphilis, whether forming a distinct ulcer or not; -- called also hard chancre, indurated chancre, and Hunterian chancre.

Chancroid (n.) A venereal sore, resembling a chancre in its seat and some external characters, but differing from it in being the starting point of a purely local process and never of a systemic disease; -- called also soft chancre.

Changeling (a.) Given to change; inconstant.

Chapelet (n.) A pair of straps, with stirrups, joined at the top and fastened to the pommel or the frame of the saddle, after they have been adjusted to the convenience of the rider.

Chaplainship (n.) The possession or revenue of a chapel.

Chapter (n.) An assembly of monks, or of the prebends and other clergymen connected with a cathedral, conventual, or collegiate church, or of a diocese, usually presided over by the dean.

Character (n.) A written statement as to behavior, competency, etc., given to a servant.

Charge (v. i.) To squat on its belly and be still; -- a command given by a sportsman to a dog.

Charge (n.) Thirty-six pigs of lead, each pig weighing about seventy pounds; -- called also charre.

Chargeable (a.) Subject to be charge or accused; liable or responsible; as, revenues chargeable with a claim; a man chargeable with murder.

Charism (n.) A miraculously given power, as of healing, speaking foreign languages without instruction, etc., attributed to some of the early Christians.

Charles's Wain () The group of seven stars, commonly called the Dipper, in the constellation Ursa Major, or Great Bear. See Ursa major, under Ursa.

Chat (n.) A bird of the genus Icteria, allied to the warblers, in America. The best known species are the yellow-breasted chat (I. viridis), and the long-tailed chat (I. longicauda). In Europe the name is given to several birds of the family Saxicolidae, as the stonechat, and whinchat.

Chatty (a.) Given to light, familiar talk; talkative.

Chavender (n.) The chub.

Check (n.) A mark, certificate, or token, by which, errors may be prevented, or a thing or person may be identified; as, checks placed against items in an account; a check given for baggage; a return check on a railroad.

Check (n.) A woven or painted design in squares resembling the patten of a checkerboard; one of the squares of such a design; also, cloth having such a figure.

Checker (n.) To variegate or diversify with different qualities, colors, scenes, or events; esp., to subject to frequent alternations of prosperity and adversity.

Checkrein (n.) A short rein looped over the check hook to prevent a horse from lowering his head; -- called also a bearing rein.

Chekmak (n.) A turkish fabric of silk and cotton, with gold thread interwoven.

Chemist (n.) A person versed in chemistry or given to chemical investigation; an analyst; a maker or seller of chemicals or drugs.

Chemosmosis (n.) Chemical action taking place through an intervening membrane.

Cheven (n.) A river fish; the chub.

Cheventein (n.) A variant of Chieftain.

Chilognatha (n. pl.) One of the two principal orders of myriapods. They have numerous segments, each bearing two pairs of small, slender legs, which are attached ventrally, near together.

Chirk (v. t.) To cheer; to enliven; as, to chirk one up.

Chirograph (n.) A writing which, requiring a counterpart, was engrossed twice on the same piece of parchment, with a space between, in which was written the word chirographum, through which the parchment was cut, and one part given to each party. It answered to what is now called a charter party.

Chiromancy (n.) The art or practice of foretelling events, or of telling the fortunes or the disposition of persons by inspecting the hand; palmistry.

Chirping (a.) Cheering; enlivening.

Chisel (n.) A tool with a cutting edge on one end of a metal blade, used in dressing, shaping, or working in timber, stone, metal, etc.; -- usually driven by a mallet or hammer.

Chloroform (n.) A colorless volatile liquid, CHCl3, having an ethereal odor and a sweetish taste, formed by treating alcohol with chlorine and an alkali. It is a powerful solvent of wax, resin, etc., and is extensively used to produce anaesthesia in surgical operations; also externally, to alleviate pain.

Chock (n.) A wedge, or block made to fit in any space which it is desired to fill, esp. something to steady a cask or other body, or prevent it from moving, by fitting into the space around or beneath it.

Choroid (a.) resembling the chorion; as, the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and the choroid coat of the eyeball.

Chorus (n.) A company of persons supposed to behold what passed in the acts of a tragedy, and to sing the sentiments which the events suggested in couplets or verses between the acts; also, that which was thus sung by the chorus.

Chout (n.) An assessment equal to a fourth part of the revenue.

Christ (n.) The Anointed; an appellation given to Jesus, the Savior. It is synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah.

Chronicle (n.) An historical register or account of facts or events disposed in the order of time.

Chronicle (n.) A narrative of events; a history; a record.

Chronicler (n.) A writer of a chronicle; a recorder of events in the order of time; an historian.

Chronological (a.) Relating to chronology; containing an account of events in the order of time; according to the order of time; as, chronological tables.

Chronologer (n.) A person who investigates dates of events and transactions; one skilled in chronology.

Chronology (n.) The science which treats of measuring time by regular divisions or periods, and which assigns to events or transactions their proper dates.

Chrysotype (n.) 2process, invented by Sir J.Herschel.

Chub (n.) A species to fresh-water fish of the Cyprinidae or Carp family. The common European species is Leuciscus cephalus; the cheven. In America the name is applied to various fishes of the same family, of the genera Semotilus, Squalius, Ceratichthys, etc., and locally to several very different fishes, as the tautog, black bass, etc.

Cicada (n.) Any species of the genus Cicada. They are large hemipterous insects, with nearly transparent wings. The male makes a shrill sound by peculiar organs in the under side of the abdomen, consisting of a pair of stretched membranes, acted upon by powerful muscles. A noted American species (C. septendecim) is called the seventeen year locust. Another common species is the dogday cicada.

Circler (n.) A mean or inferior poet, perhaps from his habit of wandering around as a stroller; an itinerant poet. Also, a name given to the cyclic poets. See under Cyclic, a.

Circular (a.) A circular letter, or paper, usually printed, copies of which are addressed or given to various persons; as, a business circular.

Circumduct (v. t.) To contravene; to nullify; as, to circumduct acts of judicature.

Circumstance (n.) That which attends, or relates to, or in some way affects, a fact or event; an attendant thing or state of things.

Circumstance (n.) An event; a fact; a particular incident.

Circumstanced (p. a.) Governed by events or circumstances.

Circumvented (imp. & p. p.) of Circumvent

Circumventing (p. pr. vb. n.) of Circumvent

Circumvent (v. t.) To gain advantage over by arts, stratagem, or deception; to decieve; to delude; to get around.

Circumvention (n.) The act of prevailing over another by arts, address, or fraud; deception; fraud; imposture; delusion.

Circumventive (a.) Tending to circumvent; deceiving by artifices; deluding.

Circumventor (n.) One who circumvents; one who gains his purpose by cunning.

Cissoid (n.) A curve invented by Diocles, for the purpose of solving two celebrated problems of the higher geometry; viz., to trisect a plane angle, and to construct two geometrical means between two given straight lines.

Citation (n.) An official summons or notice given to a person to appear; the paper containing such summons or notice.

Clam (v. t.) A bivalve mollusk of many kinds, especially those that are edible; as, the long clam (Mya arenaria), the quahog or round clam (Venus mercenaria), the sea clam or hen clam (Spisula solidissima), and other species of the United States. The name is said to have been given originally to the Tridacna gigas, a huge East Indian bivalve.

Claret (n.) The name first given in England to the red wines of Medoc, in France, and afterwards extended to all the red Bordeaux wines. The name is also given to similar wines made in the United States.

Clasper (n.) One of a pair of male copulatory organs, developed on the anterior side of the ventral fins of sharks and other elasmobranchs. See Illust. of Chimaera.

Clavicle (n.) The collar bone, which is joined at one end to the scapula, or shoulder blade, and at the other to the sternum, or breastbone. In man each clavicle is shaped like the letter /, and is situated just above the first rib on either side of the neck. In birds the two clavicles are united ventrally, forming the merrythought, or wishbone.

Clayes (n. pl.) Wattles, or hurdles, made with stakes interwoven with osiers, to cover lodgments.

Cleading (n.) A jacket or outer covering of wood, etc., to prevent radiation of heat, as from the boiler, cylinder. etc., of a steam engine.

Cleat (n.) A strip of wood or iron fastened on transversely to something in order to give strength, prevent warping, hold position, etc.

Cloven () of Cleave

Cleft-footed (a.) Having a cloven foot.

Click (n.) A detent, pawl, or ratchet, as that which catches the cogs of a ratchet wheel to prevent backward motion. See Illust. of Ratched wheel.

Climax (v. i.) A figure in which the parts of a sentence or paragraph are so arranged that each succeeding one rises above its predecessor in impressiveness.

Clinch (v. t.) To bend or turn over the point of (something that has been driven through an object), so that it will hold fast; as, to clinch a nail.

Close (v. t.) The interest which one may have in a piece of ground, even though it is not inclosed.

Close (v. t.) Oppressive; without motion or ventilation; causing a feeling of lassitude; -- said of the air, weather, etc.

Close (v. t.) Nearly equal; almost evenly balanced; as, a close vote.

Cloth (n.) A fabric made of fibrous material (or sometimes of wire, as in wire cloth); commonly, a woven fabric of cotton, woolen, or linen, adapted to be made into garments; specifically, woolen fabrics, as distinguished from all others.

Clothing (n.) A covering of non-conducting material on the outside of a boiler, or steam chamber, to prevent radiation of heat.

Clouding (n.) A mottled appearance given to ribbons and silks in the process of dyeing.

Clove (n.) A weight. A clove of cheese is about eight pounds, of wool, about seven pounds.

Cloven (p. p. & a.) from Cleave, v. t.

Cloven-footed (a.) Alt. of Cloven-hoofed

Cloven-hoofed (a.) Having the foot or hoof divided into two parts, as the ox.

Clover (n.) A plant of different species of the genus Trifolium; as the common red clover, T. pratense, the white, T. repens, and the hare's foot, T. arvense.

Coadventure (n.) An adventure in which two or more persons are partakers.

Coadventure (v. i.) To share in a venture.

Coadventurer (n.) A fellow adventurer.

Coamings (n. pl.) Raised pieces of wood of iron around a hatchway, skylight, or other opening in the deck, to prevent water from running bellow; esp. the fore-and-aft pieces of a hatchway frame as distinguished from the transverse head ledges.

Cobra de capello () The hooded snake (Naia tripudians), a highly venomous serpent inhabiting India.Naja --

Cock (n.) The act of cocking; also, the turn so given; as, a cock of the eyes; to give a hat a saucy cock.

Cockatrice (n.) A venomous serpent which which cannot now be identified.

Cockatrice (n.) Any venomous or deadly thing.

Cocker (n.) One given to cockfighting.

Cocket (n.) A customhouse seal; a certified document given to a shipper as a warrant that his goods have been duly entered and have paid duty.

Coelospermous (a.) Hollow-seeded; having the ventral face of the seedlike carpels incurved at the ends, as in coriander seed.

Coffle (n.) A gang of negro slaves being driven to market.

Cogency (n.) The quality of being cogent; power of compelling conviction; conclusiveness; force.

Cogitative (a.) Given to thought or contemplation.

Cognizance (n.) Jurisdiction, or the power given by law to hear and decide controversies.

Coherency (n.) Connection or dependence, proceeding from the subordination of the parts of a thing to one principle or purpose, as in the parts of a discourse, or of a system of philosophy; consecutiveness.

Cohosh (n.) A perennial American herb (Caulophyllum thalictroides), whose rootstock is used in medicine; -- also called pappoose root. The name is sometimes also given to the Cimicifuga racemosa, and to two species of Actaea, plants of the Crowfoot family.

Coin (v. t.) To make or fabricate; to invent; to originate; as, to coin a word.

Coinage (v. t.) The act or process of fabricating or inventing; formation; fabrication; that which is fabricated or forged.

Coincident (n.) One of two or more coincident events; a coincidence.

Coiner (n.) An inventor or maker, as of words.

Coke (n.) Mineral coal charred, or depriver of its bitumen, sulphur, or other volatile matter by roasting in a kiln or oven, or by distillation, as in gas works. It is lagerly used where / smokeless fire is required.

Collar (n.) A ring or round flange upon, surrounding, or against an object, and used for restraining motion within given limits, or for holding something to its place, or for hiding an opening around an object; as, a collar on a shaft, used to prevent endwise motion of the shaft; a collar surrounding a stovepipe at the place where it enters a wall. The flanges of a piston and the gland of a stuffing box are sometimes called collars.

Collectiveness (n.) A state of union; mass.

Colorman (n.) A vender of paints, etc.

Columbia (n.) America; the United States; -- a poetical appellation given in honor of Columbus, the discoverer.

Comart (n.) A covenant.

Combativeness (n.) The quality of being combative; propensity to contend or to quarrel.

Combativeness (n.) A cranial development supposed to indicate a combative disposition.

Combine (v. i.) To unite by affinity or natural attraction; as, two substances, which will not combine of themselves, may be made to combine by the intervention of a third.

Comedy (n.) A dramatic composition, or representation of a bright and amusing character, based upon the foibles of individuals, the manners of society, or the ludicrous events or accidents of life; a play in which mirth predominates and the termination of the plot is happy; -- opposed to tragedy.

Coming (n.) Approach; advent; manifestation; as, the coming of the train.

Coming (n.) Specifically: The Second Advent of Christ.

Commandment (n.) An order or injunction given by authority; a command; a charge; a precept; a mandate.

Commandment (n.) One of the ten laws or precepts given by God to the Israelites at Mount Sinai.

Commemorate (v. t.) To call to remembrance by a special act or observance; to celebrate with honor and solemnity; to honor, as a person or event, by some act of respect or affection, intended to preserve the remembrance of the person or event; as, to commemorate the sufferings and dying love of our Savior by the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; to commemorate the Declaration of Independence by the observance of the Fourth of July.

Commemoration (n.) The act of commemorating; an observance or celebration designed to honor the memory of some person or event.

Commendam (n.) A vacant living or benefice commended to a cleric (usually a bishop) who enjoyed the revenue until a pastor was provided. A living so held was said to be held in commendam. The practice was abolished by law in 1836.

Commentary (v. i.) A brief account of transactions or events written hastily, as if for a memorandum; -- usually in the plural; as, Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War.

Commination (n.) A threat or threatening; a denunciation of punishment or vengeance.

Commodious (a.) Adapted to its use or purpose, or to wants and necessities; serviceable; spacious and convenient; roomy and comfortable; as, a commodious house.

Commodiousness (n.) State of being commodious; suitableness for its purpose; convenience; roominess.

Commodity (n.) Convenience; accommodation; profit; benefit; advantage; interest; commodiousness.

Commodity (n.) That which affords convenience, advantage, or profit, especially in commerce, including everything movable that is bought and sold (except animals), -- goods, wares, merchandise, produce of land and manufactures, etc.

Commodore (n.) A title given by courtesy to the senior captain of a line of merchant vessels, and also to the chief officer of a yachting or rowing club.

Common (v.) Given to habits of lewdness; prostitute.

Communicativeness (n.) The quality of being communicative.

Compact (n.) An agreement between parties; a covenant or contract.

Compass (v. t.) To reach round; to circumvent; to get within one's power; to obtain; to accomplish.

Competency (n.) Property or means sufficient for the necessaries and conveniences of life; sufficiency without excess.

Complement (v. t.) A second quantity added to a given quantity to make it equal to a third given quantity.

Complication (n.) A disease or diseases, or adventitious circumstances or conditions, coexistent with and modifying a primary disease, but not necessarily connected with it.

Compliment (v. i.) To pass compliments; to use conventional expressions of respect.

Complimenter (n.) One who compliments; one given to complimenting; a flatterer.

Complin (n.) The last division of the Roman Catholic breviary; the seventh and last of the canonical hours of the Western church; the last prayer of the day, to be said after sunset.

Composition (n.) The invention or combination of the parts of any literary work or discourse, or of a work of art; as, the composition of a poem or a piece of music.

Comprehensiveness (n.) The quality of being comprehensive; extensiveness of scope.

Concaveness (n.) Hollowness; concavity.

Conceal (v. t.) To hide or withdraw from observation; to cover; to cover or keep from sight; to prevent the discovery of; to withhold knowledge of.

Concentrativeness (n.) The quality of concentrating.

Concentrativeness (n.) The faculty or propensity which has to do with concentrating the intellectual the intellectual powers.

Conchoid (n.) A curve, of the fourth degree, first made use of by the Greek geometer, Nicomedes, who invented it for the purpose of trisecting an angle and duplicating the cube.

Conclusiveness (n.) The quality of being conclusive; decisiveness.

Concoct (v. t.) To prepare from crude materials, as food; to invent or prepare by combining different ingredients; as, to concoct a new dish or beverage.

Concord (n.) Agreement by stipulation; compact; covenant; treaty or league.

Concordat (n.) A compact, covenant, or agreement concerning anything.

Concurrent (a.) Acting in conjunction; agreeing in the same act or opinion; contributing to the same event or effect; cooperating.

Condenser (n.) An instrument for condensing air or other elastic fluids, consisting of a cylinder having a movable piston to force the air into a receiver, and a valve to prevent its escape.

Condition (n.) A clause in a contract, or agreement, which has for its object to suspend, to defeat, or in some way to modify, the principal obligation; or, in case of a will, to suspend, revoke, or modify a devise or bequest. It is also the case of a future uncertain event, which may or may not happen, and on the occurrence or non-occurrence of which, the accomplishment, recission, or modification of an obligation or testamentary disposition is made to depend.

Condonation (n.) Forgiveness, either express or implied, by a husband of his wife or by a wife of her husband, for a breach of marital duty, as adultery, with an implied condition that the offense shall not be repeated.

Condottiere (n.) A military adventurer of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, who sold his services, and those of his followers, to any party in any contest.

Conduciveness (n.) The quality of conducing.

Confederate (a.) Of or pertaining to the government of the eleven Southern States of the United States which (1860-1865) attempted to establish an independent nation styled the Confederate States of America; as, the Confederate congress; Confederate money.

Confederate (v. i.) To unite in a league; to join in a mutual contract or covenant; to band together.

Confragose (a.) Broken; uneven.

Congestion (n.) Overfullness of the capillary and other blood vessels, etc., in any locality or organ (often producing other morbid symptoms); local hyper/mia, active or passive; as, arterial congestion; venous congestion; congestion of the lungs.

Conglutinate (v. i.) To unite by the intervention of some glutinous substance; to coalesce.

Congratulate (v. t.) To address with expressions of sympathetic pleasure on account of some happy event affecting the person addressed; to wish joy to.

Conjunctiveness (n.) The state or quality of being conjunctive.

Conjuncture (n.) A crisis produced by a combination of circumstances; complication or combination of events or circumstances; plight resulting from various conditions.

Connect (v. t.) To join, or fasten together, as by something intervening; to associate; to combine; to unite or link together; to establish a bond or relation between.

Connivance (n.) Corrupt or guilty assent to wrongdoing, not involving actual participation in, but knowledge of, and failure to prevent or oppose it.

Connivency (n.) Connivance.

Connivent (a.) Forbearing to see; designedly inattentive; as, connivent justice.

Connivent (a.) Brought close together; arched inward so that the points meet; converging; in close contact; as, the connivent petals of a flower, wings of an insect, or folds of membrane in the human system, etc.

Conoid (n.) A surface which may be generated by a straight line moving in such a manner as always to meet a given straight line and a given curve, and continue parallel to a given plane.

Consecrate (v. t.) To render venerable or revered; to hallow; to dignify; as, rules or principles consecrated by time.

Consecutiveness (n.) The state or quality of being consecutive.

Consequentially (adv.) By remote consequence; not immediately; eventually; as, to do a thing consequentially.

Conservativeness (a.) The quality of being conservative.

Considerate (a.) Given to consideration or to sober reflection; regardful of consequences or circumstances; circumspect; careful; esp. careful of the rights, claims, and feelings of other.

Conspiracy (n.) A concurence or general tendency, as of circumstances, to one event, as if by agreement.

Constant (v. t.) Not liable, or given, to change; permanent; regular; continuous; continually recurring; steadfast; faithful; not fickle.

Constellate (v. t.) To set or adorn with stars or constellations; as, constellated heavens.

Constellation (n.) A cluster or group of fixed stars, or dvision of the heavens, designated in most cases by the name of some animal, or of some mythologial personage, within whose imaginary outline, as traced upon the heavens, the group is included.

Constipate (v. t.) To stop (a channel) by filling it, and preventing passage through it; as, to constipate the capillary vessels.

Constipation (n.) A state of the bowels in which the evacuations are infrequent and difficult, or the intestines become filled with hardened faeces; costiveness.

Construct (v. t.) To devise; to invent; to set in order; to arrange; as, to construct a theory of ethics.

Constructiveness (n.) Tendency or ability to form or construct.

Constructiveness (n.) The faculty which enables one to construct, as in mechanical, artistic, or literary matters.

Consumptiveness (n.) A state of being consumptive, or a tendency to a consumption.

Contemplant (a.) Given to contemplation; meditative.

Contemplation (n.) The act of looking forward to an event as about to happen; expectation; the act of intending or purposing.

Contemplativeness (n.) The state of being contemplative; thoughtfulness.

Contemporaneously (adv.) At the same time with some other event.

Contentious (a.) Fond of contention; given to angry debate; provoking dispute or contention; quarrelsome.

Context (a.) Knit or woven together; close; firm.

Contextural (a.) Pertaining to contexture or arrangement of parts; producing contexture; interwoven.

Contextured (a.) Formed into texture; woven together; arranged; composed.

Contingency (n.) An event which may or may not occur; that which is possible or probable; a fortuitous event; a chance.

Contingency (n.) A certain possible event that may or may not happen, by which, when happening, some particular title may be affected.

Contingent (a.) Dependent on that which is undetermined or unknown; as, the success of his undertaking is contingent upon events which he can not control.

Contingent (n.) An event which may or may not happen; that which is unforeseen, undetermined, or dependent on something future; a contingency.

Continue (v. i.) To remain in a given place or condition; to remain in connection with; to abide; to stay.

Continued (p. p. & a.) Having extension of time, space, order of events, exertion of energy, etc.; extended; protracted; uninterrupted; also, resumed after interruption; extending through a succession of issues, session, etc.; as, a continued story.

Continuous (a.) Without break, cessation, or interruption; without intervening space or time; uninterrupted; unbroken; continual; unceasing; constant; continued; protracted; extended; as, a continuous line of railroad; a continuous current of electricity.

Contract (n.) To enter into, with mutual obligations; to make a bargain or covenant for.

Contract (v. i.) To make an agreement; to covenant; to agree; to bargain; as, to contract for carrying the mail.

Contractor (n.) One who contracts; one of the parties to a bargain; one who covenants to do anything for another; specifically, one who contracts to perform work on a rather large scale, at a certain price or rate, as in building houses or making a railroad.

Contrahent (a.) Entering into covenant; contracting; as, contrahent parties.

Contrary (a.) Given to opposition; perverse; forward; wayward; as, a contrary disposition; a contrary child.

Contravened (imp. & p. p.) of Contravene

Contravening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Contravene

Contravene (v. t.) To meet in the way of opposition; to come into conflict with; to oppose; to contradict; to obstruct the operation of; to defeat.

Contravene (v. t.) To violate; to nullify; to be inconsistent with; as, to contravene a law.

Contravener (n.) One who contravenes.

Contravention (n.) The act of contravening; opposition; obstruction; transgression; violation.

Contrivble (a.) Capable of being contrived, planned, invented, or devised.

Contrivance (n.) The act or faculty of contriving, inventing, devising, or planning.

Contrivance (n.) The thing contrived, invented, or planned; disposition of parts or causes by design; a scheme; plan; atrifice; arrangement.

Contrive (v. t.) To form by an exercise of ingenuity; to devise; to invent; to design; to plan.

Contrivement (n.) Contrivance; invention; arrangement; design; plan.

Controvertist (n.) One skilled in or given to controversy; a controversialist.

Convenable (a.) Capable of being convened or assembled.

Convenable (a.) Consistent; accordant; suitable; proper; as, convenable remedies.

Convenance (n.) That which is suitable, agreeable, or convenient.

Convened (imp. & p. p.) of Convene

Convenong (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Convene

Convene (v. i.) To come together; to meet; to unite.

Convene (v. i.) To come together, as in one body or for a public purpose; to meet; to assemble.

Convene (v. t.) To cause to assemble; to call together; to convoke.

Convene (v. t.) To summon judicially to meet or appear.

Convener (n.) One who convenes or meets with others.

Convener (n.) One who calls an assembly together or convenes a meeting; hence, the chairman of a committee or other organized body.

Convenience (n.) Alt. of Conveniency

Conveniency (n.) The state or quality of being convenient; fitness or suitableness, as of place, time, etc.; propriety.

Conveniency (n.) Freedom from discomfort, difficulty, or trouble; commodiousness; ease; accommodation.

Conveniency (n.) That which is convenient; that which promotes comfort or advantage; that which is suited to one's wants; an accommodation.

Conveniency (n.) A convenient or fit time; opportunity; as, to do something at one's convenience.

Convenient (v. i.) Fit or adapted; suitable; proper; becoming; appropriate.

Convenient (v. i.) Affording accommodation or advantage; well adapted to use; handly; as, a convenient house; convenient implements or tools.

Convenient (v. i.) Seasonable; timely; opportune; as, a convenient occasion; a convenient season.

Convenient (v. i.) Near at hand; easy of access.

Conveniently (adv.) In a convenient manner, form, or situation; without difficulty.

Convent (v. i.) A coming together; a meeting.

Convent (v. i.) An association or community of recluses devoted to a religious life; a body of monks or nuns.

Convent (v. i.) A house occupied by a community of religious recluses; a monastery or nunnery.

Convent (v. i.) To meet together; to concur.

Convent (v. i.) To be convenient; to serve.

Convent (v. t.) To call before a judge or judicature; to summon; to convene.

Conventical (a.) Of or from, or pertaining to, a convent.

Conventicle (n.) A small assembly or gathering; esp., a secret assembly.

Conventicle (n.) An assembly for religious worship; esp., such an assembly held privately, as in times of persecution, by Nonconformists or Dissenters in England, or by Covenanters in Scotland; -- often used opprobriously, as if those assembled were heretics or schismatics.

Conventicler (n.) One who supports or frequents conventicles.

Conventicling (a.) Belonging or going to, or resembling, a conventicle.

Convention (v. i.) The act of coming together; the state of being together; union; coalition.

Convention (v. i.) General agreement or concurrence; arbitrary custom; usage; conventionality.

Convention (v. i.) A meeting or an assembly of persons, esp. of delegates or representatives, to accomplish some specific object, -- civil, social, political, or ecclesiastical.

Convention (v. i.) An extraordinary assembly of the parkiament or estates of the realm, held without the king's writ, -- as the assembly which restored Charles II. to the throne, and that which declared the throne to be abdicated by James II.

Convention (v. i.) An agreement or contract less formal than, or preliminary to, a treaty; an informal compact, as between commanders of armies in respect to suspension of hostilities, or between states; also, a formal agreement between governments or sovereign powers; as, a postal convention between two governments.

Conventional (a.) Formed by agreement or compact; stipulated.

Conventional (a.) Growing out of, or depending on, custom or tacit agreement; sanctioned by general concurrence or usage; formal.

Conventional (a.) Based upon tradition, whether religious and historical or of artistic rules.

Conventional (a.) Abstracted; removed from close representation of nature by the deliberate selection of what is to be represented and what is to be rejected; as, a conventional flower; a conventional shell. Cf. Conventionalize, v. t.

Conventionalism (n.) That which is received or established by convention or arbitrary agreement; that which is in accordance with the fashion, tradition, or usage.

Conventionalism (n.) The principles or practice of conventionalizing. See Conventionalize, v. t.

Conventionalist (n.) One who adheres to a convention or treaty.

Conventionalist (n.) One who is governed by conventionalism.

Conventionalities (pl. ) of Conventionality

Conventionality (n.) The state of being conventional; adherence to social formalities or usages; that which is established by conventional use; one of the customary usages of social life.

Conventionalization (n.) The act of making conventional.

Conventionalization (n.) The state of being conventional.

Conventionalized (imp. & p. p.) of Conventionalizw

Conventionalizing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Conventionalizw

Conventionalizw (v. t.) To make conventional; to bring under the influence of, or cause to conform to, conventional rules; to establish by usage.

Conventionalizw (v. t.) To represent by selecting the important features and those which are expressible in the medium employed, and omitting the others.

Conventionalizw (v. t.) To represent according to an established principle, whether religious or traditional, or based upon certain artistic rules of supposed importance.

Conventionalize (v. i.) To make designs in art, according to conventional principles. Cf. Conventionalize, v. t., 2.

Conventionalily (adv.) In a conventional manner.

Conventionary (a.) Acting under contract; settled by express agreement; as, conventionary tenants.

Conventioner (n.) One who belongs to a convention or assembly.

Conventionist (n.) One who enters into a convention, covenant, or contract.

Conventual (a.) Of or pertaining to a convent; monastic.

Conventual (n.) One who lives in a convent; a monk or nun; a recluse.

Conversant (n.) One who converses with another; a convenser.

Conveyer (n.) One given to artifices or secret practices; a juggler; a cheat; a thief.

Cool (n.) A moderate state of cold; coolness; -- said of the temperature of the air between hot and cold; as, the cool of the day; the cool of the morning or evening.

Coom (n.) Soot; coal dust; refuse matter, as the dirty grease which comes from axle boxes, or the refuse at the mouth of an oven.

Corby (n.) The raven.

Corby (n.) A raven, crow, or chough, used as a charge.

Cordelier (n.) A member of a French political club of the time of the first Revolution, of which Danton and Marat were members, and which met in an old Cordelier convent in Paris.

Corinthian (a.) Of or pertaining to the Corinthian order of architecture, invented by the Greeks, but more commonly used by the Romans.

Cormorant (n.) Any species of Phalacrocorax, a genus of sea birds having a sac under the beak; the shag. Cormorants devour fish voraciously, and have become the emblem of gluttony. They are generally black, and hence are called sea ravens, and coalgeese.

Cormoraut (a.) Ravenous; voracious.

Cornbind (n.) A weed that binds stalks of corn, as Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum Convolvulus.

Corollary (n.) That which is given beyond what is actually due, as a garland of flowers in addition to wages; surplus; something added or superfluous.

Corona (n.) A peculiar phase of the aurora borealis, formed by the concentration or convergence of luminous beams around the point in the heavens indicated by the direction of the dipping needle.

Corrasion (n.) The erosion of the bed of a stream by running water, principally by attrition of the detritus carried along by the stream, but also by the solvent action of the water.

Correction (n.) Abatement of noxious qualities; the counteraction of what is inconvenient or hurtful in its effects; as, the correction of acidity in the stomach.

Correlativeness (n.) Quality of being correlative.

Corven () p. p. of Carve.

Cosmographer (n.) One who describes the world or universe, including the heavens and the earth.

Cosmolabe (n.) An instrument resembling the astrolabe, formerly used for measuring the angles between heavenly bodies; -- called also pantacosm.

Cosmosphere (n.) An apparatus for showing the position of the earth, at any given time, with respect to the fixed stars. It consist of a hollow glass globe, on which are depicted the stars and constellations, and within which is a terrestrial globe.

Cost (v. t.) To require to be given, expended, or laid out therefor, as in barter, purchase, acquisition, etc.; to cause the cost, expenditure, relinquishment, or loss of; as, the ticket cost a dollar; the effort cost his life.

Costiveness (n.) An unnatural retention of the fecal matter of the bowels; constipation.

Costiveness (n.) Inability to express one's self; stiffness.

Costliness (n.) The quality of being costy; expensiveness; sumptuousness.

Cotter (n.) A piece of wood or metal, commonly wedge-shaped, used for fastening together parts of a machine or structure. It is driven into an opening through one or all of the parts. [See Illust.] In the United States a cotter is commonly called a key.

Coulee (n.) a stream of lava. Also, in the Western United States, the bed of a stream, even if dry, when deep and having inclined sides; distinguished from a ca–on, which has precipitous sides.

Council (n.) An assembly of men summoned or convened for consultation, deliberation, or advice; as, a council of physicians for consultation in a critical case.

Countermand (v. t.) To revoke (a former command); to cancel or rescind by giving an order contrary to one previously given; as, to countermand an order for goods.

Counterpane (n.) A coverlet for a bed, -- originally stitched or woven in squares or figures.

Counterpoint (n.) The setting of note against note in harmony; the adding of one or more parts to a given canto fermo or melody

Countersign (a.) A private signal, word, or phrase, which must be given in order to pass a sentry; a watchword.

Countersink (v. t.) To cause to sink even with or below the surface; as, to countersink a screw or bolt into woodwork.

Coupon (n.) A certificate of interest due, printed at the bottom of transferable bonds (state, railroad, etc.), given for a term of years, designed to be cut off and presented for payment when the interest is due; an interest warrant.

Courier (n.) An attendant on travelers, whose business it is to make arrangements for their convenience at hotels and on the way.

Course (n.) Customary or established sequence of events; recurrence of events according to natural laws.

Courtesy (n.) Favor or indulgence, as distinguished from right; as, a title given one by courtesy.

Cousin (n.) A title formerly given by a king to a nobleman, particularly to those of the council. In English writs, etc., issued by the crown, it signifies any earl.

Cousinry (n.) A body or collection of cousins; the whole number of persons who stand in the relation of cousins to a given person or persons.

Covenable (a.) Fit; proper; suitable.

Covenably (adv.) Fitly; suitably.

Covenant (n.) A mutual agreement of two or more persons or parties, or one of the stipulations in such an agreement.

Covenant (n.) An agreement made by the Scottish Parliament in 1638, and by the English Parliament in 1643, to preserve the reformed religion in Scotland, and to extirpate popery and prelacy; -- usually called the "Solemn League and Covenant."

Covenant (n.) The promises of God as revealed in the Scriptures, conditioned on certain terms on the part of man, as obedience, repentance, faith, etc.

Covenant (n.) A solemn compact between members of a church to maintain its faith, discipline, etc.

Covenant (n.) An undertaking, on sufficient consideration, in writing and under seal, to do or to refrain from some act or thing; a contract; a stipulation; also, the document or writing containing the terms of agreement.

Covenant (n.) A form of action for the violation of a promise or contract under seal.

Covenanted (imp. & p. p.) of Covenant

Covenanting (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Covenant

Covenant (v. i.) To agree (with); to enter into a formal agreement; to bind one's self by contract; to make a stipulation.

Covenant (v. t.) To grant or promise by covenant.

Covenantee (n.) The person in whose favor a covenant is made.

Covenanter (n.) One who makes a covenant.

Covenanter (n.) One who subscribed and defended the "Solemn League and Covenant." See Covenant.

Covenanting (a.) Belonging to a covenant. Specifically, belonging to the Scotch Covenanters.

Covenantor (n.) The party who makes a covenant.

Covenous (a.) See Covinous, and Covin.

Covent (n.) A convent or monastery.

Coventry (n.) A town in the county of Warwick, England.

Covetiveness (n.) Acquisitiveness.

Cowboy (n.) A cattle herder; a drover; specifically, one of an adventurous class of herders and drovers on the plains of the Western and Southwestern United States.

Cowl (n.) A cowl-shaped cap, commonly turning with the wind, used to improve the draft of a chimney, ventilating shaft, etc.

Coxcomb (n.) A name given to several plants of different genera, but particularly to Celosia cristata, or garden cockscomb. Same as Cockscomb.

Cradle (n.) An implement consisting of a broad scythe for cutting grain, with a set of long fingers parallel to the scythe, designed to receive the grain, and to lay it evenly in a swath.

Crank (n.) A person full of crotchets; one given to fantastic or impracticable projects; one whose judgment is perverted in respect to a particular matter.

Crapulous (a.) Surcharged with liquor; sick from excessive indulgence in liquor; drunk; given to excesses.

Craven (a.) Cowardly; fainthearted; spiritless.

Craven (n.) A recreant; a coward; a weak-hearted, spiritless fellow. See Recreant, n.

Cravened (imp. & p. p.) of Craven

Cravening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Craven

Craven (v. t.) To make recreant, weak, spiritless, or cowardly.

Creativeness (n.) The quality of being creative.

Credential (n.) Testimonials showing that a person is entitled to credit, or has right to exercise official power, as the letters given by a government to an ambassador or envoy, or a certificate that one is a duly elected delegate.

Credibly (adv.) In a manner inducing belief; as, I have been credibly informed of the event.

Credit (n.) Trust given or received; expectation of future playment for property transferred, or of fulfillment or promises given; mercantile reputation entitling one to be trusted; -- applied to individuals, corporations, communities, or nations; as, to buy goods on credit.

Credit (n.) The time given for payment for lands or goods sold on trust; as, a long credit or a short credit.

Creeper (n.) A kind of patten mounted on short pieces of iron instead of rings; also, a fixture with iron points worn on a shoe to prevent one from slipping.

Cremate (v. t.) To burn; to reduce to ashes by the action of fire, either directly or in an oven or retort; to incremate or incinerate; as, to cremate a corpse, instead of burying it.

Creosote (v. t.) To saturate or impregnate with creosote, as timber, for the prevention of decay.

Crepusculous (a.) Flying in the twilight or evening, or before sunrise; -- said certain birds and insects.

Cribbing (n.) A framework of timbers and plank backing for a shaft lining, to prevent caving, percolation of water, etc.

Croak (v. i.) To make a low, hoarse noise in the throat, as a frog, a raven, or a crow; hence, to make any hoarse, dismal sound.

Croak (n.) The coarse, harsh sound uttered by a frog or a raven, or a like sound.

Crocein (n.) A name given to any one of several yellow or scarlet dyestuffs of artificial production and complex structure. In general they are diazo and sulphonic acid derivatives of benzene and naphthol.

Crocidolite (n.) A mineral occuring in silky fibers of a lavender blue color. It is related to hornblende and is essentially a silicate of iron and soda; -- called also blue asbestus. A silicified form, in which the fibers penetrating quartz are changed to oxide of iron, is the yellow brown tiger-eye of the jewelers.

Crook (n.) A person given to fraudulent practices; an accomplice of thieves, forgers, etc.

Cross (n.) An appendage or ornament or anything in the form of a cross; a badge or ornamental device of the general shape of a cross; hence, such an ornament, even when varying considerably from that form; thus, the Cross of the British Order of St. George and St. Michael consists of a central medallion with seven arms radiating from it.

Cross-banded (a.) A term used when a narrow ribbon of veneer is inserted into the surface of any piece of furniture, wainscoting, etc., so that the grain of it is contrary to the general surface.

Crosscut (n.) A level driven across the course of a vein, or across the main workings, as from one gangway to another.

Crosswort (n.) A name given to several inconspicuous plants having leaves in whorls of four, as species of Crucianella, Valantia, etc.

Crotchety (a.) Given to crotchets; subject to whims; as, a crotchety man.

Crottles (n. pl.) A name given to various lichens gathered for dyeing.

Crown (n.) A wreath or garland, or any ornamental fillet encircling the head, especially as a reward of victory or mark of honorable distinction; hence, anything given on account of, or obtained by, faithful or successful effort; a reward.

Crown (n.) A coin stamped with the image of a crown; hence,a denomination of money; as, the English crown, a silver coin of the value of five shillings sterling, or a little more than $1.20; the Danish or Norwegian crown, a money of account, etc., worth nearly twenty-seven cents.

Crusado (n.) An old Portuguese coin, worth about seventy cents.

Cryptocrystalline (a.) Indistinctly crystalline; -- applied to rocks and minerals, whose state of aggregation is so fine that no distinct particles are visible, even under the microscope.

Cuddy (n.) An ass; esp., one driven by a huckster or greengrocer.

Cudweed (n.) A small composite plant with cottony or silky stem and leaves, primarily a species of Gnaphalium, but the name is now given to many plants of different genera, as Filago, Antennaria, etc.; cottonweed.

Culmination (n.) The attainment of the highest point of altitude reached by a heavently body; passage across the meridian; transit.

Cumulative (a.) Given by same testator to the same legatee; -- said of a legacy.

Curb (n.) A frame or wall round the mouth of a well; also, a frame within a well to prevent the earth caving in.

Curfew (n.) The ringing of an evening bell, originally a signal to the inhabitants to cover fires, extinguish lights, and retire to rest, -- instituted by William the Conqueror; also, the bell itself.

Curiosity (n.) Disposition to inquire, investigate, or seek after knowledge; a desire to gratify the mind with new information or objects of interest; inquisitiveness.

Curious (a.) Careful or anxious to learn; eager for knowledge; given to research or inquiry; habitually inquisitive; prying; -- sometimes with after or of.

Curious (a.) Exciting attention or inquiry; awakening surprise; inviting and rewarding inquisitiveness; not simple or plain; strange; rare.

Curiousness (n.) Inquisitiveness; curiosity.

Currency (n.) That which is in circulation, or is given and taken as having or representing value; as, the currency of a country; a specie currency; esp., government or bank notes circulating as a substitute for metallic money.

Current (a.) General course; ordinary procedure; progressive and connected movement; as, the current of time, of events, of opinion, etc.

Curve (v. i.) To bend or turn gradually from a given direction; as, the road curves to the right.

Custody (n.) State of being guarded and watched to prevent escape; restraint of liberty; confinement; imprisonment.

Customary (a.) Agreeing with, or established by, custom; established by common usage; conventional; habitual.

Cutter (n.) A small armed vessel, usually a steamer, in the revenue marine service; -- also called revenue cutter.

Cyclas (n.) A long gown or surcoat (cut off in front), worn in the Middle Ages. It was sometimes embroidered or interwoven with gold. Also, a rich stuff from which the gown was made.

Cycle (n.) An imaginary circle or orbit in the heavens; one of the celestial spheres.

Cycle (n.) An interval of time in which a certain succession of events or phenomena is completed, and then returns again and again, uniformly and continually in the same order; a periodical space of time marked by the recurrence of something peculiar; as, the cycle of the seasons, or of the year.

Cycle (n.) An orderly list for a given time; a calendar.

Cyclopaedia (n.) The circle or compass of the arts and sciences (originally, of the seven so-called liberal arts and sciences); circle of human knowledge. Hence, a work containing, in alphabetical order, information in all departments of knowledge, or on a particular department or branch; as, a cyclopedia of the physical sciences, or of mechanics. See Encyclopedia.

Cynical (a.) Given to sneering at rectitude and the conduct of life by moral principles; disbelieving in the reality of any human purposes which are not suggested or directed by self-interest or self-indulgence; as, a cynical man who scoffs at pretensions of integrity; characterized by such opinions; as, cynical views of human nature.

D () As a numeral D stands for 500. in this use it is not the initial of any word, or even strictly a letter, but one half of the sign / (or / ) the original Tuscan numeral for 1000.

Dab (n.) A name given to several species of flounders, esp. to the European species, Pleuronectes limanda. The American rough dab is Hippoglossoides platessoides.

Daboia (n.) A large and highly venomous Asiatic viper (Daboia xanthica).

Dactylozooid (n.) A kind of zooid of Siphonophora which has an elongated or even vermiform body, with one tentacle, but no mouth. See Siphonophora.

Daggle-tail (n.) A slovenly woman; a slattern; a draggle-tail.

Dago (n.) A nickname given to a person of Spanish (or, by extension, Portuguese or Italian) descent.

Daguerreian (a.) Pertaining to Daguerre, or to his invention of the daguerreotype.

Dam (n.) A barrier to prevent the flow of a liquid; esp., a bank of earth, or wall of any kind, as of masonry or wood, built across a water course, to confine and keep back flowing water.

Damask (n.) Damask silk; silk woven with an elaborate pattern of flowers and the like.

Damask (n.) Linen so woven that a pattern in produced by the different directions of the thread, without contrast of color.

Damask (n.) A heavy woolen or worsted stuff with a pattern woven in the same way as the linen damask; -- made for furniture covering and hangings.

Damasse (a.) Woven like damask.

Dare (v. i.) To have adequate or sufficient courage for any purpose; to be bold or venturesome; not to be afraid; to venture.

Dare (v. t.) To have courage for; to attempt courageously; to venture to do or to undertake.

Dare (n.) The quality of daring; venturesomeness; boldness; dash.

Dareful (a.) Full of daring or of defiance; adventurous.

Daring (n.) Boldness; fearlessness; adventurousness; also, a daring act.

Daring (a.) Bold; fearless; adventurous; as, daring spirits.

Dashpot (n.) A pneumatic or hydraulic cushion for a falling weight, as in the valve gear of a steam engine, to prevent shock.

Dataria (n.) Formerly, a part of the Roman chancery; now, a separate office from which are sent graces or favors, cognizable in foro externo, such as appointments to benefices. The name is derived from the word datum, given or dated (with the indications of the time and place of granting the gift or favor).

Date (n.) That addition to a writing, inscription, coin, etc., which specifies the time (as day, month, and year) when the writing or inscription was given, or executed, or made; as, the date of a letter, of a will, of a deed, of a coin. etc.

Date (n.) The point of time at which a transaction or event takes place, or is appointed to take place; a given point of time; epoch; as, the date of a battle.

Date (n.) Given or assigned length of life; dyration.

Date (v. t.) To note or fix the time of, as of an event; to give the date of; as, to date the building of the pyramids.

Dative (a.) Given by a magistrate, as distinguished from being cast upon a party by the law.

Datum (n.) Something given or admitted; a fact or principle granted; that upon which an inference or an argument is based; -- used chiefly in the plural.

Datum (n.) The quantities or relations which are assumed to be given in any problem.

Davenport (n.) A kind of small writing table, generally somewhat ornamental, and forming a piece of furniture for the parlor or boudoir.

Daydreamer (n.) One given to daydreams.

Deafness (n.) Incapacity of perceiving sounds; the state of the organs which prevents the impression which constitute hearing; want of the sense of hearing.

Deal (n.) The division of a piece of timber made by sawing; a board or plank; particularly, a board or plank of fir or pine above seven inches in width, and exceeding six feet in length. If narrower than this, it is called a batten; if shorter, a deal end.

Deanery (n.) The office or the revenue of a dean. See the Note under Benefice, n., 3.

Death (v. i.) Personified: The destroyer of life, -- conventionally represented as a skeleton with a scythe.

Deathblow (n.) A mortal or crushing blow; a stroke or event which kills or destroys.

Death's-head (n.) A naked human skull as the emblem of death; the head of the conventional personification of death.

Debater (n.) One who debates; one given to argument; a disputant; a controvertist.

Debauchee (v. t.) One who is given to intemperance or bacchanalian excesses; a man habitually lewd; a libertine.

Decalogue (n.) The Ten Commandments or precepts given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai, and originally written on two tables of stone.

Decentralize (v. t.) To prevent from centralizing; to cause to withdraw from the center or place of concentration; to divide and distribute (what has been united or concentrated); -- esp. said of authority, or the administration of public affairs.

Deceptiveness (n.) The power or habit of deceiving; tendency or aptness to deceive.

Deceptivity (n.) Deceptiveness; a deception; a sham.

Decillion (n.) According to the English notation, a million involved to the tenth power, or a unit with sixty ciphers annexed; according to the French and American notation, a thousand involved to the eleventh power, or a unit with thirty-three ciphers annexed. [See the Note under Numeration.]

Decrease (v.) A becoming less; gradual diminution; decay; as, a decrease of revenue or of strength.

Decree (n.) A decision, order, or sentence, given in a cause by a court of equity or admiralty.

Decrement (n.) A name given by Hauy to the successive diminution of the layers of molecules, applied to the faces of the primitive form, by which he supposed the secondary forms to be produced.

Decumbiture (n.) Aspect of the heavens at the time of taking to one's sick bed, by which the prognostics of recovery or death were made.

Deed poll () A deed of one part, or executed by only one party, and distinguished from an indenture by having the edge of the parchment or paper cut even, or polled as it was anciently termed, instead of being indented.

Deepen (v. t.) To make darker or more intense; to darken; as, the event deepened the prevailing gloom.

Deer (n. sing. & pl.) A ruminant of the genus Cervus, of many species, and of related genera of the family Cervidae. The males, and in some species the females, have solid antlers, often much branched, which are shed annually. Their flesh, for which they are hunted, is called venison.

Defeat (v.) Frustration by rendering null and void, or by prevention of success; as, the defeat of a plan or design.

Deferent (n.) An imaginary circle surrounding the earth, in whose periphery either the heavenly body or the center of the heavenly body's epicycle was supposed to be carried round.

Deficit (n.) Deficiency in amount or quality; a falling short; lack; as, a deficit in taxes, revenue, etc.

Definitiveness (n.) The quality of being definitive.

Dehorn (v. t.) To deprive of horns; to prevent the growth of the horns of (cattle) by burning their ends soon after they start. See Dishorn.

Del credere () An agreement by which an agent or factor, in consideration of an additional premium or commission (called a del credere commission), engages, when he sells goods on credit, to insure, warrant, or guarantee to his principal the solvency of the purchaser, the engagement of the factor being to pay the debt himself if it is not punctually discharged by the buyer when it becomes due.

Delectus (n.) A name given to an elementary book for learners of Latin or Greek.

Delegate (n.) One sent by any constituency to act as its representative in a convention; as, a delegate to a convention for nominating officers, or for forming or altering a constitution.

Delegation (n.) One or more persons appointed or chosen, and commissioned to represent others, as in a convention, in Congress, etc.; the collective body of delegates; as, the delegation from Massachusetts; a deputation.

Delicacy (a.) The state of being affected by slight causes; sensitiveness; as, the delicacy of a chemist's balance.

Delthyris (n.) A name formerly given to certain Silurian brachiopod shells of the genus Spirifer.

Demirep (n.) A woman of doubtful reputation or suspected character; an adventuress.

Demivolt (n.) A half vault; one of the seven artificial motions of a horse, in which he raises his fore legs in a particular manner.

Demonstrativeness (n.) The state or quality of being demonstrative.

Deodand (n.) A personal chattel which had caused the death of a person, and for that reason was given to God, that is, forfeited to the crown, to be applied to pious uses, and distributed in alms by the high almoner. Thus, if a cart ran over a man and killed him, it was forfeited as a deodand.

Deplanate (v. t.) Flattened; made level or even.

Depolarizer (n.) A substance used to prevent polarization, as upon the negative plate of a voltaic battery.

Deposit (v. t.) That which is placed anywhere, or in any one's hands, for safe keeping; something intrusted to the care of another; esp., money lodged with a bank or banker, subject to order; anything given as pledge or security.

Deprecation (n.) The act of deprecating; a praying against evil; prayer that an evil may be removed or prevented; strong expression of disapprobation.

Derelict (a.) Given up or forsaken by the natural owner or guardian; left and abandoned; as, derelict lands.

Derivative (n.) A derived function; a function obtained from a given function by a certain algebraic process.

Dermohaemal (a.) Pertaining to, or in relation with, both dermal and haemal structures; as, the dermohaemal spines or ventral fin rays of fishes.

Design (n.) To create or produce, as a work of art; to form a plan or scheme of; to form in idea; to invent; to project; to lay out in the mind; as, a man designs an essay, a poem, a statue, or a cathedral.

Design (n.) The realization of an inventive or decorative plan; esp., a work of decorative art considered as a new creation; conception or plan shown in completed work; as, this carved panel is a fine design, or of a fine design.

Design (n.) The invention and conduct of the subject; the disposition of every part, and the general order of the whole.

Designment (n.) Delineation; sketch; design; ideal; invention.

Desperate (a.) Without hope; given to despair; hopeless.

Despondent (a.) Marked by despondence; given to despondence; low-spirited; as, a despondent manner; a despondent prisoner.

Destructiveness (n.) The quality of destroying or ruining.

Destructiveness (n.) The faculty supposed to impel to the commission of acts of destruction; propensity to destroy.

Detainer (n.) The keeping possession of what belongs to another; detention of what is another's, even though the original taking may have been lawful. Forcible detainer is indictable at common law.

Deter (v. t.) To prevent by fear; hence, to hinder or prevent from action by fear of consequences, or difficulty, risk, etc.

Deterrent (n.) That which deters or prevents.

Detersiveness (n.) The quality of cleansing.

Detractiveness (n.) The quality of being detractive.

Detur (n.) A present of books given to a meritorious undergraduate student as a prize.

Devenustate (v. t.) To deprive of beauty or grace.

Device (n.) That which is devised, or formed by design; a contrivance; an invention; a project; a scheme; often, a scheme to deceive; a stratagem; an artifice.

Device (n.) Power of devising; invention; contrivance.

Deviceful (a.) Full of devices; inventive.

Devisable (a.) Capable of being devised, invented, or contrived.

Devisable (a.) Capable of being bequeathed, or given by will.

Devise (v. t.) To form in the mind by new combinations of ideas, new applications of principles, or new arrangement of parts; to formulate by thought; to contrive; to excogitate; to invent; to plan; to scheme; as, to devise an engine, a new mode of writing, a plan of defense, or an argument.

Devise (n.) Property devised, or given by will.

Devisee (n.) One to whom a devise is made, or real estate given by will.

Devotee (n.) One who is wholly devoted; esp., one given wholly to religion; one who is superstitiously given to religious duties and ceremonies; a bigot.

Devotionist (n.) One given to devotion, esp. to excessive formal devotion.

Devotor (n.) A worshiper; one given to devotion.

Devour (v. t.) To eat up with greediness; to consume ravenously; to feast upon like a wild beast or a glutton; to prey upon.

Devout (v. t.) Devoted to religion or to religious feelings and duties; absorbed in religious exercises; given to devotion; pious; reverent; religious.

Dexterous (a.) Skillful in contrivance; quick at inventing expedients; expert; as, a dexterous manager.

Diagometer (n.) A sort of electroscope, invented by Rousseau, in which the dry pile is employed to measure the amount of electricity transmitted by different bodies, or to determine their conducting power.

Diaper (n.) Any textile fabric (esp. linen or cotton toweling) woven in diaper pattern. See 2.

Diaper (n.) Surface decoration of any sort which consists of the constant repetition of one or more simple figures or units of design evenly spaced.

Diaphane (n.) A woven silk stuff with transparent and colored figures; diaper work.

Diary (n.) A register of daily events or transactions; a daily record; a journal; a blank book dated for the record of daily memoranda; as, a diary of the weather; a physician's diary.

Diastem (n.) Intervening space; interval.

Dictation (n.) The speaking to, or the giving orders to, in an overbearing manner; authoritative utterance; as, his habit, even with friends, was that of dictation.

Dictum (n.) The report of a judgment made by one of the judges who has given it.

Didonia (n.) The curve which on a given surface and with a given perimeter contains the greatest area.

Diet (n.) A legislative or administrative assembly in Germany, Poland, and some other countries of Europe; a deliberative convention; a council; as, the Diet of Worms, held in 1521.

Differential (n.) An increment, usually an indefinitely small one, which is given to a variable quantity.

Diffusiveness (n.) The quality or state of being diffusive or diffuse; extensiveness; expansion; dispersion. Especially of style: Diffuseness; want of conciseness; prolixity.

Digastric (a.) Having two bellies; biventral; -- applied to muscles which are fleshy at each end and have a tendon in the middle, and esp. to the muscle which pulls down the lower jaw.

Digest (v. t.) A compilation of statutes or decisions analytically arranged. The term is applied in a general sense to the Pandects of Justinian (see Pandect), but is also specially given by authors to compilations of laws on particular topics; a summary of laws; as, Comyn's Digest; the United States Digest.

Dignity (n.) Quality suited to inspire respect or reverence; loftiness and grace; impressiveness; stateliness; -- said of //en, manner, style, etc.

Dike (n.) An embankment to prevent inundations; a levee.

Dilatory (a.) Inclined to defer or put off what ought to be done at once; given the procrastination; delaying; procrastinating; loitering; as, a dilatory servant.

Diminish (v. t.) To make smaller by a half step; to make (an interval) less than minor; as, a diminished seventh.

Diminutiveness (n.) The quality of being diminutive; smallness; littleness; minuteness.

Dioptra (n.) An optical instrument, invented by Hipparchus, for taking altitudes, leveling, etc.

Diorama (n.) A mode of scenic representation, invented by Daguerre and Bouton, in which a painting is seen from a distance through a large opening. By a combination of transparent and opaque painting, and of transmitted and reflected light, and by contrivances such as screens and shutters, much diversity of scenic effect is produced.

Direct-acting (a.) Acting directly, as one part upon another, without the intervention of other working parts.

Direction (n.) The pointing of a piece with reference to an imaginary vertical axis; -- distinguished from elevation. The direction is given when the plane of sight passes through the object.

Directly (adv.) In a straightforward way; without anything intervening; not by secondary, but by direct, means.

Director (n.) A slender grooved instrument upon which a knife is made to slide when it is wished to limit the extent of motion of the latter, or prevent its injuring the parts beneath.

Disaccommodate (v. t.) To put to inconvenience; to incommode.

Disadvantageous (a.) Attended with disadvantage; unfavorable to success or prosperity; inconvenient; prejudicial; -- opposed to advantageous; as, the situation of an army is disadvantageous for attack or defense.

Disadventure (n.) Misfortune; mishap.

Disadventurous (a.) Unprosperous; unfortunate.

Disaster (n.) An unpropitious or baleful aspect of a planet or star; malevolent influence of a heavenly body; hence, an ill portent.

Disaster (n.) An adverse or unfortunate event, esp. a sudden and extraordinary misfortune; a calamity; a serious mishap.

Disaventure (n.) Misfortune.

Disaventurous (a.) Misadventurous; unfortunate.

Discharge (v. i.) To throw off or deliver a load, charge, or burden; to unload; to emit or give vent to fluid or other contents; as, the water pipe discharges freely.

Discharge (v. t.) A flowing or issuing out; emission; vent; evacuation; also, that which is discharged or emitted; as, a rapid discharge of water from the pipe.

Discipline (n.) Subjection to rule; submissiveness to order and control; habit of obedience.

Disclose (v. t.) To make known, as that which has been kept secret or hidden; to reveal; to expose; as, events have disclosed his designs.

Discommode (v. t.) To put inconvenience; to incommode; to trouble.

Discommodious (a.) Inconvenient; troublesome; incommodious.

Discommodity (n.) Disadvantage; inconvenience.

Discontinuance (n.) A breaking off or interruption of an estate, which happened when an alienation was made by a tenant in tail, or other tenant, seized in right of another, of a larger estate than the tenant was entitled to, whereby the party ousted or injured was driven to his real action, and could not enter. This effect of such alienation is now obviated by statute in both England and the United States.

Disconvenience (n.) Unsuitableness; incongruity.

Disconvenient (a.) Not convenient or congruous; unsuitable; ill-adapted.

Discount (v.) To take into consideration beforehand; to anticipate and form conclusions concerning (an event).

Discourse (n.) Consecutive speech, either written or unwritten, on a given line of thought; speech; treatise; dissertation; sermon, etc.; as, the preacher gave us a long discourse on duty.

Discovenant (v. t.) To dissolve covenant with.

Discuss (v. t.) To examine in detail or by disputation; to reason upon by presenting favorable and adverse considerations; to debate; to sift; to investigate; to ventilate.

Diseasement (n.) Uneasiness; inconvenience.

Disembogue (v. t.) To pour out or discharge at the mouth, as a stream; to vent; to discharge into an ocean, a lake, etc.

Disembogue (v. i.) To become discharged; to flow out; to find vent; to pour out contents.

Disinherit (v. t.) To cut off from an inheritance or from hereditary succession; to prevent, as an heir, from coming into possession of any property or right, which, by law or custom, would devolve on him in the course of descent.

Disk (n.) The circular figure of a celestial body, as seen projected of the heavens.

Disk (n.) A part of the receptacle enlarged or expanded under, or around, or even on top of, the pistil.

Disoblige (v. t.) To do an act which contravenes the will or desires of; to offend by an act of unkindness or incivility; to displease; to refrain from obliging; to be unaccommodating to.

Displace (v. t.) To remove from a state, office, dignity, or employment; to discharge; to depose; as, to displace an officer of the revenue.

Displacement (n.) The process of extracting soluble substances from organic material and the like, whereby a quantity of saturated solvent is displaced, or removed, for another quantity of the solvent.

Disputer (n.) One who disputes, or who is given to disputes; a controvertist.

Dissolvative (n.) Having the power to dissolve anything; solvent.

Dissolvent (a.) Having power to dissolve power to dissolve a solid body; as, the dissolvent juices of the stomach.

Dissolvent (n.) That which has the power of dissolving or melting other substances, esp. by mixture with them; a menstruum; a solvent.

Dissolvent (n.) A remedy supposed capable of dissolving concretions in the body, such as calculi, tubercles, etc.

Distance (n.) Length or interval of time; period, past or future, between two eras or events.

Distance (n.) The interval between two notes; as, the distance of a fourth or seventh.

Distant (a.) Separated; having an intervening space; at a distance; away.

Distinctiveness (n.) State of being distinctive.

Distinctness (n.) The quality or state of being distinct; a separation or difference that prevents confusion of parts or things.

Distribute (v. t.) To spread (ink) evenly, as upon a roller or a table.

Distributiveness (n.) Quality of being distributive.

Disventure (n.) A disadventure.

Ditch (n.) A trench made in the earth by digging, particularly a trench for draining wet land, for guarding or fencing inclosures, or for preventing an approach to a town or fortress. In the latter sense, it is called also a moat or a fosse.

Diverge (v. i.) To extend from a common point in different directions; to tend from one point and recede from each other; to tend to spread apart; to turn aside or deviate (as from a given direction); -- opposed to converge; as, rays of light diverge as they proceed from the sun.

Divergent (a.) Receding farther and farther from each other, as lines radiating from one point; deviating gradually from a given direction; -- opposed to convergent.

Divergent (a.) Fig.: Disagreeing from something given; differing; as, a divergent statement.

Dives (n.) The name popularly given to the rich man in our Lord's parable of the "Rich Man and Lazarus" (Luke xvi. 19-31). Hence, a name for a rich worldling.

Divination (n.) The act of divining; a foreseeing or foretelling of future events; the pretended art discovering secret or future by preternatural means.

Divine (a.) Godlike; heavenly; excellent in the highest degree; supremely admirable; apparently above what is human. In this application, the word admits of comparison; as, the divinest mind. Sir J. Davies.

Diviner (n.) One who professes divination; one who pretends to predict events, or to reveal occult things, by supernatural means.

Do (n.) A syllable attached to the first tone of the major diatonic scale for the purpose of solmization, or solfeggio. It is the first of the seven syllables used by the Italians as manes of musical tones, and replaced, for the sake of euphony, the syllable Ut, applied to the note C. In England and America the same syllables are used by mane as a scale pattern, while the tones in respect to absolute pitch are named from the first seven letters of the alphabet.

Document (n.) An original or official paper relied upon as the basis, proof, or support of anything else; -- in its most extended sense, including any writing, book, or other instrument conveying information in the case; any material substance on which the thoughts of men are represented by any species of conventional mark or symbol.

dog-legged (a.) Noting a flight of stairs, consisting of two or more straight portions connected by a platform (landing) or platforms, and running in opposite directions without an intervening wellhole.

Dogmaticalness (n.) The quality of being dogmatical; positiveness.

Dogmatism (n.) The manner or character of a dogmatist; arrogance or positiveness in stating opinion.

Dogshore (n.) One of several shores used to hold a ship firmly and prevent her moving while the blocks are knocked away before launching.

Dog Star () Sirius, a star of the constellation Canis Major, or the Greater Dog, and the brightest star in the heavens; -- called also Canicula, and, in astronomical charts, / Canis Majoris. See Dog days.

Doldrums (n. pl.) A part of the ocean near the equator, abounding in calms, squalls, and light, baffling winds, which sometimes prevent all progress for weeks; -- so called by sailors.

Dolven (p. p.) of Delve.

Dom (n.) A title anciently given to the pope, and later to other church dignitaries and some monastic orders. See Don, and Dan.

Dom (n.) In Portugal and Brazil, the title given to a member of the higher classes.

Domify (v. t.) To divide, as the heavens, into twelve houses. See House, in astrological sense.

Domina (n.) Lady; a lady; -- a title formerly given to noble ladies who held a barony in their own right.

Domination (n.) A high order of angels in the celestial hierarchy; -- a meaning given by the schoolmen.

Domine (n.) A name given to a pastor of the Reformed Church. The word is also applied locally in the United States, in colloquial speech, to any clergyman.

Dominical (a.) Relating to, or given by, our Lord; as, the dominical (or Lord's) prayer.

Don (n.) Sir; Mr; Signior; -- a title in Spain, formerly given to noblemen and gentlemen only, but now common to all classes.

Donable (a.) Capable of being donated or given.

Donary (n.) A thing given to a sacred use.

Donation (n.) That which is given as a present; that which is transferred to another gratuitously; a gift.

Done (a.) Given; executed; issued; made public; -- used chiefly in the clause giving the date of a proclamation or public act.

Donee (n.) Anciently, one to whom lands were given; in later use, one to whom lands and tenements are given in tail; in modern use, one on whom a power is conferred for execution; -- sometimes called the appointor.

Donna (n.) A lady; madam; mistress; -- the title given a lady in Italy.

Dorsal (a.) Pertaining to, or situated near, the back, or dorsum, of an animal or of one of its parts; notal; tergal; neural; as, the dorsal fin of a fish; the dorsal artery of the tongue; -- opposed to ventral.

Dorsiventral (a.) Having distinct upper and lower surfaces, as most common leaves. The leaves of the iris are not dorsiventral.

Dorsiventral (a.) See Dorsoventral.

Dorsoventral (a.) From the dorsal to the ventral side of an animal; as, the dorsoventral axis.

Dose (n.) The quantity of medicine given, or prescribed to be taken, at one time.

Dotage (v. i.) Feebleness or imbecility of understanding or mind, particularly in old age; the childishness of old age; senility; as, a venerable man, now in his dotage.

Doublet (a.) A counterfeit gem, composed of two pieces of crystal, with a color them, and thus giving the appearance of a naturally colored gem. Also, a piece of paste or glass covered by a veneer of real stone.

Doubt (v. i.) A fluctuation of mind arising from defect of knowledge or evidence; uncertainty of judgment or mind; unsettled state of opinion concerning the reality of an event, or the truth of an assertion, etc.; hesitation.

Doubtful (a.) Of uncertain issue or event.

Doubtfulness (n.) Uncertainty of event or issue.

Dowager (n.) A title given in England to a widow, to distinguish her from the wife of her husband's heir bearing the same name; -- chiefly applied to widows of personages of rank.

Dowdy (superl.) Showing a vulgar taste in dress; awkward and slovenly in dress; vulgar-looking.

Dowel (n.) A piece of wood driven into a wall, so that other pieces may be nailed to it.

Downcast (n.) A ventilating shaft down which the air passes in circulating through a mine.

Draff (n.) Refuse; lees; dregs; the wash given to swine or cows; hogwash; waste matter.

Draff (n.) The slant given to the furrows in the dress of a millstone.

Drama (n.) A series of real events invested with a dramatic unity and interest.

Draught (n.) The bevel given to the pattern for a casting, in order that it may be drawn from the sand without injury to the mold.

Draw (v. i.) To move; to come or go; literally, to draw one's self; -- with prepositions and adverbs; as, to draw away, to move off, esp. in racing, to get in front; to obtain the lead or increase it; to draw back, to retreat; to draw level, to move up even (with another); to come up to or overtake another; to draw off, to retire or retreat; to draw on, to advance; to draw up, to form in array; to draw near, nigh, or towards, to approach; to draw together, to come together, to collect.

Drawbore (n.) A hole bored through a tenon nearer to the shoulder than the holes through the cheeks are to the edge or abutment against which the shoulder is to rest, so that a pin or bolt, when driven into it, will draw these parts together.

Drawknife (n.) A tool used for the purpose of making an incision along the path a saw is to follow, to prevent it from tearing the surface of the wood.

Dread (a.) Inspiring with reverential fear; awful' venerable; as, dread sovereign; dread majesty; dread tribunal.

Dreamy (superl.) Abounding in dreams or given to dreaming; appropriate to, or like, dreams; visionary.

Drift (n.) Course or direction along which anything is driven; setting.

Drift (n.) That which is driven, forced, or urged along

Drift (n.) Anything driven at random.

Drift (n.) A mass of matter which has been driven or forced onward together in a body, or thrown together in a heap, etc., esp. by wind or water; as, a drift of snow, of ice, of sand, and the like.

Drift (n.) A slightly tapered tool of steel for enlarging or shaping a hole in metal, by being forced or driven into or through it; a broach.

Drift (n.) A passage driven or cut between shaft and shaft; a driftway; a small subterranean gallery; an adit or tunnel.

Drift (n.) The distance through which a current flows in a given time.

Drift (n.) The difference between the size of a bolt and the hole into which it is driven, or between the circumference of a hoop and that of the mast on which it is to be driven.

Drift (v. i.) To float or be driven along by, or as by, a current of water or air; as, the ship drifted astern; a raft drifted ashore; the balloon drifts slowly east.

Drift (v. i.) To accumulate in heaps by the force of wind; to be driven into heaps; as, snow or sand drifts.

Driven (p. p.) of Drive

Drive (v. i.) To be forced along; to be impelled; to be moved by any physical force or agent; to be driven.

Drive (p. p.) Driven.

Drive (n.) A collection of objects that are driven; a mass of logs to be floated down a river.

Driven (p. p.) of Drive. Also adj.

Driveway (n.) A passage or way along or through which a carriage may be driven.

Dronkelewe (a.) Given to drink; drunken.

Drop (n.) Any medicine the dose of which is measured by drops; as, lavender drops.

Drop (v. i.) To be deep in extent; to descend perpendicularly; as, her main topsail drops seventeen yards.

Drought (n.) Dryness; want of rain or of water; especially, such dryness of the weather as affects the earth, and prevents the growth of plants; aridity.

Drove (n.) A collection of cattle driven, or cattle collected for driving; a number of animals, as oxen, sheep, or swine, driven in a body.

Droven (p. p.) of Drive.

Drover (n.) A boat driven by the tide.

Dubious (a.) Of uncertain event or issue; as, in dubious battle.

Due (a.) Appointed or required to arrive at a given time; as, the steamer was due yesterday.

Duel (n.) A combat between two persons, fought with deadly weapons, by agreement. It usually arises from an injury done or an affront given by one to the other.

Dulia (n.) An inferior kind of veneration or worship, given to the angels and saints as the servants of God.

Dunnage (n.) Fagots, boughs, or loose materials of any kind, laid on the bottom of the hold for the cargo to rest upon to prevent injury by water, or stowed among casks and other cargo to prevent their motion.

Durbar (n.) An audience hall; the court of a native prince; a state levee; a formal reception of native princes, given by the governor general of India.

Dusk (n.) Imperfect obscurity; a middle degree between light and darkness; twilight; as, the dusk of the evening.

Early (adv.) Coming in the first part of a period of time, or among the first of successive acts, events, etc.

Earnest (a.) Ardent in the pursuit of an object; eager to obtain or do; zealous with sincerity; with hearty endeavor; heartfelt; fervent; hearty; -- used in a good sense; as, earnest prayers.

Earnest (n.) Something given, or a part paid beforehand, as a pledge; pledge; handsel; a token of what is to come.

Earnest (n.) Something of value given by the buyer to the seller, by way of token or pledge, to bind the bargain and prove the sale.

Earthly (a.) Pertaining to the earth; belonging to this world, or to man's existence on the earth; not heavenly or spiritual; carnal; worldly; as, earthly joys; earthly flowers; earthly praise.

Earthnut (n.) A name given to various roots, tubers, or pods grown under or on the ground

Earthwards (adv.) Toward the earth; -- opposed to heavenward or skyward.

Easel (n.) A frame (commonly) of wood serving to hold a canvas upright, or nearly upright, for the painter's convenience or for exhibition.

Easement (n.) That which gives ease, relief, or assistance; convenience; accommodation.

Easily (adv.) With ease; without difficulty or much effort; as, this task may be easily performed; that event might have been easily foreseen.

East (n.) The point in the heavens where the sun is seen to rise at the equinox, or the corresponding point on the earth; that one of the four cardinal points of the compass which is in a direction at right angles to that of north and south, and which is toward the right hand of one who faces the north; the point directly opposite to the west.

Eastwards (adv.) Toward the east; in the direction of east from some point or place; as, New Haven lies eastward from New York.

Ebrillade (n.) A bridle check; a jerk of one rein, given to a horse when he refuses to turn.

Ecbasis (n.) A figure in which the orator treats of things according to their events consequences.

Ecce homo () A picture which represents the Savior as given up to the people by Pilate, and wearing a crown of thorns.

Eccentricity (n.) The ratio of the distance of the center of the orbit of a heavenly body from the center of the body round which it revolves to the semi-transverse axis of the orbit.

Echinus (n.) A name sometimes given to the egg and anchor or egg and dart molding, because that ornament is often identified with Roman Doric capital. The name probably alludes to the shape of the shell of the sea urchin.

Eclipse (n.) An interception or obscuration of the light of the sun, moon, or other luminous body, by the intervention of some other body, either between it and the eye, or between the luminous body and that illuminated by it. A lunar eclipse is caused by the moon passing through the earth's shadow; a solar eclipse, by the moon coming between the sun and the observer. A satellite is eclipsed by entering the shadow of its primary. The obscuration of a planet or star by the moon or a planet, though of the nature of an eclipse, is called an occultation. The eclipse of a small portion of the sun by Mercury or Venus is called a transit of the planet.

Eclipse (v. t.) To cause the obscuration of; to darken or hide; -- said of a heavenly body; as, the moon eclipses the sun.

Ecstasy (n.) The state of being beside one's self or rapt out of one's self; a state in which the mind is elevated above the reach of ordinary impressions, as when under the influence of overpowering emotion; an extraordinary elevation of the spirit, as when the soul, unconscious of sensible objects, is supposed to contemplate heavenly mysteries.

Ectrotic (a.) Having a tendency to prevent the development of anything, especially of a disease.

Edacious (a.) Given to eating; voracious; devouring.

Edacity (n.) Greediness; voracity; ravenousness; rapacity.

Edge (v. t.) The border or part adjacent to the line of division; the beginning or early part; as, in the edge of evening.

E'en (adv.) A contraction for even. See Even.

Effect (n.) In general: That which is produced by an agent or cause; the event which follows immediately from an antecedent, called the cause; result; consequence; outcome; fruit; as, the effect of luxury.

Effective (n.) That which produces a given effect; a cause.

Effectiveness (n.) The quality of being effective.

Effluviable (a.) Capable of being given off as an effluvium.

Egoist (n.) One given overmuch to egoism or thoughts of self.

Eight (a.) Seven and one; as, eight years.

Eight (n.) The number greater by a unit than seven; eight units or objects.

Eighteen (n.) The number greater by a unit than seventeen; eighteen units or objects.

Eighteenth (a.) Next in order after the seventeenth.

Eighth (a.) Next in order after the seventh.

Eightieth (a.) The next in order after seventy-ninth.

Ekaboron (n.) The name given by Mendelejeff in accordance with the periodic law, and by prediction, to a hypothetical element then unknown, but since discovered and named scandium; -- so called because it was a missing analogue of the boron group. See Scandium.

Ekaluminium (n.) The name given to a hypothetical element, -- later discovered and called gallium. See Gallium, and cf. Ekabor.

Elaps (n.) A genus of venomous snakes found both in America and the Old World. Many species are known. See Coral snake, under Coral.

Elastic (n.) An elastic woven fabric, as a belt, braces or suspenders, etc., made in part of India rubber.

El Dorado () A name given by the Spaniards in the 16th century to an imaginary country in the interior of South America, reputed to abound in gold and precious stones.

Eleemosynary (a.) Given in charity or alms; having the nature of alms; as, eleemosynary assistance.

Elegancy (n.) The state or quality of being elegant; beauty as resulting from choice qualities and the complete absence of what deforms or impresses unpleasantly; grace given by art or practice; fine polish; refinement; -- said of manners, language, style, form, architecture, etc.

Elench (n.) That part of an argument on which its conclusiveness depends; that which convinces of refutes an antagonist; a refutation.

Eleven (a.) Ten and one added; as, eleven men.

Eleven (n.) The sum of ten and one; eleven units or objects.

Eleven (n.) A symbol representing eleven units, as 11 or xi.

Eleven (n.) The eleven men selected to play on one side in a match, as the representatives of a club or a locality; as, the all-England eleven.

Eleventh (a.) Next after the tenth; as, the eleventh chapter.

Eleventh (a.) Constituting one of eleven parts into which a thing is divided; as, the eleventh part of a thing.

Eleventh (a.) Of or pertaining to the interval of the octave and the fourth.

Eleventh (n.) The quotient of a unit divided by eleven; one of eleven equal parts.

Eleventh (n.) The interval consisting of ten conjunct degrees; the interval made up of an octave and a fourth.

Elver (n.) A young eel; a young conger or sea eel; -- called also elvene.

Embankment (n.) A structure of earth, gravel, etc., raised to prevent water from overflowing a level tract of country, to retain water in a reservoir, or to carry a roadway, etc.

Emblematist (n.) A writer or inventor of emblems.

Emersion (n.) The reappearance of a heavenly body after an eclipse or occultation; as, the emersion of the moon from the shadow of the earth; the emersion of a star from behind the moon.

Emeer (n.) An Arabian military commander, independent chieftain, or ruler of a province; also, an honorary title given to the descendants of Mohammed, in the line of his daughter Fatima; among the Turks, likewise, a title of dignity, given to certain high officials.

Emit (v. t.) To send forth; to throw or give out; to cause to issue; to give vent to; to eject; to discharge; as, fire emits heat and smoke; boiling water emits steam; the sun emits light.

Emotiveness (n.) Susceptibility to emotion.

Emotivity (n.) Emotiveness.

Emphasis (n.) A particular stress of utterance, or force of voice, given in reading and speaking to one or more words whose signification the speaker intends to impress specially upon his audience.

Emphasis (n.) A peculiar impressiveness of expression or weight of thought; vivid representation, enforcing assent; as, to dwell on a subject with great emphasis.

Emprise (n.) An enterprise; endeavor; adventure.

Emprising (v. t.) Full of daring; adventurous.

Empyreal (a.) Formed of pure fire or light; refined beyond aerial substance; pertaining to the highest and purest region of heaven.

Empyrean (n.) The highest heaven, where the pure element of fire was supposed by the ancients to subsist.

Emulous (a.) Ambitiously desirous to equal or even to excel another; eager to emulate or vie with another; desirous of like excellence with another; -- with of; as, emulous of another's example or virtues.

Encompassment (n.) The act of surrounding, or the state of being surrounded; circumvention.

End (n.) Point beyond which no procession can be made; conclusion; issue; result, whether successful or otherwise; conclusive event; consequence.

Endecagon (n.) A plane figure of eleven sides and angles.

Endecagynous (a.) Having eleven pistils; as, an endecagynous flower.

Endecaphyllous (a.) Composed of eleven leaflets; -- said of a leaf.

Endowment (n.) That which is bestowed or settled on a person or an institution; property, fund, or revenue permanently appropriated to any object; as, the endowment of a church, a hospital, or a college.

Endowment (n.) That which is given or bestowed upon the person or mind; gift of nature; accomplishment; natural capacity; talents; -- usually in the plural.

Engagement (n.) That which engages; engrossing occupation; employment of the attention; obligation by pledge, promise, or contract; an enterprise embarked in; as, his engagements prevented his acceptance of any office.

Engastrimuth (n.) An ventriloquist.

Engine (n.) A compound machine by which any physical power is applied to produce a given physical effect.

Enginer (n.) A contriver; an inventor; a contriver of engines.

English (n.) A twist or spinning motion given to a ball in striking it that influences the direction it will take after touching a cushion or another ball.

Engraven () of Engrave

Enlargement (n.) Diffusiveness of speech or writing; expatiation; a wide range of discourse or argument.

Enleven (n.) Eleven.

Enlive (v. t.) To enliven.

Enlivened (imp. & p. p.) of Enliven

Enlivening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Enliven

Enliven (v. t.) To give life, action, or motion to; to make vigorous or active; to excite; to quicken; as, fresh fuel enlivens a fire.

Enliven (v. t.) To give spirit or vivacity to; to make sprightly, gay, or cheerful; to animate; as, mirth and good humor enliven a company; enlivening strains of music.

Enlivener (n.) One who, or that which, enlivens, animates, or invigorates.

Ensky (v. t.) To place in the sky or in heaven.

Enterprise (v. t.) To undertake; to begin and attempt to perform; to venture upon.

Entire (a.) Having an evenly continuous edge, as a leaf which has no kind of teeth.

Entire (n.) A name originally given to a kind of beer combining qualities of different kinds of beer.

Envenime (v. t.) To envenom.

Envenomed (imp. & p. p.) of Envenom

Envenoming (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Envenom

Envenom (v. t.) To taint or impregnate with venom, or any substance noxious to life; to poison; to render dangerous or deadly by poison, as food, drink, a weapon; as, envenomed meat, wine, or arrow; also, to poison (a person) by impregnating with venom.

Envenom (v. t.) To taint or impregnate with bitterness, malice, or hatred; to imbue as with venom; to imbitter.

Epanalepsis (n.) A figure by which the same word or clause is repeated after intervening matter.

Eparterial (a.) Situated upon or above an artery; -- applied esp. to the branches of the bronchi given off above the point where the pulmonary artery crosses the bronchus.

Ependyma (n.) The epithelial lining of the ventricles of the brain and the canal of the spinal cord; endyma; ependymis.

Ephemeris (n.) A publication giving the computed places of the heavenly bodies for each day of the year, with other numerical data, for the use of the astronomer and navigator; an astronomical almanac; as, the "American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac."

Ephemeris (n.) Any tabular statement of the assigned places of a heavenly body, as a planet or comet, on several successive days.

Ephor (n.) A magistrate; one of a body of five magistrates chosen by the people of ancient Sparta. They exercised control even over the king.

Epic (a.) Narrated in a grand style; pertaining to or designating a kind of narrative poem, usually called an heroic poem, in which real or fictitious events, usually the achievements of some hero, are narrated in an elevated style.

Epicoracoid (n.) A ventral cartilaginous or bony element of the coracoid in the shoulder girdle of some vertebrates.

Epicurean (a.) Given to luxury; adapted to luxurious tastes; luxurious; pertaining to good eating.

Epicurean (n.) One given to epicurean indulgence.

Epigram (n.) A short poem treating concisely and pointedly of a single thought or event. The modern epigram is so contrived as to surprise the reader with a witticism or ingenious turn of thought, and is often satirical in character.

Episode (n.) A separate incident, story, or action, introduced for the purpose of giving a greater variety to the events related; an incidental narrative, or digression, separable from the main subject, but naturally arising from it.

Episodical (a.) Of or pertaining to an episode; adventitious.

Epoch (n.) A fixed point of time, established in history by the occurrence of some grand or remarkable event; a point of time marked by an event of great subsequent influence; as, the epoch of the creation; the birth of Christ was the epoch which gave rise to the Christian era.

Epoch (n.) A period of time, longer or shorter, remarkable for events of great subsequent influence; a memorable period; as, the epoch of maritime discovery, or of the Reformation.

Epoch (n.) An arbitrary fixed date, for which the elements used in computing the place of a planet, or other heavenly body, at any other date, are given; as, the epoch of Mars; lunar elements for the epoch March 1st, 1860.

Epode (n.) A species of lyric poem, invented by Archilochus, in which a longer verse is followed by a shorter one; as, the Epodes of Horace. It does not include the elegiac distich.

Equability (n.) The quality or condition of being equable; evenness or uniformity; as, equability of temperature; the equability of the mind.

Equal (a.) Not variable; equable; uniform; even; as, an equal movement.

Equal (a.) Evenly balanced; not unduly inclining to either side; characterized by fairness; unbiased; impartial; equitable; just.

Equality (n.) Sameness in state or continued course; evenness; uniformity; as, an equality of temper or constitution.

Equality (n.) Evenness; uniformity; as, an equality of surface.

Equally (adv.) In an equal manner or degree in equal shares or proportion; with equal and impartial justice; without difference; alike; evenly; justly; as, equally taxed, furnished, etc.

Equalness (n.) Equality; evenness.

Equanimity (n.) Evenness of mind; that calm temper or firmness of mind which is not easily elated or depressed; patience; calmness; composure; as, to bear misfortunes with equanimity.

Equanimous (a.) Of an even, composed frame of mind; of a steady temper; not easily elated or depressed.

Equatorial (n.) An instrument consisting of a telescope so mounted as to have two axes of motion at right angles to each other, one of them parallel to the axis of the earth, and each carrying a graduated circle, the one for measuring declination, and the other right ascension, or the hour angle, so that the telescope may be directed, even in the daytime, to any star or other object whose right ascension and declination are known. The motion in right ascension is sometimes communicated by clockwork, so as to keep the object constantly in the field of the telescope. Called also an equatorial telescope.

Equilibrate (v. t.) To balance two scales, sides, or ends; to keep even with equal weight on each side; to keep in equipoise.

Equilibrious (a.) Evenly poised; balanced.

Equimultiple (n.) One of the products arising from the multiplication of two or more quantities by the same number or quantity. Thus, seven times 2, or 14, and seven times 4, or 28, are equimultiples of 2 and 4.

Era (n.) A period of time reckoned from some particular date or epoch; a succession of years dating from some important event; as, the era of Alexander; the era of Christ, or the Christian era (see under Christian).

Erased (p. pr. & a.) Represented with jagged and uneven edges, as is torn off; -- used esp. of the head or limb of a beast. Cf. Couped.

Erven (pl. ) of Erf

Eric (n.) A recompense formerly given by a murderer to the relatives of the murdered person.

Erinys (n.) An avenging deity; one of the Furies; sometimes, conscience personified.

Erose (a.) Irregular or uneven as if eaten or worn away.

Errantry (n.) A wandering; a roving; esp., a roving in quest of adventures.

Erse (n.) A name sometimes given to that dialect of the Celtic which is spoken in the Highlands of Scotland; -- called, by the Highlanders, Gaelic.

Erythronium (n.) A name originally given (from its red acid) to the metal vanadium.

Escapement (n.) Way of escape; vent.

Escarpment (n.) A steep descent or declivity; steep face or edge of a ridge; ground about a fortified place, cut away nearly vertically to prevent hostile approach. See Scarp.

Eschatology (n.) The doctrine of the last or final things, as death, judgment, and the events therewith connected.

Escribed (a.) Drawn outside of; -- used to designate a circle that touches one of the sides of a given triangle, and also the other two sides produced.

Eserine (n.) An alkaloid found in the Calabar bean, and the seed of Physostigma venenosum; physostigmine. It is used in ophthalmic surgery for its effect in contracting the pupil.

Esnecy (n.) A prerogative given to the eldest coparcener to choose first after an inheritance is divided.

Etheostomoid (n.) Any fish of the genus Etheostoma and related genera, allied to the perches; -- also called darter. The etheostomoids are small and often bright-colored fishes inhabiting the fresh waters of North America. About seventy species are known. See Darter.

Ether (n.) A light, volatile, mobile, inflammable liquid, (C2H5)2O, of a characteristic aromatic odor, obtained by the distillation of alcohol with sulphuric acid, and hence called also sulphuric ether. It is powerful solvent of fats, resins, and pyroxylin, but finds its chief use as an anaesthetic. Called also ethyl oxide.

Etiquette (n.) The forms required by good breeding, or prescribed by authority, to be observed in social or official life; observance of the proprieties of rank and occasion; conventional decorum; ceremonial code of polite society.

Eucalyptus (n.) A myrtaceous genus of trees, mostly Australian. Many of them grow to an immense height, one or two species exceeding the height even of the California Sequoia.

Euchre (n.) A game at cards, that may be played by two, three, or four persons, the highest card (except when an extra card called the Joker is used) being the knave of the same suit as the trump, and called right bower, the lowest card used being the seven, or frequently, in two-handed euchre, the nine spot. See Bower.

Euplectella (n.) A genus of elegant, glassy sponges, consisting of interwoven siliceous fibers, and growing in the form of a cornucopia; -- called also Venus's flower-basket.

Evacuation (n.) Voidance of any matter by the natural passages of the body or by an artificial opening; defecation; also, a diminution of the fluids of an animal body by cathartics, venesection, or other means.

Evaporate (v. t.) To give vent to; to dissipate.

Evaporometer (n.) An instrument for ascertaining the quantity of a fluid evaporated in a given time; an atmometer.

Eve (n.) Evening.

Eve (n.) The evening before a holiday, -- from the Jewish mode of reckoning the day as beginning at sunset. not at midnight; as, Christians eve is the evening before Christmas; also, the period immediately preceding some important event.

Even (n.) Evening. See Eve, n. 1.

Even (a.) Level, smooth, or equal in surface; not rough; free from irregularities; hence uniform in rate of motion of action; as, even ground; an even speed; an even course of conduct.

Even (a.) Equable; not easily ruffed or disturbed; calm; uniformly self-possessed; as, an even temper.

Even (a.) Parallel; on a level; reaching the same limit.

Even (a.) Balanced; adjusted; fair; equitable; impartial; just to both side; owing nothing on either side; -- said of accounts, bargains, or persons indebted; as, our accounts are even; an even bargain.

Even (a.) Without an irregularity, flaw, or blemish; pure.

Even (a.) Associate; fellow; of the same condition.

Even (a.) Not odd; capable of division by two without a remainder; -- said of numbers; as, 4 and 10 are even numbers.

Evened (imp. & p. p.) of Even

Evening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Even

Even (v. t.) To make even or level; to level; to lay smooth.

Even (v. t.) To equal

Even (v. t.) To place in an equal state, as to obligation, or in a state in which nothing is due on either side; to balance, as accounts; to make quits.

Even (v. t.) To set right; to complete.

Even (v. t.) To act up to; to keep pace with.

Even (v. i.) To be equal.

Even (a.) In an equal or precisely similar manner; equally; precisely; just; likewise; as well.

Even (a.) Up to, or down to, an unusual measure or level; so much as; fully; quite.

Even (a.) As might not be expected; -- serving to introduce what is unexpected or less expected.

Even (a.) At the very time; in the very case.

Evene (v. i.) To happen.

Evener (n.) One who, or that which makes even.

Evener (n.) In vehicles, a swinging crossbar, to the ends of which other crossbars, or whiffletrees, are hung, to equalize the draught when two or three horses are used abreast.

Evenfall (n.) Beginning of evening.

Evenhand (n.) Equality.

Evenhanded (a.) Fair or impartial; unbiased.

Evening (n.) The latter part and close of the day, and the beginning of darkness or night; properly, the decline of the day, or of the sum.

Evening (n.) The latter portion, as of life; the declining period, as of strength or glory.

Evenly (adv.) With an even, level, or smooth surface; without roughness, elevations, or depression; uniformly; equally; comfortably; impartially; serenely.

Evenminded (a.) Having equanimity.

Evenness (n.) The state of being ven, level, or disturbed; smoothness; horizontal position; uniformity; impartiality; calmness; equanimity; appropriate place or level; as, evenness of surface, of a fluid at rest, of motion, of dealings, of temper, of condition.

Evensong (n.) A song for the evening; the evening service or form of worship (in the Church of England including vespers and compline); also, the time of evensong.

Event (n.) That which comes, arrives, or happens; that which falls out; any incident, good or bad.

Event (n.) An affair in hand; business; enterprise.

Event (n.) The consequence of anything; the issue; conclusion; result; that in which an action, operation, or series of operations, terminates.

Event (v. t.) To break forth.

Eventerate (v. t.) To rip open; todisembowel.

Eventful (a.) Full of, or rich in, events or incidents; as, an eventful journey; an eventful period of history; an eventful period of life.

Eventide (n.) The time of evening; evening.

Eventilate (v. t.) To winnow out; to fan.

Eventilate (v. t.) To discuss; to ventilate.

Eventilation (n.) The act of eventilating; discussion.

Eventless (a.) Without events; tame; monotomous; marked by nothing unusual; uneventful.

Eventognathi (n. pl.) An order of fishes including a vast number of freshwater species such as the carp, loach, chub, etc.

Eventration (n.) A tumor containing a large portion of the abdominal viscera, occasioned by relaxation of the walls of the abdomen.

Eventration (n.) A wound, of large extent, in the abdomen, through which the greater part of the intestines protrude.

Eventration (n.) The act af disemboweling.

Eventtual (a.) Coming or happening as a consequence or result; consequential.

Eventtual (a.) Final; ultimate.

Eventtual (a.) Dependent on events; contingent.

Eventualities (pl. ) of Eventuality

Eventuality (n.) The coming as a consequence; contingency; also, an event which comes as a consequence.

Eventuality (n.) Disposition to take cognizance of events.

Eventually (adv.) In an eventual manner; finally; ultimately.

Eventuated (imp. & p. p.) of Eventuate

Eventuating (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Eventuate

Eventuate (v. i.) To come out finally or in conclusion; to result; to come to pass.

Eventuation (n.) The act of eventuating or happening as a result; the outcome.

Evolute (n.) A curve from which another curve, called the involute or evolvent, is described by the end of a thread gradually wound upon the former, or unwound from it. See Involute. It is the locus of the centers of all the circles which are osculatory to the given curve or evolvent.

Evolvent (n.) The involute of a curve. See Involute, and Evolute.

Exarch (n.) A viceroy; in Ravenna, the title of the viceroys of the Byzantine emperors; in the Eastern Church, the superior over several monasteries; in the modern Greek Church, a deputy of the patriarch , who visits the clergy, investigates ecclesiastical cases, etc.

Exceed (v. t.) To go beyond; to proceed beyond the given or supposed limit or measure of; to outgo; to surpass; -- used both in a good and a bad sense; as, one man exceeds another in bulk, stature, weight, power, skill, etc.; one offender exceeds another in villainy; his rank exceeds yours.

Excellency (n.) A title of honor given to certain high dignitaries, esp. to viceroys, ministers, and ambassadors, to English colonial governors, etc. It was formerly sometimes given to kings and princes.

Exchange (n.) The thing given or received in return; esp., a publication exchanged for another.

Exchange (n.) The process of setting accounts or debts between parties residing at a distance from each other, without the intervention of money, by exchanging orders or drafts, called bills of exchange. These may be drawn in one country and payable in another, in which case they are called foreign bills; or they may be drawn and made payable in the same country, in which case they are called inland bills. The term bill of exchange is often abbreviated into exchange; as, to buy or sell exchange.

Exchequer (n.) The department of state having charge of the collection and management of the royal revenue. [Eng.] Hence, the treasury; and, colloquially, pecuniary possessions in general; as, the company's exchequer is low.

Exciting (a.) Calling or rousing into action; producing excitement; as, exciting events; an exciting story.

Exclusion (n.) The act of excluding, or of shutting out, whether by thrusting out or by preventing admission; a debarring; rejection; prohibition; the state of being excluded.

Exclusive (a.) Having the power of preventing entrance; debarring from participation or enjoyment; possessed and enjoyed to the exclusion of others; as, exclusive bars; exclusive privilege; exclusive circles of society.

Exclusiveness (n.) Quality of being exclusive.

Exclusivism (n.) The act or practice of excluding being exclusive; exclusiveness.

Exclusivist (n.) One who favor or practices any from of exclusiveness or exclusivism.

Excogitation (n.) The act of excogitating; a devising in the thoughts; invention; contrivance.

Excusable (a.) That may be excused, forgiven, justified, or acquitted of blame; pardonable; as, the man is excusable; an excusable action.

Execution (n.) The carrying into effect the judgment given in a court of law.

Exhale (v. i.) To rise or be given off, as vapor; to pass off, or vanish.

Exhaust (v. t.) To subject to the action of various solvents in order to remove all soluble substances or extractives; as, to exhaust a drug successively with water, alcohol, and ether.

Exhilarate (v. t.) To make merry or jolly; to enliven; to animate; to gladden greatly; to cheer; as, good news exhilarates the mind; wine exhilarates a man.

Exhilaration (n.) The act of enlivening the spirits; the act of making glad or cheerful; a gladdening.

Exhilaration (n.) The state of being enlivened or cheerful.

Existence (n.) Continued or repeated manifestation; occurrence, as of events of any kind; as, the existence of a calamity or of a state of war.

Exoptile (n.) A name given by Lestiboudois to dicotyledons; -- so called because the plumule is naked.

Expectation (n.) The act or state of expecting or looking forward to an event as about to happen.

Expectation (n.) The value of any chance (as the prospect of prize or property) which depends upon some contingent event. Expectations are computed for or against the occurrence of the event.

Expediency (n.) An expedition; enterprise; adventure.

Expediently (adv.) In an expedient manner; fitly; suitably; conveniently.

Expellable (a.) Capable of being expelled or driven out.

Experience (n.) The effect upon the judgment or feelings produced by any event, whether witnessed or participated in; personal and direct impressions as contrasted with description or fancies; personal acquaintance; actual enjoyment or suffering.

Experimental (a.) Pertaining to experiment; founded on, or derived from, experiment or trial; as, experimental science; given to, or skilled in, experiment; as, an experimental philosopher.

Explication (n.) The sense given by an expositor.

Exploit (n.) A deed or act; especially, a heroic act; a deed of renown; an adventurous or noble achievement; as, the exploits of Alexander the Great.

Exposure (n.) The state of being exposed or laid open or bare; openness to danger; accessibility to anything that may affect, especially detrimentally; as, exposure to observation, to cold, to inconvenience.

Expulsion (n.) The state of being expelled or driven out.

Extensiveness (n.) The state of being extensive; wideness; largeness; extent; diffusiveness.

Extraordinary (n.) That which is extraordinary; -- used especially in the plural; as, extraordinaries excepted, there is nothing to prevent success.

Extravenate (a.) Let out of the veins.

Extremity (n.) The highest degree of inconvenience, pain, or suffering; greatest need or peril; extreme need; necessity.

Fable (n.) The plot, story, or connected series of events, forming the subject of an epic or dramatic poem.

Fable (v. t.) To feign; to invent; to devise, and speak of, as true or real; to tell of falsely.

Fabric (n.) Cloth of any kind that is woven or knit from fibers, either vegetable or animal; manufactured cloth; as, silks or other fabrics.

Fabricate (v. t.) To invent and form; to forge; to devise falsely; as, to fabricate a lie or story.

Fabulist (n.) One who invents or writes fables.

Fabulize (v. i.) To invent, compose, or relate fables or fictions.

Fabulous (a.) Feigned, as a story or fable; related in fable; devised; invented; not real; fictitious; as, a fabulous description; a fabulous hero.

Facetious (a.) Given to wit and good humor; merry; sportive; jocular; as, a facetious companion.

Fact (n.) An effect produced or achieved; anything done or that comes to pass; an act; an event; a circumstance.

Fact (n.) The assertion or statement of a thing done or existing; sometimes, even when false, improperly put, by a transfer of meaning, for the thing done, or supposed to be done; a thing supposed or asserted to be done; as, history abounds with false facts.

Factious (a.) Given to faction; addicted to form parties and raise dissensions, in opposition to government or the common good; turbulent; seditious; prone to clamor against public measures or men; -- said of persons.

Factitious (a.) Made by art, in distinction from what is produced by nature; artificial; sham; formed by, or adapted to, an artificial or conventional, in distinction from a natural, standard or rule; not natural; as, factitious cinnabar or jewels; a factitious taste.

Factorage (n.) The allowance given to a factor, as a compensation for his services; -- called also a commission.

Factorial (n.) A name given to the factors of a continued product when the former are derivable from one and the same function F(x) by successively imparting a constant increment or decrement h to the independent variable. Thus the product F(x).F(x + h).F(x + 2h) . . . F[x + (n-1)h] is called a factorial term, and its several factors take the name of factorials.

Factorial (n.) The product of the consecutive numbers from unity up to any given number.

Fail (v. i.) To become unable to meet one's engagements; especially, to be unable to pay one's debts or discharge one's business obligation; to become bankrupt or insolvent.

Failing (n.) The act of becoming insolvent of bankrupt.

Failure (n.) A becoming insolvent; bankruptcy; suspension of payment; as, failure in business.

Fairing (n.) A present; originally, one given or purchased at a fair.

Fairy (a.) Given by fairies; as, fairy money.

Faith (n.) Word or honor pledged; promise given; fidelity; as, he violated his faith.

Faithless (a.) Not observant of promises or covenants.

Fake (v. t.) To coil (a rope, line, or hawser), by winding alternately in opposite directions, in layers usually of zigzag or figure of eight form,, to prevent twisting when running out.

Falchion (n.) A name given generally and poetically to a sword, especially to the swords of Oriental and fabled warriors.

False (superl.) Uttering falsehood; unveracious; given to deceit; dishnest; as, a false witness.

Fan (n.) Any revolving vane or vanes used for producing currents of air, in winnowing grain, blowing a fire, ventilation, etc., or for checking rapid motion by the resistance of the air; a fan blower; a fan wheel.

Fan (n.) To ventilate; to blow on; to affect by air put in motion.

Fanfoot (n.) A species of gecko having the toes expanded into large lobes for adhesion. The Egyptian fanfoot (Phyodactylus gecko) is believed, by the natives, to have venomous toes.

Fang (v. t.) The tusk of an animal, by which the prey is seized and held or torn; a long pointed tooth; esp., one of the usually erectile, venomous teeth of serpents. Also, one of the falcers of a spider.

Fantastic (n.) A person given to fantastic dress, manners, etc.; an eccentric person; a fop.

Fare (n.) To be in any state, or pass through any experience, good or bad; to be attended with any circummstances or train of events, fortunate or unfortunate; as, he fared well, or ill.

Farm (a. & n.) A district of country leased (or farmed) out for the collection of the revenues of government.

Farm (v. t.) To give up to another, as an estate, a business, the revenue, etc., on condition of receiving in return a percentage of what it yields; as, to farm the taxes.

Farmer (n.) One who takes taxes, customs, excise, or other duties, to collect, either paying a fixed annuual rent for the privilege; as, a farmer of the revenues.

Farriery (n.) The art of preventing, curing, or mitigating diseases of horses and cattle; the veterinary art.

Farrow (a.) Not producing young in a given season or year; -- said only of cows.

Farther (adv.) Moreover; by way of progress in treating a subject; as, farther, let us consider the probable event.

Fashion (n.) The prevailing mode or style, especially of dress; custom or conventional usage in respect of dress, behavior, etiquette, etc.; particularly, the mode or style usual among persons of good breeding; as, to dress, dance, sing, ride, etc., in the fashion.

Fast (v.) Given to pleasure seeking; disregardful of restraint; reckless; wild; dissipated; dissolute; as, a fast man; a fast liver.

Fasti (n.pl.) Records or registers of important events.

Fatality (n.) That which is decreed by fate or which is fatal; a fatal event.

Fate (n.) Appointed lot; allotted life; arranged or predetermined event; destiny; especially, the final lot; doom; ruin; death.

Fate (n.) The element of chance in the affairs of life; the unforeseen and unestimated conitions considered as a force shaping events; fortune; esp., opposing circumstances against which it is useless to struggle; as, fate was, or the fates were, against him.

Father (n.) A dignitary of the church, a superior of a convent, a confessor (called also father confessor), or a priest; also, the eldest member of a profession, or of a legislative assembly, etc.

Fatidical (a.) Having power to foretell future events; prophetic; fatiloquent; as, the fatidical oak.

Fauna (n.) The animals of any given area or epoch; as, the fauna of America; fossil fauna; recent fauna.

Favorable (n.) Conducive; contributing; tending to promote or facilitate; advantageous; convenient.

Fear (n.) To affright; to terrify; to drive away or prevent approach of by fear.

Feather (n.) A longitudinal strip projecting as a fin from an object, to strengthen it, or to enter a channel in another object and thereby prevent displacement sidwise but permit motion lengthwise; a spline.

Feather (n.) A thin wedge driven between the two semicylindrical parts of a divided plug in a hole bored in a stone, to rend the stone.

Fecundity (n.) The power of bringing forth in abundance; fertility; richness of invention; as, the fecundity of God's creative power.

Federal (a.) Pertaining to a league or treaty; derived from an agreement or covenant between parties, especially between nations; constituted by a compact between parties, usually governments or their representatives.

Feed (n.) An allowance of provender given to a horse, cow, etc.; a meal; as, a feed of corn or oats.

Feign (v. t.) To give a mental existence to, as to something not real or actual; to imagine; to invent; hence, to pretend; to form and relate as if true.

Feldspath (n.) A name given to a group of minerals, closely related in crystalline form, and all silicates of alumina with either potash, soda, lime, or, in one case, baryta. They occur in crystals and crystalline masses, vitreous in luster, and breaking rather easily in two directions at right angles to each other, or nearly so. The colors are usually white or nearly white, flesh-red, bluish, or greenish.

Felicity (n.) That which promotes happiness; a successful or gratifying event; prosperity; blessing.

Fell (a.) Cruel; barbarous; inhuman; fierce; savage; ravenous.

Femerell (n.) A lantern, or louver covering, placed on a roof, for ventilation or escape of smoke.

Fence (n.) An inclosure about a field or other space, or about any object; especially, an inclosing structure of wood, iron, or other material, intended to prevent intrusion from without or straying from within.

Fend (v. t.) To keep off; to prevent from entering or hitting; to ward off; to shut out; -- often with off; as, to fend off blows.

Fender (v. t. & i.) A screen to prevent coals or sparks of an open fire from escaping to the floor.

Fer-de-lance (n.) A large, venomous serpent (Trigonocephalus lanceolatus) of Brazil and the West Indies. It is allied to the rattlesnake, but has no rattle.

Feringee (n.) The name given to Europeans by the Hindos.

Ferocious (a.) Fierce; savage; wild; indicating cruelty; ravenous; rapacious; as, ferocious look or features; a ferocious lion.

Ferrule (n.) A ring or cap of metal put round a cane, tool, handle, or other similar object, to strengthen it, or prevent splitting and wearing.

Fertile (a.) Producing fruit or vegetation in abundance; fruitful; able to produce abundantly; prolific; fecund; productive; rich; inventive; as, fertile land or fields; a fertile mind or imagination.

Fertility (n.) The state or quality of being fertile or fruitful; fruitfulness; productiveness; fecundity; richness; abundance of resources; fertile invention; quickness; readiness; as, the fertility of soil, or of imagination.

Fervence (n.) Heat; fervency.

Fervency (n.) The state of being fervent or warm; ardor; warmth of feeling or devotion; eagerness.

Fervent (a.) Hot; glowing; boiling; burning; as, a fervent summer.

Fervent (a.) Warm in feeling; ardent in temperament; earnest; full of fervor; zealous; glowing.

Feud (n.) A combination of kindred to avenge injuries or affronts, done or offered to any of their blood, on the offender and all his race.

Fiat (n.) An authority for certain proceedings given by the Lord Chancellor's signature.

Fiction (n.) The act of feigning, inventing, or imagining; as, by a mere fiction of the mind.

Fiction (n.) That which is feigned, invented, or imagined; especially, a feigned or invented story, whether oral or written. Hence: A story told in order to deceive; a fabrication; -- opposed to fact, or reality.

Fiction (n.) Any like assumption made for convenience, as for passing more rapidly over what is not disputed, and arriving at points really at issue.

Figment (n.) An invention; a fiction; something feigned or imagined.

Filibuster (n.) A lawless military adventurer, especially one in quest of plunder; a freebooter; -- originally applied to buccaneers infesting the Spanish American coasts, but introduced into common English to designate the followers of Lopez in his expedition to Cuba in 1851, and those of Walker in his expedition to Nicaragua, in 1855.

Filling (n.) The woof in woven fabrics.

Finance (n.) The income of a ruler or of a state; revennue; public money; sometimes, the income of an individual; often used in the plural for funds; available money; resources.

Finance (n.) The science of raising and expending the public revenue.

Financier (n.) One charged with the administration of finance; an officer who administers the public revenue; a treasurer.

Fineer (v. t.) To veneer.

Finish (n.) The result of completed labor, as on the surface of an object; manner or style of finishing; as, a rough, dead, or glossy finish given to cloth, stone, metal, etc.

Fire (v. t.) To inflame; to irritate, as the passions; as, to fire the soul with anger, pride, or revenge.

Firework (n.) A device for producing a striking display of light, or a figure or figures in plain or colored fire, by the combustion of materials that burn in some peculiar manner, as gunpowder, sulphur, metallic filings, and various salts. The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube filled with the combustible material. A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety of figures in fire, often variously colored. The skyrocket is a common form of firework. The name is also given to various combustible preparations used in war.

Firmament (v. & a.) The region of the air; the sky or heavens.

Firman (n.) In Turkey and some other Oriental countries, a decree or mandate issued by the sovereign; a royal order or grant; -- generally given for special objects, as to a traveler to insure him protection and assistance.

First-hand (a.) Obtained directly from the first or original source; hence, without the intervention of an agent.

Fiscal (a.) Pertaining to the public treasury or revenue.

Fiscal (n.) The income of a prince or a state; revenue; exhequer.

Fit (superl.) Conformed to a standart of duty, properiety, or taste; convenient; meet; becoming; proper.

Fitly (adv.) In a fit manner; suitably; properly; conveniently; as, a maxim fitly applied.

Flag (n.) Any hard, evenly stratified sandstone, which splits into layers suitable for flagstones.

Flake (n.) A platform of hurdles, or small sticks made fast or interwoven, supported by stanchions, for drying codfish and other things.

Flamboyer (n.) A name given in the East and West Indies to certain trees with brilliant blossoms, probably species of Caesalpinia.

Flat (superl.) Having an even and horizontal surface, or nearly so, without prominences or depressions; level without inclination; plane.

Flat (superl.) Below the true pitch; hence, as applied to intervals, minor, or lower by a half step; as, a flat seventh; A flat.

Flat (v. i.) To become flat, or flattened; to sink or fall to an even surface.

Flat-bottomed (a.) Having an even lower surface or bottom; as, a flat-bottomed boat.

Flatly (adv.) In a flat manner; evenly; horizontally; without spirit; dully; frigidly; peremptorily; positively, plainly.

Flatness (n.) Eveness of surface; want of relief or prominence; the state of being plane or level.

Flatten (a.) To reduce to an even surface or one approaching evenness; to make flat; to level; to make plane.

Flatten (v. i.) To become or grow flat, even, depressed dull, vapid, spiritless, or depressed below pitch.

Fleur-de-lis (n.) A conventional flower suggested by the iris, and having a form which fits it for the terminal decoration of a scepter, the ornaments of a crown, etc. It is also a heraldic bearing, and is identified with the royal arms and adornments of France.

Flighty (a.) Indulging in flights, or wild and unrestrained sallies, of imagination, humor, caprice, etc.; given to disordered fancies and extravagant conduct; volatile; giddy; eccentric; slighty delirious.

Flock (n.) A company or collection of living creatures; -- especially applied to sheep and birds, rarely to persons or (except in the plural) to cattle and other large animals; as, a flock of ravenous fowl.

Flora (n.) The complete system of vegetable species growing without cultivation in a given locality, region, or period; a list or description of, or treatise on, such plants.

Florin (n.) A silver coin of Florence, first struck in the twelfth century, and noted for its beauty. The name is given to different coins in different countries. The florin of England, first minted in 1849, is worth two shillings, or about 48 cents; the florin of the Netherlands, about 40 cents; of Austria, about 36 cents.

Flush (a.) Unbroken or even in surface; on a level with the adjacent surface; forming a continuous surface; as, a flush panel; a flush joint.

Flush (adv.) So as to be level or even.

Flux (n.) The quantity of a fluid that crosses a unit area of a given surface in a unit of time.

Fly (v. i.) To move through the air or before the wind; esp., to pass or be driven rapidly through the air by any impulse.

Fly (v. i.) A shuttle driven through the shed by a blow or jerk.

Flyer (n.) A small operation not involving 0 d h p u z considerable part of one's capital, or not in the line of one's ordinary business; a venture.

Flysch (n.) A name given to the series of sandstones and schists overlying the true nummulitic formation in the Alps, and included in the Eocene Tertiary.

Folio (n.) The page number. The even folios are on the left-hand pages and the odd folios on the right-hand.

Follicle (n.) A simple podlike pericarp which contains several seeds and opens along the inner or ventral suture, as in the peony, larkspur and milkweed.

Foolhardy (a.) Daring without judgment; foolishly adventurous and bold.

Foot (n.) The muscular locomotive organ of a mollusk. It is a median organ arising from the ventral region of body, often in the form of a flat disk, as in snails. See Illust. of Buccinum.

For (prep.) Indicating that in prevention of which, or through fear of which, anything is done.

Forbid (v. t.) To oppose, hinder, or prevent, as if by an effectual command; as, an impassable river forbids the approach of the army.

Forbid (v. i.) To utter a prohibition; to prevent; to hinder.

Forceps (n.) A pair of pinchers, or tongs; an instrument for grasping, holding firmly, or exerting traction upon, bodies which it would be inconvenient or impracticable to seize with the fingers, especially one for delicate operations, as those of watchmakers, surgeons, accoucheurs, dentists, etc.

Foreadmonish (v. t.) To admonish beforehand, or before the act or event.

Foreadvise (v. t.) To advise or counsel before the time of action, or before the event.

Foreclose (v. t.) To shut up or out; to preclude; to stop; to prevent; to bar; to exclude.

Forefend (v. t.) To hinder; to fend off; to avert; to prevent the approach of; to forbid or prohibit. See Forfend.

Forelock (n.) A cotter or split pin, as in a slot in a bolt, to prevent retraction; a linchpin; a pin fastening the cap-square of a gun.

Fore-night (n.) The evening between twilight and bedtime.

Forenotice (n.) Notice or information of an event before it happens; forewarning.

Forestaff (n.) An instrument formerly used at sea for taking the altitudes of heavenly bodies, now superseded by the sextant; -- called also cross-staff.

Forestall (v. t.) To take possession of, in advance of some one or something else, to the exclusion or detriment of the latter; to get ahead of; to preoccupy; also, to exclude, hinder, or prevent, by prior occupation, or by measures taken in advance.

Forgather (v. i.) To convene; to gossip; to meet accidentally.

Forge (n.) To form or shape out in any way; to produce; to frame; to invent.

Forgetive (a.) Inventive; productive; capable.

Forgivable (a.) Capable of being forgiven; pardonable; venial.

Forgiven (p. p.) of Forgive

Forgive (v. t.) To give up resentment or claim to requital on account of (an offense or wrong); to remit the penalty of; to pardon; -- said in reference to the act forgiven.

Forgiveness (n.) The act of forgiving; the state of being forgiven; as, the forgiveness of sin or of injuries.

Forgiveness (n.) Disposition to pardon; willingness to forgive.

Form (n.) Established method of expression or practice; fixed way of proceeding; conventional or stated scheme; formula; as, a form of prayer.

Form (n.) Show without substance; empty, outside appearance; vain, trivial, or conventional ceremony; conventionality; formality; as, a matter of mere form.

Form (n.) That by which shape is given or determined; mold; pattern; model.

Formal (a.) Dependent in form; conventional.

Formality (n.) Compliance with formal or conventional rules; ceremony; conventionality.

Formality (n.) An established order; conventional rule of procedure; usual method; habitual mode.

Former (n.) A shape around which an article is to be shaped, molded, woven wrapped, pasted, or otherwise constructed.

Formula (n.) A prescribed or set form; an established rule; a fixed or conventional method in which anything is to be done, arranged, or said.

Fornicated (a.) Vaulted like an oven or furnace; arched.

Fornix (n.) Esp., two longitudinal bands of white nervous tissue beneath the lateral ventricles of the brain.

Forth (adv.) Forward; onward in time, place, or order; in advance from a given point; on to end; as, from that day forth; one, two, three, and so forth.

Fortunate (n.) Coming by good luck or favorable chance; bringing some good thing not foreseen as certain; presaging happiness; auspicious; as, a fortunate event; a fortunate concurrence of circumstances; a fortunate investment.

Fortune (n.) That which befalls or is to befall one; lot in life, or event in any particular undertaking; fate; destiny; as, to tell one's fortune.

Fortune (n.) That which comes as the result of an undertaking or of a course of action; good or ill success; especially, favorable issue; happy event; success; prosperity as reached partly by chance and partly by effort.

Forward (n.) An agreement; a covenant; a promise.

Fotmal (n.) Seventy pounds of lead.

Fourdrinier (n.) A machine used in making paper; -- so named from an early inventor of improvements in this class of machinery.

Four-in-hand (a.) Consisting of four horses controlled by one person; as, a four-in-hand team; drawn by four horses driven by one person; as, a four-in-hand coach.

Four-in-hand (n.) A team of four horses driven by one person; also, a vehicle drawn by such a team.

Fourpence (n.) A name formerly given in New England to the Spanish half real, a silver coin worth six and a quarter cents.

Fourteen (a.) Four and ten more; twice seven.

Fourteenth (n.) The octave of the seventh.

Foy (n.) A feast given by one about to leave a place.

Fracture (n.) The texture of a freshly broken surface; as, a compact fracture; an even, hackly, or conchoidal fracture.

Frail (n.) The quantity of raisins -- about thirty-two, fifty-six, or seventy-five pounds, -- contained in a frail.

Fraise (n.) A defense consisting of pointed stakes driven into the ramparts in a horizontal or inclined position.

Frame (v. t.) To originate; to plan; to devise; to contrive; to compose; in a bad sense, to invent or fabricate, as something false.

Frankalmoigne (a.) A tenure by which a religious corporation holds lands given to them and their successors forever, usually on condition of praying for the soul of the donor and his heirs; -- called also tenure by free alms.

Frank-marriage (n.) A certain tenure in tail special; an estate of inheritance given to a man his wife (the wife being of the blood of the donor), and descendible to the heirs of their two bodies begotten.

Free (a.) To make free; to set at liberty; to rid of that which confines, limits, embarrasses, oppresses, etc.; to release; to disengage; to clear; -- followed by from, and sometimes by off; as, to free a captive or a slave; to be freed of these inconveniences.

Free-liver (n.) One who gratifies his appetites without stint; one given to indulgence in eating and drinking.

Freshen (v. t.) To relieve, as a rope, by change of place where friction wears it; or to renew, as the material used to prevent chafing; as, to freshen a hawse.

Friary (n.) Like a friar; pertaining to friars or to a convent.

Friary (n.) A monastery; a convent of friars.

Ftiction (n.) A clashing between two persons or parties in opinions or work; a disagreement tending to prevent or retard progress.

Fringe (n.) An ornamental appendage to the border of a piece of stuff, originally consisting of the ends of the warp, projecting beyond the woven fabric; but more commonly made separate and sewed on, consisting sometimes of projecting ends, twisted or plaited together, and sometimes of loose threads of wool, silk, or linen, or narrow strips of leather, or the like.

Frivolous (a.) Given to trifling; marked with unbecoming levity; silly; interested especially in trifling matters.

Friz (v. t.) To soften and make of even thickness by rubbing, as with pumice stone or a blunt instrument.

Frolicsome (a.) Full of gayety and mirth; given to pranks; sportive.

Froth (v. t.) To spit, vent, or eject, as froth.

Frouzy (a.) Fetid, musty; rank; disordered and offensive to the smell or sight; slovenly; dingy. See Frowzy.

Frowzy (a.) Slovenly; unkempt; untidy; frouzy.

Frustrate (v. t.) To bring to nothing; to prevent from attaining a purpose; to disappoint; to defeat; to baffle; as, to frustrate a plan, design, or attempt; to frustrate the will or purpose.

Fugitiveness (n.) The quality or condition of being fugitive; evanescence; volatility; fugacity; instability.

Fugue (n.) A polyphonic composition, developed from a given theme or themes, according to strict contrapuntal rules. The theme is first given out by one voice or part, and then, while that pursues its way, it is repeated by another at the interval of a fifth or fourth, and so on, until all the parts have answered one by one, continuing their several melodies and interweaving them in one complex progressive whole, in which the theme is often lost and reappears.

Fund (v. t.) To provide and appropriate a fund or permanent revenue for the payment of the interest of; to make permanent provision of resources (as by a pledge of revenue from customs) for discharging the interest of or principal of; as, to fund government notes.

Fungin (n.) A name formerly given to cellulose found in certain fungi and mushrooms.

Funnel (v. t.) A passage or avenue for a fluid or flowing substance; specifically, a smoke flue or pipe; the iron chimney of a steamship or the like.

Furacious (a.) Given to theft; thievish.

Furlough (a.) Leave of abserice; especially, leave given to an offcer or soldier to be absent from service for a certain time; also, the document granting leave of absence.

Furniture (v. t.) Articles used for convenience or decoration in a house or apartment, as tables, chairs, bedsteads, sofas, carpets, curtains, pictures, vases, etc.

Fury (n.) pl. (Greek Myth.) The avenging deities, Tisiphone, Alecto, and Megaera; the Erinyes or Eumenides.

Fusee (n.) A small packet of explosive material with wire appendages allowing it to be conveniently attached to a railroad track. It will explode with a loud report when run over by a train, and is used to provide a warning signal to the engineer.

Futility (n.) The quality of being talkative; talkativeness; loquaciousness; loquacity.

Future (a.) Time to come; time subsequent to the present (as, the future shall be as the present); collectively, events that are to happen in time to come.

Futurity (n.) Event to come; a future event.

Fuzzy (n.) Not firmly woven; that ravels.

G () G is the seventh letter of the English alphabet, and a vocal consonant. It has two sounds; one simple, as in gave, go, gull; the other compound (like that of j), as in gem, gin, dingy. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 231-6, 155, 176, 178, 179, 196, 211, 246.

Gabbro (n.) A name originally given by the Italians to a kind of serpentine, later to the rock called euphotide, and now generally used for a coarsely crystalline, igneous rock consisting of lamellar pyroxene (diallage) and labradorite, with sometimes chrysolite (olivine gabbro).

Gage (n.) A pledge or pawn; something laid down or given as a security for the performance of some act by the person depositing it, and forfeited by nonperformance; security.

Gain (a.) Convenient; suitable; direct; near; handy; dexterous; easy; profitable; cheap; respectable.

Galaxy (n.) The Milky Way; that luminous tract, or belt, which is seen at night stretching across the heavens, and which is composed of innumerable stars, so distant and blended as to be distinguishable only with the telescope. The term has recently been used for remote clusters of stars.

Galley (n.) A name given by analogy to the Greek, Roman, and other ancient vessels propelled by oars.

Galley (n.) An oblong oven or muffle with a battery of retorts; a gallery furnace.

Galliwasp (n.) A West Indian lizard (Celestus occiduus), about a foot long, imagined by the natives to be venomous.

Garland (n.) A grommet or ring of rope lashed to a spar for convenience in handling.

Garrulity (n.) Talkativeness; loquacity.

Garter (n.) A band used to prevent a stocking from slipping down on the leg.

Gastriloquist (n.) One who appears to speak from his stomach; a ventriloquist.

Gastriloquy (n.) A voice or utterance which appears to proceed from the stomach; ventriloquy.

Gastromyth (n.) One whose voice appears to proceed from the stomach; a ventriloquist.

Gastropoda (n. pl.) One of the classes of Mollusca, of great extent. It includes most of the marine spiral shells, and the land and fresh-water snails. They generally creep by means of a flat, muscular disk, or foot, on the ventral side of the body. The head usually bears one or two pairs of tentacles. See Mollusca.

Gastrotricha (n. pl.) A group of small wormlike animals, having cilia on the ventral side. The group is regarded as an ancestral or synthetic one, related to rotifers and annelids.

Gastrotrocha (n.) A form of annelid larva having cilia on the ventral side.

Gatten tree () A name given to the small trees called guelder-rose (Viburnum Opulus), cornel (Cornus sanguinea), and spindle tree (Euonymus Europaeus).

Gay (superl.) Excited with merriment; manifesting sportiveness or delight; inspiring delight; livery; merry.

Gehenna (n.) The valley of Hinnom, near Jerusalem, where some of the Israelites sacrificed their children to Moloch, which, on this account, was afterward regarded as a place of abomination, and made a receptacle for all the refuse of the city, perpetual fires being kept up in order to prevent pestilential effluvia. In the New Testament the name is transferred, by an easy metaphor, to Hell.

Genethliacs (n.) The science of calculating nativities, or predicting the future events of life from the stars which preside at birth.

Genial (a.) Contributing to, and sympathizing with, the enjoyment of life; sympathetically cheerful and cheering; jovial and inspiring joy or happiness; exciting pleasure and sympathy; enlivening; kindly; as, she was of a cheerful and genial disposition.

Genius (n.) Distinguished mental superiority; uncommon intellectual power; especially, superior power of invention or origination of any kind, or of forming new combinations; as, a man of genius.

Geordie (n.) A name given by miners to George Stephenson's safety lamp.

Germinal (n.) The seventh month of the French republican calendar [1792 -- 1806]. It began March 21 and ended April 19. See VendEmiaire.

Gest (n.) Something done or achieved; a deed or an action; an adventure.

Gest (n.) A tale of achievements or adventures; a stock story.

Geyser (n.) A boiling spring which throws forth at frequent intervals jets of water, mud, etc., driven up by the expansive power of steam.

Gift (v. t.) Anything given; anything voluntarily transferred by one person to another without compensation; a present; an offering.

Gift (v. t.) A bribe; anything given to corrupt.

Gift (v. t.) Some quality or endowment given to man by God; a preeminent and special talent or aptitude; power; faculty; as, the gift of wit; a gift for speaking.

Gigantomachy (n.) A war of giants; especially, the fabulous war of the giants against heaven.

Gila monster () A large tuberculated lizard (Heloderma suspectum) native of the dry plains of Arizona, New Mexico, etc. It is the only lizard known to have venomous teeth.

Gillyflower (n.) A name given by old writers to the clove pink (Dianthus Caryophyllus) but now to the common stock (Matthiola incana), a cruciferous plant with showy and fragrant blossoms, usually purplish, but often pink or white.

Gingham (n.) A kind of cotton or linen cloth, usually in stripes or checks, the yarn of which is dyed before it is woven; -- distinguished from printed cotton or prints.

Ginging (n.) The lining of a mine shaft with stones or bricks to prevent caving.

Given (p. p.) of Give

Give (n.) To devote; to apply; used reflexively, to devote or apply one's self; as, the soldiers give themselves to plunder; also in this sense used very frequently in the past participle; as, the people are given to luxury and pleasure; the youth is given to study.

Give (n.) To set forth as a known quantity or a known relation, or as a premise from which to reason; -- used principally in the passive form given.

Given () p. p. & a. from Give, v.

Given (v.) Granted; assumed; supposed to be known; set forth as a known quantity, relation, or premise.

Given (v.) Disposed; inclined; -- used with an adv.; as, virtuously given.

Given (adv.) Stated; fixed; as, in a given time.

Glabrous (a.) Smooth; having a surface without hairs or any unevenness.

Glance (n.) A name given to some sulphides, mostly dark-colored, which have a brilliant metallic luster, as the sulphide of copper, called copper glance.

Glass-gazing (a.) Given to viewing one's self in a glass or mirror; finical.

Glass-snake (n.) A long, footless lizard (Ophiosaurus ventralis), of the Southern United States; -- so called from its fragility, the tail easily breaking into small pieces. It grows to the length of three feet. The name is applied also to similar species found in the Old World.

Glaze (v. t.) A glazing oven. See Glost oven.

Glebe (n.) The land belonging, or yielding revenue, to a parish church or ecclesiastical benefice.

Gleeman (n.) A name anciently given to an itinerant minstrel or musician.

Gloaming (n.) Twilight; dusk; the fall of the evening.

Globe (n.) A round model of the world; a spherical representation of the earth or heavens; as, a terrestrial or celestial globe; -- called also artificial globe.

Globuliferous (a.) Bearing globules; in geology, used of rocks, and denoting a variety of concretionary structure, where the concretions are isolated globules and evenly distributed through the texture of the rock.

Gloom (n.) In gunpowder manufacture, the drying oven.

Gloom (v. i.) To become dark or dim; to be or appear dismal, gloomy, or sad; to come to the evening twilight.

Glooming (n.) Twilight (of morning or evening); the gloaming.

Glory (n.) The presence of the Divine Being; the manifestations of the divine nature and favor to the blessed in heaven; celestial honor; heaven.

Glost oven () An oven in which glazed pottery is fired; -- also called glaze kiln, or glaze.

Glue (n.) A hard brittle brownish gelatin, obtained by boiling to a jelly the skins, hoofs, etc., of animals. When gently heated with water, it becomes viscid and tenaceous, and is used as a cement for uniting substances. The name is also given to other adhesive or viscous substances.

Gluten (n.) The viscid, tenacious substance which gives adhesiveness to dough.

Gluttonous (a.) Given to gluttony; eating to excess; indulging the appetite; voracious; as, a gluttonous age.

Go (v. i.) To proceed or happen in a given manner; to fare; to move on or be carried on; to have course; to come to an issue or result; to succeed; to turn out.

Gomer (n.) A conical chamber at the breech of the bore in heavy ordnance, especially in mortars; -- named after the inventor.

Gonfanon (n.) A name popularly given to any flag which hangs from a crosspiece or frame instead of from the staff or the mast itself.

Gode-year (n.) The venereal disease; -- often used as a mild oath.

Gorgon (n.) One of three fabled sisters, Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa, with snaky hair and of terrific aspect, the sight of whom turned the beholder to stone. The name is particularly given to Medusa.

Gormand (n.) A greedy or ravenous eater; a luxurious feeder; a gourmand.

Gormandize (v. i. & t.) To eat greedily; to swallow voraciously; to feed ravenously or like a glutton.

Gossiper (n.) One given to gossip.

Gossipy (a.) Full of, or given to, gossip.

Gossypium (n.) A genus of plants which yield the cotton of the arts. The species are much confused. G. herbaceum is the name given to the common cotton plant, while the long-stapled sea-island cotton is produced by G. Barbadense, a shrubby variety. There are several other kinds besides these.

Goujere (n.) The venereal disease.

Gourmand (n.) A greedy or ravenous eater; a glutton. See Gormand.

Grab (n.) An instrument for clutching objects for the purpose of raising them; -- specially applied to devices for withdrawing drills, etc., from artesian and other wells that are drilled, bored, or driven.

Grace (n.) Graceful and beautiful females, sister goddesses, represented by ancient writers as the attendants sometimes of Apollo but oftener of Venus. They were commonly mentioned as three in number; namely, Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia, and were regarded as the inspirers of the qualities which give attractiveness to wisdom, love, and social intercourse.

Grace (v. t.) To supply with heavenly grace.

Grade (v. t.) To reduce to a level, or to an evenly progressive ascent, as the line of a canal or road.

Graduate (n.) To prepare gradually; to arrange, temper, or modify by degrees or to a certain degree; to determine the degrees of; as, to graduate the heat of an oven.

Graffer (n.) a notary or scrivener.

Gramme machine () A kind of dynamo-electric machine; -- so named from its French inventor, M. Gramme.

Grange (n.) An association of farmers, designed to further their interests, aud particularly to bring producers and consumers, farmers and manufacturers, into direct commercial relations, without intervention of middlemen or traders. The first grange was organized in 1867.

Grating (n.) A partition, covering, or frame of parallel or cross bars; a latticework resembling a window grate; as, the grating of a prison or convent.

Gratuitous (a.) Given without an equivalent or recompense; conferred without valuable consideration; granted without pay, or without claim or merit; not required by justice.

Gratuity (n.) Something given freely or without recompense; a free gift; a present.

Gratuity (n.) Something voluntarily given in return for a favor or service, as a recompense or acknowledgment.

Graven (p. p.) of Grave

Graven (v. t.) Carved.

Graveness (n.) The quality of being grave.

Gravenstein (n.) A kind of fall apple, marked with streaks of deep red and orange, and of excellent flavor and quality.

Greedy (superl.) Having a keen appetite for food or drink; ravenous; voracious; very hungry; -- followed by of; as, a lion that is greedy of his prey.

Greenback (n.) One of the legal tender notes of the United States; -- first issued in 1862, and having the devices on the back printed with green ink, to prevent alterations and counterfeits.

Greet (v. t.) To address with salutations or expressions of kind wishes; to salute; to hail; to welcome; to accost with friendship; to pay respects or compliments to, either personally or through the intervention of another, or by writing or token.

Gripe (n.) An assemblage of ropes, dead-eyes, and hocks, fastened to ringbolts in the deck, to secure the boats when hoisted; also, broad bands passed around a boat to secure it at the davits and prevent swinging.

Grist (n.) In rope making, a given size of rope, common grist being a rope three inches in circumference, with twenty yarns in each of the three strands.

Gromwell (n.) A plant of the genus Lithospermum (L. arvense), anciently used, because of its stony pericarp, in the cure of gravel. The German gromwell is the Stellera.

Ground (n.) A gummy composition spread over the surface of a metal to be etched, to prevent the acid from eating except where an opening is made by the needle.

Group (n.) A variously limited assemblage of animals or plants, having some resemblance, or common characteristics in form or structure. The term has different uses, and may be made to include certain species of a genus, or a whole genus, or certain genera, or even several orders.

Guarantee (n.) In law and common usage: to undertake or engage for the payment of (a debt) or the performance of (a duty) by another person; to undertake to secure (a possession, right, claim, etc.) to another against a specified contingency, or at all avents; to give a guarantee concerning; to engage, assure, or secure as a thing that may be depended on; to warrant; as, to guarantee the execution of a treaty.

Guard (n.) To keep watch over, in order to prevent escape or restrain from acts of violence, or the like.

Guard (v. t.) A fence or rail to prevent falling from the deck of a vessel.

Guidage (n.) The reward given to a guide for services.

Gulgul (n.) A cement made in India from sea shells, pulverized and mixed with oil, and spread over a ship's bottom, to prevent the boring of worms.

Gunter's scale () A scale invented by the Rev. Edmund Gunter (1581-1626), a professor of astronomy at Gresham College, London, who invented also Gunter's chain, and Gunter's quadrant.

Gutter (n.) Any narrow channel or groove; as, a gutter formed by erosion in the vent of a gun from repeated firing.

Guy (n.) A rope, chain, or rod attached to anything to steady it; as: a rope to steady or guide an object which is being hoisted or lowered; a rope which holds in place the end of a boom, spar, or yard in a ship; a chain or wire rope connecting a suspension bridge with the land on either side to prevent lateral swaying; a rod or rope attached to the top of a structure, as of a derrick, and extending obliquely to the ground, where it is fastened.

Gynaecophore (n.) A ventral canal or groove, in which the males of some di/cious trematodes carry the female. See Illust. of Haematozoa.

Gyroscope (n.) A form of the above apparatus, invented by M. Foucault, mounted so delicately as to render visible the rotation of the earth, through the tendency of the rotating wheel to preserve a constant plane of rotation, independently of the earth's motion.

H () The seventh degree in the diatonic scale, being used by the Germans for B natural. See B.

Haemacytometer (n.) An apparatus for determining the number of corpuscles in a given quantity of blood.

Haemal (a.) Pertaining to the blood or blood vessels; also, ventral. See Hemal.

Haemapodous (a.) Having the limbs on, or directed toward, the ventral or hemal side, as in vertebrates; -- opposed to neuropodous.

Haematogenesis (n.) The transformation of venous arterial blood by respiration; hematosis.

Haematometer (n.) An instrument for determining the number of blood corpuscles in a given quantity of blood.

Hagbut (n.) A harquebus, of which the but was bent down or hooked for convenience in taking aim.

Haye (n.) The Egyptian asp or cobra (Naja haje.) It is related to the cobra of India, and like the latter has the power of inflating its neck into a hood. Its bite is very venomous. It is supposed to be the snake by means of whose bite Cleopatra committed suicide, and hence is sometimes called Cleopatra's snake or asp. See Asp.

Hall (n.) A name given to many manor houses because the magistrate's court was held in the hall of his mansion; a chief mansion house.

Halloween (n.) The evening preceding Allhallows or All Saints' Day.

Hamadryad (n.) A large venomous East Indian snake (Orhiophagus bungarus), allied to the cobras.

Handily (adv.) In a handy manner; skillfully; conveniently.

Handsome (superl.) Dexterous; skillful; handy; ready; convenient; -- applied to things as persons.

Handy (superl.) Ready to the hand; near; also, suited to the use of the hand; convenient; valuable for reference or use; as, my tools are handy; a handy volume.

Hap (n.) That which happens or comes suddenly or unexpectedly; also, the manner of occurrence or taking place; chance; fortune; accident; casual event; fate; luck; lot.

Happily (adv.) By chance; peradventure; haply.

Happy (superl.) Favored by hap, luck, or fortune; lucky; fortunate; successful; prosperous; satisfying desire; as, a happy expedient; a happy effort; a happy venture; a happy omen.

Harbor (n.) The mansion of a heavenly body.

Harbor (n.) A portion of a sea, a lake, or other large body of water, either landlocked or artificially protected so as to be a place of safety for vessels in stormy weather; a port or haven.

Hard grass () A name given to several different grasses, especially to the Roltbollia incurvata, and to the species of Aegilops, from one of which it is contended that wheat has been derived.

Hard-tack (n.) A name given by soldiers and sailors to a kind of hard biscuit or sea bread.

Harlot (n.) A person given to low conduct; a rogue; a cheat; a rascal.

Harmonics (n.) Secondary and less distinct tones which accompany any principal, and apparently simple, tone, as the octave, the twelfth, the fifteenth, and the seventeenth. The name is also applied to the artificial tones produced by a string or column of air, when the impulse given to it suffices only to make a part of the string or column vibrate; overtones.

Harmony (n.) A literary work which brings together or arranges systematically parallel passages of historians respecting the same events, and shows their agreement or consistency; as, a harmony of the Gospels.

Harpy (n.) A fabulous winged monster, ravenous and filthy, having the face of a woman and the body of a vulture, with long claws, and the face pale with hunger. Some writers mention two, others three.

Harpy (n.) One who is rapacious or ravenous; an extortioner.

Haunch (n.) Of meats: The leg and loin taken together; as, a haunch of venison.

Haven (n.) A bay, recess, or inlet of the sea, or the mouth of a river, which affords anchorage and shelter for shipping; a harbor; a port.

Haven (n.) A place of safety; a shelter; an asylum.

Haven (v. t.) To shelter, as in a haven.

Havenage (n.) Harbor dues; port dues.

Havened (p. a.) Sheltered in a haven.

Havener (n.) A harbor master.

Haversian (a.) Pertaining to, or discovered by, Clopton Havers, an English physician of the seventeenth century.

Hazard (n.) The uncertain result of throwing a die; hence, a fortuitous event; chance; accident; casualty.

Hazard (n.) To expose to the operation of chance; to put in danger of loss or injury; to venture; to risk.

Hazard (n.) To venture to incur, or bring on.

Hazarder (n.) One who hazards or ventures.

Head (n.) The source, fountain, spring, or beginning, as of a stream or river; as, the head of the Nile; hence, the altitude of the source, or the height of the surface, as of water, above a given place, as above an orifice at which it issues, and the pressure resulting from the height or from motion; sometimes also, the quantity in reserve; as, a mill or reservoir has a good head of water, or ten feet head; also, that part of a gulf or bay most remote from the outlet or the sea.

Heap (v. t.) To form or round into a heap, as in measuring; to fill (a measure) more than even full.

Heartstruck (a.) Driven to the heart; infixed in the mind.

Heat (n.) A force in nature which is recognized in various effects, but especially in the phenomena of fusion and evaporation, and which, as manifested in fire, the sun's rays, mechanical action, chemical combination, etc., becomes directly known to us through the sense of feeling. In its nature heat is a mode if motion, being in general a form of molecular disturbance or vibration. It was formerly supposed to be a subtile, imponderable fluid, to which was given the name caloric.

Heat (n.) Animation, as in discourse; ardor; fervency.

Heat (v. t.) To make hot; to communicate heat to, or cause to grow warm; as, to heat an oven or furnace, an iron, or the like.

Heath (n.) A low shrub (Erica, / Calluna, vulgaris), with minute evergreen leaves, and handsome clusters of pink flowers. It is used in Great Britain for brooms, thatch, beds for the poor, and for heating ovens. It is also called heather, and ling.

Hoven () of Heave

Heaven (n.) The expanse of space surrounding the earth; esp., that which seems to be over the earth like a great arch or dome; the firmament; the sky; the place where the sun, moon, and stars appear; -- often used in the plural in this sense.

Heaven (n.) The dwelling place of the Deity; the abode of bliss; the place or state of the blessed after death.

Heaven (n.) The sovereign of heaven; God; also, the assembly of the blessed, collectively; -- used variously in this sense, as in No. 2.

Heaven (n.) Any place of supreme happiness or great comfort; perfect felicity; bliss; a sublime or exalted condition; as, a heaven of delight.

Heavened (imp. & p. p.) of Heaven

Heavening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Heaven

Heaven (v. t.) To place in happiness or bliss, as if in heaven; to beatify.

Heavenize (v. t.) To render like heaven or fit for heaven.

Heavenliness (n.) The state or quality of being heavenly.

Heavenly (a.) Pertaining to, resembling, or inhabiting heaven; celestial; not earthly; as, heavenly regions; heavenly music.

Heavenly (a.) Appropriate to heaven in character or happiness; perfect; pure; supremely blessed; as, a heavenly race; the heavenly, throng.

Heavenly (adv.) In a manner resembling that of heaven.

Heavenly (adv.) By the influence or agency of heaven.

Heavenlyminded (a.) Having the thoughts and affections placed on, or suitable for, heaven and heavenly objects; devout; godly; pious.

Heavenward (a & adv.) Toward heaven.

Hebdomad (n.) A week; a period of seven days.

Hebdomadary (a.) Consisting of seven days, or occurring at intervals of seven days; weekly.

Hebdomadally (adv.) In periods of seven days; weekly.

Hebdomadary (n.) A member of a chapter or convent, whose week it is to officiate in the choir, and perform other services, which, on extraordinary occasions, are performed by the superiors.

Hecatompedon (n.) A name given to the old Parthenon at Athens, because measuring 100 Greek feet, probably in the width across the stylobate.

Hedge (v. t.) To surround so as to prevent escape.

Heliometry (n.) The apart or practice of measuring the diameters of heavenly bodies, their relative distances, etc. See Heliometer.

Helix (n.) A nonplane curve whose tangents are all equally inclined to a given plane. The common helix is the curve formed by the thread of the ordinary screw. It is distinguished from the spiral, all the convolutions of which are in the plane.

Hellebore (n.) A genus of perennial herbs (Helleborus) of the Crowfoot family, mostly having powerfully cathartic and even poisonous qualities. H. niger is the European black hellebore, or Christmas rose, blossoming in winter or earliest spring. H. officinalis was the officinal hellebore of the ancients.

Help (v. t.) To prevent; to hinder; as, the evil approaches, and who can help it?

Hemisystole (n.) Contraction of only one ventricle of the heart.

Hemself (pron.) Alt. of Hemselven

Hemselven (pron.) Themselves; -- used reflexively.

Hendecagon (n.) A plane figure of eleven sides and eleven angles.

Hendecane (n.) A hydrocarbon, C11H24, of the paraffin series; -- so called because it has eleven atoms of carbon in each molecule. Called also endecane, undecane.

Hendecasyllabic (a.) Pertaining to a line of eleven syllables.

Hendecasyllable (n.) A metrical line of eleven syllables.

Hepta () A combining form from Gr. "epta`, seven.

Heptachord (n.) A system of seven sounds.

Heptachord (n.) A lyre with seven chords.

Heptachord (n.) A composition sung to the sound of seven chords or tones.

Heptad (n.) An atom which has a valence of seven, and which can be theoretically combined with, substituted for, or replaced by, seven monad atoms or radicals; as, iodine is a heptad in iodic acid. Also used as an adjective.

Heptade (n.) The sum or number of seven.

Heptaglot (n.) A book in seven languages.

Heptagon (n.) A plane figure consisting of seven sides and having seven angles.

Heptagonal (a.) Having seven angles or sides.

Heptagynia (n. pl.) A Linnaean order of plants having seven pistils.

Heptagynous (a.) Having seven pistils.

Heptahedron (n.) A solid figure with seven sides.

Heptamerous (a.) Consisting of seven parts, or having the parts in sets of sevens.

Heptandria (n. pl.) A Linnaean class of plants having seven stamens.

Heptandrous (a.) Having seven stamens.

Heptane (n.) Any one of several isometric hydrocarbons, C7H16, of the paraffin series (nine are possible, four are known); -- so called because the molecule has seven carbon atoms. Specifically, a colorless liquid, found as a constituent of petroleum, in the tar oil of cannel coal, etc.

Heptangular (a.) Having seven angles.

Heptaphyllous (a.) Having seven leaves.

Heptarchy (n.) A government by seven persons; also, a country under seven rulers.

Heptaspermous (a.) Having seven seeds.

Heptastich (n.) A composition consisting of seven lines or verses.

Heptateuch (n.) The first seven books of the Testament.

Heptavalent (a.) Having seven units of attractive force or affinity; -- said of heptad elements or radicals.

Hermes (n.) Originally, a boundary stone dedicated to Hermes as the god of boundaries, and therefore bearing in some cases a head, or head and shoulders, placed upon a quadrangular pillar whose height is that of the body belonging to the head, sometimes having feet or other parts of the body sculptured upon it. These figures, though often representing Hermes, were used for other divinities, and even, in later times, for portraits of human beings. Called also herma. See Terminal statue, under Terminal.

Hernani (n.) A thin silk or woolen goods, for women's dresses, woven in various styles and colors.

Hero (n.) A man of distinguished valor or enterprise in danger, or fortitude in suffering; a prominent or central personage in any remarkable action or event; hence, a great or illustrious person.

Herr (n.) A title of respect given to gentlemen in Germany, equivalent to the English Mister.

Hesper (n.) The evening; Hesperus.

Hesperus (n.) Venus when she is the evening star; Hesper.

Hesperus (n.) Evening.

Hessian (n.) A mercenary or venal person.

Hiccough (n.) A modified respiratory movement; a spasmodic inspiration, consisting of a sudden contraction of the diaphragm, accompanied with closure of the glottis, so that further entrance of air is prevented, while the impulse of the column of air entering and striking upon the closed glottis produces a sound, or hiccough.

High (n.) An elevated place; a superior region; a height; the sky; heaven.

Highness (n.) A title of honor given to kings, princes, or other persons of rank; as, His Royal Highness.

Hilary term () Formerly, one of the four terms of the courts of common law in England, beginning on the eleventh of January and ending on the thirty-first of the same month, in each year; -- so called from the festival of St. Hilary, January 13th.

Hilly (a.) Abounding with hills; uneven in surface; as, a hilly country.

Himself (pron. pl.) Alt. of Himselven

Himselven (pron. pl.) Themselves. See Hemself.

Hinder (a.) To keep back or behind; to prevent from starting or moving forward; to check; to retard; to obstruct; to bring to a full stop; -- often followed by from; as, an accident hindered the coach; drought hinders the growth of plants; to hinder me from going.

Hinder (a.) To prevent or embarrass; to debar; to shut out.

Hindi (n.) The name given by Europeans to that form of the Hindustani language which is chiefly spoken by native Hindoos. In employs the Devanagari character, in which Sanskrit is written.

Hindustani (n.) The language of Hindostan; the name given by Europeans to the most generally spoken of the modern Aryan languages of India. It is Hindi with the addition of Persian and Arabic words.

Hippocampus (n.) A name applied to either of two ridges of white matter in each lateral ventricle of the brain. The larger is called hippocampus major or simply hippocampus. The smaller, hippocampus minor, is called also ergot and calcar.

Hireling (a.) Serving for hire or wages; venal; mercenary.

Historical (a.) Of or pertaining to history, or the record of past events; as, an historical poem; the historic page.

History (n.) A learning or knowing by inquiry; the knowledge of facts and events, so obtained; hence, a formal statement of such information; a narrative; a description; a written record; as, the history of a patient's case; the history of a legislative bill.

History (n.) A systematic, written account of events, particularly of those affecting a nation, institution, science, or art, and usually connected with a philosophical explanation of their causes; a true story, as distinguished from a romance; -- distinguished also from annals, which relate simply the facts and events of each year, in strict chronological order; from biography, which is the record of an individual's life; and from memoir, which is history composed from personal experience, observation, and memory.

Hithe (n.) A port or small haven; -- used in composition; as, Lambhithe, now Lambeth.

Hoarse (superl.) Having a harsh, rough, grating voice or sound, as when affected with a cold; making a rough, harsh cry or sound; as, the hoarse raven.

Hobbly (a.) Rough; uneven; causing one to hobble; as a hobbly road.

Hobgoblin (n.) A frightful goblin; an imp; a bugaboo; also, a name formerly given to the household spirit, Robin Goodfellow.

Hock (n.) A Rhenish wine, of a light yellow color, either sparkling or still. The name is also given indiscriminately to all Rhenish wines.

Hogchain (n.) A chain or tie rod, in a boat or barge, to prevent the vessel from hogging.

Hogmanay (n.) The old name, in Scotland, for the last day of the year, on which children go about singing, and receive a dole of bread or cakes; also, the entertainment given on that day to a visitor, or the gift given to an applicant.

Hold (v. t.) To cause to remain in a given situation, position, or relation, within certain limits, or the like; to prevent from falling or escaping; to sustain; to restrain; to keep in the grasp; to retain.

Hold (n. i.) In general, to keep one's self in a given position or condition; to remain fixed. Hence:

Holiday (n.) A consecrated day; religious anniversary; a day set apart in honor of some person, or in commemoration of some event. See Holyday.

Holmos (n.) A name given to a vase having a rounded body

Holophote (n.) A lamp with lenses or reflectors to collect the rays of light and throw them in a given direction; -- used in lighthouses.

Homaloidal (a.) Flat; even; -- a term applied to surfaces and to spaces, whether real or imagined, in which the definitions, axioms, and postulates of Euclid respecting parallel straight lines are assumed to hold true.

Home-driven (a.) Driven to the end, as a nail; driven close.

Homogeneous (a.) Possessing the same number of factors of a given kind; as, a homogeneous polynomial.

Homogeny (n.) The correspondence of common descent; -- a term used to supersede homology by Lankester, who also used homoplasy to denote any superinduced correspondence of position and structure in parts embryonically distinct (other writers using the term homoplasmy). Thus, there is homogeny between the fore limb of a mammal and the wing of a bird; but the right and left ventricles of the heart in both are only in homoplasy with each other, these having arisen independently since the divergence of both groups from a univentricular ancestor.

Honor (n.) Esteem due or paid to worth; high estimation; respect; consideration; reverence; veneration; manifestation of respect or reverence.

Hoosier (n.) A nickname given to an inhabitant of the State of Indiana.

Hooven (a.) Alt. of Hoven

Hoven (a.) Affected with hoove; as, hooven, or hoven, cattle.

Hope (n.) A small bay; an inlet; a haven.

Hoppo (n.) A tribunal or commission having charge of the revenue derived from trade and navigation.

Horizon (n.) The circle which bounds that part of the earth's surface visible to a spectator from a given point; the apparent junction of the earth and sky.

Horizon (n.) A plane passing through the eye of the spectator and at right angles to the vertical at a given place; a plane tangent to the earth's surface at that place; called distinctively the sensible horizon.

Horizon (n.) The unbroken line separating sky and water, as seen by an eye at a given elevation, no land being visible.

Hornbill (n.) Any bird of the family Bucerotidae, of which about sixty species are known, belonging to numerous genera. They inhabit the tropical parts of Asia, Africa, and the East Indies, and are remarkable for having a more or less horn-like protuberance, which is usually large and hollow and is situated on the upper side of the beak. The size of the hornbill varies from that of a pigeon to that of a raven, or even larger. They feed chiefly upon fruit, but some species eat dead animals.

Hornito (n.) A low, oven-shaped mound, common in volcanic regions, and emitting smoke and vapors from its sides and summit.

Horologer (n.) A maker or vender of clocks and watches; one skilled in horology.

Horoscope (n.) The representation made of the aspect of the heavens at the moment of a person's birth, by which the astrologer professed to foretell the events of the person's life; especially, the sign of the zodiac rising above the horizon at such a moment.

Horoscope (n.) The diagram or scheme of twelve houses or signs of the zodiac, into which the whole circuit of the heavens was divided for the purposes of such prediction of fortune.

Horoscope (n.) The planisphere invented by Jean Paduanus.

Horoscopy (n.) The art or practice of casting horoscopes, or observing the disposition of the stars, with a view to prediction events.

Hosier (n.) One who deals in hose or stocking, or in goods knit or woven like hose.

Hosiery (n.) Stockings, in general; goods knit or woven like hose.

Hospice (n.) A convent or monastery which is also a place of refuge or entertainment for travelers on some difficult road or pass, as in the Alps; as, the Hospice of the Great St. Bernard.

Hostage (n.) A person given as a pledge or security for the performance of the conditions of a treaty or stipulations of any kind, on the performance of which the person is to be released.

Hotchpotch (n.) A blending of property for equality of division, as when lands given in frank-marriage to one daughter were, after the death of the ancestor, blended with the lands descending to her and to her sisters from the same ancestor, and then divided in equal portions among all the daughters. In modern usage, a mixing together, or throwing into a common mass or stock, of the estate left by a person deceased and the amounts advanced to any particular child or children, for the purpose of a more equal division, or of equalizing the shares of all the children; the property advanced being accounted for at its value when given.

House (n.) A twelfth part of the heavens, as divided by six circles intersecting at the north and south points of the horizon, used by astrologers in noting the positions of the heavenly bodies, and casting horoscopes or nativities. The houses were regarded as fixed in respect to the horizon, and numbered from the one at the eastern horizon, called the ascendant, first house, or house of life, downward, or in the direction of the earth's revolution, the stars and planets passing through them in the reverse order every twenty-four hours.

Hoven () p. p. of Heave.

Hoven (a.) Affected with the disease called hoove; as, hoven cattle.

However (adv.) At all events; at least; in any case.

Hugger-mugger (a.) Confused; disorderly; slovenly; mean; as, hugger-mugger doings.

Hurdy-gurdy (n.) In California, a water wheel with radial buckets, driven by the impact of a jet.

Hurter (v. t.) A butting piece; a strengthening piece, esp.: (Mil.) A piece of wood at the lower end of a platform, designed to prevent the wheels of gun carriages from injuring the parapet.

Huyghenian (a.) Pertaining to, or invented by, Christian Huyghens, a Dutch astronomer of the seventeenth century; as, the Huyghenian telescope.

Hyacinth (n.) The name also given to Scilla Peruviana, a Mediterranean plant, one variety of which produces white, and another blue, flowers; -- called also, from a mistake as to its origin, Hyacinth of Peru.

Hydrocephalus (n.) An accumulation of liquid within the cavity of the cranium, especially within the ventricles of the brain; dropsy of the brain. It is due usually to tubercular meningitis. When it occurs in infancy, it often enlarges the head enormously.

Hydrogen (n.) A gaseous element, colorless, tasteless, and odorless, the lightest known substance, being fourteen and a half times lighter than air (hence its use in filling balloons), and over eleven thousand times lighter than water. It is very abundant, being an ingredient of water and of many other substances, especially those of animal or vegetable origin. It may by produced in many ways, but is chiefly obtained by the action of acids (as sulphuric) on metals, as zinc, iron, etc. It is very inflammable, and is an ingredient of coal gas and water gas. It is standard of chemical equivalents or combining weights, and also of valence, being the typical monad. Symbol H. Atomic weight 1.

Hydrometrograph (n.) An instrument for determining and recording the quantity of water discharged from a pipe, orifice, etc., in a given time.

Hydrophid (n.) Any sea snake of the genus Hydrophys and allied genera. These snakes are venomous, live upon fishes, and have a flattened tail for swimming.

Hydrostat (n.) A contrivance or apparatus to prevent the explosion of steam boilers.

Hypapophysis (n.) A process, or other element, of a vertebra developed from the ventral side of the centrum, as haemal spines, and chevron bones.

Hyparterial (a.) Situated below an artery; applied esp. to the branches of the bronchi given off below the point where the pulmonary artery crosses the bronchus.

Hyperbola (n.) A curve formed by a section of a cone, when the cutting plane makes a greater angle with the base than the side of the cone makes. It is a plane curve such that the difference of the distances from any point of it to two fixed points, called foci, is equal to a given distance. See Focus. If the cutting plane be produced so as to cut the opposite cone, another curve will be formed, which is also an hyperbola. Both curves are regarded as branches of the same hyperbola. See Illust. of Conic section, and Focus.

Hyperdulia (n.) Veneration or worship given to the Virgin Mary as the most exalted of mere creatures; higher veneration than dulia.

Hypnosis (n.) Supervention of sleep.

Hypotyposis (n.) A vivid, picturesque description of scenes or events.

Hythe (n.) A small haven. See Hithe.

Iambus (n.) A foot consisting of a short syllable followed by a long one, as in /mans, or of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented one, as invent; an iambic. See the Couplet under Iambic, n.

Icarian (a.) Soaring too high for safety, like Icarus; adventurous in flight.

Idealist (n.) One who idealizes; one who forms picturesque fancies; one given to romantic expectations.

Idealogue (n.) One given to fanciful ideas or theories; a theorist; a spectator.

Identical (a.) Uttering sameness or the same truth; expressing in the predicate what is given, or obviously implied, in the subject; tautological.

Ideogram (n.) A symbol used for convenience, or for abbreviation; as, 1, 2, 3, +, -, /, $, /, etc.

Idle (superl.) Given rest and ease; averse to labor or employment; lazy; slothful; as, an idle fellow.

Idolatrous (a.) Of or pertaining to idolatry; partaking of the nature of idolatry; given to idolatry or the worship of false gods; as, idolatrous sacrifices.

Idolatrous (a.) Consisting in, or partaking of, an excessive attachment or reverence; as, an idolatrous veneration for antiquity.

Idolatry (n.) Excessive attachment or veneration for anything; respect or love which borders on adoration.

Ill (n.) Whatever annoys or impairs happiness, or prevents success; evil of any kind; misfortune; calamity; disease; pain; as, the ills of humanity.

Ill-favored (a.) Wanting beauty or attractiveness; deformed; ugly; ill-looking.

Illuminati (v. t.) Persons in the early church who had received baptism; in which ceremony a lighted taper was given them, as a symbol of the spiritual illumination they has received by that sacrament.

Illusionist (n.) One given to illusion; a visionary dreamer.

Illusiveness (n.) The quality of being illusive; deceptiveness; false show.

Imaginal (a.) Characterized by imagination; imaginative; also, given to the use or rhetorical figures or imagins.

Imaginative (a.) Given to imagining; full of images, fancies, etc.; having a quick imagination; conceptive; creative.

Imitate (v. t.) To resemble (another species of animal, or a plant, or inanimate object) in form, color, ornamentation, or instinctive habits, so as to derive an advantage thereby; sa, when a harmless snake imitates a venomous one in color and manner, or when an odorless insect imitates, in color, one having secretion offensive to birds.

Immediacy (n.) The relation of freedom from the interventionof a medium; immediateness.

Immediate (a.) Not separated in respect to place by anything intervening; proximate; close; as, immediate contact.

Immediate (a.) Acting with nothing interposed or between, or without the intervention of another object as a cause, means, or agency; acting, perceived, or produced, directly; as, an immediate cause.

Immediately (adv.) In an immediate manner; without intervention of any other person or thing; proximately; directly; -- opposed to mediately; as, immediately contiguous.

Immediateness (n.) The quality or relations of being immediate in manner, place, or time; exemption from second or interventing causes.

Impacted (a.) Driven together or close.

Imparlance (n.) Time given to a party to talk or converse with his opponent, originally with the object of effecting, if possible, an amicable adjustment of the suit. The actual object, however, has long been merely to obtain further time to plead, or answer to the allegations of the opposite party.

Impassivity (n.) The quality of being insusceptible of feeling, pain, or suffering; impassiveness.

Impeach (v. t.) To hinder; to impede; to prevent.

Impenetrable (a.) Having the property of preventing any other substance from occupying the same space at the same time.

Impetus (n.) A property possessed by a moving body in virtue of its weight and its motion; the force with which any body is driven or impelled; momentum.

Import (n.) That which a word, phrase, or document contains as its signification or intention or interpretation of a word, action, event, and the like.

Impression (n.) Impressiveness; emphasis of delivery.

Impression (n.) The pressure of the type on the paper, or the result of such pressure, as regards its appearance; as, a heavy impression; a clear, or a poor, impression; also, a single copy as the result of printing, or the whole edition printed at a given time.

Impreventability (n.) The state or quality of being impreventable.

Impreventable (a.) Not preventable; invitable.

Improbability (n.) The quality or state of being improbable; unlikelihood; also, that which is improbable; an improbable event or result.

Improbable (a.) Not probable; unlikely to be true; not to be expected under the circumstances or in the usual course of events; as, an improbable story or event.

Improvise (v. t.) To invent, or provide, offhand, or on the spur of the moment; as, he improvised a hammer out of a stone.

Impulsiveness (n.) The quality of being impulsive.

Inadequacy (n.) The quality or state of being inadequate or insufficient; defectiveness; insufficiency; inadequateness.

Inadvertency (n.) The quality of being inadvertent; lack of heedfulness or attentiveness; inattention; negligence; as, many mistakes proceed from inadvertence.

Inaniloquous (a.) Given to talking inanely; loquacious; garrulous.

Incameration (n.) The act or process of uniting lands, rights, or revenues, to the ecclesiastical chamber, i. e., to the pope's domain.

Incidence (n.) A falling on or upon; an incident; an event.

Incident (n.) That which falls out or takes place; an event; casualty; occurrence.

Incident (n.) That which happens aside from the main design; an accidental or subordinate action or event.

Incindental (a.) Happening, as an occasional event, without regularity; coming without design; casual; accidental; hence, not of prime concern; subordinate; collateral; as, an incidental conversation; an incidental occurrence; incidental expenses.

Income (n.) That gain which proceeds from labor, business, property, or capital of any kind, as the produce of a farm, the rent of houses, the proceeds of professional business, the profits of commerce or of occupation, or the interest of money or stock in funds, etc.; revenue; receipts; salary; especially, the annual receipts of a private person, or a corporation, from property; as, a large income.

Incommodation (n.) The state of being incommoded; inconvenience.

Incommode (v. t.) To give inconvenience or trouble to; to disturb or molest; to discommode; to worry; to put out; as, we are incommoded by want of room.

Incommode (n.) An inconvenience.

Incommodious (a.) Tending to incommode; not commodious; not affording ease or advantage; unsuitable; giving trouble; inconvenient; annoying; as, an incommodious seat; an incommodious arrangement.

Incommodity (n.) Inconvenience; trouble; annoyance; disadvantage; encumbrance.

Incompleteness (n.) The state of being incomplete; imperfectness; defectiveness.

Inconsecutiveness (n.) The state or quality of not being consecutive.

Inconsequence (n.) The quality or state of being inconsequent; want of just or logical inference or argument; inconclusiveness.

Inconvenience (n.) The quality or condition of being inconvenient; want of convenience; unfitness; unsuitableness; inexpediency; awkwardness; as, the inconvenience of the arrangement.

Inconvenience (n.) That which gives trouble, embarrassment, or uneasiness; disadvantage; anything that disturbs quiet, impedes prosperity, or increases the difficulty of action or success; as, one inconvenience of life is poverty.

Inconvenience (v. t.) To put to inconvenience; to incommode; as, to inconvenience a neighbor.

Inconveniency (n.) Inconvenience.

Inconvenient (a.) Not becoming or suitable; unfit; inexpedient.

Inconvenient (a.) Not convenient; giving trouble, uneasiness, or annoyance; hindering progress or success; uncomfortable; disadvantageous; incommodious; inopportune; as, an inconvenient house, garment, arrangement, or time.

Inconveniently (adv.) In an inconvenient manner; incommodiously; unsuitably; unseasonably.

Incubus (n.) Any oppressive encumbrance or burden; anything that prevents the free use of the faculties.

Incur (v. t.) To meet or fall in with, as something inconvenient, harmful, or onerous; to put one's self in the way of; to expose one's self to; to become liable or subject to; to bring down upon one's self; to encounter; to contract; as, to incur debt, danger, displeasure/ penalty, responsibility, etc.

Incuriosity (n.) Want of curiosity or interest; inattentiveness; indifference.

Indecisiveness (n.) The state of being indecisive; unsettled state.

Indent (v. i.) To contract; to bargain or covenant.

Indented (a.) Having an uneven, irregular border; sinuous; undulating.

Indigo (n.) A kind of deep blue, one of the seven prismatic colors.

Indissoluble (a.) Incapable of being rightfully broken or dissolved; perpetually binding or obligatory; firm; stable, as, an indissoluble league or covenant.

Industrious (a.) Given to industry; characterized by diligence; constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied; busy; assiduous; not slothful or idle; -- commonly implying devotion to lawful and useful labor.

Inebriate (a.) Intoxicated; drunk; habitually given to drink; stupefied.

Ineffable (a.) Incapable of being expresses in words; unspeakable; unutterable; indescribable; as, the ineffable joys of heaven.

Ineffectiveness (n.) Quality of being ineffective.

Inequal (a.) Unequal; uneven; various.

Inequality (n.) The quality of being unequal; difference, or want of equality, in any respect; lack of uniformity; disproportion; unevenness; disparity; diversity; as, an inequality in size, stature, numbers, power, distances, motions, rank, property, etc.

Inequality (n.) Unevenness; want of levelness; the alternate rising and falling of a surface; as, the inequalities of the surface of the earth, or of a marble slab, etc.

Inexcusableness (n.) The quality of being inexcusable; enormity forgiveness.

Inexpressiveness (n.) The state or quality of being inexpressive.

Infante (n.) A title given to every one of sons of the kings of Spain and Portugal, except the eldest or heir apparent.

Infare (n.) A house-warming; especially, a reception, party, or entertainment given by a newly married couple, or by the husband upon receiving the wife to his house.

Infecundity (n.) Want of fecundity or fruitfulness; barrenness; sterility; unproductiveness.

Infertility (n.) The state or quality of being infertile; unproductiveness; barrenness.

Infibulation (n.) The act of attaching a ring, clasp, or frame, to the genital organs in such a manner as to prevent copulation.

Infidelity (n.) Unfaithfulness to the marriage vow or contract; violation of the marriage covenant by adultery.

Informal (a.) Not in the regular, usual, or established form; not according to official, conventional, prescribed, or customary forms or rules; irregular; hence, without ceremony; as, an informal writting, proceeding, or visit.

Informality (n.) An informal, unconventional, or unofficial act or proceeding; something which is not in proper or prescribed form or does not conform to the established rule.

Infrabranchial (a.) Below the gills; -- applied to the ventral portion of the pallial chamber in the lamellibranchs.

Infundibulum (n.) A funnel-shaped or dilated organ or part; as, the infundibulum of the brain, a hollow, conical process, connecting the floor of the third ventricle with the pituitary body; the infundibula of the lungs, the enlarged terminations of the bronchial tubes.

Ingeniate (v. t. & i.) To invent; to contrive.

Ingenious (a.) Possessed of genius, or the faculty of invention; skillful or promp to invent; having an aptitude to contrive, or to form new combinations; as, an ingenious author, mechanic.

Ingenuity (n.) The quality or power of ready invention; quickness or acuteness in forming new combinations; ingeniousness; skill in devising or combining.

Inhabile (a.) Not apt or fit; unfit; not convenient; inappropriate; unsuitable; as, inhabile matter.

Inhabitativeness (n.) A tendency or propensity to permanent residence in a place or abode; love of home and country.

Inhabitiveness (n.) See Inhabitativeness.

Initiative (n.) The right or power to introduce a new measure or course of action, as in legislation; as, the initiative in respect to revenue bills is in the House of Representatives.

Injector (n.) A contrivance for forcing feed water into a steam boiler by the direct action of the steam upon the water. The water is driven into the boiler by the impulse of a jet of the steam which becomes condensed as soon as it strikes the stream of cold water it impels; -- also called Giffard's injector, from the inventor.

Innominate (a.) A term used in designating many parts otherwise unnamed; as, the innominate artery, a great branch of the arch of the aorta; the innominate vein, a great branch of the superior vena cava.

Inopportune (a.) Not opportune; inconvenient; unseasonable; as, an inopportune occurrence, remark, etc.

Inopportunely (adv.) Not opportunely; unseasonably; inconveniently.

Inopportunity (n.) Want of opportunity; unseasonableness; inconvenience.

Inordinacy (n.) The state or quality of being inordinate; excessiveness; immoderateness; as, the inordinacy of love or desire.

Inoxidize (v. i.) To prevent or hinder oxidation, rust, or decay; as, inoxidizing oils or varnishes.

Inquiring (a.) Given to inquiry; disposed to investigate causes; curious; as, an inquiring mind.

Inquisitive (a.) Given to examination, investigation, or research; searching; curious.

Inquisitiveness (n.) The quality or state of being inquisitive; the disposition to seek explanation and information; curiosity to learn what is unknown; esp., uncontrolled and impertinent curiosity.

Inscrutable (a.) Unsearchable; incapable of being searched into and understood by inquiry or study; impossible or difficult to be explained or accounted for satisfactorily; obscure; incomprehensible; as, an inscrutable design or event.

Insolvencies (pl. ) of Insolvency

Insolvency (n.) The condition of being insolvent; the state or condition of a person who is insolvent; the condition of one who is unable to pay his debts as they fall due, or in the usual course of trade and business; as, a merchant's insolvency.

Insolvency (n.) Insufficiency to discharge all debts of the owner; as, the insolvency of an estate.

Insolvent (a.) Not solvent; not having sufficient estate to pay one's debts; unable to pay one's debts as they fall due, in the ordinary course of trade and business; as, in insolvent debtor.

Insolvent (a.) Not sufficient to pay all the debts of the owner; as, an insolvent estate.

Insolvent (a.) Relating to persons unable to pay their debts.

Insolvent (n.) One who is insolvent; as insolvent debtor; -- in England, before 1861, especially applied to persons not traders.

Inspire (v. t.) To infuse into; to affect, as with a superior or supernatural influence; to fill with what animates, enlivens, or exalts; to communicate inspiration to; as, to inspire a child with sentiments of virtue.

Inspired (a.) Communicated or given as by supernatural or divine inspiration; having divine authority; hence, sacred, holy; -- opposed to uninspired, profane, or secular; as, the inspired writings, that is, the Scriptures.

Instantaneous (a.) At or during a given instant; as, instantaneous acceleration, velocity, etc.

Institute (n.) The person to whom an estate is first given by destination or limitation.

Insularity (n.) Narrowness or illiberality of opinion; prejudice; exclusiveness; as, the insularity of the Chinese or of the aristocracy.

Insulate (v. t.) To prevent the transfer o/ electricity or heat to or from (bodies) by the interposition of nonconductors.

Insulation (n.) The act of separating a body from others by nonconductors, so as to prevent the transfer of electricity or of heat; also, the state of a body so separated.

Insurance (n.) The act of insuring, or assuring, against loss or damage by a contingent event; a contract whereby, for a stipulated consideration, called premium, one party undertakes to indemnify or guarantee another against loss by certain specified risks. Cf. Assurance, n., 6.

Insure (v. t.) Specifically, to secure against a loss by a contingent event, on certain stipulated conditions, or at a given rate or premium; to give or to take an insurance on or for; as, a merchant insures his ship or its cargo, or both, against the dangers of the sea; goods and buildings are insured against fire or water; persons are insured against sickness, accident, or death; and sometimes hazardous debts are insured.

Integral (n.) An expression which, being differentiated, will produce a given differential. See differential Differential, and Integration. Cf. Fluent.

Integrate (v. t.) To indicate the whole of; to give the sum or total of; as, an integrating anemometer, one that indicates or registers the entire action of the wind in a given time.

Integration (n.) The operation of finding the primitive function which has a given function for its differential coefficient. See Integral.

Intense (a.) Extreme in degree; excessive; immoderate; as: (a) Ardent; fervent; as, intense heat. (b) Keen; biting; as, intense cold. (c) Vehement; earnest; exceedingly strong; as, intense passion or hate. (d) Very severe; violent; as, intense pain or anguish. (e) Deep; strong; brilliant; as, intense color or light.

Intension (n.) Increase of power or energy of any quality or thing; intenseness; fervency.

Intensity (n.) The amount or degree of energy with which a force operates or a cause acts; effectiveness, as estimated by results produced.

Intensiveness (n.) The quality or state of being intensive; intensity.

Intentiveness (n.) Closeness of attention or application of mind; attentiveness.

Interambulacrum (n.) In echinoderms, one of the areas or zones intervening between two ambulacra. See Illust. of Ambulacrum.

Intercede (v. i.) To pass between; to intervene.

Intercedence (n.) The act of interceding; intercession; intervention.

Interchapter (n.) An intervening or inserted chapter.

Interclude (v. t.) To shut off or out from a place or course, by something intervening; to intercept; to cut off; to interrupt.

Intercoming (n.) The act of coming between; intervention; interference.

Intercur (v. i.) To intervene; to come or occur in the meantime.

Intercurrent (a.) Running between or among; intervening.

Intercurrent (n.) Something intervening.

Interdigitate (v. i.) To interlock, as the fingers of two hands that are joined; to be interwoven; to commingle.

Interest (n.) Any excess of advantage over and above an exact equivalent for what is given or rendered.

Interfere (v. i.) To cover the same ground; to claim the same invention.

Interference (n.) The act or state of interfering, or of claiming a right to the same invention.

Interfluous (a.) Flowing between or among; intervening.

Intergraven () of Intergrave

Interim (n.) The meantime; time intervening; interval between events, etc.

Interim (n.) A name given to each of three compromises made by the emperor Charles V. of Germany for the sake of harmonizing the connecting opinions of Protestants and Catholics.

Interjacency (n.) The state of being between; a coming or lying between or among; intervention; also, that which lies between.

Interjacent (a.) Lying or being between or among; intervening; as, interjacent isles.

Interlapse (n.) The lapse or interval of time between two events.

Interluency (n.) A flowing between; intervening water.

Intermediacy (n.) Interposition; intervention.

Intermedial (a.) Lying between; intervening; intermediate.

Intermediate (a.) Lying or being in the middle place or degree, or between two extremes; coming or done between; intervening; interposed; interjacent; as, an intermediate space or time; intermediate colors.

Intermediate (v. i.) To come between; to intervene; to interpose.

Intermediately (adv.) In an intermediate manner; by way of intervention.

Intermediation (n.) The act of coming between; intervention; interposition.

Intermedium (n.) An intervening agent or instrument.

Intermission (n.) Cessation for a time; an intervening period of time; an interval; a temporary pause; as, to labor without intermission; an intermission of ten minutes.

Intermission (n.) Intervention; interposition.

Internodal (a.) Of or pertaining to internodes; intervening between nodes or joints.

Interpolation (n.) The method or operation of finding from a few given terms of a series, as of numbers or observations, other intermediate terms in conformity with the law of the series.

Interposal (n.) The act of interposing; interposition; intervention.

Interposer (n.) One who, or that which, interposes or intervenes; an obstacle or interruption; a mediator or agent between parties.

Interpretation (n.) The sense given by an interpreter; exposition or explanation given; meaning; as, commentators give various interpretations of the same passage of Scripture.

Interrupt (v. t.) To divide; to separate; to break the monotony of; as, the evenness of the road was not interrupted by a single hill.

Interruption (n.) The state of being interrupted; a breach or break, caused by the abrupt intervention of something foreign; intervention; interposition.

Interspace (n.) Intervening space.

Interstice (n.) That which intervenes between one thing and another; especially, a space between things closely set, or between the parts which compose a body; a narrow chink; a crack; a crevice; a hole; an interval; as, the interstices of a wall.

Interstition (n.) An intervening period of time; interval.

Intertexture (n.) The act of interweaving, or the state of being interwoven; that which is interwoven.

Intertissued (a.) Interwoven.

Interval (n.) A space between things; a void space intervening between any two objects; as, an interval between two houses or hills.

Interval (n.) Space of time between any two points or events; as, the interval between the death of Charles I. of England, and the accession of Charles II.

Intervened (imp. & p. p.) of Intervene

Intervening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Intervene

Intervene (v. i.) To come between, or to be between, persons or things; -- followed by between; as, the Mediterranean intervenes between Europe and Africa.

Intervene (v. i.) To occur, fall, or come between, points of time, or events; as, an instant intervened between the flash and the report; nothing intervened ( i. e., between the intention and the execution) to prevent the undertaking.

Intervene (v. i.) To interpose; as, to intervene to settle a quarrel.

Intervene (v. i.) In a suit to which one has not been made a party, to put forward a defense of one's interest in the subject matter.

Intervene (v. t.) To come between.

Intervene (n.) A coming between; intervention; meeting.

Intervener (n.) One who intervenes; especially (Law), a person who assumes a part in a suit between others.

Intervenience (n.) Alt. of Interveniency

Interveniency (n.) Intervention; interposition.

Intervenient (a.) Being or coming between; intercedent; interposed.

Intervent (v. t.) To thwart; to obstruct.

Intervention (n.) The act of intervening; interposition.

Intervention (n.) Any interference that may affect the interests of others; especially, of one or more states with the affairs of another; mediation.

Intervention (n.) The act by which a third person, to protect his own interest, interposes and becomes a party to a suit pending between other parties.

Interventor (n.) One who intervenes; a mediator; especially (Eccles. Hist.), a person designated by a church to reconcile parties, and unite them in the choice of officers.

Interventricular (a.) Between the ventricles; as, the interventricular partition of the heart.

Intervenue (n.) Interposition.

Interwoven (p. p.) of Interweave

Interweave (v. t.) To weave together; to intermix or unite in texture or construction; to intertwine; as, threads of silk and cotton interwoven.

Interwove () Alt. of Interwoven

Interwoven () imp. & p. p. of Interweave.

Intextured (a.) Inwrought; woven in.

Intimation (n.) A hint; an obscure or indirect suggestion or notice; a remote or ambiguous reference; as, he had given only intimations of his design.

Intravenous (a.) Within the veins.

Intraventricular (a.) Within or between ventricles.

Intrigue (v. i.) The plot or romance; a complicated scheme of designs, actions, and events.

Introspectionist (n.) One given to the introspective method of examining the phenomena of the soul.

Introvenient (a.) Coming in together; entering; commingling.

Inure (v. t.) To apply in use; to train; to discipline; to use or accustom till use gives little or no pain or inconvenience; to harden; to habituate; to practice habitually.

Invariable (a.) Not given to variation or change; unalterable; unchangeable; always uniform.

Invendibility (n.) The quality of being invendible; invendibleness; unsalableness.

Invendible (a.) Not vendible or salable.

Invenom (v. t.) See Envenom.

Invented (imp. & p. p.) of Invent

Inventing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Invent

Invent (v. t.) To come or light upon; to meet; to find.

Invent (v. t.) To discover, as by study or inquiry; to find out; to devise; to contrive or produce for the first time; -- applied commonly to the discovery of some serviceable mode, instrument, or machine.

Invent (v. t.) To frame by the imagination; to fabricate mentally; to forge; -- in a good or a bad sense; as, to invent the machinery of a poem; to invent a falsehood.

Inventer (n.) One who invents.

Inventful (a.) Full of invention.

Inventible (a.) Capable of being invented.

Inventibleness (n.) Quality of being inventible.

Invention (n.) The act of finding out or inventing; contrivance or construction of that which has not before existed; as, the invention of logarithms; the invention of the art of printing.

Invention (n.) That which is invented; an original contrivance or construction; a device; as, this fable was the invention of Esop; that falsehood was her own invention.

Invention (n.) Thought; idea.

Invention (n.) A fabrication to deceive; a fiction; a forgery; a falsehood.

Invention (n.) The faculty of inventing; imaginative faculty; skill or ingenuity in contriving anything new; as, a man of invention.

Invention (n.) The exercise of the imagination in selecting and treating a theme, or more commonly in contriving the arrangement of a piece, or the method of presenting its parts.

Inventious (a.) Inventive.

Inventive (a.) Able and apt to invent; quick at contrivance; ready at expedients; as, an inventive head or genius.

Inventor (n.) One who invents or finds out something new; a contriver; especially, one who invents mechanical devices.

Inventorial (a.) Of or pertaining to an inventory.

Inventories (pl. ) of Inventory

Inventory (n.) An account, catalogue, or schedule, made by an executor or administrator, of all the goods and chattels, and sometimes of the real estate, of a deceased person; a list of the property of which a person or estate is found to be possessed; hence, an itemized list of goods or valuables, with their estimated worth; specifically, the annual account of stock taken in any business.

Inventoried (imp. & p. p.) of Inventory

Inventorying (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Inventory

Inventory (v. t.) To make an inventory of; to make a list, catalogue, or schedule of; to insert or register in an account of goods; as, a merchant inventories his stock.

Inventress (n.) A woman who invents.

Invest (v. t.) To inclose; to surround of hem in with troops, so as to intercept succors of men and provisions and prevent escape; to lay siege to; as, to invest a town.

Investigative (a.) Given to investigation; inquisitive; curious; searching.

Inviolable (a.) Not capable of being broken or violated; as, an inviolable covenant, agreement, promise, or vow.

Involute (n.) A curve traced by the end of a string wound upon another curve, or unwound from it; -- called also evolvent. See Evolute.

Involution (n.) The act or process of raising a quantity to any power assigned; the multiplication of a quantity into itself a given number of times; -- the reverse of evolution.

Involve (v. t.) To raise to any assigned power; to multiply, as a quantity, into itself a given number of times; as, a quantity involved to the third or fourth power.

Ionic (a.) Pertaining to the Ionic order of architecture, one of the three orders invented by the Greeks, and one of the five recognized by the Italian writers of the sixteenth century. Its distinguishing feature is a capital with spiral volutes. See Illust. of Capital.

Ironical (a.) Addicted to the use of irony; given to irony.

Irreconcile (v. t.) To prevent from being reconciled; to alienate or disaffect.

Irresolute (a.) Not resolute; not decided or determined; wavering; given to doubt or irresolution.

Irreverent (a.) Not reverent; showing a want of reverence; expressive of a want of veneration; as, an irreverent babbler; an irreverent jest.

Irritation (n.) A condition of morbid excitability or oversensitiveness of an organ or part of the body; a state in which the application of ordinary stimuli produces pain or excessive or vitiated action.

Ischium (n.) The ventral and posterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis; seat bone; the huckle bone.

Isobar (n.) A line connecting or marking places upon the surface of the earth where height of the barometer reduced to sea level is the same either at a given time, or for a certain period (mean height), as for a year; an isopiestic line.

Isochroous (a.) Having the same tint or color throughout; uniformly or evenly colored.

Isonephelic (a.) Having, or indicating, an equal amount of cloudiness for a given period; as, isonephelic regions; an isonephelic line.

Isopoda (n. pl.) An order of sessile-eyed Crustacea, usually having seven pairs of legs, which are all similar in structure.

Isotherm (n.) A line connecting or marking points on the earth's surface having the same temperature. This may be the temperature for a given time of observation, or the mean temperature for a year or other period. Also, a similar line based on the distribution of temperature in the ocean.

Issue (n.) The final outcome or result; upshot; conclusion; event; hence, contest; test; trial.

-ist () A noun suffix denoting an agent, or doer, one who practices, a believer in; as, theorist, one who theorizes; socialist, one who holds to socialism; sensualist, one given to sensuality.

Italic (a.) Applied especially to a kind of type in which the letters do not stand upright, but slope toward the right; -- so called because dedicated to the States of Italy by the inventor, Aldus Manutius, about the year 1500.

Iter (n.) A passage; esp., the passage between the third and fourth ventricles in the brain; the aqueduct of Sylvius.

Jack (n.) A mechanical contrivance, an auxiliary machine, or a subordinate part of a machine, rendering convenient service, and often supplying the place of a boy or attendant who was commonly called Jack

Jack (n.) A system of gearing driven by a horse power, for multiplying speed.

Jack (n.) A hood or other device placed over a chimney or vent pipe, to prevent a back draught.

Jack (n.) A portable machine variously constructed, for exerting great pressure, or lifting or moving a heavy body through a small distance. It consists of a lever, screw, rack and pinion, hydraulic press, or any simple combination of mechanical powers, working in a compact pedestal or support and operated by a lever, crank, capstan bar, etc. The name is often given to a jackscrew, which is a kind of jack.

Jacket (n.) An outer covering for anything, esp. a covering of some nonconducting material such as wood or felt, used to prevent radiation of heat, as from a steam boiler, cylinder, pipe, etc.

Jacob (n.) A Hebrew patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews), who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven (Gen. xxviii. 12); -- also called Israel.

Jacobin (n.) A Dominican friar; -- so named because, before the French Revolution, that order had a convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris.

Jacobin (n.) One of a society of violent agitators in France, during the revolution of 1789, who held secret meetings in the Jacobin convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris, and concerted measures to control the proceedings of the National Assembly. Hence: A plotter against an existing government; a turbulent demagogue.

Jacquard (a.) Pertaining to, or invented by, Jacquard, a French mechanician, who died in 1834.

Jacquerie (n.) The name given to a revolt of French peasants against the nobles in 1358, the leader assuming the contemptuous title, Jacques Bonhomme, given by the nobles to the peasantry. Hence, any revolt of peasants.

Jaggy (a.) Having jags; set with teeth; notched; uneven; as, jaggy teeth.

Jaghir (n.) A village or district the government and revenues of which are assigned to some person, usually in consideration of some service to be rendered, esp. the maintenance of troops.

Jamb (n.) Any thick mass of rock which prevents miners from following the lode or vein.

Jamdani (n.) A silk fabric, with a woven pattern of sprigs of flowers.

Jar (n.) In deep well boring, a device resembling two long chain links, for connecting a percussion drill to the rod or rope which works it, so that the drill is driven down by impact and is jerked loose when jammed.

Jayhawker (n.) A name given to a free-booting, unenlisted, armed man or guerrilla.

Jealous (a.) Disposed to suspect rivalry in matters of interest and affection; apprehensive regarding the motives of possible rivals, or the fidelity of friends; distrustful; having morbid fear of rivalry in love or preference given to another; painfully suspicious of the faithfulness of husband, wife, or lover.

Jehovah (n.) A Scripture name of the Supreme Being, by which he was revealed to the Jews as their covenant God or Sovereign of the theocracy; the "ineffable name" of the Supreme Being, which was not pronounced by the Jews.

Jelerang (n.) A large, handsome squirrel (Sciurus Javensis), native of Java and Southern Asia; -- called also Java squirrel.

Jestful (a.) Given to jesting; full of jokes.

Job (n.) Any affair or event which affects one, whether fortunately or unfortunately.

Jockey (n.) A cheat; one given to sharp practice in trade.

Jocose (a.) Given to jokes and jesting; containing a joke, or abounding in jokes; merry; sportive; humorous.

Jocular (a.) Given to jesting; jocose; as, a jocular person.

Jocundity (n.) The state or quality of being jocund; gayety; sportiveness.

Joggle (v. t.) To join by means of joggles, so as to prevent sliding apart; sometimes, loosely, to dowel.

Joggle (n.) A notch or tooth in the joining surface of any piece of building material to prevent slipping; sometimes, but incorrectly, applied to a separate piece fitted into two adjacent stones, or the like.

Joint (n.) The place or part where two things or parts are joined or united; the union of two or more smooth or even surfaces admitting of a close-fitting or junction; junction as, a joint between two pieces of timber; a joint in a pipe.

Journal (a.) A diary; an account of daily transactions and events.

Journal (a.) A newspaper published daily; by extension, a weekly newspaper or any periodical publication, giving an account of passing events, the proceedings and memoirs of societies, etc.

Jubilee (n.) Every fiftieth year, being the year following the completion of each seventh sabbath of years, at which time all the slaves of Hebrew blood were liberated, and all lands which had been alienated during the whole period reverted to their former owners.

Jubilee (n.) The joyful commemoration held on the fiftieth anniversary of any event; as, the jubilee of Queen Victoria's reign; the jubilee of the American Board of Missions.

Judge (v. i.) The title of the seventh book of the Old Testament; the Book of Judges.

Jugular (a.) Having the ventral fins beneath the throat; -- said of certain fishes.

Jugular (a.) Any fish which has the ventral fins situated forward of the pectoral fins, or beneath the throat; one of a division of fishes (Jugulares).

July (n.) The seventh month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

Jump (n.) An effort; an attempt; a venture.

June (n.) The sister and wife of Jupiter, the queen of heaven, and the goddess who presided over marriage. She corresponds to the Greek Hera.

Junta (n.) A council; a convention; a tribunal; an assembly; esp., the grand council of state in Spain.

Justify (a.) To make even or true, as lines of type, by proper spacing; to adjust, as type. See Justification, 4.

Justify (v. i.) To form an even surface or true line with something else; to fit exactly.

Juvenal (n.) A youth.

Juvenescence (n.) A growing young.

Juvenescent (a.) Growing or becoming young.

Juvenile (a.) Young; youthful; as, a juvenile appearance.

Juvenile (a.) Of or pertaining to youth; as, juvenile sports.

Juvenile (n.) A young person or youth; -- used sportively or familiarly.

Juvenileness (n.) The state or quality of being juvenile; juvenility.

Juvenilities (pl. ) of Juvenility

Juvenility (n.) Youthfulness; adolescence.

Juvenility (n.) The manners or character of youth; immaturity.

K () the eleventh letter of the English alphabet, is nonvocal consonant. The form and sound of the letter K are from the Latin, which used the letter but little except in the early period of the language. It came into the Latin from the Greek, which received it from a Phoenician source, the ultimate origin probably being Egyptian. Etymologically K is most nearly related to c, g, h (which see).

Kaleidophone () An instrument invented by Professor Wheatstone, consisting of a reflecting knob at the end of a vibrating rod or thin plate, for making visible, in the motion of a point of light reflected from the knob, the paths or curves corresponding with the musical notes produced by the vibrations.

Kaleidoscope (n.) An instrument invented by Sir David Brewster, which contains loose fragments of colored glass, etc., and reflecting surfaces so arranged that changes of position exhibit its contents in an endless variety of beautiful colors and symmetrical forms. It has been much employed in arts of design.

Kami (n. pl.) A title given to the celestial gods of the first mythical dynasty of Japan and extended to the demigods of the second dynasty, and then to the long line of spiritual princes still represented by the mikado.

Katydid (n.) A large, green, arboreal, orthopterous insect (Cyrtophyllus concavus) of the family Locustidae, common in the United States. The males have stridulating organs at the bases of the front wings. During the summer and autumn, in the evening, the males make a peculiar, loud, shrill sound, resembling the combination Katy-did, whence the name.

Keep (v. t.) To cause to remain in a given situation or condition; to maintain unchanged; to hold or preserve in any state or tenor.

Keep (v. t.) To record transactions, accounts, or events in; as, to keep books, a journal, etc. ; also, to enter (as accounts, records, etc. ) in a book.

Keepsake (n.) Anything kept, or given to be kept, for the sake of the giver; a token of friendship.

Keitloa (n.) A black, two-horned, African rhinoceros (Atelodus keitloa). It has the posterior horn about as long as the anterior one, or even longer.

Keratin (n.) A nitrogenous substance, or mixture of substances, containing sulphur in a loose state of combination, and forming the chemical basis of epidermal tissues, such as horn, hair, feathers, and the like. It is an insoluble substance, and, unlike elastin, is not dissolved even by gastric or pancreatic juice. By decomposition with sulphuric acid it yields leucin and tyrosin, as does albumin. Called also epidermose.

Kersey (n.) A kind of coarse, woolen cloth, usually ribbed, woven from wool of long staple.

Kettledrum (n.) An informal social party at which a light collation is offered, held in the afternoon or early evening. Cf. Drum, n., 4 and 5.

Key (n.) A bar, pin or wedge, to secure a crank, pulley, coupling, etc., upon a shaft, and prevent relative turning; sometimes holding by friction alone, but more frequently by its resistance to shearing, being usually embedded partly in the shaft and partly in the crank, pulley, etc.

Key (n.) A family of tones whose regular members are called diatonic tones, and named key tone (or tonic) or one (or eight), mediant or three, dominant or five, subdominant or four, submediant or six, supertonic or two, and subtonic or seven. Chromatic tones are temporary members of a key, under such names as " sharp four," "flat seven," etc. Scales and tunes of every variety are made from the tones of a key.

Kick (n.) The projection on the tang of the blade of a pocket knife, which prevents the edge of the blade from striking the spring. See Illust. of Pocketknife.

Kid (n.) A small wooden mess tub; -- a name given by sailors to one in which they receive their food.

Killifish (n.) Any one of several small American cyprinodont fishes of the genus Fundulus and allied genera. They live equally well in fresh and brackish water, or even in the sea. They are usually striped or barred with black. Called also minnow, and brook fish. See Minnow.

Kiln (n.) A large stove or oven; a furnace of brick or stone, or a heated chamber, for the purpose of hardening, burning, or drying anything; as, a kiln for baking or hardening earthen vessels; a kiln for drying grain, meal, lumber, etc.; a kiln for calcining limestone.

Kilnhole (n.) The mouth or opening of an oven or kiln.

Kindergarten (n.) A school for young children, conducted on the theory that education should be begun by gratifying and cultivating the normal aptitude for exercise, play, observation, imitation, and construction; -- a name given by Friedrich Froebel, a German educator, who introduced this method of training, in rooms opening on a garden.

Kingbird (n.) A small American bird (Tyrannus tyrannus, or T. Carolinensis), noted for its courage in attacking larger birds, even hawks and eagles, especially when they approach its nest in the breeding season. It is a typical tyrant flycatcher, taking various insects upon the wing. It is dark ash above, and blackish on the head and tail. The quills and wing coverts are whitish at the edges. It is white beneath, with a white terminal band on the tail. The feathers on the head of the adults show a bright orange basal spot when erected. Called also bee bird, and bee martin. Several Southern and Western species of Tyrannus are also called king birds.

King-post (n.) A member of a common form of truss, as a roof truss. It is strictly a tie, intended to prevent the sagging of the tiebeam in the middle. If there are struts, supporting the main rafters, they often bear upon the foot of the king-post. Called also crown-post.

Kippernut (n.) A name given to earthnuts of several kinds.

Kiss (v. t.) To salute with the lips, as a mark of affection, reverence, submission, forgiveness, etc.

Knavish (a.) Like or characteristic of a knave; given to knavery; trickish; fraudulent; dishonest; villainous; as, a knavish fellow, or a knavish trick.

Kneeler (n.) A name given to certain catechumens and penitents who were permitted to join only in parts of church worship.

Knight-errant (n.) A wandering knight; a knight who traveled in search of adventures, for the purpose of exhibiting military skill, prowess, and generosity.

Knight-errantry (n.) The character or actions of wandering knights; the practice of wandering in quest of adventures; chivalry; a quixotic or romantic adventure or scheme.

Knock (v. i.) To drive or be driven against something; to strike against something; to clash; as, one heavy body knocks against another.

Knot (n.) A figure the lines of which are interlaced or intricately interwoven, as in embroidery, gardening, etc.

Knotted (a.) Interwoven; matted; entangled.

Kraal (n.) An inclosure into which are driven wild elephants which are to be tamed and educated.

Krait (n.) A very venomous snake of India (Bungarus coeruleus), allied to the cobra. Its upper parts are bluish or brownish black, often with narrow white streaks; the belly is whitish.

Kyrie eleison () The name given to the response to the Commandments, in the service of the Church of England and of the Protestant Episcopal Church.

Kyriological (a.) Serving to denote objects by conventional signs or alphabetical characters; as, the original Greek alphabet of sixteen letters was called kyriologic, because it represented the pure elementary sounds. See Curiologic.

Labarum (n.) The standard adopted by the Emperor Constantine after his conversion to Christianity. It is described as a pike bearing a silk banner hanging from a crosspiece, and surmounted by a golden crown. It bore a monogram of the first two letters (CHR) of the name of Christ in its Greek form. Later, the name was given to various modifications of this standard.

Label (n.) The name now generally given to the projecting molding by the sides, and over the tops, of openings in mediaeval architecture. It always has a /quare form, as in the illustration.

Lace (n.) That which binds or holds, especially by being interwoven; a string, cord, or band, usually one passing through eyelet or other holes, and used in drawing and holding together parts of a garment, of a shoe, of a machine belt, etc.

Lace (n.) A snare or gin, especially one made of interwoven cords; a net.

Lachrymose (a.) Generating or shedding tears; given to shedding tears; suffused with tears; tearful.

Lacquer (n.) A varnish, consisting of a solution of shell-lac in alcohol, often colored with gamboge, saffron, or the like; -- used for varnishing metals, papier-mache, and wood. The name is also given to varnishes made of other ingredients, esp. the tough, solid varnish of the Japanese, with which ornamental objects are made.

Lactobutyrometer (n.) An instrument for determining the amount of butter fat contained in a given sample of milk.

Ladyship (n.) The rank or position of a lady; -- given as a title (preceded by her or your).

Ladies' tresses () A name given to several species of the orchidaceous genus Spiranthes, in which the white flowers are set in spirals about a slender axis and remotely resemble braided hair.

Lagging (n.) The clothing (esp., an outer, wooden covering), as of a steam cylinder, applied to prevent the radiation of heat; a covering of lags; -- called also deading and cleading.

Laky (a.) Transparent; -- said of blood rendered transparent by the action of some solvent agent on the red blood corpuscles.

Lamasery (n.) A monastery or convent of lamas, in Thibet, Mongolia, etc.

Lamb's-quarters (n.) A name given to several plants of the Goosefoot family, sometimes used as pot herbs, as Chenopodium album and Atriplex patulsa.

Lamprey (n.) An eel-like marsipobranch of the genus Petromyzon, and allied genera. The lampreys have a round, sucking mouth, without jaws, but set with numerous minute teeth, and one to three larger teeth on the palate (see Illust. of Cyclostomi). There are seven small branchial openings on each side.

Lancet (n.) A surgical instrument of various forms, commonly sharp-pointed and two-edged, used in venesection, and in opening abscesses, etc.

Land (n.) The ground left unplowed between furrows; any one of several portions into which a field is divided for convenience in plowing.

Langue d'oc () The dialect, closely akin to French, formerly spoken south of the Loire (in which the word for "yes" was oc); Provencal.

Languishment (n.) Tenderness of look or mien; amorous pensiveness.

Lash (n.) The thong or braided cord of a whip, with which the blow is given.

Last (a.) Farthest of all from a given quality, character, or condition; most unlikely; having least fitness; as, he is the last person to be accused of theft.

Latitude (n.) Extent from side to side, or distance sidewise from a given point or line; breadth; width.

Latitude (n.) The angular distance of a heavenly body from the ecliptic.

Launch (n.) The boat of the largest size belonging to a ship of war; also, an open boat of any size driven by steam, naphtha, electricity, or the like.

Lavender (n.) An aromatic plant of the genus Lavandula (L. vera), common in the south of Europe. It yields and oil used in medicine and perfumery. The Spike lavender (L. Spica) yields a coarser oil (oil of spike), used in the arts.

Lavender (n.) The pale, purplish color of lavender flowers, paler and more delicate than lilac.

Laxativeness (n.) The quality of being laxative.

Lay (v. t.) To state; to allege; as, to lay the venue.

Lean (v. i.) Wanting fullness, richness, sufficiency, or productiveness; deficient in quality or contents; slender; scant; barren; bare; mean; -- used literally and figuratively; as, the lean harvest; a lean purse; a lean discourse; lean wages.

Lean (v. i.) Of a character which prevents the compositor from earning the usual wages; -- opposed to fat; as, lean copy, matter, or type.

Lear (n.) An annealing oven. See Leer, n.

Leastwise (adv.) At least; at all events.

Leaven (n.) Any substance that produces, or is designed to produce, fermentation, as in dough or liquids; esp., a portion of fermenting dough, which, mixed with a larger quantity of dough, produces a general change in the mass, and renders it light; yeast; barm.

Leaven (n.) Anything which makes a general assimilating (especially a corrupting) change in the mass.

Leavened (imp. & p. p.) of Leaven

Leavening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Leaven

Leaven (v. t.) To make light by the action of leaven; to cause to ferment.

Leaven (v. t.) To imbue; to infect; to vitiate.

Leavening (n.) The act of making light, or causing to ferment, by means of leaven.

Leavening (n.) That which leavens or makes light.

Leavenous (a.) Containing leaven.

Lecher (n.) A man given to lewdness; one addicted, in an excessive degree, to the indulgence of sexual desire, or to illicit commerce with women.

Leer (n.) An oven in which glassware is annealed.

Left-handed (a.) Having a direction contrary to that of the hands of a watch when seen in front; -- said of a twist, a rotary motion, etc., looked at from a given direction.

Legate (n.) An official assistant given to a general or to the governor of a province.

Leisure (n.) Time at one's command, free from engagement; convenient opportunity; hence, convenience; ease.

Lenitiveness (n.) The quality of being lenitive.

Lenocinant (a.) Given to lewdness.

Leonid (n.) One of the shooting stars which constitute the star shower that recurs near the fourteenth of November at intervals of about thirty-three years; -- so called because these shooting stars appear on the heavens to move in lines directed from the constellation Leo.

Lepidomelane (n.) An iron-potash mica, of a raven-black color, usually found in granitic rocks in small six-sided tables, or as an aggregation of minute opaque scales. See Mica.

Lepisma (n.) A genus of wingless thysanurous insects having an elongated flattened body, covered with shining scales and terminated by seven unequal bristles. A common species (Lepisma saccharina) is found in houses, and often injures books and furniture. Called also shiner, silver witch, silver moth, and furniture bug.

Lessee (v. t.) The person to whom a lease is given, or who takes an estate by lease.

Let (v. t.) To permit; to allow; to suffer; -- either affirmatively, by positive act, or negatively, by neglecting to restrain or prevent.

Levee (n.) A morning assembly or reception of visitors, -- in distinction from a soiree, or evening assembly; a matinee; hence, also, any general or somewhat miscellaneous gathering of guests, whether in the daytime or evening; as, the president's levee.

Levee (n.) An embankment to prevent inundation; as, the levees along the Mississippi; sometimes, the steep bank of a river.

Level (n.) A horizontal line or plane; that is, a straight line or a plane which is tangent to a true level at a given point and hence parallel to the horizon at that point; -- this is the apparent level at the given point.

Level (a.) Even; flat; having no part higher than another; having, or conforming to, the curvature which belongs to the undisturbed liquid parts of the earth's surface; as, a level field; level ground; the level surface of a pond or lake.

Level (a.) Even with anything else; of the same height; on the same line or plane; on the same footing; of equal importance; -- followed by with, sometimes by to.

Level (a.) Well balanced; even; just; steady; impartial; as, a level head; a level understanding. [Colloq.]

Level (a.) Of even tone; without rising or falling inflection.

Level (v. t.) To make level; to make horizontal; to bring to the condition of a level line or surface; hence, to make flat or even; as, to level a road, a walk, or a garden.

Levelly (adv.) In an even or level manner.

Leven (n.) Lightning.

Levity (n.) Lack of gravity and earnestness in deportment or character; trifling gayety; frivolity; sportiveness; vanity.

Levy (n.) A name formerly given in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia to the Spanish real of one eighth of a dollar (or 12/ cents), valued at eleven pence when the dollar was rated at 7s. 6d.

Lewd (superl.) Given to the promiscuous indulgence of lust; dissolute; lustful; libidinous.

Leyden phial () A glass jar or bottle used to accumulate electricity. It is coated with tin foil, within and without, nearly to its top, and is surmounted by a brass knob which communicates with the inner coating, for the purpose of charging it with electricity. It is so named from having been invented in Leyden, Holland.

Lias (n.) The lowest of the three divisions of the Jurassic period; a name given in England and Europe to a series of marine limestones underlying the Oolite. See the Chart of Geology.

Liberty (n.) A privilege conferred by a superior power; permission granted; leave; as, liberty given to a child to play, or to a witness to leave a court, and the like.

Libidinist (n.) One given to lewdness.

Libra (n.) The Balance; the seventh sign in the zodiac, which the sun enters at the autumnal equinox in September, marked thus / in almanacs, etc.

License (n.) Authority or liberty given to do or forbear any act; especially, a formal permission from the proper authorities to perform certain acts or to carry on a certain business, which without such permission would be illegal; a grant of permission; as, a license to preach, to practice medicine, to sell gunpowder or intoxicating liquors.

Licensee (n.) The person to whom a license is given.

Lichen (n.) A name given to several varieties of skin disease, esp. to one characterized by the eruption of small, conical or flat, reddish pimples, which, if unchecked, tend to spread and produce great and even fatal exhaustion.

Life (n.) A history of the acts and events of a life; a biography; as, Johnson wrote the life of Milton.

Life (n.) Enjoyment in the right use of the powers; especially, a spiritual existence; happiness in the favor of God; heavenly felicity.

Lifen (v. t.) To enliven.

Lift (n.) That portion of the vibration of a balance during which the impulse is given.

Ligature (n.) A thread or string for tying the blood vessels, particularly the arteries, to prevent hemorrhage.

Light (superl.) Well leavened; not heavy; as, light bread.

Ligroin (n.) A trade name applied somewhat indefinitely to some of the volatile products obtained in refining crude petroleum. It is a complex and variable mixture of several hydrocarbons, generally boils below 170¡ Fahr., and is more inflammable than safe kerosene. It is used as a solvent, as a carburetant for air gas, and for illumination in special lamps.

Ligule (n.) A band of white matter in the wall of fourth ventricle of the brain.

Lily (n.) A name given to handsome flowering plants of several genera, having some resemblance in color or form to a true lily, as Pancratium, Crinum, Amaryllis, Nerine, etc.

Lima/on (n.) A curve of the fourth degree, invented by Pascal. Its polar equation is r = a cos / + b.

Limb (n.) The border or edge of the disk of a heavenly body, especially of the sun and moon.

Limit (v. t.) A determinate quantity, to which a variable one continually approaches, and may differ from it by less than any given difference, but to which, under the law of variation, the variable can never become exactly equivalent.

Limosis (n.) A ravenous appetite caused by disease; excessive and morbid hunger.

Linchpin (n.) A pin used to prevent the wheel of a vehicle from sliding off the axletree.

Line (n.) A series or succession of ancestors or descendants of a given person; a family or race; as, the ascending or descending line; the line of descent; the male line; a line of kings.

Linguacious (a.) Given to the use of the tongue; loquacious.

Lion (n.) A large carnivorous feline mammal (Felis leo), found in Southern Asia and in most parts of Africa, distinct varieties occurring in the different countries. The adult male, in most varieties, has a thick mane of long shaggy hair that adds to his apparent size, which is less than that of the largest tigers. The length, however, is sometimes eleven feet to the base of the tail. The color is a tawny yellow or yellowish brown; the mane is darker, and the terminal tuft of the tail is black. In one variety, called the maneless lion, the male has only a slight mane.

Lion's ear () A name given in Western South America to certain plants with shaggy tomentose leaves, as species of Culcitium, and Espeletia.

Lipothymous (a.) Pertaining, or given, to swooning; fainting.

List (n.) A strip forming the woven border or selvedge of cloth, particularly of broadcloth, and serving to strengthen it; hence, a strip of cloth; a fillet.

Literalism (n.) The tendency or disposition to represent objects faithfully, without abstraction, conventionalities, or idealization.

Literature (n.) The collective body of literary productions, embracing the entire results of knowledge and fancy preserved in writing; also, the whole body of literary productions or writings upon a given subject, or in reference to a particular science or branch of knowledge, or of a given country or period; as, the literature of Biblical criticism; the literature of chemistry.

Lithic (n.) A medicine which tends to prevent stone in the bladder.

Lithography (n.) The art or process of putting designs or writing, with a greasy material, on stone, and of producing printed impressions therefrom. The process depends, in the main, upon the antipathy between grease and water, which prevents a printing ink containing oil from adhering to wetted parts of the stone not covered by the design. See Lithographic limestone, under Lithographic.

Litigious (a.) Inclined to judicial contest; given to the practice of contending in law; guarrelsome; contentious; fond of litigation.

Litter (n.) Things lying scattered about in a manner indicating slovenliness; scattered rubbish.

Lituus (n.) A curved staff used by the augurs in quartering the heavens.

Lituus (n.) A spiral whose polar equation is r2/ = a; that is, a curve the square of whose radius vector varies inversely as the angle which the radius vector makes with a given line.

Liver (n.) The glossy ibis (Ibis falcinellus); -- said to have given its name to the city of Liverpool.

Livery (n.) An allowance of food statedly given out; a ration, as to a family, to servants, to horses, etc.

Lixiviation (n.) Lixiviating; the process of separating a soluble substance form one that is insoluble, by washing with some solvent, as water; leaching.

Loaning (n.) An open space between cultivated fields through which cattle are driven, and where the cows are sometimes milked; also, a lane.

Location (n.) The marking out of the boundaries, or identifying the place or site of, a piece of land, according to the description given in an entry, plan, map, etc.

Lock (n.) A place from which egress is prevented, as by a lock.

Lock (v. t.) To fasten with a lock, or as with a lock; to make fast; to prevent free movement of; as, to lock a door, a carriage wheel, a river, etc.

Lock (v. t.) To prevent ingress or access to, or exit from, by fastening the lock or locks of; -- often with up; as, to lock or lock up, a house, jail, room, trunk. etc.

Lock hospital () A hospital for the treatment of venereal diseases.

Loco (n.) A plant (Astragalus Hornii) growing in the Southwestern United States, which is said to poison horses and cattle, first making them insane. The name is also given vaguely to several other species of the same genus. Called also loco weed.

Locofoco (n.) A nickname formerly given to a member of the Democratic party.

Locomotiveness (n.) Alt. of Locomotivity

Locus (n.) The line traced by a point which varies its position according to some determinate law; the surface described by a point or line that moves according to a given law.

Loeven's larva () The peculiar larva of Polygordius. See Polygordius.

Log (n.) A record and tabulated statement of the work done by an engine, as of a steamship, of the coal consumed, and of other items relating to the performance of machinery during a given time.

Log (n.) A weight or block near the free end of a hoisting rope to prevent it from being drawn through the sheave.

Logothete () An accountant; under Constantine, an officer of the empire; a receiver of revenue; an administrator of a department.

Long (superl.) Drawn out or extended in time; continued through a considerable tine, or to a great length; as, a long series of events; a long debate; a long drama; a long history; a long book.

Longitude (n.) The arc or portion of the equator intersected between the meridian of a given place and the meridian of some other place from which longitude is reckoned, as from Greenwich, England, or sometimes from the capital of a country, as from Washington or Paris. The longitude of a place is expressed either in degrees or in time; as, that of New York is 74¡ or 4 h. 56 min. west of Greenwich.

Longitude (n.) The distance in degrees, reckoned from the vernal equinox, on the ecliptic, to a circle at right angles to the ecliptic passing through the heavenly body whose longitude is designated; as, the longitude of Capella is 79¡.

Lookout (n.) A careful looking or watching for any object or event.

Loop (n.) The portion of a vibrating string, air column, etc., between two nodes; -- called also ventral segment.

Loosen (v. t.) To remove costiveness from; to facilitate or increase the alvine discharges of.

Loquacious (a.) Given to continual talking; talkative; garrulous.

Loquacity (n.) The habit or practice of talking continually or excessively; inclination to talk too much; talkativeness; garrulity.

Lose (v. t.) To prevent from gaining or obtaining.

Losing (a.) Given to flattery or deceit; flattering; cozening.

Love (n.) To take delight or pleasure in; to have a strong liking or desire for, or interest in; to be pleased with; to like; as, to love books; to love adventures.

Low (adv.) In a path near the equator, so that the declination is small, or near the horizon, so that the altitude is small; -- said of the heavenly bodies with reference to the diurnal revolution; as, the moon runs low, that is, is comparatively near the horizon when on or near the meridian.

Lucid (n.) Shining; bright; resplendent; as, the lucid orbs of heaven.

Luck (n.) That which happens to a person; an event, good or ill, affecting one's interests or happiness, and which is deemed casual; a course or series of such events regarded as occurring by chance; chance; hap; fate; fortune; often, one's habitual or characteristic fortune; as, good, bad, ill, or hard luck. Luck is often used for good luck; as, luck is better than skill.

Luckiness (n.) The state or quality of being lucky; as, the luckiness of a man or of an event.

Luckiness (n.) Good fortune; favorable issue or event.

Lucky (superl.) Favored by luck; fortunate; meeting with good success or good fortune; -- said of persons; as, a lucky adventurer.

Luddite (n.) One of a number of riotous persons in England, who for six years (1811-17) tried to prevent the use of labor-saving machinery by breaking it, burning factories, etc.; -- so called from Ned Lud, a half-witted man who some years previously had broken stocking frames.

Lum (n.) A ventilating chimney over the shaft of a mine.

Luminary (n.) Any body that gives light, especially one of the heavenly bodies.

Lumpfish (n.) A large, thick, clumsy, marine fish (Cyclopterus lumpus) of Europe and America. The color is usually translucent sea green, sometimes purplish. It has a dorsal row of spiny tubercles, and three rows on each side, but has no scales. The ventral fins unite and form a ventral sucker for adhesion to stones and seaweeds. Called also lumpsucker, cock-paddle, sea owl.

Lupine (n.) Wolfish; ravenous.

Luxive (a.) Given to luxury; voluptuous.

Luxurist (n.) One given to luxury.

Lyra (n.) The middle portion of the ventral surface of the fornix of the brain; -- so called from the arrangement of the lines with which it is marked in the human brain.

M (n.) A quadrat, the face or top of which is a perfect square; also, the size of such a square in any given size of type, used as the unit of measurement for that type: 500 m's of pica would be a piece of matter whose length and breadth in pica m's multiplied together produce that number.

Ma (n.) In Oriental countries, a respectful form of address given to a woman; mother.

Maccabees (n. pl.) The name given later times to the Asmonaeans, a family of Jewish patriots, who headed a religious revolt in the reign of Antiochus IV., 168-161 B. C., which led to a period of freedom for Israel.

Mackintosh (n.) A waterproof outer garment; -- so called from the name of the inventor.

Madam (n.) A gentlewoman; -- an appellation or courteous form of address given to a lady, especially an elderly or a married lady; -- much used in the address, at the beginning of a letter, to a woman. The corresponding word in addressing a man is Sir.

Madame (n.) My lady; -- a French title formerly given to ladies of quality; now, in France, given to all married women.

Mademoiselle (n.) A French title of courtesy given to a girl or an unmarried lady, equivalent to the English Miss.

Magister (n.) Master; sir; -- a title of the Middle Ages, given to a person in authority, or to one having a license from a university to teach philosophy and the liberal arts.

Magisteriality (n.) Magisterialness; authoritativeness.

Magna Charta () The great Charter, so called, obtained by the English barons from King John, A. D. 1215. This name is also given to the charter granted to the people of England in the ninth year of Henry III., and confirmed by Edward I.

Magnality (n.) A great act or event; a great attainment.

Magnanimity (n.) The quality of being magnanimous; greatness of mind; elevation or dignity of soul; that quality or combination of qualities, in character, which enables one to encounter danger and trouble with tranquility and firmness, to disdain injustice, meanness and revenge, and to act and sacrifice for noble objects.

Maharajah (n.) A sovereign prince in India; -- a title given also to other persons of high rank.

Mahoe (n.) A name given to several malvaceous trees (species of Hibiscus, Ochroma, etc.), and to their strong fibrous inner bark, which is used for strings and cordage.

Main (n.) The largest throw in a match at dice; a throw at dice within given limits, as in the game of hazard.

Maintenance (n.) That which maintains or supports; means of sustenance; supply of necessaries and conveniences.

Major (a.) Greater in number, quantity, or extent; as, the major part of the assembly; the major part of the revenue; the major part of the territory.

Major (a.) That premise which contains the major term. It its the first proposition of a regular syllogism; as: No unholy person is qualified for happiness in heaven [the major]. Every man in his natural state is unholy [minor]. Therefore, no man in his natural state is qualified for happiness in heaven [conclusion or inference].

Make (v. t.) To cause to be or become; to put into a given state verb, or adjective; to constitute; as, to make known; to make public; to make fast.

Make-believe (n.) A feigning to believe, as in the play of children; a mere pretense; a fiction; an invention.

Making-iron (n.) A tool somewhat like a chisel with a groove in it, used by calkers of ships to finish the seams after the oakum has been driven in.

Malayalam (n.) The name given to one the cultivated Dravidian languages, closely related to the Tamil.

Maltine (n.) The fermentative principle of malt; malt diastase; also, a name given to various medicinal preparations made from or containing malt.

Mandatary (n.) One to whom a command or charge is given; hence, specifically, a person to whom the pope has, by his prerogative, given a mandate or order for his benefice.

Mandrel (n.) The live spindle of a turning lathe; the revolving arbor of a circular saw. It is usually driven by a pulley.

Manger (n.) The fore part of the deck, having a bulkhead athwart ships high enough to prevent water which enters the hawse holes from running over it.

Mangrove (n.) The name of one or two trees of the genus Rhizophora (R. Mangle, and R. mucronata, the last doubtfully distinct) inhabiting muddy shores of tropical regions, where they spread by emitting aerial roots, which fasten in the saline mire and eventually become new stems. The seeds also send down a strong root while yet attached to the parent plant.

Manicate (a.) Covered with hairs or pubescence so platted together and interwoven as to form a mass easily removed.

Manipulate (v. t.) To control the action of, by management; as, to manipulate a convention of delegates; to manipulate the stock market; also, to manage artfully or fraudulently; as, to manipulate accounts, or election returns.

Manitu (n.) A name given by tribes of American Indians to a great spirit, whether good or evil, or to any object of worship.

Manna (n.) A name given to lichens of the genus Lecanora, sometimes blown into heaps in the deserts of Arabia and Africa, and gathered and used as food.

Manometer (n.) An instrument for measuring the tension or elastic force of gases, steam, etc., constructed usually on the principle of allowing the gas to exert its elastic force in raising a column of mercury in an open tube, or in compressing a portion of air or other gas in a closed tube with mercury or other liquid intervening, or in bending a metallic or other spring so as to set in motion an index; a pressure gauge. See Pressure, and Illust. of Air pump.

Mansion (n.) A twelfth part of the heavens; a house. See 1st House, 8.

Mansion (n.) The place in the heavens occupied each day by the moon in its monthly revolution.

Manual (a.) A small book, such as may be carried in the hand, or conveniently handled; a handbook; specifically, the service book of the Roman Catholic Church.

Manzanita (n.) A name given to several species of Arctostaphylos, but mostly to A. glauca and A. pungens, shrubs of California, Oregon, etc., with reddish smooth bark, ovate or oval coriaceous evergreen leaves, and bearing clusters of red berries, which are said to be a favorite food of the grizzly bear.

Map (n.) Anything which represents graphically a succession of events, states, or acts; as, an historical map.

Maranatha (n.) "Our Lord cometh;" -- an expression used by St. Paul at the conclusion of his first Epistle to the Corinthians (xvi. 22). This word has been used in anathematizing persons for great crimes; as much as to say, "May the Lord come quickly to take vengeance of thy crimes." See Anathema maranatha, under Anathema.

Marble (n.) A massive, compact limestone; a variety of calcite, capable of being polished and used for architectural and ornamental purposes. The color varies from white to black, being sometimes yellow, red, and green, and frequently beautifully veined or clouded. The name is also given to other rocks of like use and appearance, as serpentine or verd antique marble, and less properly to polished porphyry, granite, etc.

Marbrinus (n.) A cloth woven so as to imitate the appearance of marble; -- much used in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Marl (v. t.) To cover, as part of a rope, with marline, marking a pecular hitch at each turn to prevent unwinding.

Marline (v.) A small line composed of two strands a little twisted, used for winding around ropes and cables, to prevent their being weakened by fretting.

Martingal (n.) A strap fastened to a horse's girth, passing between his fore legs, and fastened to the bit, or now more commonly ending in two rings, through which the reins pass. It is intended to hold down the head of the horse, and prevent him from rearing.

Martinmas (n.) The feast of St. Martin, the eleventh of November; -- often called martlemans.

Mask (v. t.) To conceal; also, to intervene in the line of.

Massiveness (n.) The state or quality of being massive; massiness.

Master (n.) A title given by courtesy, now commonly pronounced mister, except when given to boys; -- sometimes written Mister, but usually abbreviated to Mr.

Mat (n.) A name given by coppersmiths to an alloy of copper, tin, iron, etc., usually called white metal.

Mat (n.) Anything growing thickly, or closely interwoven, so as to resemble a mat in form or texture; as, a mat of weeds; a mat of hair.

Mat (v. i.) To grow thick together; to become interwoven or felted together like a mat.

Matador (n.) In the game of quadrille or omber, the three principal trumps, the ace of spades being the first, the ace of clubs the third, and the second being the deuce of a black trump or the seven of a red one.

Matter (n.) That which is permanent, or is supposed to be given, and in or upon which changes are effected by psychological or physical processes and relations; -- opposed to form.

Mattress (n.) A mass of interwoven brush, poles, etc., to protect a bank from being worn away by currents or waves.

Matzoth (n.) A cake of unleavened bread eaten by the Jews at the feast of the Passover.

Maudlin (a.) Drunk, or somewhat drunk; fuddled; given to drunkenness.

Maurist (n.) A member of the Congregation of Saint Maur, an offshoot of the Benedictines, originating in France in the early part of the seventeenth century. The Maurists have been distinguished for their interest in literature.

Maximum (n.) The greatest quantity or value attainable in a given case; or, the greatest value attained by a quantity which first increases and then begins to decrease; the highest point or degree; -- opposed to minimum.

Maybe (adv.) Perhaps; possibly; peradventure.

Mayhap (adv.) Perhaps; peradventure.

Mean (n.) Hence: Resources; property, revenue, or the like, considered as the condition of easy livelihood, or an instrumentality at command for effecting any purpose; disposable force or substance.

Meanwhile (n.) The intervening time; as, in the meantime (or mean time).

Meanwhile (adv.) In the intervening time; during the interval.

Measure (a.) A number which is contained in a given number a number of times without a remainder; as in the phrases, the common measure, the greatest common measure, etc., of two or more numbers.

Medal (n.) A piece of metal in the form of a coin, struck with a device, and intended to preserve the remembrance of a notable event or an illustrious person, or to serve as a reward.

Meddlesome (a.) Given to meddling; apt to interpose in the affairs of others; officiously intrusive.

Mediate (a.) Being between the two extremes; middle; interposed; intervening; intermediate.

Mediate (a.) Acting by means, or by an intervening cause or instrument; not direct or immediate; acting or suffering through an intervening agent or condition.

Mediate (a.) To be in the middle, or between two; to intervene.

Mediation (a.) The act of mediating; action or relation of anything interposed; action as a necessary condition, means, or instrument; interposition; intervention.

Medicine (n.) The science which relates to the prevention, cure, or alleviation of disease.

Medicommissure (n.) A large transverse commissure in the third ventricle of the brain; the middle or soft commissure.

Medicornu (n.) The middle or inferior horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain.

Meditatist (n.) One who is given to meditation.

Medium (n.) That which lies in the middle, or between other things; intervening body or quantity. Hence, specifically: (a) Middle place or degree; mean.

Medium (n.) A substance through which an effect is transmitted from one thing to another; as, air is the common medium of sound. Hence: The condition upon which any event or action occurs; necessary means of motion or action; that through or by which anything is accomplished, conveyed, or carried on; specifically, in animal magnetism, spiritualism, etc., a person through whom the action of another being is said to be manifested and transmitted.

Meet (v. t.) To come up to; to be even with; to equal; to match; to satisfy; to ansver; as, to meet one's expectations; the supply meets the demand.

Meet (a.) Suitable; fit; proper; appropriate; qualified; convenient.

Meeting (n.) A congregation; a collection of people; a convention; as, a large meeting; an harmonius meeting.

Megaphone (n.) A device to magnify sound, or direct it in a given direction in a greater volume, as a very large funnel used as an ear trumpet or as a speaking trumpet.

Melancholic (a.) Given to melancholy; depressed; melancholy; dejected; unhappy.

Melancholy (a.) Producing great evil and grief; causing dejection; calamitous; afflictive; as, a melancholy event.

Melodrama (n.) Formerly, a kind of drama having a musical accompaniment to intensify the effect of certain scenes. Now, a drama abounding in romantic sentiment and agonizing situations, with a musical accompaniment only in parts which are especially thrilling or pathetic. In opera, a passage in which the orchestra plays a somewhat descriptive accompaniment, while the actor speaks; as, the melodrama in the gravedigging scene of Beethoven's "Fidelio".

Melody (n.) A rhythmical succession of single tones, ranging for the most part within a given key, and so related together as to form a musical whole, having the unity of what is technically called a musical thought, at once pleasing to the ear and characteristic in expression.

Memento (n.) A hint, suggestion, token, or memorial, to awaken memory; that which reminds or recalls to memory; a souvenir.

Memoirs (n.) A memorial account; a history composed from personal experience and memory; an account of transactions or events (usually written in familiar style) as they are remembered by the writer. See History, 2.

Memorial (n.) Anything intended to preserve the memory of a person or event; something which serves to keep something else in remembrance; a monument.

Memory (n.) The faculty of the mind by which it retains the knowledge of previous thoughts, impressions, or events.

Memory (n.) The reach and positiveness with which a person can remember; the strength and trustworthiness of one's power to reach and represent or to recall the past; as, his memory was never wrong.

Memory (n.) The time within which past events can be or are remembered; as, within the memory of man.

Mendacious (a.) Given to deception or falsehood; lying; as, a mendacious person.

Menstruum (n.) Any substance which dissolves a solid body; a solvent.

Mercenariness (n.) The quality or state of being mercenary; venality.

Mercenary (a.) Acting for reward; serving for pay; paid; hired; hireling; venal; as, mercenary soldiers.

Meridian (a.) A great circle of the sphere passing through the poles of the heavens and the zenith of a given place. It is crossed by the sun at midday.

Meridian (a.) A great circle on the surface of the earth, passing through the poles and any given place; also, the half of such a circle included between the poles.

Mesne (a.) Middle; intervening; as, a mesne lord, that is, a lord who holds land of a superior, but grants a part of it to another person, in which case he is a tenant to the superior, but lord or superior to the second grantee, and hence is called the mesne lord.

Mesolabe (n.) An instrument of the ancients for finding two mean proportionals between two given lines, required in solving the problem of the duplication of the cube.

Meson (n.) The mesial plane dividing the body of an animal into similar right and left halves. The line in which it meets the dorsal surface has been called the dorsimeson, and the corresponding ventral edge the ventrimeson.

Mesosternum (n.) The ventral piece of the middle segment of the thorax in insects.

Mesprise (n.) Misadventure; ill-success.

Mess (n.) A quantity of food set on a table at one time; provision of food for a person or party for one meal; as, a mess of pottage; also, the food given to a beast at one time.

Mess (n.) The milk given by a cow at one milking.

Messenger (n.) A person appointed to perform certain ministerial duties under bankrupt and insolvent laws, such as to take charge og the estate of the bankrupt or insolvent.

Metachronism (n.) An error committed in chronology by placing an event after its real time.

Metagenesis (n.) The change of form which one animal species undergoes in a series of successively produced individuals, extending from the one developed from the ovum to the final perfected individual. Hence, metagenesis involves the production of sexual individuals by nonsexual means, either directly or through intervening sexless generations. Opposed to monogenesis. See Alternate generation, under Generation.

Metamere (n.) One of successive or homodynamous parts in animals and plants; one of a series of similar parts that follow one another in a vertebrate or articulate animal, as in an earthworm; a segment; a somite. See Illust. of Loeven's larva.

Metanauplius (n.) A larval crustacean in a stage following the nauplius, and having about seven pairs of appendages.

Metasternum (n.) The ventral plate of the third or last segment of the thorax of insects.

Metecorn (n.) A quantity of corn formerly given by the lord to his customary tenants, as an encouragement to, or reward for, labor and faithful service.

Metemptosis (n.) The suppression of a day in the calendar to prevent the date of the new moon being set a day too late, or the suppression of the bissextile day once in 134 years. The opposite to this is the proemptosis, or the addition of a day every 330 years, and another every 2,400 years.

Methodize (v. t.) To reduce to method; to dispose in due order; to arrange in a convenient manner; as, to methodize one's work or thoughts.

Micrometer (n.) An instrument, used with a telescope or microscope, for measuring minute distances, or the apparent diameters of objects which subtend minute angles. The measurement given directly is that of the image of the object formed at the focus of the object glass.

Microscopist (n.) One skilled in, or given to, microscopy.

Middle (a.) Intermediate; intervening.

Middle (a.) The point or part equally distant from the extremities or exterior limits, as of a line, a surface, or a solid; an intervening point or part in space, time, or order of series; the midst; central portion

Middle-earth (n.) The world, considered as lying between heaven and hell.

Midgard (n.) The middle space or region between heaven and hell; the abode of human beings; the earth.

Midheaven (n.) The midst or middle of heaven or the sky.

Midheaven (n.) The meridian, or middle line of the heavens; the point of the ecliptic on the meridian.

Milepost (n.) A post, or one of a series of posts, set up to indicate spaces of a mile each or the distance in miles from a given place.

Mime (n.) A kind of drama in which real persons and events were generally represented in a ridiculous manner.

Mimeograph (n.) An autographic stencil copying device invented by Edison.

Mimetical () Apt to imitate; given to mimicry; imitative.

Mind (v.) The state, at any given time, of the faculties of thinking, willing, choosing, and the like; psychical activity or state; as: (a) Opinion; judgment; belief.

Minie ball () A conical rifle bullet, with a cavity in its base plugged with a piece of iron, which, by the explosion of the charge, is driven farther in, expanding the sides to fit closely the grooves of the barrel.

Minimum (n.) The least quantity assignable, admissible, or possible, in a given case; hence, a thing of small consequence; -- opposed to maximum.

Mint (v. t.) To invent; to forge; to fabricate; to fashion.

Miracle (n.) Specifically: An event or effect contrary to the established constitution and course of things, or a deviation from the known laws of nature; a supernatural event, or one transcending the ordinary laws by which the universe is governed.

Misadventure (n.) Mischance; misfortune; ill lick; unlucky accident; ill adventure.

Misadventured (a.) Unfortunate.

Misadventurous (a.) Unfortunate.

Misaventure (n.) Misadventure.

Miscarriage (n.) Unfortunate event or issue of an undertaking; failure to attain a desired result or reach a destination.

Misgiven (p. p.) of Misgive

Misreport (n.) An erroneous report; a false or incorrect account given.

Mithridate (n.) An antidote against poison, or a composition in form of an electuary, supposed to serve either as a remedy or a preservative against poison; an alexipharmic; -- so called from King Mithridates, its reputed inventor.

Mitral (a.) Pertaining to a miter; resembling a miter; as, the mitral valve between the left auricle and left ventricle of the heart.

Mixolydian mode () The seventh ecclesiastical mode, whose scale commences on G.

Model (n.) Something intended to serve, or that may serve, as a pattern of something to be made; a material representation or embodiment of an ideal; sometimes, a drawing; a plan; as, the clay model of a sculpture; the inventor's model of a machine.

Modish (a.) According to the mode, or customary manner; conformed to the fashion; fashionable; hence, conventional; as, a modish dress; a modish feast.

Modus (n.) A fixed compensation or equivalent given instead of payment of tithes in kind, expressed in full by the phrase modus decimandi.

Mohr (n.) A West African gazelle (Gazella mohr), having horns on which are eleven or twelve very prominent rings. It is one of the species which produce bezoar.

Moire (n.) Originally, a fine textile fabric made of the hair of an Asiatic goat; afterwards, any textile fabric to which a watered appearance is given in the process of calendering.

Moly (n.) A fabulous herb of occult power, having a black root and white blossoms, said by Homer to have been given by Hermes to Ulysses to counteract the spells of Circe.

Momier (n.) A name given in contempt to strict Calvinists in Switzerland, France, and some parts of Germany, in the early part of the 19th century.

Moneyage (n.) A tax paid to the first two Norman kings of England to prevent them from debashing the coin.

Monition (n.) Instruction or advice given by way of caution; an admonition; a warning; a caution.

Monogram (n.) A character or cipher composed of two or more letters interwoven or combined so as to represent a name, or a part of it (usually the initials). Monograms are often used on seals, ornamental pins, rings, buttons, and by painters, engravers, etc., to distinguish their works.

Monopoly (n.) The exclusive power, or privilege of selling a commodity; the exclusive power, right, or privilege of dealing in some article, or of trading in some market; sole command of the traffic in anything, however obtained; as, the proprietor of a patented article is given a monopoly of its sale for a limited time; chartered trading companies have sometimes had a monopoly of trade with remote regions; a combination of traders may get a monopoly of a particular product.

Monseigneur (n.) My lord; -- a title in France of a person of high birth or rank; as, Monseigneur the Prince, or Monseigneur the Archibishop. It was given, specifically, to the dauphin, before the Revolution of 1789. (Abbrev. Mgr.)

Monteith (n.) A vessel in which glasses are washed; -- so called from the name of the inventor.

Monument (n.) A building, pillar, stone, or the like, erected to preserve the remembrance of a person, event, action, etc.; as, the Washington monument; the Bunker Hill monument. Also, a tomb, with memorial inscriptions.

Moralize (v. i.) To make moral reflections; to regard acts and events as involving a moral.

Mordacious (a.) Biting; given to biting; hence, figuratively, sarcastic; severe; scathing.

Mordicancy (n.) A biting quality; corrosiveness.

Morne (n.) A ring fitted upon the head of a lance to prevent wounding an adversary in tilting.

Morse alphabet () A telegraphic alphabet in very general use, inventing by Samuel F.B.Morse, the inventor of Morse's telegraph. The letters are represented by dots and dashes impressed or printed on paper, as, .- (A), - . . . (B), -.. (D), . (E), .. (O), . . . (R), -- (T), etc., or by sounds, flashes of light, etc., with greater or less intervals between them.

Mortality (n.) The whole sum or number of deaths in a given time or a given community; also, the proportion of deaths to population, or to a specific number of the population; death rate; as, a time of great, or low, mortality; the mortality among the settlers was alarming.

Mortar (n.) A short piece of ordnance, used for throwing bombs, carcasses, shells, etc., at high angles of elevation, as 45Á, and even higher; -- so named from its resemblance in shape to the utensil above described.

Mortgage (n.) State of being pledged; as, lands given in mortgage.

Mortgagee (n.) The person to whom property is mortgaged, or to whom a mortgage is made or given.

Motive (n.) That which produces conception, invention, or creation in the mind of the artist in undertaking his subject; the guiding or controlling idea manifested in a work of art, or any part of one.

Mountebank (n.) One who mounts a bench or stage in the market or other public place, boasts of his skill in curing diseases, and vends medicines which he pretends are infalliable remedies; a quack doctor.

Mouse (n.) A knob made on a rope with spun yarn or parceling to prevent a running eye from slipping.

Mousing (n.) A turn or lashing of spun yarn or small stuff, or a metallic clasp or fastening, uniting the point and shank of a hook to prevent its unhooking or straighening out.

Movent (a.) Moving.

Movent (n.) That which moves anything.

Muffle (v. t.) To prevent seeing, or hearing, or speaking, by wraps bound about the head; to blindfold; to deafen.

Muffle (v. t.) An earthenware compartment or oven, often shaped like a half cylinder, used in furnaces to protect objects heated from the direct action of the fire, as in scorification of ores, cupellation of ore buttons, etc.

Muffle (v. t.) A small oven for baking and fixing the colors of painted or printed pottery, without exposing the pottery to the flames of the furnace or kiln.

Multiloquence (n.) Quality of being multiloquent; use of many words; talkativeness.

Multiplication (n.) The process of repeating, or adding to itself, any given number or quantity a certain number of times; commonly, the process of ascertaining by a briefer computation the result of such repeated additions; also, the rule by which the operation is performed; -- the reverse of division.

Multiply (v. t.) To add (any given number or quantity) to itself a certain number of times; to find the product of by multiplication; thus 7 multiplied by 8 produces the number 56; to multiply two numbers. See the Note under Multiplication.

Munch (v. t. & i.) To chew with a grinding, crunching sound, as a beast chews provender; to chew deliberately or in large mouthfuls.

Munchausenism (n.) An extravagant fiction embodying an account of some marvelous exploit or adventure.

Muscadine (n.) A name given to several very different kinds of grapes, but in America used chiefly for the scuppernong, or southern fox grape, which is said to be the parent stock of the Catawba. See Grapevine.

Muscat (n.) A name given to several varieties of Old World grapes, differing in color, size, etc., but all having a somewhat musky flavor. The muscat of Alexandria is a large oval grape of a pale amber color.

Mushroom (n.) An edible fungus (Agaricus campestris), having a white stalk which bears a convex or oven flattish expanded portion called the pileus. This is whitish and silky or somewhat scaly above, and bears on the under side radiating gills which are at first flesh-colored, but gradually become brown. The plant grows in rich pastures and is proverbial for rapidity of growth and shortness of duration. It has a pleasant smell, and is largely used as food. It is also cultivated from spawn.

Mutual (a.) Reciprocally acting or related; reciprocally receiving and giving; reciprocally given and received; reciprocal; interchanged; as, a mutual love, advantage, assistance, aversion, etc.

Muzzle (v. i.) A fastening or covering (as a band or cage) for the mouth of an animal, to prevent eating or vicious biting.

Muzzle (v. t.) To bind the mouth of; to fasten the mouth of, so as to prevent biting or eating; hence, figuratively, to bind; to sheathe; to restrain from speech or action.

Myrtaceous (a.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a large and important natural order of trees and shrubs (Myrtaceae), of which the myrtle is the type. It includes the genera Eucalyptus, Pimenta, Lechythis, and about seventy more.

Myselven (pron.) Myself.

Mystery (n.) A dramatic representation of a Scriptural subject, often some event in the life of Christ; a dramatic composition of this character; as, the Chester Mysteries, consisting of dramas acted by various craft associations in that city in the early part of the 14th century.

Mystic (n.) One given to mysticism; one who holds mystical views, interpretations, etc.; especially, in ecclesiastical history, one who professed mysticism. See Mysticism.

Nadir (n.) That point of the heavens, or lower hemisphere, directly opposite the zenith; the inferior pole of the horizon; the point of the celestial sphere directly under the place where we stand.

Nail (n.) A slender, pointed piece of metal, usually with a head, used for fastening pieces of wood or other material together, by being driven into or through them.

Name (n.) A descriptive or qualifying appellation given to a person or thing, on account of a character or acts.

Nameless (a.) Without a name; not having been given a name; as, a nameless star.

Naphtha (n.) The complex mixture of volatile, liquid, inflammable hydrocarbons, occurring naturally, and usually called crude petroleum, mineral oil, or rock oil. Specifically: That portion of the distillate obtained in the refinement of petroleum which is intermediate between the lighter gasoline and the heavier benzine, and has a specific gravity of about 0.7, -- used as a solvent for varnishes, as a carburetant, illuminant, etc.

Napier's rods () A set of rods, made of bone or other material, each divided into nine spaces, and containing the numbers of a column of the multiplication table; -- a contrivance of Baron Napier, the inventor of logarithms, for facilitating the operations of multiplication and division.

Narcotic (n.) A drug which, in medicinal doses, generally allays morbid susceptibility, relieves pain, and produces sleep; but which, in poisonous doses, produces stupor, coma, or convulsions, and, when given in sufficient quantity, causes death. The best examples are opium (with morphine), belladonna (with atropine), and conium.

Narration (n.) The act of telling or relating the particulars of an event; rehearsal; recital.

Narration (n.) That which is related; the relation in words or writing of the particulars of any transaction or event, or of any series of transactions or events; story; history.

Narrative (a.) Of or pertaining to narration; relating to the particulars of an event or transaction.

Narrative (a.) Apt or inclined to relate stories, or to tell particulars of events; story-telling; garrulous.

Narrative (n.) That which is narrated; the recital of a story; a continuous account of the particulars of an event or transaction; a story.

Narrator (n.) One who narrates; one who relates a series of events or transactions.

Narratory (a.) Giving an account of events; narrative; as, narratory letters.

Nativeness (n.) The quality or state of being native.

Nativity (n.) A representation of the positions of the heavenly bodies as the moment of one's birth, supposed to indicate his future destinies; a horoscope.

Natural (a.) Conformed to the order, laws, or actual facts, of nature; consonant to the methods of nature; according to the stated course of things, or in accordance with the laws which govern events, feelings, etc.; not exceptional or violent; legitimate; normal; regular; as, the natural consequence of crime; a natural death.

Nature (n.) The established or regular course of things; usual order of events; connection of cause and effect.

Nawab (n.) A deputy ruler or viceroy in India; also, a title given by courtesy to other persons of high rank in the East.

Necessary (a.) Impossible to be otherwise, or to be dispensed with, without preventing the attainment of a desired result; indispensable; requiste; essential.

Necessity (n.) That which makes an act or an event unavoidable; irresistible force; overruling power; compulsion, physical or moral; fate; fatality.

Necromancy (n.) The art of revealing future events by means of a pretended communication with the dead; the black art; hence, magic in general; conjuration; enchantment. See Black art.

Necropolis (n.) A city of the dead; a name given by the ancients to their cemeteries, and sometimes applied to modern burial places; a graveyard.

Negativeness (n.) Alt. of Negativity

Negotiate (v. i.) To hold intercourse respecting a treaty, league, or convention; to treat with, respecting peace or commerce; to conduct communications or conferences.

Nemesis (n.) The goddess of retribution or vengeance; hence, retributive justice personified; divine vengeance.

Neophyte (n.) A new convert or proselyte; -- a name given by the early Christians, and still given by the Roman Catholics, to such as have recently embraced the Christian faith, and been admitted to baptism, esp. to converts from heathenism or Judaism.

Nephridium (n.) A segmental tubule; one of the tubules of the primitive urinogenital organs; a segmental organ. See Illust. under Loeven's larva.

Ney (n.) A fabric of twine, thread, or the like, wrought or woven into meshes, and used for catching fish, birds, butterflies, etc.

Ney (n.) Anything wrought or woven in meshes; as, a net for the hair; a mosquito net; a tennis net.

Nettling (n.) The process of tying together the ends of yarns in pairs, to prevent tangling.

Neural (a.) relating to the nerves or nervous system; taining to, situated in the region of, or on the side with, the neural, or cerebro-spinal, axis; -- opposed to hemal. As applied to vertebrates, neural is the same as dorsal; as applied to invertebrates it is usually the same as ventral. Cf. Hemal.

Neurocoele (n.) The central canal and ventricles of the spinal cord and brain; the myelencephalic cavity.

Neurocord (n.) A cordlike organ composed of elastic fibers situated above the ventral nervous cord of annelids, like the earthworm.

Neuropodium (n.) The ventral lobe or branch of a parapodium.

Neuroptera (n. pl.) An order of hexapod insects having two pairs of large, membranous, net-veined wings. The mouth organs are adapted for chewing. They feed upon other insects, and undergo a complete metamorphosis. The ant-lion, hellgamite, and lacewing fly are examples. Formerly, the name was given to a much more extensive group, including the true Neuroptera and the Pseudoneuroptera.

Neven (v. t.) To name; to mention; to utter.

Newfangled (a.) Disposed to change; inclined to novelties; given to new theories or fashions.

News-letter (n.) A circular letter, written or printed for the purpose of disseminating news. This was the name given to the earliest English newspapers.

Newspaper (n.) A sheet of paper printed and distributed, at stated intervals, for conveying intelligence of passing events, advocating opinions, etc.; a public print that circulates news, advertisements, proceedings of legislative bodies, public announcements, etc.

Newsy (a.) Full of news; abounding in information as to current events.

Next (superl.) Nearest in place; having no similar object intervening.

Nickname (n.) A name given in contempt, derision, or sportive familiarity; a familiar or an opprobrious appellation.

Nigh (a.) In a situation near in place or time, or in the course of events; near.

Night (n.) A lifeless or unenlivened period, as when nature seems to sleep.

Nightshade (n.) A common name of many species of the genus Solanum, given esp. to the Solanum nigrum, or black nightshade, a low, branching weed with small white flowers and black berries reputed to be poisonous.

Ninth (n.) A chord of the dominant seventh with the ninth added.

Nitryl (n.) A name sometimes given to the nitro group or radical.

Noisette (n.) A hybrid rose produced in 1817, by a French gardener, Noisette, of Charleston, South Carolina, from the China rose and the musk rose. It has given rise to many fine varieties, as the Lamarque, the Marechal (or Marshal) Niel, and the Cloth of gold. Most roses of this class have clustered flowers and are of vigorous growth.

Nonagesimal (n.) The middle or highest point of the part of the ecliptic which is at any given moment above the horizon. It is the ninetieth degree of the ecliptic, reckoned from the points in which it is intersected by the horizon.

Nondescript (n.) A thing not yet described; that of which no account or explanation has been given; something abnormal, or hardly classifiable.

Nones (n. pl.) The fifth day of the months January, February, April, June, August, September, November, and December, and the seventh day of March, May, July, and October. The nones were nine days before the ides, reckoning inclusively, according to the Roman method.

Non est inventus () The return of a sheriff on a writ, when the defendant is not found in his county.

Nonesuch (n.) A person or thing of a sort that there is no other such; something extraordinary; a thing that has not its equal. It is given as a name to various objects, as to a choice variety of apple, a species of medic (Medicago lupulina), a variety of pottery clay, etc.

Nonintervention (n.) The state or habit of not intervening or interfering; as, the nonintervention of one state in the affairs of another.

Non liquet () It is not clear; -- a verdict given by a jury when a matter is to be deferred to another day of trial.

Nonresistant (n.) One who maintains that no resistance should be made to constituted authority, even when unjustly or oppressively exercised; one who advocates or practices absolute submission; also, one who holds that violence should never be resisted by force.

Nonsolvency (n.) Inability to pay debts; insolvency.

Nonsolvent (a.) Not solvent; insolvent.

Nonsolvent (n.) An insolvent.

Nopal (n.) A cactaceous plant (Nopalea cochinellifera), originally Mexican, on which the cochineal insect feeds, and from which it is collected. The name is sometimes given to other species of Cactaceae.

Northing (n.) The distance of any heavenly body from the equator northward; north declination.

Nostrum (n.) A medicine, the ingredients of which are kept secret for the purpose of restricting the profits of sale to the inventor or proprietor; a quack medicine.

Not (a.) Shorn; shaven.

Notable (a.) Worthy of notice; remarkable; memorable; noted or distinguished; as, a notable event, person.

Notice (n.) Intelligence, by whatever means communicated; knowledge given or received; means of knowledge; express notification; announcement; warning.

Notification (n.) Notice given in words or writing, or by signs.

Notion () An invention; an ingenious device; a knickknack; as, Yankee notions.

Notional (a.) Given to foolish or visionary expectations; whimsical; fanciful; as, a notional man.

Notwithstanding (prep.) Without prevention, or obstruction from or by; in spite of.

November (n.) The eleventh month of the year, containing thirty days.

Novenary (a.) Of or pertaining to the number nine.

Novenary (n.) The number of nine units; nine, collectively.

Novene (a.) Relating to, or dependent on, the number nine; novenary.

Novennial (a.) Done or recurring every ninth year.

Novitious (a.) Newly invented; recent; new.

Nozzle (n.) The nose; the snout; hence, the projecting vent of anything; as, the nozzle of a bellows.

Nozzle (n.) A short tube, usually tapering, forming the vent of a hose or pipe.

Nun (n.) A woman devoted to a religious life, who lives in a convent, under the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

Nunnery (n.) A house in which nuns reside; a cloister or convent in which women reside for life, under religious vows. See Cloister, and Convent.

Nutation (n.) The motion of a flower in following the apparent movement of the sun, from the east in the morning to the west in the evening.

Nutritious (a.) Nourishing; promoting growth, or preventing decay; alimental.

Aeronef (n.) A power-driven, heavier-than-air flying machine.

Aeroplane (n.) A light rigid plane used in aerial navigation to oppose sudden upward or downward movement in the air, as in gliding machines; specif., such a plane slightly inclined and driven forward as a lifting device in some flying machines; hence, a flying machine using such a device. These machines are called monoplanes, biplanes, triplanes, or quadruplanes, according to the number of main supporting planes used in their constraction. Being heavier than air they depend for their levitation on motion imparted by one or more propellers actuated by a gasoline engine. They start from the ground by a run on small wheels or runners, and are guided by a steering apparatus consisting of horizontal and vertical movable planes. There are many varieties of form and construction, which in some cases are known by the names of their inventors.

Alternat (n.) A usage, among diplomats, of rotation in precedence among representatives of equal rank, sometimes determined by lot and at other times in regular order. The practice obtains in the signing of treaties and conventions between nations.

American plan () In hotels, aplan upon which guests pay for both room and board by the day, week, or other convenient period; -- contrasted with European plan.

Amish (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the followers of Jacob Amman, a strict Mennonite of the 17th century, who even proscribed the use of buttons and shaving as "worldly conformity". There are several branches of Amish Mennonites in the United States.

Antisepsis (n.) Prevention of sepsis by excluding or destroying microorganisms.

Antivenin (n.) The serum of blood rendered antitoxic to a venom by repeated injections of small doses of the venom.

Apartment house () A building comprising a number of suites designed for separate housekeeping tenements, but having conveniences, such as heat, light, elevator service, etc., furnished in common; -- often distinguished in the United States from a flat house.

Army organization () The system by which a country raises, classifies, arranges, and equips its armed land forces. The usual divisions are: (1) A regular or active army, in which soldiers serve continuously with the colors and live in barracks or cantonments when not in the field; (2) the reserves of this army, in which the soldiers, while remaining constantly subject to a call to the colors, live at their homes, being summoned more or less frequently to report for instruction, drill, or maneuvers; and (3) one or more classes of soldiers organized largely for territorial defense, living at home and having only occasional periods of drill and instraction, who are variously called home reserves (as in the table below), second, third, etc., line of defense (the regular army and its reserves ordinarily constituting the first line of defense), territorial forces, or the like. In countries where conscription prevails a soldier is supposed to serve a given number of years. He is usually enrolled first in the regular army, then passes to its reserve, then into the home reserves, to serve until he reaches the age limit. It for any reason he is not enrolled in the regular army, he may begin his service in the army reserves or even the home reserves, but then serves the full number of years or up to the age limit. In equipment the organization of the army is into the three great arms of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, together with more or less numerous other branches, such as engineers, medical corps, etc., besides the staff organizations such as those of the pay and subsistence departments.

Arrha (n.) Money or other valuable thing given to evidence a contract; a pledge or earnest.

Arthrospore (n.) A bacterial resting cell, -- formerly considered a spore, but now known to occur even in endosporous bacteria.

Aspect (n.) A view of a plane from a given direction, usually from above; more exactly, the manner of presentation of a plane to a fluid through which it is moving or to a current. If an immersed plane meets a current of fluid long side foremost, or in broadside aspect, it sustains more pressure than when placed short side foremost. Hence, long narrow wings are more effective than short broad ones of the same area.

Assay ton () A weight of 29.166 + grams used in assaying, for convenience. Since it bears the same relation to the milligram that a ton of 2000 avoirdupois pounds does to the troy ounce, the weight in milligrams of precious metal obtained from an assay ton of ore gives directly the number of ounces to the ton.

Astrophysics (n.) The science treating of the physical characteristics of the stars and other heavenly bodies, their chemical constitution, light, heat, atmospheres, etc.

Au gratin () With a crust made by browning in the oven; as, spaghetti may be served au gratin.

Automixte system () A system (devised by Henri Pieper, a Belgian) of driving automobiles employing a gasoline engine and an auxiliary reversible dynamo. When there is an excess of power the dynamo is driven by the engine so as to charge a small storage battery; when there is a deficiency of power the dynamo reverses and acts as an auxiliary motor. Sometimes called Pieper system.

Avenalin (n.) A crystalline globulin, contained in oat kernels, very similar in composition to excelsin, but different in reactions and crystalline form.

Axminster carpet () A variety of Turkey carpet, woven by machine or, when more than 27 inches wide, on a hand loom, and consisting of strips of worsted chenille so colored as to produce a pattern on a stout jute backing. It has a fine soft pile. So called from Axminster, England, where it was formerly (1755 -- 1835) made.

Bab (n.) Lit., gate; -- a title given to the founder of Babism, and taken from that of Bab-ud-Din, assumed by him.

Badaud (n.) A person given to idle observation of everything, with wonder or astonishment; a credulous or gossipy idler.

Bahaudur (n.) A title of respect or honor given to European officers in East Indian state papers, and colloquially, and among the natives, to distinguished officials and other important personages.

Bairam (n.) Either of two Mohammedan festivals, of which one (the Lesser Bairam) is held at the close of the fast called Ramadan, and the other (the Greater Bairam) seventy days after the fast.

Bank discount () A sum equal to the interest at a given rate on the principal (face) of a bill or note from the time of discounting until it becomes due.

Barogram (n.) A tracing, usually made by the barograph, showing graphically the variations of atmospheric pressure for a given time.

Binding post () A metallic post attached to electrical apparatus for convenience in making connections.

Black Flags () An organization composed originally of Chinese rebels that had been driven into Tonkin by the suppression of the Taiping rebellion, but later increased by bands of pirates and adventurers. It took a prominent part in fighting the French during their hostilities with Anam, 1873-85.

Blanchard lathe () A kind of wood-turning lathe for making noncircular and irregular forms, as felloes, gun stocks, lasts, spokes, etc., after a given pattern. The pattern and work rotate on parallel spindles in the same direction with the same speed, and the work is shaped by a rapidly rotating cutter whose position is varied by the pattern acting as a cam upon a follower wheel traversing slowly along the pattern.

Bogey (n.) A given score or number of strokes, for each hole, against which players compete; -- said to be so called because assumed to be the score of an imaginary first-rate player called Colonel Bogey.

Bonnaz (n.) A kind of embroidery made with a complicated sewing machine, said to have been originally invented by a Frenchman of the name of Bonnaz. The work is done either in freehand or by following a perforated design.

Boulangism (n.) The spirit or principles of a French political movement identified with Gen. Georges Boulanger (d. 1891), whose militarism and advocacy of revenge on Germany attracted to him a miscellaneous party of monarchists and Republican malcontents.

Boxer (n.) A member of a powerful Chinese organization which committed numerous outrages on Europeans and Christian converts in the uprising against foreigners in 1900. Various names, as "League of United Patriots" and "Great Knife [or Sword] Society," have been given as the Chinese name of the organization; why the members were called Boxers is uncertain.

Boxing day () The first week day after Christmas, a legal holiday on which Christmas boxes are given to postmen, errand boys, employees, etc. The night of this day is boxing night.

Box kite () A kite, invented by Lawrence Hargrave, of Sydney, Australia, which consist of two light rectangular boxes, or cells open on two sides, and fastened together horizontally. Called also Hargrave, / cellular, kite.

Braille (n.) A system of printing or writing for the blind in which the characters are represented by tangible points or dots. It was invented by Louis Braille, a French teacher of the blind.

Bricole (n.) In court tennis, the rebound of a ball from a wall of the court; also, the side stroke or play by which the ball is driven against the wall; hence, fig., indirect action or stroke.

Bricole (n.) A shot in which the cue ball is driven first against the cushion.

Bromide (n.) A person who is conventional and commonplace in his habits of thought and conversation. [Slang]

Bromidiom (n.) A conventional comment or saying, such as those characteristic of bromides.

California jack () A game at cards, a modification of seven-up, or all fours.

Candle meter () The illumination given by a standard candle at a distance of one meter; -- used as a unit of illumination, except in Great Britain.

Cannele (n.) A style of interweaving giving to fabrics a channeled or fluted effect; also, a fabric woven so as to have this effect; a rep.

Car mile () A mile traveled by a single car, taken as a unit of computation, as in computing the average travel of each car of a system during a given period.

Catharsis (n.) The process of relieving an abnormal excitement by reestablishing the association of the emotion with the memory or idea of the event that first caused it, and of eliminating it by complete expression (called the abreaction).

Chambray (n.) A gingham woven in plain colors with linen finish.

Chanson de geste () Any Old French epic poem having for its subject events or exploits of early French history, real or legendary, and written originally in assonant verse of ten or twelve syllables. The most famous one is the Chanson de Roland.

Cheese cloth () A thin, loosewoven cotton cloth, such as is used in pressing cheese curds.

Chemosmosis (n.) Chemical action taking place through an intervening membrane.

Chemiotaxis () The sensitiveness exhibited by small free-swimming organisms, as bacteria, zoospores of algae, etc., to chemical substances held in solution. They may be attracted (positive chemotaxis) or repelled (negative chemotaxis).

Chitty (n.) A short letter or note; a written message or memorandum; a certificate given to a servant; a pass, or the like.

Chokebore (n.) In a shotgun, a bore which is tapered to a slightly smaller diameter at a short distance (usually 2/ to 3 inches) to the rear of the muzzle, in order to prevent the rapid dispersion of the shot.

Chupatty (n.) A kind of griddlecake of unleavened bread, used among the natives of India.

Colt pistol () A self-loading or semi-automatic pistol with removable magazine in the handle holding seven cartridges. The recoil extracts and ejects the empty cartridge case, and reloads ready for another shot. Called also Browning, / Colt-Browning, pistol.

Colt revolver () A revolver made according to a system using a patented revolving cylinder, holding six cartridges, patented by Samuel Colt, an American inventor, in 1835. With various modifications, it has for many years been the standard for the United States army.

Conte (n.) A short narrative or tale, esp. one dealing with surprising or marvelous events.

Corinthian (n.) A man of fashion given to pleasuring or sport; a fashionable man about town; esp., a man of means who drives his own horse, sails his own yacht, or the like.

Corroboree (n.) A nocturnal festivity with which the Australian aborigines celebrate tribal events of importance. Symbolic dances are given by the young men of the tribe, while the women act as musicians.

Coston lights () Signals made by burning lights of different colors and used by vessels at sea, and in the life-saving service; -- named after their inventor.

Culture myth () A myth accounting for the discovery of arts and sciences or the advent of a higher civilization, as in the Prometheus myth.

Cut (n.) A slanting stroke causing the ball to spin and bound irregularly; also, the spin so given to the ball.

Destructor (n.) A furnace or oven for the burning or carbonizing of refuse

Dewar vessel () A double-walled glass vessel for holding liquid air, etc., having the space between the walls exhausted so as to prevent conduction of heat, and sometimes having the glass silvered to prevent absorption of radiant heat; -- called also, according to the particular shape, Dewar bulb, Dewar tube, etc.

jubilee () One celebrated upon the completion of sixty, or, according to some, seventy-five, years from the beginning of the thing commemorated.

Direct nomination () The nomination or designation of candidates for public office by direct popular vote rather than through the action of a convention or body of elected nominating representatives or delegates. The term is applied both to the nomination of candidates without any nominating convention, and, loosely, to the nomination effected, as in the case of candidates for president or senator of the United States, by the election of nominating representatives pledged or instructed to vote for certain candidates dssignated by popular vote.

Donnee (n.) Lit., given; hence, in a literary work, as a drama or tale, that which is assumed as to characters, situation, etc., as a basis for the plot or story.

Drive (n.) In various games, as tennis, cricket, etc., the act of player who drives the ball; the stroke or blow; the flight of the ball, etc., so driven.

Dukhobortsy (n. pl.) A Russian religious sect founded about the middle of the 18th century at Kharkov. They believe that Christ was wholly human, but that his soul reappears from time to time in mortals. They accept the Ten Commandments and the "useful" portions of the Bible, but deny the need of rulers, priests, or churches, and have no confessions, icons, or marriage ceremonies. They are communistic, opposed to any violence, and unwilling to use the labor of animals. Driven out of Russia proper, many have emigrated to Cyprus and Canada. See Raskolnik, below.

Dumpy level () A level having a short telescope (hence its name) rigidly fixed to a table capable only of rotatory movement in a horizontal plane. The telescope is usually an inverting one. It is sometimes called the Troughton level, from the name of the inventor, and a variety improved by one Gavatt is known as the Gavatt level.

Eastern Church () That portion of the Christian church which prevails in the countries once comprised in the Eastern Roman Empire and the countries converted to Christianity by missionaries from them. Its full official title is The Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Eastern Church. It became estranged from the Western, or Roman, Church over the question of papal supremacy and the doctrine of the filioque, and a separation, begun in the latter part of the 9th century, became final in 1054. The Eastern Church consists of twelve (thirteen if the Bulgarian Church be included) mutually independent churches (including among these the Hellenic Church, or Church of Greece, and the Russian Church), using the vernacular (or some ancient form of it) in divine service and varying in many points of detail, but standing in full communion with each other and united as equals in a great federation. The highest five authorities are the patriarch of Constantinople, or ecumenical patriarch (whose position is not one of supremacy, but of precedence), the patriarch of Alexandria, the patriarch of Jerusalem, the patriarch of Antioch, and the Holy Synod of Russia. The Eastern Church accepts the first seven ecumenical councils (and is hence styled only schismatic, not heretical, by the Roman Catholic Church), has as its creed the Niceno-Constantinopolitan (without the later addition of the filioque, which, with the doctrine it represents, the church decisively rejects), baptizes infants with trine immersion, makes confirmation follow immediately upon baptism, administers the Communion in both kinds (using leavened bread) and to infants as well as adults, permits its secular clergy to marry before ordination and to keep their wives afterward, but not to marry a second time, selects its bishops from the monastic clergy only, recognizes the offices of bishop, priest, and deacon as the three necessary degrees of orders, venerates relics and icons, and has an elaborate ritual.

Eject (v. t.) An object that is a conscious or living object, and hence not a direct object, but an inferred object or act of a subject, not myself; -- a term invented by W. K. Clifford.

Endemic (a.) Belonging or native to a particular people or country; native as distinguished from introduced or naturalized; hence, regularly or ordinarily occurring in a given region; local; as, a plant endemic in Australia; -- often distinguished from exotic.

Eutectic (a.) Of maximum fusibility; -- said of an alloy or mixture which has the lowest melting point which it is possible to obtain by the combination of the given components.

Eutexia (n.) The principle or process of forming from given components the eutectic alloy, or alloy of maximum fusibility.

Farandole (n.) A rapid dance in six-eight time in which a large number join hands and dance in various figures, sometimes moving from room to room. It originated in Provence.

Ferris wheel () An amusement device consisting of a giant power-driven steel wheel, revolvable on its stationary axle, and carrying a number of balanced passenger cars around its rim; -- so called after G. W. G. Ferris, American engineer, who erected the first of its kind for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.

Fine (adv.) In a manner so that the driven ball strikes the object ball so far to one side as to be deflected but little, the object ball being driven to one side.

Floater () A person, as a delegate to a convention or a member of a legislature, who represents an irregular constituency, as one formed by a union of the voters of two counties neither of which has a number sufficient to be allowed a (or an extra) representative of its own.

Floriation (n.) Ornamentation by means of flower forms, whether closely imitated or conventionalized.

Flotation (n.) Act of financing, or floating, a commercial venture or an issue of bonds, stock, or the like.

Fourchette (n.) The combination of the card immediately above and the one immediately below a given card.

Fumed oak () Oak given a weathered appearance by exposure in an air-tight compartment to fumes of ammonia from uncorked cans, being first given a coat of filler.

Fuze (n.) A wire, bar, or strip of fusible metal inserted for safety in an electric circuit. When the current increases beyond a certain safe strength, the metal melts, interrupting the circuit and thereby preventing possibility of damage.

Fusee (n.) A friction match for smokers' use having a bulbous head which when ignited is not easily blown out even in a gale of wind.

Ghost dance () A religious dance of the North American Indians, participated in by both sexes, and looked upon as a rite of invocation the purpose of which is, through trance and vision, to bring the dancer into communion with the unseen world and the spirits of departed friends. The dance is the chief rite of the Ghost-dance, or Messiah, religion, which originated about 1890 in the doctrines of the Piute Wovoka, the Indian Messiah, who taught that the time was drawing near when the whole Indian race, the dead with the living, should be reunited to live a life of millennial happiness upon a regenerated earth. The religion inculcates peace, righteousness, and work, and holds that in good time, without warlike intervention, the oppressive white rule will be removed by the higher powers. The religion spread through a majority of the western tribes of the United States, only in the case of the Sioux, owing to local causes, leading to an outbreak.

Go-devil (n.) A device, as a loosely fitted plug, which is driven through a pipe by the pressure of the contents behind the plug to clear away obstructions.

Grundyism (n.) Narrow and unintelligent conventionalism.

Hague Tribunal () The permanent court of arbitration created by the "International Convention for the Pacific Settle of International Disputes.", adopted by the International Peace Conference of 1899. It is composed of persons of known competency in questions of international law, nominated by the signatory powers. From these persons an arbitration tribunal is chosen by the parties to a difference submitted to the court. On the failure of the parties to agree directly on the arbitrators, each chooses two arbitrators, an umpire is selected by them, by a third power, or by two powers selected by the parties.

Hammer break () An interrupter in which contact is broken by the movement of an automatically vibrating hammer between a contact piece and an electromagnet, or of a rapidly moving piece mechanically driven.

Hang (v. t.) To prevent from reaching a decision, esp. by refusing to join in a verdict that must be unanimous; as, one obstinate juror can hang a jury.

Harvey process () A process of hardening the face of steel, as armor plates, invented by Hayward A. Harvey of New Jersey, consisting in the additional carburizing of the face of a piece of low carbon steel by subjecting it to the action of carbon under long-continued pressure at a very high heat, and then to a violent chilling, as by a spray of cold water. This process gives an armor plate a thick surface of extreme hardness supported by material gradually decreasing in hardness to the unaltered soft steel at the back.

Heliography (n.) An early photographic process invented by Nicephore Niepce, and still used in photo-engraving. It consists essentially in exposing under a design or in a camera a polished metal plate coated with a preparation of asphalt, and subsequently treating the plate with a suitable solvent. The light renders insoluble those parts of the film which is strikes, and so a permanent image is formed, which can be etched upon the plate by the use of acid.

Hole (n.) A small cavity used in some games, usually one into which a marble or ball is to be played or driven; hence, a score made by playing a marble or ball into such a hole, as in golf.

Holluschickie (n. sing. & pl.) A young male fur seal, esp. one from three to six years old; -- called also bachelor, because prevented from breeding by the older full-grown males.

Hunky (a.) All right; in a good condition; also, even; square.

Ibsenism (n.) The dramatic practice or purpose characteristic of the writings of Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Norwegian poet and dramatist, whose best-known plays deal with conventional hypocrisies, the story in each play thus developing a definite moral problem.

Induction generator () A machine built as an induction motor and driven above synchronous speed, thus acting as an alternating-current generator; -- called also asynchronous generator. Below synchronism the machine takes in electrical energy and acts as an induction motor; at synchronism the power component of current becomes zero and changes sign, so that above synchronism the machine (driven for thus purpose by mechanical power) gives out electrical energy as a generator.

Ion (n.) One of the electrified particles into which, according to the electrolytic dissociation theory, the molecules of electrolytes are divided by water and other solvents. An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries a unit charge of electricity, 3.4 x 10-10 electrostatic units, or a multiple of this. Those which are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are called cations; negative ions (hydroxyl and acidic atoms or groups) are called anions.

Jerry-builder (n.) A professional builder who erects cheap dwellings of poor materials and unsubstantial and slovenly construction.

Jeunesse doree () Lit., gilded youth; young people of wealth and fashion, esp. if given to prodigal living; -- in the French Revolution, applied to young men of the upper classes who aided in suppressing the Jacobins after the Reign of Terror.

Jewish calendar () A lunisolar calendar in use among Hebraic peoples, reckoning from the year 3761 b. c., the date traditionally given for the Creation.

Kissing bug () Any one of several species of blood-sucking, venomous Hemiptera that sometimes bite the lip or other parts of the human body, causing painful sores, as the cone-nose (Conorhinus sanguisuga).

Kitchenette (n.) A room combining a very small kitchen and a pantry, with the kitchen conveniences compactly arranged, sometimes so that they fold up out of sight and allow the kitchen to be made a part of the adjoining room by opening folding doors.

Krupp process () A process for the manufacture of steel armor plates, invented or practiced by Krupp, the details of which are secret. It is understood to involve the addition of chromium as well as nickel to the metal, and to include a treatment like that of the Harvey process with unknown variations or additions. The product is mentioned by some authors, as improved Harvey, or Harvey-Krupp armor plate.

Kulturkampf (n.) Lit., culture war; -- a name, originating with Virchow (1821 -- 1902), given to a struggle between the the Roman Catholic Church and the German government, chiefly over the latter's efforts to control educational and ecclesiastical appointments in the interest of the political policy of centralization. The struggle began with the passage by the Prussian Diet in May, 1873, of the so-called May laws, or Falk laws, aiming at the regulation of the clergy. Opposition eventually compelled the government to change its policy, and from 1880 to 1887 laws virtually nullifying the May laws were enacted.

Lagnappe (n.) In Louisiana, a trifling present given to customers by tradesmen; a gratuity.

Larrikin (n.) A rowdy street loafer; a rowdyish or noisy ill-bred fellow; -- variously applied, as to a street blackguard, a street Arab, a youth given to horse-play, etc.

Layshaft (n.) A secondary shaft, as in a sliding change gear for an automobile; a cam shaft operated by a two-to-one gear in an internal-combustion engine. It is generally a shaft moving more or less independently of the other parts of a machine, as, in some marine engines, a shaft, driven by a small auxiliary engine, for independently operating the valves of the main engine to insure uniform motion.

Leg bridge () A type of bridge for small spans in which the floor girders are rigidly secured at their extremities to supporting steel legs, driven into the round as piling, or resting on mudsills.

London smoke () A neutral tint given to spectacles, shade glasses for optical instruments, etc., which reduces the intensity without materially changing the color of the transmitted light.

Manhes process () A process by which copper matte is treated by passing through it a blast of air, to oxidize and remove sulphur. It is analogous in apparatus to the Bessemer process for decarbonizing cast iron. So called from Pierre Manhes, a French metallurgist, who invented it.

Maxim gun () A kind of machine gun; -- named after its inventor, Hiram S. Maxim.

May laws () In Russia, severe oppressive laws against Jews, which have given occasion for great persecution; -- so called because they received the assent of the czar in May, 1882, and because likened to the Prussian May laws (see Kulturkampf).

Medjidieh (n.) A Turkish honorary order established in 1851 by Abdul-Mejid, having as its badge a medallion surrounded by seven silver rays and crescents. It is often conferred on foreigners.

Mendel's law () A principle governing the inheritance of many characters in animals and plants, discovered by Gregor J. Mendel (Austrian Augustinian abbot, 1822-84) in breeding experiments with peas. He showed that the height, color, and other characters depend on the presence of determinating factors behaving as units. In any given germ cell each of these is either present or absent.

Mithgarthr () The middle space or region between heaven and hell, the abode of human beings; the earth.

Mitis casting () A process, invented by P. Ostberg, for producing malleable iron castings by melting wrought iron, to which from 0.05 to 0.1 per cent of aluminium is added to lower the melting point, usually in a petroleum furnace, keeping the molten metal at the bubbling point until it becomes quiet, and then pouring the molten metal into a mold lined with a special mixture consisting essentially of molasses and ground burnt fire clay; also, a casting made by this process; -- called also wrought-iron casting.

Modus vivendi () Mods, or manner, of living; hence, a temporary arrangement of affairs until disputed matters can be settled.

Mon (n.) The badge of a family, esp. of a family of the ancient feudal nobility. The most frequent form of the mon is circular, and it commonly consists of conventionalized forms from nature, flowers, birds, insects, the lightnings, the waves of the sea, or of geometrical symbolic figures; color is only a secondary character. It appears on lacquer and pottery, and embroidered on, or woven in, fabrics. The imperial chrysanthemum, the mon of the reigning family, is used as a national emblem. Formerly the mon of the shoguns of the Tokugawa family was so used.

Morse code () The telegraphic code, consisting of dots, dashes, and spaces, invented by Samuel B. Morse. The Alphabetic code which is in use in North America is given below. In length, or duration, one dash is theoretically equal to three dots; the space between the elements of a letter is equal to one dot; the interval in spaced letters, as O . ., is equal to three dots. There are no spaces in any letter composed wholly or in part of dashes.

Motor-driven (a.) Driven or actuated by a motor, esp. by an individual electric motor. An electric motor forms an integral part of many machine tools in numerous modern machine shops.

Motorize (v. t.) To substitute motor-driven vehicles, or automobiles, for the horses and horse-drawn vehicles of (a fire department, city, etc.).

Mount (n.) Any one of seven fleshy prominences in the palm of the hand which are taken as significant of the influence of "planets," and called the mounts of Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Saturn, the Sun or Apollo, and Venus.

Napoleon (n.) A shape and size of cigar. It is about seven inches long.

Neoimpressionism (n.) A theory or practice which is a further development, on more rigorously scientific lines, of the theory and practice of Impressionism, originated by George Seurat (1859-91), and carried on by Paul Signac (1863- -) and others. Its method is marked by the laying of pure primary colors in minute dots upon a white ground, any given line being produced by a variation in the proportionate quantity of the primary colors employed. This method is also known as Pointillism (stippling).

Netsuke (n.) In Japanese costume and decorative art, a small object carved in wood, ivory, bone, or horn, or wrought in metal, and pierced with holes for cords by which it is connected, for convenience, with the inro, the smoking pouch (tabako-ire), and similar objects carried in the girdle. It is now much used on purses sold in Europe and America.

Niepce's process () A process, now no longer used, invented by J. N. Niepce, a French chemist, in 1829. It depends upon the action of light in rendering a thin layer of bitumen, with which the plate is coated, insoluble.

Nobel prizes () Prizes for the encouragement of men and women who work for the interests of humanity, established by the will of A. B. Nobel (1833-96), the Swedish inventor of dynamite, who left his entire estate for this purpose. They are awarded yearly for what is regarded as the most important work during the year in physics, chemistry, medicine or physiology, idealistic literature, and service in the interest of peace. The prizes, averaging $40,000 each, were first awarded in 1901.

Obturate (v. t.) to stop (a gun breech) so as to prevent the escape of gas in firing.

Obturator (n.) Any device for preventing the escape of gas through the breech mechanism of a breech-loading gun; a gas check.

Otto cycle () A four-stroke cycle for internal-combustion engines consisting of the following operations: First stroke, suction into cylinder of explosive charge, as of gas and air; second stroke, compression, ignition, and explosion of this charge; third stroke (the working stroke), expansion of the gases; fourth stroke, expulsion of the products of combustion from the cylinder. This is the cycle invented by Beau de Rochas in 1862 and applied by Dr. Otto in 1877 in the Otto-Crossley gas engine, the first commercially successful internal-combustion engine made.

Parquet (n.) In most European countries, the branch of the administrative government which is charged with the prevention, investigation, and punishment of crime, representing the public and not the individual injured.

Passenger mile () A unit of measurement of the passenger transportation performed by a railroad during a given period, usually a year, the total of which consists of the sum of the miles traversed by all the passengers on the road in the period in question.

Passenger mileage () Passenger miles collectively; the total number of miles traveled by passengers on a railroad during a given period.

Pasteur's fluid () An artificial nutrient fluid invented by Pasteur for the study of alcoholic fermentation, but used also for the cultivation of bacteria and other organisms. It contains all the elements of protoplasm, and was originally made of the ash of yeast, some ammonia compound, sugar, and water.

Pattinson's process () A process of desilverizing argentiferous lead by repeated meltings and skimmings, which concentrate the silver in the molten bath, the final skimmings being nearly pure lad. The processwas invented in 1833 by Hugh Lee Pattinson, an English metallurgist.

Pedrail (n.) A device intended to replace the wheel of a self-propelled vehicle for use on rough roads and to approximate to the smoothness in running of a wheel on a metal track. The tread consists of a number of rubber shod feet which are connected by ball-and-socket joints to the ends of sliding spokes. Each spoke has attached to it a small roller which in its turn runs under a short pivoted rail controlled by a powerful set of springs. This arrangement permits the feet to accomodate themselves to obstacles even such as steps or stairs. The pedrail was invented by one B. J. Diplock of London, Eng.

Perpetual calendar () A calendar that can be used perpetually or over a wide range of years. That of Capt. Herschel covers, as given below, dates from 1750 to 1961 only, but is capable of indefinite extension.

Phase splitting () The dephasing of the two parts of a single alternating current in two dissimilar branches of a given circuit.

Photochromoscope (n.) A combination of three optical lanterns for projecting objects on a screen in the colors of nature. The images of three partial photographs taken through color screens (red, green, and blue, respectively) are superimposed. Each image is given its own primary color, and these colors blend and reproduce the colors of the object.

Phototelescope (n.) A telescope adapted for taking photographs of the heavenly bodies.

Pilon (n.) A gratuity given by tradesmen to customers settling their accounts.

Pi–a cloth () A fine fabric for scarfs, handkerchiefs, embroidery, etc., woven from the fiber obtained from the leaf of the sterile pineapple plant. It is delicate, soft, and transparent, with a tinge of pale yellow.

Plenum (n.) A condition, as in an occupied room, in which the pressure of the air is greater than that of the outside atmosphere; as, a plenum may exist in a hall ventilated by a fan blower.

Plexus (n.) A network; an intricate or interwoven combination of elements or parts in a coherent structure.

Plunk (v. i.) To make a quick, hollow, metallic, or harsh sound, as by pulling hard on a taut string and quickly releasing it; of a raven, to croak.

Pocket veto () The retention by the President of the United States of a bill unsigned so that it does not become a law, in virtue of the following constitutional provision (Const. Art. I., sec. 7, cl. 2): "If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law." Also, an analogous retention of a bill by a State governor.

Pompon (n.) Any of several dwarf varieties of the Provence rose.

Potlatch (n.) Hence, a feast given to a large number of persons, often accompanied by gifts.

worth () The principal which, drawing interest at a given rate, will amount to the given sum at the date on which this is to be paid; thus, interest being at 6%, the present value of $106 due one year hence is $100.

Presswork (n.) Work consisting of a series of cross-grained veneers united by glue, heat, and pressure.

Provenance (n.) Origin; source; provenience.

Provenience (n.) Origin; source; place where found or produced; provenance; -- used esp. in the fine arts and in archaeology; as, the provenience of a patera.

Provenient (a.) Forthcoming; issuing.

Quasi-public corporation () A corporation, such as a railroad company, lighting company, water company, etc., organized or chartered to follow a public calling or to render services more or less essential to the general public convenience or safety.

Puck (n.) A disk of vulcanized rubber used in the game of hockey, as the object to be driven through the goals.

Puzzle-headed (a.) Having the head full of confused notions; given to getting perplexed over simple matters; also, characteristic of persons that are so.

Quirinal (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the hill Collis Quirinalis, now Monte Quirinale (one of the seven hills of Rome), or a modern royal place situated upon it. Also used substantively.

Radiophare (n.) A radiotelegraphic station serving solely for determining the position of ships. The radius of operation of such stations was restricted by the International Radiotelegraphic Convention (1912) to 30 nautical miles.

Radiotelegraphy (n.) Telegraphy using the radiant energy of electrical (Hertzian) waves; wireless telegraphy; -- the term adopted for use by the Radiotelegraphic Convention of 1912.

Radium (n.) An intensely radioactive metallic element found (combined) in minute quantities in pitchblende, and various other uranium minerals. Symbol, Ra; atomic weight, 226.4. Radium was discovered by M. and Mme. Curie, of Paris, who in 1902 separated compounds of it by a tedious process from pitchblende. Its compounds color flames carmine and give a characteristic spectrum. It resembles barium chemically. Radium preparations are remarkable for maintaining themselves at a higher temperature than their surroundings, and for their radiations, which are of three kinds: alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays (see these terms). By reason of these rays they ionize gases, affect photographic plates, cause sores on the skin, and produce many other striking effects. Their degree of activity depends on the proportion of radium present, but not on its state of chemical combination or on external conditions.The radioactivity of radium is therefore an atomic property, and is explained as result from a disintegration of the atom. This breaking up occurs in at least seven stages; the successive main products have been studied and are called radium emanation or exradio, radium A, radium B, radium C, etc. (The emanation is a heavy gas, the later products are solids.) These products are regarded as unstable elements, each with an atomic weight a little lower than its predecessor. It is possible that lead is the stable end product. At the same time the light gas helium is formed; it probably consists of the expelled alpha particles. The heat effect mentioned above is ascribed to the impacts of these particles. Radium, in turn, is believed to be formed indirectly by an immeasurably slow disintegration of uranium.

Reconcentration (n.) The act of reconcentrating or the state of being reconcentrated; esp., the act or policy of concentrating the rural population in or about towns and villages for convenience in political or military administration, as in Cuba during the revolution of 1895-98.

Red Cross () A hospital or ambulance service established as a result of, though not provided for by, the Geneva convention of 1864; any of the national societies for alleviating the sufferings of the sick and wounded war, also giving aid and relief during great calamities; also, a member or worker of such a society; -- so called from the badge of neutrality; the Geneva cross.

Rejuvenated (p. a.) Rendered young again; as, rejuvenated life.

Rejuvenated (p. a.) Stimulated by uplift to renewed erosive activity; -- said of streams.

Rejuvenated (p. a.) Developed with steep slopes inside a district previously worn down nearly to base level; -- said of topography, or features of topography, as valleys, hills, etc.

Rent (n.) That portion of the produce of the earth paid to the landlord for the use of the "original and indestructible powers of the soil;" the excess of the return from a given piece of cultivated land over that from land of equal area at the "margin of cultivation." Called also economic, / Ricardian, rent. Economic rent is due partly to differences of productivity, but chiefly to advantages of location; it is equivalent to ordinary or commercial rent less interest on improvements, and nearly equivalent to ground rent.

Reserve (n.) The amount of funds or assets necessary for a company to have at any given time to enable it, with interest and premiums paid as they shall accure, to meet all claims on the insurance then in force as they would mature according to the particular mortality table accepted. The reserve is always reckoned as a liability, and is calculated on net premiums. It is theoretically the difference between the present value of the total insurance and the present value of the future premiums on the insurance. The reserve, being an amount for which another company could, theoretically, afford to take over the insurance, is sometimes called the reinsurance fund or the self-insurance fund. For the first year upon any policy the net premium is called the initial reserve, and the balance left at the end of the year including interest is the terminal reserve. For subsequent years the initial reserve is the net premium, if any, plus the terminal reserve of the previous year. The portion of the reserve to be absorbed from the initial reserve in any year in payment of losses is sometimes called the insurance reserve, and the terminal reserve is then called the investment reserve.

Resist (n.) Something that resists or prevents a certain action;

Resist (n.) A substance applied to a surface, as of metal, to prevent the action on it of acid or other chemical agent.

Resonant (a.) Adjusted as to dimensions (as an electric circuit) so that currents or electric surgings are produced by the passage of electric waves of a given frequency.

Rheocrat (n.) A kind of motor speed controller permitting of very gradual variation in speed and of reverse. It is especially suitable for use with motor driven machine tools.

Root (v. i.) To shout for, or otherwise noisly applaud or encourage, a contestant, as in sports; hence, to wish earnestly for the success of some one or the happening of some event, with the superstitious notion that this action may have efficacy; -- usually with for; as, the crowd rooted for the home team.

Rout cake () A kind of rich sweet cake made for routs, or evening parties.

Safety bicycle () A bicycle with equal or nearly equal wheels, usually 28 inches diameter, driven by pedals connected to the rear (driving) wheel by a multiplying gear.

Safety chain () A normally slack chain for preventing excessive movement between a truck and a car body in sluing.

Safety chain () An auxiliary watch chain, secured to the clothes, usually out of sight, to prevent stealing of the watch.

Scarabaeus (n.) A conventionalized representation of a beetle, with its legs held closely at its sides, carved in natural or made in baked clay, and commonly having an inscription on the flat underside.

Scavenge (v. i.) To remove the burned gases from the cylinder after a working stroke; as, this engine does not scavenge well.

Scavenge (v. t.) To remove (burned gases) from the cylinder after a working stroke.

Scavenging (n.) Act or process of expelling the exhaust gases from the cylinder by some special means, as, in many four-cycle engines, by utilizing the momentum of the exhaust gases in a long exhaust pipe.

Self-help (n.) The right or fact of redressing or preventing wrongs by one's own action without recourse to legal proceedings, as in self-defense, distress, abatement of a nuisance, etc.

Senhora (n.) A Portuguese title of courtesy given to a lady; Mrs.; Madam; also, a lady.

Sensitometer (n.) An instrument or apparatus for comparing and grading the sensitiveness of plates, films, etc., as a screen divided into squares of different shades or colors, from which a picture is made on the plate to be tested.

Sephardic (a.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, the Jews (the Sephardim, also called Spanish or Portuguese Jews) descended from Jewish families driven from Spain by the Inquisition.

Shakudo (n.) An alloy of copper, invented by the Japanese, having a very dark blue color approaching black.

Shoefly (n.) A contrivance for throwing the track temporarily to one side for convenience in filling washouts or effecting other repairs.

Shunt valve () A valve permitting a fluid under pressure an easier avenue of escape than normally; specif., a valve, actuated by the governor, used in one system of marine-engine governing to connect both ends of the low-pressure cylinder as a supplementary control.

Sidetrack (v. t.) Hence, fig., to divert or reduce to a position or condition that is relatively secondary or subordinate in activity, importance, effectiveness, or the like; to switch off; to turn aside, as from a purpose.

Single tax () A tax levied upon land alone, irrespective of improvements, -- advocated by certain economists as the sole source of public revenue.

Smothered mate () Checkmate given when movement of the king is completely obstructed by his own men.

Snap (a.) Done, performed, made, executed, carried through, or the like, quickly and without deliberation; as, a snap judgment or decision; a snap political convention.

Snider (n.) A breech-loading rifle formerly used in the British service; -- so called from the inventor.

Solo whist () A card game played with the full pack ranking as at whist, each player declaring for which of seven different points he proposes to play.

SOS () The letters signified by the signal ( . . . --- . . . ) prescribed by the International Radiotelegraphic Convention of 1912 for use by ships in distress.

Split (a.) Of quotations, given in sixteenth, quotations in eighths being regular; as, 10/ is a split quotation.

Stampede (n.) Any sudden unconcerted moving or acting together of a number of persons, as from some common impulse; as, a stampede to the gold regions; a stampede in a convention.

State socialism () A form of socialism, esp. advocated in Germany, which, while retaining the right of private property and the institution of the family and other features of the present form of the state, would intervene by various measures intended to give or maintain equality of opportunity, as compulsory state insurance, old-age pensions, etc., answering closely to socialism of the chair.

Stocking (n.) Any of various things resembling, or likened to, a stocking; as: (a) A broad ring of color, differing from the general color, on the lower part of the leg of a quadruped; esp., a white ring between the coronet and the hock or knee of a dark-colored horse. (b) A knitted hood of cotton thread which is eventually converted by a special process into an incandescent mantle for gas lighting.

Strike (n.) Any actual or constructive striking at the pitched ball, three of which, if the ball is not hit fairly, cause the batter to be put out; hence, any of various acts or events which are ruled as equivalent to such a striking, as failing to strike at a ball so pitched that the batter should have struck at it.

Stylus (n.) In a photograph, a pointed piece which is moved by the vibrations given to the diaphragm by a sound, and produces the indented record; also, a pointed piece which follows the indented record, vibrates the diaphragm, and reproduces the sound.

Submarine (n.) A submarine boat; esp., Nav., a submarine torpedo boat; -- called specif. submergible submarine when capable of operating at various depths and of traveling considerable distances under water, and submersible submarine when capable of being only partly submerged, i.e., so that the conning tower, etc., is still above water. The latter type and most of the former type are submerged as desired by regulating the amount of water admitted to the ballast tanks and sink on an even keel; some of the former type effect submersion while under way by means of horizontal rudders, in some cases also with admission of water to the ballast tanks.

Suncup (n.) A yellow flowered evening primrose (Taraxia, syn. Oenothera, ovata) native of California.

Sundrops (n.) Any one of the several species of Kneiffia, esp. K. fruticosa (syn. Oenothera fruticosa), of the Evening-primrose family, having flowers that open by daylight.

Symbiosis (n.) The living together in more or less imitative association or even close union of two dissimilar organisms. In a broad sense the term includes parasitism, or antagonistic, / antipathetic, symbiosis, in which the association is disadvantageous or destructive to one of the organisms, but ordinarily it is used of cases where the association is advantageous, or often necessary, to one or both, and not harmful to either. When there is bodily union (in extreme cases so close that the two form practically a single body, as in the union of algae and fungi to form lichens, and in the inclusion of algae in radiolarians) it is called conjunctive symbiosis; if there is no actual union of the organisms (as in the association of ants with myrmecophytes), disjunctive symbiosis.

Tag day () A day on which contributions to some public or private charity or fund are solicited promiscuously on the street, and tags given to contributors to wear as an evidence of their having contributed. Such solicitation is now subject to legal restriction in various places.

Tail (n.) In some forms of rope-laying machine, pieces of rope attached to the iron bar passing through the grooven wooden top containing the strands, for wrapping around the rope to be laid.

Tambourine (n.) A South American wild dove (Tympanistria tympanistria), mostly white, with black-tiped wings and tail. Its resonant note is said to be ventriloquous.

Tang (n.) A dynasty in Chinese history, from a. d. 618 to 905, distinguished by the founding of the Imperial Academy (the Hanlin), by the invention of printing, and as marking a golden age of literature.

Tariff (n.) A tariff may be imposed solely for, and with reference to, the production of revenue (called a revenue tariff, or tariff for revenue, or for the artificial fostering of home industries (a projective tariff), or as a means of coercing foreign governments, as in case of retaliatory tariff.

Tawpie (n.) A foolish or thoughtless young person, esp. a slothful or slovenly woman.

Taylor-White process () A process (invented about 1899 by Frederick W. Taylor and Maunsel B. White) for giving toughness to self-hardening steels. The steel is heated almost to fusion, cooled to a temperature of from 700¡ to 850¡ C. in molten lead, further cooled in oil, reheated to between 370¡ and 670¡ C., and cooled in air.

Teamwork (n.) Work done by a number of associates, usually each doing a clearly defined portion, but all subordinating personal prominence to the efficiency of the whole; as, the teamwork of a football eleven or a gun crew.

Tenno (n.) Lit., King of Heaven; -- a title of the emperor of Japan as the head of the Shinto religion.

Thermotank (n.) A tank containing pipes through which circulates steam, water, air, or the like, for heating or cooling; -- used in some heating and ventilation systems.

Tipster (n.) One who makes a practice of giving or selling tips, or private hints or information, esp. for use in gambling upon the probable outcome of events, as horse races.

Tittuppy (a.) Given to tittuping; gay; lively; prancing; also, shaky; unsteady.

Tommy Atkins () Any white regular soldier of the British army; also, such soldiers collectively; -- said to be fictitious name inserted in the models given to soldiers to guide them in filling out account blanks, etc.

Ton mile () A unit of measurement of the freight transportation performed by a railroad during a given period, usually a year, the total of which consists of the sum of the products obtained by multiplying the aggregate weight of each shipment in tons during the given period by the number of miles for which it is carried.

Ton mileage () Ton miles collectively; esp., the total ton miles performed by a railroad in a given period.

Top (n.) A forward spin given to the ball by hitting it on or near the top.

Top (v. t.) To cover with another dye; as, to top aniline black with methyl violet to prevent greening and crocking.

Torpedo stern () A broad stern without overhang, flattened on the bottom, used in some torpedo and fast power boats. It prevents settling in the water at high speed.

Torsion meter () An instrument for determining the torque on a shaft, and hence the horse power of an engine, esp. of a marine engine of high power, by measuring the amount of twist of a given length of the shaft. Called also torsimeter, torsiometer, torsometer.

Touch (n.) A set of changes less than the total possible on seven bells, that is, less than 5,040.

Trade name () An invented or arbitrary adopted name given by a manufacturer or merchant to an article to distinguish it as produced or sold by him.

Traffic mile () Any unit of the total obtained by adding the passenger miles and ton miles in a railroad's transportation for a given period; -- a term and practice of restricted or erroneous usage.

Trama (n.) The loosely woven substance which lines the chambers within the gleba in certain Gasteromycetes.

Tree calf () A bright brown polished calfskin binding of books, stained with a conventional treelike design.

Trocha (n.) A line of fortifications, usually rough, constructed to prevent the passage of an enemy across a region.

Tungsten steel () A steel containing a small amount of tungsten, noted for tenacity and hardness, even under a considerable degree of heat. Magnets made of it are said to be highly permanent. It often contains manganese.

Tupi (n.) An Indian of the tribe from which the Tupian stock takes its name, dwelling, at the advent of the Portuguese, about the mouth of the Amazon. Also, their language, which is the basis of the Indian trade language of the Amazon.

Turbine (n.) A form of steam engine analogous in construction and action to the water turbine. There are practically only two distinct kinds, and they are typified in the de Laval and the Parsons and Curtis turbines. The de Laval turbine is an impulse turbine, in which steam impinges upon revolving blades from a flared nozzle. The flare of the nozzle causes expansion of the steam, and hence changes its pressure energy into kinetic energy. An enormous velocity (30,000 revolutions per minute in the 5 H. P. size) is requisite for high efficiency, and the machine has therefore to be geared down to be of practical use. Some recent development of this type include turbines formed of several de Laval elements compounded as in the ordinary expansion engine. The Parsons turbine is an impulse-and-reaction turbine, usually of the axial type. The steam is constrained to pass successively through alternate rows of fixed and moving blades, being expanded down to a condenser pressure of about 1 lb. per square inch absolute. The Curtis turbine is somewhat simpler than the Parsons, and consists of elements each of which has at least two rows of moving blades and one row of stationary. The bucket velocity is lowered by fractional velocity reduction. Both the Parsons and Curtis turbines are suitable for driving dynamos and steamships directly. In efficiency, lightness, and bulk for a given power, they compare favorably with reciprocating engines.

Turbogenerator (n.) An electric generator or dynamo which is combined on one frame with a turbomotor, by which it is driven.

Turret steamer () A whaleback steamer with a hatch coaming, usually about seven feet high, extending almost continuously fore and aft.

Tuxedo (n.) A kind of black coat for evening dress made without skirts; -- so named after a fashionable country club at Tuxedo Park, New York.

Uncut velvet () A fabric woven like velvet, but with the loops of the warp threads uncut.

Unpardonable (a.) Not admitting of pardon or forgiveness; inexcusable.

Vachette clasp () A piece of strong steel wire with the ends curved and pointed, used on toe or quarter cracks to bind the edges together and prevent motion. It is clasped into two notches, one on each side of the crack, burned into the wall with a cautery iron.

Vapor galvanizing () A process for coating metal (usually iron or steel) surfaces with zinc by exposing them to the vapor of zinc instead of, as in ordinary galvanizing, to molten zinc; -- called also Sherardizing. Vapor galvanizing is accomplished by heating the articles to be galvanized together with zinc dust in an air tight receptacle to a temperature of about 600¡ F., which is 188¡ below the melting point of zinc, or by exposing the articles to vapor from molten zinc in a separate receptacle, using hydrogen or other reducing gas to prevent oxidation.

tension () The pressure or tension of a confined body of vapor. The pressure of a given saturated vapor is a function of the temperature only, and may be measured by introducing a small quantity of the substance into a barometer and noting the depression of the column of mercury.

Variety (n.) Such entertainment as in given in variety shows; the production of, or performance in, variety shows.

Vendor's lien () An implied lien (that is, one not created by mortgage or other express agreement) given in equity to a vendor of lands for the unpaid purchase money.

Venin (n.) A toxic substance contained in the venom of poisonous snakes; also, a (supposedly identical) toxic substance obtained by the cleavage of an albumose.

Verner's law () A statement, propounded by the Danish philologist Karl Verner in 1875, which explains certain apparent exceptions to Grimm's law by the original position of the accent. Primitive Indo-European k, t, p, became first in Teutonic h, th, f, and appear without further change in old Teutonic, if the accent rested on the preceding syllable; but these sounds became voiced and produced g, d, b, if the accent was originally on a different syllable. Similarly s either remained unchanged, or it became z and later r. Example: Skt. sapta (accent on ultima), Gr. 'e`pta, Gothic sibun (seven). Examples in English are dead by the side of death, to rise and to rear.

Vinegarroon (n.) A whip scorpion, esp. a large Mexican species (Thelyphonus giganteus) popularly supposed to be very venomous; -- from the odor that it emits when alarmed.

Visible speech () A system of characters invented by Prof. Alexander Melville Bell to represent all sounds that may be uttered by the speech organs, and intended to be suggestive of the position of the organs of speech in uttering them.

Wash (n.) The upper surface of a member or material when given a slope to shed water. Hence, a structure or receptacle shaped so as to receive and carry off water, as a carriage wash in a stable.

Washing (n.) The covering of a piece with an infusible powder, which prevents it from sticking to its supports, while receiving the glaze.

Weather map () A map or chart showing the principal meteorological elements at a given hour and over an extended region. Such maps usually show the height of the barometer, the temperature of the air, the relative humidity, the state of the weather, and the direction and velocity of the wind. Isobars and isotherms outline the general distribution of temperature and pressure, while shaded areas indicate the sections over which rain has just fallen. Other lines inclose areas where the temperature has fallen or risen markedly. In tabular form are shown changes of pressure and of temperature, maximum and minimum temperatures, and total rain for each weather station since the last issue, usually 12 hours.

Welsbach (a.) Of or pertaining to Auer von Welsbach or the incandescent gas burner invented by him.

Weltanschauung (n.) Lit., world view; a conception of the course of events in, and of the purpose of, the world as a whole, forming a philosophical view or apprehension of the universe; the general idea embodied in a cosmology.

Wet plate () A plate the film of which retains its sensitiveness only while wet. The film used in such plates is of collodion impregnated with bromides and iodides. Before exposure the plate is immersed in a solution of silver nitrate, and immediately after exposure it is developed and fixed.

Wheat sawfly () Any of several small American sawflies of the genus Dolerus, as D. sericeus and D. arvensis, whose larvae injure the stems or heads of wheat.

Wilfley table () An inclined percussion table, usually with longitudinal grooves in its surface, agitated by side blows at right angles to the flow of the pulp; -- so called after the inventor.

Wire (v. t.) To place (a ball) so that the wire of a wicket prevents a successful shot.

Woman's Christian Temperance Union () An association of women formed in the United States in 1874, for the advancement of temperance by organizing preventive, educational, evangelistic, social, and legal work.

Yunca (n.) An Indian of a linguistic stock of tribes of the Peruvian coast who had a developed agricultural civilization at the advent of the Spaniards, before which they had been conquered by the Incas. They constructed irrigation canals which are still in use, adorned their buildings with bas-reliefs and frescoes, and were skilled goldsmiths and silversmiths.

Zone (n.) In the United States parcel-post system, any of the areas about any point of shipment for which but one rate of postage is charged for a parcel post shipment from that point. The rate increases from within outwards. The first zone includes the unit of area "(a quadrangle 30 minutes square)" in which the place of shipment is situated and the 8 contiguous units; the outer limits of the second to the seventh zones, respectively, are approximately 150, 300, 600, 1000, 1400, and 1800 miles from the point of shipment; the eighth zone includes all units of area outside the seventh zone.

Zymoscope (n.) An apparatus for determining the fermenting power of yeast by measuring the amount of carbonic acid evolved from a given quantity of sugar.

Oat (n.) A well-known cereal grass (Avena sativa), and its edible grain; -- commonly used in the plural and in a collective sense.

Objection (n.) The act of objecting; as, to prevent agreement, or action, by objection.

Objectiveness (n.) Objectivity.

Obligee (n.) The person to whom another is bound, or the person to whom a bond is given.

Obscurant (n.) One who obscures; one who prevents enlightenment or hinders the progress of knowledge and wisdom.

Observantine (n.) One of a branch of the Order of Franciscans, who profess to adhere more strictly than the Conventuals to the intention of the founder, especially as to poverty; -- called also Observants.

Observatory (n.) A place or building for making observations on the heavenly bodies.

Obstruct (v. t.) To block up; to stop up or close, as a way or passage; to place an obstacle in, or fill with obstacles or impediments that prevent or hinder passing; as, to obstruct a street; to obstruct the channels of the body.

Obvention (n.) The act of happening incidentally; that which happens casually; an incidental advantage; an occasional offering.

Obviate (v. t.) To anticipate; to prevent by interception; to remove from the way or path; to make unnecessary; as, to obviate the necessity of going.

Occasion (n.) A favorable opportunity; a convenient or timely chance; convenience.

Occasion (n.) An occurrence or condition of affairs which brings with it some unlooked-for event; that which incidentally brings to pass an event, without being its efficient cause or sufficient reason; accidental or incidental cause.

Occasionalism (n.) The system of occasional causes; -- a name given to certain theories of the Cartesian school of philosophers, as to the intervention of the First Cause, by which they account for the apparent reciprocal action of the soul and the body.

Occasionally (adv.) In an occasional manner; on occasion; at times, as convenience requires or opportunity offers; not regularly.

Occident (n.) The part of the horizon where the sun last appears in the evening; that part of the earth towards the sunset; the west; -- opposed to orient. Specifically, in former times, Europe as opposed to Asia; now, also, the Western hemisphere.

Occultation (n.) The hiding of a heavenly body from sight by the intervention of some other of the heavenly bodies; -- applied especially to eclipses of stars and planets by the moon, and to the eclipses of satellites of planets by their primaries.

Occulted (a.) Concealed by the intervention of some other heavenly body, as a star by the moon.

Occurrence (n.) Any incident or event; esp., one which happens without being designed or expected; as, an unusual occurrence, or the ordinary occurrences of life.

Octant (n.) The position or aspect of a heavenly body, as the moon or a planet, when half way between conjunction, or opposition, and quadrature, or distant from another body 45 degrees.

Octapla (sing.) A portion of the Old Testament prepared by Origen in the 3d century, containing the Hebrew text and seven Greek versions of it, arranged in eight parallel columns.

Octillion (n.) According to the French method of numeration (which method is followed also in the United States) the number expressed by a unit with twenty-seven ciphers annexed. According to the English method, the number expressed by a unit with forty-eight ciphers annexed. See Numeration.

Odd (superl.) Not divisible by 2 without a remainder; not capable of being evenly paired, one unit with another; as, 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, etc., are odd numbers.

Oddly (adv.) In an odd manner; unevently.

Oddness (n.) The state of being odd, or not even.

Oddness (n.) Singularity; strangeness; eccentricity; irregularity; uncouthness; as, the oddness of dress or shape; the oddness of an event.

Odium (n.) The quality that provokes hatred; offensiveness.

Of (prep.) Denoting possession or ownership, or the relation of subject to attribute; as, the apartment of the consul: the power of the king; a man of courage; the gate of heaven.

Offset (n.) A sum, account, or value set off against another sum or account, as an equivalent; hence, anything which is given in exchange or retaliation; a set-off.

Oil (n.) Any one of a great variety of unctuous combustible substances, not miscible with water; as, olive oil, whale oil, rock oil, etc. They are of animal, vegetable, or mineral origin and of varied composition, and they are variously used for food, for solvents, for anointing, lubrication, illumination, etc. By extension, any substance of an oily consistency; as, oil of vitriol.

Olivenite (n.) An olive-green mineral, a hydrous arseniate of copper; olive ore.

Olivewood (n.) An Australian name given to the hard white wood of certain trees of the genus Elaeodendron, and also to the trees themselves.

Omen (n.) An occurrence supposed to portend, or show the character of, some future event; any indication or action regarded as a foreshowing; a foreboding; a presage; an augury.

Onagrarieous (a.) Pertaining to, or resembling, a natural order of plants (Onagraceae or Onagrarieae), which includes the fuchsia, the willow-herb (Epilobium), and the evening primrose (/nothera).

Onappo (n.) A nocturnal South American monkey (Callithrix discolor), noted for its agility; -- called also ventriloquist monkey.

Ongoing (n.) The act of going forward; progress; (pl.) affairs; business; current events.

Open (a.) Free of access; not shut up; not closed; affording unobstructed ingress or egress; not impeding or preventing passage; not locked up or covered over; -- applied to passageways; as, an open door, window, road, etc.; also, to inclosed structures or objects; as, open houses, boxes, baskets, bottles, etc.; also, to means of communication or approach by water or land; as, an open harbor or roadstead.

Open (a.) Not of a quality to prevent communication, as by closing water ways, blocking roads, etc.; hence, not frosty or inclement; mild; -- used of the weather or the climate; as, an open season; an open winter.

Ophiophagus (n.) A genus of venomous East Indian snakes, which feed on other snakes. Ophiophagus elaps is said to be the largest and most deadly of poisonous snakes.

Opinion (n.) Obstinacy in holding to one's belief or impression; opiniativeness; conceitedness.

Opinionator (n.) An opinionated person; one given to conjecture.

Opodeldoc (n.) A kind of plaster, said to have been invented by Mindererus, -- used for external injuries.

Opportune (a.) Convenient; ready; hence, seasonable; timely.

Opportunity (n.) Fit or convenient time; a time or place favorable for executing a purpose; a suitable combination of conditions; suitable occasion; chance.

Opportunity (n.) Convenience of situation; fitness.

Opposition (n.) The situation of a heavenly body with respect to another when in the part of the heavens directly opposite to it; especially, the position of a planet or satellite when its longitude differs from that of the sun 180¡; -- signified by the symbol /; as, / / /, opposition of Jupiter to the sun.

Optimist (n.) One who holds the opinion that all events are ordered for the best.

Optimistic (a.) Of or pertaining to optimism; tending, or conforming, to the opinion that all events are ordered for the best.

Option (n.) A stipulated privilege, given to a party in a time contract, of demanding its fulfillment on any day within a specified limit.

Oracle (n.) The answer of a god, or some person reputed to be a god, to an inquiry respecting some affair or future event, as the success of an enterprise or battle.

Oracle (n.) Hence: The deity who was supposed to give the answer; also, the place where it was given.

Oratorio (n.) A more or less dramatic text or poem, founded on some Scripture nerrative, or great divine event, elaborately set to music, in recitative, arias, grand choruses, etc., to be sung with an orchestral accompaniment, but without action, scenery, or costume, although the oratorio grew out of the Mysteries and the Miracle and Passion plays, which were acted.

Orb (n.) One of the azure transparent spheres conceived by the ancients to be inclosed one within another, and to carry the heavenly bodies in their revolutions.

Orb (n.) A circle; esp., a circle, or nearly circular orbit, described by the revolution of a heavenly body; an orbit.

Orb (n.) A period of time marked off by the revolution of a heavenly body.

Orbit (n.) The path described by a heavenly body in its periodical revolution around another body; as, the orbit of Jupiter, of the earth, of the moon.

Order (n.) A body of persons having some common honorary distinction or rule of obligation; esp., a body of religious persons or aggregate of convents living under a common rule; as, the Order of the Bath; the Franciscan order.

Organogen (n.) A name given to any one of the four elements, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, which are especially characteristic ingredients of organic compounds; also, by extension, to other elements sometimes found in the same connection; as sulphur, phosphorus, etc.

Orgasm (n.) Eager or immoderate excitement or action; the state of turgescence of any organ; erethism; esp., the height of venereal excitement in sexual intercourse.

Original (a.) Pertaining to the origin or beginning; preceding all others; first in order; primitive; primary; pristine; as, the original state of man; the original laws of a country; the original inventor of a process.

Original (a.) Having the power to suggest new thoughts or combinations of thought; inventive; as, an original genius.

Orthodox (a.) Approved; conventional.

Orthography (n.) The art or practice of writing words with the proper letters, according to standard usage; conventionally correct spelling; also, mode of spelling; as, his orthography is vicious.

Orthopedical (a.) Pertaining to, or employed in, orthopedy; relating to the prevention or cure of deformities of children, or, in general, of the human body at any age; as, orthopedic surgery; an orthopedic hospital.

Orthopedist (n.) One who prevents, cures, or remedies deformities, esp. in children.

Orthopinacoid (n.) A name given to the two planes in the monoclinic system which are parallel to the vertical and orthodiagonal axes.

Osculatory (a.) Pertaining to, or having the properties of, an osculatrix; capable of osculation; as, a circle may be osculatory with a curve, at a given point.

Osculatrix (n.) A curve whose contact with a given curve, at a given point, is of a higher order (or involves the equality of a greater number of successive differential coefficients of the ordinates of the curves taken at that point) than that of any other curve of the same kind.

Osier (n.) A kind of willow (Salix viminalis) growing in wet places in Europe and Asia, and introduced into North America. It is considered the best of the willows for basket work. The name is sometimes given to any kind of willow.

Osmose (n.) The tendency in fluids to mix, or become equably diffused, when in contact. It was first observed between fluids of differing densities, and as taking place through a membrane or an intervening porous structure. The more rapid flow from the thinner to the thicker fluid was then called endosmose, and the opposite, slower current, exosmose. Both are, however, results of the same force. Osmose may be regarded as a form of molecular attraction, allied to that of adhesion.

Outcast (n.) One who is cast out or expelled; an exile; one driven from home, society, or country; hence, often, a degraded person; a vagabond.

Outer (a.) Being on the outside; external; farthest or farther from the interior, from a given station, or from any space or position regarded as a center or starting place; -- opposed to inner; as, the outer wall; the outer court or gate; the outer stump in cricket; the outer world.

Outgo (v. t.) To circumvent; to overreach.

Outing (n.) A feast given by an apprentice when he is out of his time.

Outlet (n.) The place or opening by which anything is let out; a passage out; an exit; a vent.

Output (n.) The amount of coal or ore put out from one or more mines, or the quantity of material produced by, or turned out from, one or more furnaces or mills, in a given time.

Outrigger (n.) A projecting contrivance at the side of a boat to prevent upsetting, as projecting spars with a log at the end.

Outvenom (v. t.) To exceed in venom.

Outvote (v. t.) To exceed in the number of votes given; to defeat by votes.

Oven (n.) A place arched over with brick or stonework, and used for baking, heating, or drying; hence, any structure, whether fixed or portable, which may be heated for baking, drying, etc.; esp., now, a chamber in a stove, used for baking or roasting.

Ovenbird (n.) Any species of the genus Furnarius, allied to the creepers. They inhabit South America and the West Indies, and construct curious oven-shaped nests.

Ovenbird (n.) In the United States, Seiurus aurocapillus; -- called also golden-crowned thrush.

Ovenbird (n.) In England, sometimes applied to the willow warbler, and to the long-tailed titmouse.

Overcast (v. t.) To take long, loose stitches over (the raw edges of a seam) to prevent raveling.

Overleaven (v. t.) To leaven too much; hence, to change excessively; to spoil.

Overnight (n.) The fore part of the night last past; the previous evening.

Overnight (adv.) In the fore part of the night last past; in the evening before; also, during the night; as, the candle will not last overnight.

Overvote (v. t.) To outvote; to outnumber in votes given.

Oxeye (n.) The corn camomile (Anthemis arvensis).

Oxtongue (n.) A name given to several plants, from the shape and roughness of their leaves; as, Anchusa officinalis, a kind of bugloss, and Helminthia echioides, both European herbs.

Oyster (n.) A name popularly given to the delicate morsel contained in a small cavity of the bone on each side of the lower part of the back of a fowl.

Pack (n.) A large area of floating pieces of ice driven together more or less closely.

Pack (v. i.) To admit of stowage, or of making up for transportation or storage; to become compressed or to settle together, so as to form a compact mass; as, the goods pack conveniently; wet snow packs well.

Pact (v.) An agreement; a league; a compact; a covenant.

Pad (n.) A stuffed guard or protection; esp., one worn on the legs of horses to prevent bruising.

Pahoehoe (n.) A name given in the Sandwich Islands to lava having a relatively smooth surface, in distinction from the rough-surfaced lava, called a-a.

Pair (n.) Two members of opposite parties or opinion, as in a parliamentary body, who mutually agree not to vote on a given question, or on issues of a party nature during a specified time; as, there were two pairs on the final vote.

Pale (n.) A pointed stake or slat, either driven into the ground, or fastened to a rail at the top and bottom, for fencing or inclosing; a picket.

Pall-mall (n.) A game formerly common in England, in which a wooden ball was driven with a mallet through an elevated hoop or ring of iron. The name was also given to the mallet used, to the place where the game was played, and to the street, in London, still called Pall Mall.

Palmetto (n.) A name given to palms of several genera and species growing in the West Indies and the Southern United States. In the United States, the name is applied especially to the Chamaerops, / Sabal, Palmetto, the cabbage tree of Florida and the Carolinas. See Cabbage tree, under Cabbage.

Pan (n.) The god of shepherds, guardian of bees, and patron of fishing and hunting. He is usually represented as having the head and trunk of a man, with the legs, horns, and tail of a goat, and as playing on the shepherd's pipe, which he is said to have invented.

Pandora (n.) A beautiful woman (all-gifted), whom Jupiter caused Vulcan to make out of clay in order to punish the human race, because Prometheus had stolen the fire from heaven. Jupiter gave Pandora a box containing all human ills, which, when the box was opened, escaped and spread over the earth. Hope alone remained in the box. Another version makes the box contain all the blessings of the gods, which were lost to men when Pandora opened it.

Panel (n.) Formerly, a piece of cloth serving as a saddle; hence, a soft pad beneath a saddletree to prevent chafing.

Paraboloid (n.) The solid generated by the rotation of a parabola about its axis; any surface of the second order whose sections by planes parallel to a given line are parabolas.

Parachronism (n.) An error in chronology, by which the date of an event is set later than the time of its occurrence.

Paragrele (n.) A lightning conductor erected, as in a vineyard, for drawing off the electricity in the atmosphere in order to prevent hailstorms.

Paraleipsis (n.) A pretended or apparent omission; a figure by which a speaker artfully pretends to pass by what he really mentions; as, for example, if an orator should say, "I do not speak of my adversary's scandalous venality and rapacity, his brutal conduct, his treachery and malice."

Paralipomenon (n. pl.) A title given in the Douay Bible to the Books of Chronicles.

Parallax (n.) The apparent difference in position of a body (as the sun, or a star) as seen from some point on the earth's surface, and as seen from some other conventional point, as the earth's center or the sun.

Parameter (n.) The ratio of the three crystallographic axes which determines the position of any plane; also, the fundamental axial ratio for a given species.

Parapophysis (n.) The ventral transverse, or capitular, process of a vertebra. See Vertebra.

Parasceve (n.) Among the Jews, the evening before the Sabbath.

Paraunter (adv.) Peradventure. See Paraventure.

Paraventure (adv.) Peradventure; perchance.

Pardon (v. t.) The act of pardoning; forgiveness, as of an offender, or of an offense; release from penalty; remission of punishment; absolution.

Pardon (v. t.) The state of being forgiven.

Pardonable (a.) Admitting of pardon; not requiring the excution of penalty; venial; excusable; -- applied to the offense or to the offender; as, a pardonable fault, or culprit.

Parjdigitate (a.) Having an evennumber of digits on the hands or the feet.

Parol (a.) Given or done by word of mouth; oral; also, given by a writing not under seal; as, parol evidence.

Parole (n.) A watchword given only to officers of guards; -- distinguished from countersign, which is given to all guards.

Parrot (n.) Any species of Psittacus, Chrysotis, Pionus, and other genera of the family Psittacidae, as distinguished from the parrakeets, macaws, and lories. They have a short rounded or even tail, and often a naked space on the cheeks. The gray parrot, or jako (P. erithacus) of Africa (see Jako), and the species of Amazon, or green, parrots (Chrysotis) of America, are examples. Many species, as cage birds, readily learn to imitate sounds, and to repeat words and phrases.

Part (n.) Hence: To hold apart; to stand between; to intervene betwixt, as combatants.

Parterre (n.) An ornamental and diversified arrangement of beds or plots, in which flowers are cultivated, with intervening spaces of gravel or turf for walking on.

Parthenogenesis (n.) The production of new individuals from virgin females by means of ova which have the power of developing without the intervention of the male element; the production, without fertilization, of cells capable of germination. It is one of the phenomena of alternate generation. Cf. Heterogamy, and Metagenesis.

Particularity (n.) The state or quality of being particular; distinctiveness; circumstantiality; minuteness in detail.

Parting (v.) Given when departing; as, a parting shot; a parting salute.

Partnership (n.) A contract between two or more competent persons for joining together their money, goods, labor, and skill, or any or all of them, under an understanding that there shall be a communion of profit between them, and for the purpose of carrying on a legal trade, business, or adventure.

Parusia (n.) A figure of speech by which the present tense is used instead of the past or the future, as in the animated narration of past, or in the prediction of future, events.

Parvenu (n.) An upstart; a man newly risen into notice.

Pasha (n.) An honorary title given to officers of high rank in Turkey, as to governers of provinces, military commanders, etc. The earlier form was bashaw.

Pass (v. i.) To go from one person to another; hence, to be given and taken freely; as, clipped coin will not pass; to obtain general acceptance; to be held or regarded; to circulate; to be current; -- followed by for before a word denoting value or estimation.

Pass (v. i.) To advance through all the steps or stages necessary to validity or effectiveness; to be carried through a body that has power to sanction or reject; to receive legislative sanction; to be enacted; as, the resolution passed; the bill passed both houses of Congress.

Passage (v. i.) Way; road; path; channel or course through or by which one passes; way of exit or entrance; way of access or transit. Hence, a common avenue to various apartments in a building; a hall; a corridor.

Passiveness (n.) The quality or state of being passive; unresisting submission.

Passivity (n.) Passiveness; -- opposed to activity.

Passivity (n.) The tendency of a body to remain in a given state, either of motion or rest, till disturbed by another body; inertia.

Passport (n.) Permission to pass; a document given by the competent officer of a state, permitting the person therein named to pass or travel from place to place, without molestation, by land or by water.

Password (n.) A word to be given before a person is allowed to pass; a watchword; a countersign.

Pasteurism (n.) A method of treatment, devised by Pasteur, for preventing certain diseases, as hydrophobia, by successive inoculations with an attenuated virus of gradually increasing strength.

Pasteurization (n.) A process devised by Pasteur for preventing or checking fermentation in fluids, such as wines, milk, etc., by exposure to a temperature of 140¡ F., thus destroying the vitality of the contained germs or ferments.

Pat (a.) Exactly suitable; fit; convenient; timely.

Patent (a.) A writing securing to an invention.

Patent (v. t.) To grant by patent; to make the subject of a patent; to secure or protect by patent; as, to patent an invention; to patent public lands.

Patness (n.) Fitness or appropriateness; striking suitableness; convenience.

Patriarch (n.) A venerable old man; an elder. Also used figuratively.

Patriarchal (a.) Characteristic of a patriarch; venerable.

Patronage (n.) Special countenance or support; favor, encouragement, or aid, afforded to a person or a work; as, the patronage of letters; patronage given to an author.

Paulician (n.) One of a sect of Christian dualists originating in Armenia in the seventh century. They rejected the Old Testament and the part of the New.

Pave (v. t.) To lay or cover with stone, brick, or other material, so as to make a firm, level, or convenient surface for horses, carriages, or persons on foot, to travel on; to floor with brick, stone, or other solid material; as, to pave a street; to pave a court.

Pavement (n.) That with which anythingis paved; a floor or covering of solid material, laid so as to make a hard and convenient surface for travel; a paved road or sidewalk; a decorative interior floor of tiles or colored bricks.

Paven (n.) See Pavan.

Pawl (n.) A pivoted tongue, or sliding bolt, on one part of a machine, adapted to fall into notches, or interdental spaces, on another part, as a ratchet wheel, in such a manner as to permit motion in one direction and prevent it in the reverse, as in a windlass; a catch, click, or detent. See Illust. of Ratchet Wheel.

Payment (n.) That which is paid; the thing given in discharge of a debt, or an obligation, or in fulfillment of a promise; reward; recompense; requital; return.

Pea (n.) A name given, especially in the Southern States, to the seed of several leguminous plants (species of Dolichos, Cicer, Abrus, etc.) esp. those having a scar (hilum) of a different color from the rest of the seed.

Pearlwort (n.) A name given to several species of Sagina, low and inconspicuous herbs of the Chickweed family.

Pedicel (n.) The ventral part of each side of the neural arch connecting with the centrum of a vertebra.

Peel (n.) A spadelike implement, variously used, as for removing loaves of bread from a baker's oven; also, a T-shaped implement used by printers and bookbinders for hanging wet sheets of paper on lines or poles to dry. Also, the blade of an oar.

Peepul tree () A sacred tree (Ficus religiosa) of the Buddhists, a kind of fig tree which attains great size and venerable age. See Bo tree.

Pelt (v. t.) To strike with something thrown or driven; to assail with pellets or missiles, as, to pelt with stones; pelted with hail.

Penalty (n.) The suffering, or the sum to be forfeited, to which a person subjects himself by covenant or agreement, in case of nonfulfillment of stipulations; forfeiture; fine.

Penance (n.) A means of repairing a sin committed, and obtaining pardon for it, consisting partly in the performance of expiatory rites, partly in voluntary submission to a punishment corresponding to the transgression. Penance is the fourth of seven sacraments in the Roman Catholic Church.

Penetrativeness (n.) The quality of being penetrative.

Pension (n.) A payment; a tribute; something paid or given.

Pensive (a.) Thoughtful, sober, or sad; employed in serious reflection; given to, or favorable to, earnest or melancholy musing.

Pensiveness (n.) The state of being pensive; serious thoughtfulness; seriousness.

Pentecost (n.) A solemn festival of the Jews; -- so called because celebrated on the fiftieth day (seven weeks) after the second day of the Passover (which fell on the sixteenth of the Jewish month Nisan); -- hence called, also, the Feast of Weeks. At this festival an offering of the first fruits of the harvest was made. By the Jews it was generally regarded as commemorative of the gift of the law on the fiftieth day after the departure from Egypt.

Penumbra (n.) The shadow cast, in an eclipse, where the light is partly, but not wholly, cut off by the intervening body; the space of partial illumination between the umbra, or perfect shadow, on all sides, and the full light.

Peradventure (adv. & conj.) By chance; perhaps; it may be; if; supposing.

Peradventure (n.) Chance; hap; hence, doubt; question; as, proved beyond peradventure.

Perchance (adv.) By chance; perhaps; peradventure.

Percussion (n.) The act of tapping or striking the surface of the body in order to learn the condition of the parts beneath by the sound emitted or the sensation imparted to the fingers. Percussion is said to be immediate if the blow is directly upon the body; if some interventing substance, as a pleximeter, is, used, it is called mediate.

Peremptoriness (n.) The quality of being peremptory; positiveness.

Perhaps (adv.) By chance; peradventure; perchance; it may be.

Period (n.) A portion of time as limited and determined by some recurring phenomenon, as by the completion of a revolution of one of the heavenly bodies; a division of time, as a series of years, months, or days, in which something is completed, and ready to recommence and go on in the same order; as, the period of the sun, or the earth, or a comet.

Period (n.) The termination or completion of a revolution, cycle, series of events, single event, or act; hence, a limit; a bound; an end; a conclusion.

Perissad (a.) Odd; not even; -- said of elementary substances and of radicals whose valence is not divisible by two without a remainder. Contrasted with artiad.

Permit (n.) Warrant; license; leave; permission; specifically, a written license or permission given to a person or persons having authority; as, a permit to land goods subject to duty.

Permittee (n.) One to whom a permission or permit is given.

Perpendicular (a.) At right angles to a given line or surface; as, the line ad is perpendicular to the line bc.

Perpetuity (n.) The number of years' purchase to be given for an annuity to continue forever.

Perplexiveness (n.) The quality of being perplexing; tendency to perplex.

Persalt (n.) A term formerly given to the salts supposed to be formed respectively by neutralizing acids with certain peroxides.

Perseid (n.) One of a group of shooting stars which appear yearly about the 10th of August, and cross the heavens in paths apparently radiating from the constellation Perseus. They are beleived to be fragments once connected with a comet visible in 1862.

Personal (a.) Done in person; without the intervention of another.

Persuasion (n.) The power or quality of persuading; persuasiveness.

Perturbation (n.) A disturbance in the regular elliptic or other motion of a heavenly body, produced by some force additional to that which causes its regular motion; as, the perturbations of the planets are caused by their attraction on each other.

Pessulus (n.) A delicate bar of cartilage connecting the dorsal and ventral extremities of the first pair of bronchial cartilages in the syrinx of birds.

Philadelphian (n.) One of a society of mystics of the seventeenth century, -- called also the Family of Love.

Philister (n.) A Philistine; -- a cant name given to townsmen by students in German universities.

Philoprogenitiveness (n.) The love of offspring; fondness for children.

Phlebogram (n.) A tracing (with the sphygmograph) of the movements of a vein, or of the venous pulse.

Phlebotomy (n.) The act or practice of opening a vein for letting blood, in the treatment of disease; venesection; bloodletting.

Phonography (n.) A representation of sounds by distinctive characters; commonly, a system of shorthand writing invented by Isaac Pitman, or a modification of his system, much used by reporters.

Phonoscope (n.) An instrument for observing or exhibiting the motions or properties of sounding bodies; especially, an apparatus invented by Konig for testing the quality of musical strings.

Phosphorus (n.) A poisonous nonmetallic element of the nitrogen group, obtained as a white, or yellowish, translucent waxy substance, having a characteristic disagreeable smell. It is very active chemically, must be preserved under water, and unites with oxygen even at ordinary temperatures, giving a faint glow, -- whence its name. It always occurs compined, usually in phosphates, as in the mineral apatite, in bones, etc. It is used in the composition on the tips of friction matches, and for many other purposes. The molecule contains four atoms. Symbol P. Atomic weight 31.0.

Photo-epinasty (n.) A disproportionately rapid growth of the upper surface of dorsiventral organs, such as leaves, through the stimulus of exposure to light.

Photomechanical (a.) Pertaining to, or designating, any photographic process in which a printing surface is obtained without the intervention of hand engraving.

Physostigmine (n.) An alkaloid found in the Calabar bean (the seed of Physostigma venenosum), and extracted as a white, tasteless, substance, amorphous or crystalline; -- formerly called eserine, with which it was regarded as identical.

Physostomi (n. pl.) An order of fishes in which the air bladder is provided with a duct, and the ventral fins, when present, are abdominal. It includes the salmons, herrings, carps, catfishes, and others.

Picaresque (a.) Applied to that class of literature in which the principal personage is the Spanish picaro, meaning a rascal, a knave, a rogue, an adventurer.

Pick (n.) That which is picked in, as with a pointed pencil, to correct an unevenness in a picture.

Picker (n.) A priming wire for cleaning the vent.

Picket (n.) By extension, men appointed by a trades union, or other labor organization, to intercept outsiders, and prevent them from working for employers with whom the organization is at variance.

Pie (n.) An article of food consisting of paste baked with something in it or under it; as, chicken pie; venison pie; mince pie; apple pie; pumpkin pie.

Piercel (n.) A kind of gimlet for making vents in casks; -- called also piercer.

Pile (n.) A large stake, or piece of timber, pointed and driven into the earth, as at the bottom of a river, or in a harbor where the ground is soft, for the support of a building, a pier, or other superstructure, or to form a cofferdam, etc.

Pimpernel (n.) A plant of the genus Anagallis, of which one species (A. arvensis) has small flowers, usually scarlet, but sometimes purple, blue, or white, which speedily close at the approach of bad weather.

Pink (v. t.) A name given to several plants of the caryophyllaceous genus Dianthus, and to their flowers, which are sometimes very fragrant and often double in cultivated varieties. The species are mostly perennial herbs, with opposite linear leaves, and handsome five-petaled flowers with a tubular calyx.

Pinna (n.) Any species of Pinna, a genus of large bivalve mollusks found in all warm seas. The byssus consists of a large number of long, silky fibers, which have been used in manufacturing woven fabrics, as a curiosity.

Pinus (n.) A large genus of evergreen coniferous trees, mostly found in the northern hemisphere. The genus formerly included the firs, spruces, larches, and hemlocks, but is now limited to those trees which have the primary leaves of the branchlets reduced to mere scales, and the secondary ones (pine needles) acicular, and usually in fascicles of two to seven. See Pine.

Pip (n.) One of the conventional figures or "spots" on playing cards, dominoes, etc.

Pippin (n.) A name given to apples of several different kinds, as Newtown pippin, summer pippin, fall pippin, golden pippin.

Pitching (n.) A facing of stone laid upon a bank to prevent wear by tides or currents.

Placard (n.) Permission given by authority; a license; as, to give a placard to do something.

Place (n.) Position in the heavens, as of a heavenly body; -- usually defined by its right ascension and declination, or by its latitude and longitude.

Placket (n.) The opening or slit left in a petticoat or skirt for convenience in putting it on; -- called also placket hole.

Plain (superl.) Without elevations or depressions; flat; level; smooth; even. See Plane.

Plain (a.) Level land; usually, an open field or a broad stretch of land with an even surface, or a surface little varied by inequalities; as, the plain of Jordan; the American plains, or prairies.

Plain (v.) To plane or level; to make plain or even on the surface.

Plane (a.) Without elevations or depressions; even; level; flat; lying in, or constituting, a plane; as, a plane surface.

Planer (n.) A wooden block used for forcing down the type in a form, and making the surface even.

Planisphere (n.) The representation of the circles of the sphere upon a plane; especially, a representation of the celestial sphere upon a plane with adjustable circles, or other appendages, for showing the position of the heavens, the time of rising and setting of stars, etc., for any given date or hour.

Plant (n.) A vegetable; an organized living being, generally without feeling and voluntary motion, and having, when complete, a root, stem, and leaves, though consisting sometimes only of a single leafy expansion, or a series of cellules, or even a single cellule.

Plastron (n.) The ventral shield or shell of tortoises and turtles. See Testudinata.

Plat (n.) A small piece or plot of ground laid out with some design, or for a special use; usually, a portion of flat, even ground.

Plat (adv.) Flatly; smoothly; evenly.

Playday (n.) A day given to play or diversion; a holiday.

Plead (v. t.) To allege or adduce in proof, support, or vendication; to offer in excuse; as, the law of nations may be pleaded in favor of the rights of ambassadors.

Pleasant (a.) Cheerful; enlivening; gay; sprightly; humorous; sportive; as, pleasant company; a pleasant fellow.

Plebiscitum (n.) A law enacted by the common people, under the superintendence of a tribune or some subordinate plebeian magistrate, without the intervention of the senate.

Plectile (a.) Woven; plaited.

Plectospondyli (n. pl.) An extensive suborder of fresh-water physostomous fishes having the anterior vertebrae united and much modified; the Eventognathi.

Pledge (n.) Anything given or considered as a security for the performance of an act; a guarantee; as, mutual interest is the best pledge for the performance of treaties.

Pledge (n.) A sentiment to which assent is given by drinking one's health; a toast; a health.

Pledgee (n.) The one to whom a pledge is given, or to whom property pledged is delivered.

Pleiades (n. pl.) The seven daughters of Atlas and the nymph Pleione, fabled to have been made by Jupiter a constellation in the sky.

Plenty (a.) Full or adequate supply; enough and to spare; sufficiency; specifically, abundant productiveness of the earth; ample supply for human wants; abundance; copiousness.

Pleurapophysis (n.) One of the ventral processes of a vertebra, or the dorsal element in each half of a hemal arch, forming, or corresponding to, a vertebral rib.

Plexure (n.) The act or process of weaving together, or interweaving; that which is woven together.

Plimsoll's mark () A mark conspicuously painted on the port side of all British sea-going merchant vessels, to indicate the limit of submergence allowed by law; -- so called from Samuel Plimsoll, by whose efforts the act of Parliament to prevent overloading was procured.

Plumper (n.) A vote given to one candidate only, when two or more are to be elected, thus giving him the advantage over the others. A person who gives his vote thus is said to plump, or to plump his vote.

Pluperfect (a.) More than perfect; past perfect; -- said of the tense which denotes that an action or event was completed at or before the time of another past action or event.

Plurality (n.) The greater number; a majority; also, the greatest of several numbers; in elections, the excess of the votes given for one candidate over those given for another, or for any other, candidate. When there are more than two candidates, the one who receives the plurality of votes may have less than a majority. See Majority.

Pluviometer (n.) An instrument for ascertaining the amount of rainfall at any place in a given time; a rain gauge.

Pocket (n.) One of several bags attached to a billiard table, into which the balls are driven.

Poesy (n.) The art of composing poems; poetical skill or faculty; as, the heavenly gift of poesy.

Point (n.) A fixed conventional place for reference, or zero of reckoning, in the heavens, usually the intersection of two or more great circles of the sphere, and named specifically in each case according to the position intended; as, the equinoctial points; the solstitial points; the nodal points; vertical points, etc. See Equinoctial Nodal.

Poisonous (a.) Having the qualities or effects of poison; venomous; baneful; corrupting; noxious.

Poke (n.) A contrivance to prevent an animal from leaping or breaking through fences. It consists of a yoke with a pole inserted, pointed forward.

Polar (n.) The right line drawn through the two points of contact of the two tangents drawn from a given point to a given conic section. The given point is called the pole of the line. If the given point lies within the curve so that the two tangents become imaginary, there is still a real polar line which does not meet the curve, but which possesses other properties of the polar. Thus the focus and directrix are pole and polar. There are also poles and polar curves to curves of higher degree than the second, and poles and polar planes to surfaces of the second degree.

Polarity (n.) A property of the conic sections by virtue of which a given point determines a corresponding right line and a given right line determines a corresponding point. See Polar, n.

Pole (n.) A point upon the surface of a sphere equally distant from every part of the circumference of a great circle; or the point in which a diameter of the sphere perpendicular to the plane of such circle meets the surface. Such a point is called the pole of that circle; as, the pole of the horizon; the pole of the ecliptic; the pole of a given meridian.

Police (n.) A judicial and executive system, for the government of a city, town, or district, for the preservation of rights, order, cleanliness, health, etc., and for the enforcement of the laws and prevention of crime; the administration of the laws and regulations of a city, incorporated town, or borough.

Police (n.) The organized body of civil officers in a city, town, or district, whose particular duties are the preservation of good order, the prevention and detection of crime, and the enforcement of the laws.

Poll (v. t.) To cut or shave smooth or even; to cut in a straight line without indentation; as, a polled deed. See Dee/ poll.

Poltroon (n.) An arrant coward; a dastard; a craven; a mean-spirited wretch.

Poly (n.) A whitish woolly plant (Teucrium Polium) of the order Labiatae, found throughout the Mediterranean region. The name, with sundry prefixes, is sometimes given to other related species of the same genus.

Polyclinic (n.) A clinic in which diseases of many sorts are treated; especially, an institution in which clinical instruction is given in all kinds of disease.

Polygamia (n. pl.) A name given by Linnaeus to file orders of plants having syngenesious flowers.

Polygordius (n.) A genus of marine annelids, believed to be an ancient or ancestral type. It is remarkable for its simplicity of structure and want of parapodia. It is the type of the order Archiannelida, or Gymnotoma. See Loeven's larva.

Polylogy (n.) Talkativeness.

Polyphonist (n.) A proficient in the art of multiplying sounds; a ventriloquist.

Polyphony (n.) Composition in mutually related, equally important parts which share the melody among them; contrapuntal composition; -- opposed to homophony, in which the melody is given to one part only, the others filling out the harmony. See Counterpoint.

Pons (n.) A bridge; -- applied to several parts which connect others, but especially to the pons Varolii, a prominent band of nervous tissue situated on the ventral side of the medulla oblongata and connected at each side with the hemispheres of the cerebellum; the mesocephalon. See Brain.

Pool (n.) Any gambling or commercial venture in which several persons join.

Poorbox (n.) A receptacle in which money given for the poor is placed.

Porcate (a.) Having grooves or furrows broader than the intervening ridges; furrowed.

Porgy (n.) Any one of several species of embiotocoids, or surf fishes, of the Pacific coast. The name is also given locally to several other fishes, as the bur fish.

Port (v.) A place where ships may ride secure from storms; a sheltered inlet, bay, or cove; a harbor; a haven. Used also figuratively.

Portcullis (n.) A grating of iron or of timbers pointed with iron, hung over the gateway of a fortress, to be let down to prevent the entrance of an enemy.

Portend (v. t.) To indicate (events, misfortunes, etc.) as in future; to foreshow; to foretoken; to bode; -- now used esp. of unpropitious signs.

Portion (n.) The part of an estate given to a child or heir, or descending to him by law, and distributed to him in the settlement of the estate; an inheritance.

Port-royalist (n.) One of the dwellers in the Cistercian convent of Port Royal des Champs, near Paris, when it was the home of the Jansenists in the 17th century, among them being Arnauld, Pascal, and other famous scholars. Cf. Jansenist.

Positiveness (n.) The quality or state of being positive; reality; actualness; certainty; confidence; peremptoriness; dogmatism. See Positive, a.

Positivity (n.) Positiveness.

Possibility (n.) That which is possible; a contingency; a thing or event that may not happen; a contingent interest, as in real or personal estate.

Possibly (adv.) In a possible manner; by possible means; especially, by extreme, remote, or improbable intervention, change, or exercise of power; by a chance; perhaps; as, possibly he may recover.

Postcava (n.) The inferior vena cava.

Postcommissure (n.) A transverse commisure in the posterior part of the roof of the third ventricle of the brain; the posterior cerebral commisure.

Postcornu (n.) The posterior horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain.

Postdate (v. t.) To affix a date to after the event.

Posteriority (n.) The state of being later or subsequent; as, posteriority of time, or of an event; -- opposed to priority.

Posthouse (n.) A house established for the convenience of the post, where relays of horses can be obtained.

Pot-valiant (a.) Having the courage given by drink.

Pouch (n.) A bulkhead in the hold of a vessel, to prevent grain, etc., from shifting.

Pounce (n.) A fine powder, as of sandarac, or cuttlefish bone, -- formerly used to prevent ink from spreading on manuscript.

Poupart's ligament () A ligament, of fascia, extending, in most mammals, from the ventral side of the ilium to near the symphysis of the pubic bones.

Power (n.) Hence, vested authority to act in a given case; as, the business was referred to a committee with power.

Pox (n.) Strictly, a disease by pustules or eruptions of any kind, but chiefly or wholly restricted to three or four diseases, -- the smallpox, the chicken pox, and the vaccine and the venereal diseases.

Praecava (n.) The superior vena cava.

Praecommissure (n.) A transverse commissure in the anterior part of the third ventricle of the brain; the anterior cerebral commissure.

Praecornu (n.) The anterior horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain.

Pratique (n.) Primarily, liberty of converse; intercourse; hence, a certificate, given after compliance with quarantine regulations, permitting a ship to land passengers and crew; -- a term used particularly in the south of Europe.

Prayerful (a.) Given to prayer; praying much or often; devotional.

Preaortic (a.) In front, or on the ventral side, of the aorta.

Precarious (a.) Held by a doubtful tenure; depending on unknown causes or events; exposed to constant risk; not to be depended on for certainty or stability; uncertain; as, a precarious state of health; precarious fortunes.

Precaution (n.) Previous caution or care; caution previously employed to prevent mischief or secure good; as, his life was saved by precaution.

Precedency (n.) The act or state of preceding or going before in order of time; priority; as, one event has precedence of another.

Preclude (v.) To shut out by anticipative action; to prevent or hinder by necessary consequence or implication; to deter action of, access to, employment of, etc.; to render ineffectual; to obviate by anticipation.

Precocious (a.) Developed more than is natural or usual at a given age; exceeding what is to be expected of one's years; too forward; -- used especially of mental forwardness; as, a precocious child; precocious talents.

Precursor (n.) One who, or that which, precedes an event, and indicates its approach; a forerunner; a harbinger.

Predatory (a.) Hungry; ravenous; as, predatory spirits.

Predestination (n.) The purpose of Good from eternity respecting all events; especially, the preordination of men to everlasting happiness or misery. See Calvinism.

Predorsal (a.) Situated in front of the back; immediately in front, or on the ventral side the dorsal part of the vertebral column.

Prelibation (n.) A tasting beforehand, or by anticipation; a foretaste; as, a prelibation of heavenly bliss.

Premium (n.) Something offered or given for the loan of money; bonus; -- sometimes synonymous with interest, but generally signifying a sum in addition to the capital.

Presage (v. t.) Something which foreshows or portends a future event; a prognostic; an omen; an augury.

Prescience (n.) Knowledge of events before they take place; foresight.

Prescient (a.) Having knowledge of coming events; foreseeing; conscious beforehand.

Presence (n.) The place in which one is present; the part of space within one's ken, call, influence, etc.; neighborhood without the intervention of anything that forbids intercourse.

Present (n.) Anything presented or given; a gift; a donative; as, a Christmas present.

Presentation (n.) That which is presented or given; a present; a gift, as, the picture was a presentation.

Presentment (n.) The official notice (formerly required to be given in court) of the surrender of a copyhold estate.

Presume (v. i.) To venture, go, or act, by an assumption of leave or authority not granted; to go beyond what is warranted by the circumstances of the case; to venture beyond license; to take liberties; -- often with on or upon before the ground of confidence.

Presumption (n.) Ground for presuming; evidence probable, but not conclusive; strong probability; reasonable supposition; as, the presumption is that an event has taken place.

Presumption (n.) The act of venturing beyond due beyond due bounds; an overstepping of the bounds of reverence, respect, or courtesy; forward, overconfident, or arrogant opinion or conduct; presumptuousness; arrogance; effrontery.

Presumptuous (a.) Full of presumption; presuming; overconfident or venturesome; audacious; rash; taking liberties unduly; arrogant; insolent; as, a presumptuous commander; presumptuous conduct.

Pretence (n.) The act of holding out, or offering, to others something false or feigned; presentation of what is deceptive or hypocritical; deception by showing what is unreal and concealing what is real; false show; simulation; as, pretense of illness; under pretense of patriotism; on pretense of revenging Caesar's death.

Prevenance (n.) A going before; anticipation in sequence or order.

Prevenancy (n.) The act of anticipating another's wishes, desires, etc., in the way of favor or courtesy; hence, civility; obligingness.

Prevene (v. t. & i.) To come before; to anticipate; hence, to hinder; to prevent.

Prevenience (n.) The act of going before; anticipation.

Prevenient (a.) Going before; preceding; hence, preventive.

Prevented (imp. & p. p.) of Prevent

Preventing (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Prevent

Prevent (v. t.) To go before; to precede; hence, to go before as a guide; to direct.

Prevent (v. t.) To be beforehand with; to anticipate.

Prevent (v. t.) To intercept; to hinder; to frustrate; to stop; to thwart.

Prevent (v. i.) To come before the usual time.

Preventability (n.) The quality or state of being preventable.

Preventable (a.) Capable of being prevented or hindered; as, preventable diseases.

Preventative (n.) That which prevents; -- incorrectly used instead of preventive.

Preventer (n.) One who goes before; one who forestalls or anticipates another.

Preventer (n.) One who prevents or obstructs; a hinderer; that which hinders; as, a preventer of evils or of disease.

Preventer (n.) An auxiliary rope to strengthen a mast.

Preventingly (adv.) So as to prevent or hinder.

Prevention (n.) The act of going, or state of being, before.

Prevention (n.) Anticipation; esp., anticipation of needs or wishes; hence, precaution; forethought.

Prevention (n.) The act of preventing or hindering; obstruction of action, access, or approach; thwarting.

Prevention (n.) Prejudice; prepossession.

Preventional (a.) Tending to prevent.

Preventive (a.) Going before; preceding.

Preventive (a.) Tending to defeat or hinder; obviating; preventing the access of; as, a medicine preventive of disease.

Preventive (n.) That which prevents, hinders, or obstructs; that which intercepts access; in medicine, something to prevent disease; a prophylactic.

Preventively (adv.) In a preventive manner.

Prevertebral (a.) Situated immediately in front, or on the ventral side, of the vertebral column; prespinal.

Prey (n.) That which is or may be seized by animals or birds to be devoured; hence, a person given up as a victim.

Prickmadam (n.) A name given to several species of stonecrop, used as ingredients of vermifuge medicines. See Stonecrop.

Primitiveness (n.) The quality or state of being primitive; conformity to primitive style or practice.

Primity (n.) Quality of being first; primitiveness.

Primordian (n.) A name given to several kinds of plums; as, red primordian, amber primordian, etc.

Primum mobile () In the Ptolemaic system, the outermost of the revolving concentric spheres constituting the universe, the motion of which was supposed to carry with it all the inclosed spheres with their planets in a daily revolution from east to west. See Crystalline heavens, under Crystalline.

Prince (a.) A title belonging to persons of high rank, differing in different countries. In England it belongs to dukes, marquises, and earls, but is given to members of the royal family only. In Italy a prince is inferior to a duke as a member of a particular order of nobility; in Spain he is always one of the royal family.

Princewood (n.) The wood of two small tropical American trees (Hamelia ventricosa, and Cordia gerascanthoides). It is brownish, veined with lighter color.

Privativeness (n.) The state of being privative.

Prize (n.) An honor or reward striven for in a competitive contest; anything offered to be competed for, or as an inducement to, or reward of, effort.

Probability (n.) Likelihood of the occurrence of any event in the doctrine of chances, or the ratio of the number of favorable chances to the whole number of chances, favorable and unfavorable. See 1st Chance, n., 5.

Probation (n.) The novitiate which a person must pass in a convent, to probe his or her virtue and ability to bear the severities of the rule.

Process (n.) A statement of events; a narrative.

Prochronism (n.) The dating of an event before the time it happened; an antedating; -- opposed to metachronism.

Procoele (n.) A lateral cavity of the prosencephalon; a lateral ventricle of the brain.

Procreativeness (n.) The power of generating.

Procurator (n.) A governor of a province under the emperors; also, one who had charge of the imperial revenues in a province; as, the procurator of Judea.

Prodigal (a.) Given to extravagant expenditure; expending money or other things without necessity; recklessly or viciously profuse; lavish; wasteful; not frugal or economical; as, a prodigal man; the prodigal son; prodigal giving; prodigal expenses.

Productivity (n.) The quality or state of being productive; productiveness.

Profane (a.) Irreverent in language; taking the name of God in vain; given to swearing; blasphemous; as, a profane person, word, oath, or tongue.

Prognostic (a.) That which prognosticates; a sign by which a future event may be known or foretold; an indication; a sign or omen; hence, a foretelling; a prediction.

Prognosticator (n.) One who prognosticates; a foreknower or foreteller of a future course or event by present signs.

Prohibit (v. t.) To hinder; to debar; to prevent; to preclude.

Project (n.) An idle scheme; an impracticable design; as, a man given to projects.

Projectile (n.) A part of mechanics which treats of the motion, range, time of flight, etc., of bodies thrown or driven through the air by an impelling force.

Projection (n.) The representation of something; delineation; plan; especially, the representation of any object on a perspective plane, or such a delineation as would result were the chief points of the object thrown forward upon the plane, each in the direction of a line drawn through it from a given point of sight, or central point; as, the projection of a sphere. The several kinds of projection differ according to the assumed point of sight and plane of projection in each.

Prolepsis (n.) A figure by which objections are anticipated or prevented.

Prolepsis (n.) An error in chronology, consisting in an event being dated before the actual time.

Prometheus (n.) The son of Iapetus (one of the Titans) and Clymene, fabled by the poets to have surpassed all mankind in knowledge, and to have formed men of clay to whom he gave life by means of fire stolen from heaven. Jupiter, being angry at this, sent Mercury to bind Prometheus to Mount Caucasus, where a vulture preyed upon his liver.

Promise (v. t.) To engage to do, give, make, or to refrain from doing, giving, or making, or the like; to covenant; to engage; as, to promise a visit; to promise a cessation of hostilities; to promise the payment of money.

Promontory (n.) A projecting part. Especially: (a) The projecting angle of the ventral side of the sacrum where it joins the last lumbar vertebra. (b) A prominence on the inner wall of the tympanum of the ear.

Promote (v. t.) To contribute to the growth, enlargement, or prosperity of (any process or thing that is in course); to forward; to further; to encourage; to advance; to excite; as, to promote learning; to promote disorder; to promote a business venture.

Promt (superl.) Done or rendered quickly, readily, or immediately; given without delay or hesitation; -- said of conduct; as, prompt assistance.

Prompt (n.) A limit of time given for payment of an account for produce purchased, this limit varying with different goods. See Prompt-note.

Prompt-note (n.) A memorandum of a sale, and time when payment is due, given to the purchaser at a sale of goods.

Prop (v. t.) To support, or prevent from falling, by placing something under or against; as, to prop up a fence or an old building; (Fig.) to sustain; to maintain; as, to prop a declining state.

Property (a.) An acquired or artificial quality; that which is given by art, or bestowed by man; as, the poem has the properties which constitute excellence.

Prophesy (v. i.) To utter predictions; to make declaration of events to come.

Prophet (n.) One who prophesies, or foretells events; a predicter; a foreteller.

Prophet (n.) One inspired or instructed by God to speak in his name, or announce future events, as, Moses, Elijah, etc.

Prophetical (a.) Containing, or pertaining to, prophecy; foretelling events; as, prophetic writings; prophetic dreams; -- used with of before the thing foretold.

Prophetize (v. i.) To give predictions; to foreshow events; to prophesy.

Prophylactic (n.) A medicine which preserves or defends against disease; a preventive.

Prophylactical (a.) Defending or preserving from disease; preventive.

Prophylaxis (n.) The art of preserving from, or of preventing, disease; the observance of the rules necessary for the preservation of health; preservative or preventive treatment.

Propitious (a.) Convenient; auspicious; favorable; kind; as, a propitious season; a propitious breeze.

Proportion (n.) The rule of three, in arithmetic, in which the three given terms, together with the one sought, are proportional.

Prospective (n.) Being within view or consideration, as a future event or contingency; relating to the future: expected; as, a prospective benefit.

Prospectiveness (n.) Quality of being prospective.

Prosternum (n.) The ventral plate of the prothorax of an insect.

Prostitute (a.) Openly given up to lewdness; devoted to base or infamous purposes.

Protection (n.) A theory, or a policy, of protecting the producers in a country from foreign competition in the home market by the imposition of such discriminating duties on goods of foreign production as will restrict or prevent their importation; -- opposed to free trade.

Protectiveness (n.) The quality or state of being protective.

Protocol (n.) A convention not formally ratified.

Proant (n.) Provender or food.

Provant (v. t.) To supply with provender or provisions; to provide for.

Proven (p. p. / a.) Proved.

Proven/al (a.) Of or pertaining to Provence or its inhabitants.

Proven/al (n.) A native or inhabitant of Provence in France.

Proven/al (n.) The Provencal language. See Langue d'oc.

Provence rose () The cabbage rose (Rosa centifolia).

Provence rose () A name of many kinds of roses which are hybrids of Rosa centifolia and R. Gallica.

Provencial (a.) Of or pertaining to Provence in France.

Provend (n.) See Provand.

Provender (n.) Dry food for domestic animals, as hay, straw, corn, oats, or a mixture of ground grain; feed.

Provender (n.) Food or provisions.

Provent (n.) See Provand.

Proventricle (n.) Proventriculus.

Proventriulus (n.) The glandular stomach of birds, situated just above the crop.

Providence (n.) A manifestation of the care and superintendence which God exercises over his creatures; an event ordained by divine direction.

Provincial (a.) Of or pertaining to Provence; Provencal.

Provincial (n.) A monastic superior, who, under the general of his order, has the direction of all the religious houses of the same fraternity in a given district, called a province of the order.

Provocativeness (n.) Quality of being provocative.

Pseudocoelia (n.) The fifth ventricle in the mammalian brain. See Ventricle.

Pterygopodium (n.) A specially modified part of the ventral fin in male elasmobranchs, which serves as a copulatory organ, or clasper.

Pubis (n.) The ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis; sharebone; pubic bone.

Publican (n.) A farmer of the taxes and public revenues; hence, a collector of toll or tribute. The inferior officers of this class were often oppressive in their exactions, and were regarded with great detestation.

Puddening (n.) A bunch of soft material to prevent chafing between spars, or the like.

Pull (v. t.) To hold back, and so prevent from winning; as, the favorite was pulled.

Pulsometer (n.) A device, with valves, for raising water by steam, partly by atmospheric pressure, and partly by the direct action of the steam on the water, without the intervention of a piston; -- also called vacuum pump.

Pump (n.) An hydraulic machine, variously constructed, for raising or transferring fluids, consisting essentially of a moving piece or piston working in a hollow cylinder or other cavity, with valves properly placed for admitting or retaining the fluid as it is drawn or driven through them by the action of the piston.

Punishment (n.) A penalty inflicted by a court of justice on a convicted offender as a just retribution, and incidentally for the purposes of reformation and prevention.

Punster (n.) One who puns, or is skilled in, or given to, punning; a quibbler; a low wit.

Purchasable (a.) Capable of being bought, purchased, or obtained for a consideration; hence, venal; corrupt.

Purchaser (n.) One who purchases; one who acquires property for a consideration, generally of money; a buyer; a vendee.

Purgatory (n.) A state or place of purification after death; according to the Roman Catholic creed, a place, or a state believed to exist after death, in which the souls of persons are purified by expiating such offenses committed in this life as do not merit eternal damnation, or in which they fully satisfy the justice of God for sins that have been forgiven. After this purgation from the impurities of sin, the souls are believed to be received into heaven.

Purpleheart (n.) A strong, durable, and elastic wood of a purplish color, obtained from several tropical American leguminous trees of the genus Copaifera (C. pubiflora, bracteata, and officinalis). Used for decorative veneering. See Copaiba.

Pursiveness (n.) Pursiness.

Purvey (v. t.) To furnish or provide, as with a convenience, provisions, or the like.

Purveyance (n.) A providing necessaries for the sovereign by buying them at an appraised value in preference to all others, and oven without the owner's consent. This was formerly a royal prerogative, but has long been abolished.

Puteal (n.) An inclosure surrounding a well to prevent persons from falling into it; a well curb.

Pyrites (n.) A name given to a number of metallic minerals, sulphides of iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, and tin, of a white or yellowish color.

Pyrosmalite (n.) A mineral, usually of a pale brown or of a gray or grayish green color, consisting chiefly of the hydrous silicate of iron and manganese; -- so called from the odor given off before the blowpipe.

Pythiad (n.) The period intervening between one celebration of the Pythian games and the next.

Pythonic (a.) Prophetic; oracular; pretending to foretell events.

Pythonism (n.) The art of predicting events after the manner of the priestess of Apollo at Delphi; equivocal prophesying.

Q () the seventeenth letter of the English alphabet, has but one sound (that of k), and is always followed by u, the two letters together being sounded like kw, except in some words in which the u is silent. See Guide to Pronunciation, / 249. Q is not found in Anglo-Saxon, cw being used instead of qu; as in cwic, quick; cwen, queen. The name (k/) is from the French ku, which is from the Latin name of the same letter; its form is from the Latin, which derived it, through a Greek alphabet, from the Ph/nician, the ultimate origin being Egyptian.

Quadrate (a.) Square; even; balanced; equal; exact.

Quadrate (a.) An aspect of the heavenly bodies in which they are distant from each other 90¡, or the quarter of a circle; quartile. See the Note under Aspect, 6.

Quadrature (a.) The act of squaring; the finding of a square having the same area as some given curvilinear figure; as, the quadrature of a circle; the operation of finding an expression for the area of a figure bounded wholly or in part by a curved line, as by a curve, two ordinates, and the axis of abscissas.

Quadrature (a.) The position of one heavenly body in respect to another when distant from it 90¡, or a quarter of a circle, as the moon when at an equal distance from the points of conjunction and opposition.

Quant (n.) A punting pole with a broad flange near the end to prevent it from sinking into the mud; a setting pole.

Quarantine (v. t.) To compel to remain at a distance, or in a given place, without intercourse, when suspected of having contagious disease; to put under, or in, quarantine.

Quarrelsome (a.) Apt or disposed to quarrel; given to brawls and contention; easily irritated or provoked to contest; irascible; choleric.

Quarry (n.) A part of the entrails of the beast taken, given to the hounds.

Quarter (n.) The encampment on one of the principal passages round a place besieged, to prevent relief and intercept convoys.

Quarter (v. i.) To drive a carriage so as to prevent the wheels from going into the ruts, or so that a rut shall be between the wheels.

Quay (n.) A mole, bank, or wharf, formed toward the sea, or at the side of a harbor, river, or other navigable water, for convenience in loading and unloading vessels.

Quern (n.) A mill for grinding grain, the upper stone of which was turned by hand; -- used before the invention of windmills and watermills.

Querulous (v.) Given to quarreling; quarrelsome.

Quicken (v. i.) To come to life; to become alive; to become vivified or enlivened; hence, to exhibit signs of life; to move, as the fetus in the womb.

Quietist (n.) One of a sect of mystics originated in the seventeenth century by Molinos, a Spanish priest living in Rome. See Quietism.

Quillwort (n.) Any plant or species of the genus Isoetes, cryptogamous plants with a cluster of elongated four-tubed rushlike leaves, rising from a corm, and containing spores in their enlarged and excavated bases. There are about seventeen American species, usually growing in the mud under still, shallow water. So called from the shape of the shape of the leaves.

Quinquennial (a.) Occurring once in five years, or at the end of every five years; also, lasting five years. A quinquennial event.

Quipu (n.) A contrivance employed by the ancient Peruvians, Mexicans, etc., as a substitute for writing and figures, consisting of a main cord, from which hung at certain distances smaller cords of various colors, each having a special meaning, as silver, gold, corn, soldiers. etc. Single, double, and triple knots were tied in the smaller cords, representing definite numbers. It was chiefly used for arithmetical purposes, and to register important facts and events.

Quitclaim (n.) A release or relinquishment of a claim; a deed of release; an instrument by which some right, title, interest, or claim, which one person has, or is supposed to have, in or to an estate held by himself or another, is released or relinquished, the grantor generally covenanting only against persons who claim under himself.

Quitclaim (v. t.) To release or relinquish a claim to; to release a claim to by deed, without covenants of warranty against adverse and paramount titles.

Quizzical (a.) Relating to quizzing: given to quizzing; of the nature of a quiz; farcical; sportive.

Quoin (n.) To prevent casks from rolling.

Quotationist (n.) One who makes, or is given to making, quotations.

Race (n.) A channel or guide along which a shuttle is driven back and forth, as in a loom, sewing machine, etc.

Rack (a.) A frame or device of various construction for holding, and preventing the waste of, hay, grain, etc., supplied to beasts.

Rack (a.) A bar with teeth on its face, or edge, to work with those of a wheel, pinion, or worm, which is to drive it or be driven by it.

Rackett (n.) An old wind instrument of the double bassoon kind, having ventages but not keys.

Raddle (n.) A long, flexible stick, rod, or branch, which is interwoven with others, between upright posts or stakes, in making a kind of hedge or fence.

Raddle (n.) An instrument consisting of a wooden bar, with a row of upright pegs set in it, used by domestic weavers to keep the warp of a proper width, and prevent tangling when it is wound upon the beam of the loom.

Radiant (n.) A straight line proceeding from a given point, or fixed pole, about which it is conceived to revolve.

Radiant (n.) The point in the heavens at which the apparent paths of shooting stars meet, when traced backward, or whence they appear to radiate.

Radical (n.) Specifically, a group of two or more atoms, not completely saturated, which are so linked that their union implies certain properties, and are conveniently regarded as playing the part of a single atom; a residue; -- called also a compound radical. Cf. Residue.

Rage (n.) To be violent and tumultuous; to be violently driven or agitated; to act or move furiously; as, the raging sea or winds.

Ragged (n.) Broken with rough edges; having jags; uneven; rough; jagged; as, ragged rocks.

Ragwort (n.) A name given to several species of the composite genus Senecio.

Raise (v. t.) To give vent or utterance to; to utter; to strike up.

Raise (v. t.) To cause to rise, as by the effect of leaven; to make light and spongy, as bread.

Raised (a.) Leavened; made with leaven, or yeast; -- used of bread, cake, etc., as distinguished from that made with cream of tartar, soda, etc. See Raise, v. t., 4.

Rale (n.) An adventitious sound, usually of morbid origin, accompanying the normal respiratory sounds. See Rhonchus.

Ralph (n.) A name sometimes given to the raven.

Range (v. i.) To have range; to change or differ within limits; to be capable of projecting, or to admit of being projected, especially as to horizontal distance; as, the temperature ranged through seventy degrees Fahrenheit; the gun ranges three miles; the shot ranged four miles.

Range (v.) An extended cooking apparatus of cast iron, set in brickwork, and affording conveniences for various ways of cooking; also, a kind of cooking stove.

Rank (superl.) Inflamed with venereal appetite.

Rapacious (a.) Given to plunder; disposed or accustomed to seize by violence; seizing by force.

Rapacious (a.) Avaricious; grasping; extortionate; also, greedy; ravenous; voracious; as, rapacious usurers; a rapacious appetite.

Rapacity (n.) The quality of being rapacious; rapaciousness; ravenousness; as, the rapacity of pirates; the rapacity of wolves.

Rape (n.) A name given to a variety or to varieties of a plant of the turnip kind, grown for seeds and herbage. The seeds are used for the production of rape oil, and to a limited extent for the food of cage birds.

Rapeful (a.) Given to the commission of rape.

Raphany (n.) A convulsive disease, attended with ravenous hunger, not uncommon in Sweden and Germany. It was so called because supposed to be caused by eating corn with which seeds of jointed charlock (Raphanus raphanistrum) had been mixed, but the condition is now known to be a form of ergotism.

Rapinous (a.) Given to rapine.

Rare (superl.) Not frequent; seldom met with or occurring; unusual; as, a rare event.

Rase (n.) A way of measuring in which the commodity measured was made even with the top of the measuring vessel by rasing, or striking off, all that was above it.

Ratting (v. i.) The low sport of setting a dog upon rats confined in a pit to see how many he will kill in a given time.

Rattlesnake (n.) Any one of several species of venomous American snakes belonging to the genera Crotalus and Caudisona, or Sistrurus. They have a series of horny interlocking joints at the end of the tail which make a sharp rattling sound when shaken. The common rattlesnake of the Northern United States (Crotalus horridus), and the diamond rattlesnake of the South (C. adamanteus), are the best known. See Illust. of Fang.

Ravel (v. i.) To become untwisted or unwoven; to be disentangled; to be relieved of intricacy.

Ravel (v. i.) To make investigation or search, as by picking out the threads of a woven pattern.

Raven (n.) A large black passerine bird (Corvus corax), similar to the crow, but larger. It is native of the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America, and is noted for its sagacity.

Raven (a.) Of the color of the raven; jet black; as, raven curls; raven darkness.

Raven (n.) Rapine; rapacity.

Raven (n.) Prey; plunder; food obtained by violence.

Ravened (imp. & p. p.) of Raven

Ravening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Raven

Raven (v. t.) To obtain or seize by violence.

Raven (v. t.) To devour with great eagerness.

Raven (v. i.) To prey with rapacity; to be greedy; to show rapacity.

Ravenala (n.) A genus of plants related to the banana.

Ravener (n.) One who, or that which, ravens or plunders.

Ravener (n.) A bird of prey, as the owl or vulture.

Ravening (n.) Eagerness for plunder; rapacity; extortion.

Ravening (a.) Greedily devouring; rapacious; as, ravening wolves.

Ravenous (a.) Devouring with rapacious eagerness; furiously voracious; hungry even to rage; as, a ravenous wolf or vulture.

Ravenous (a.) Eager for prey or gratification; as, a ravenous appetite or desire.

Raven's-duck (n.) A fine quality of sailcloth.

Ravin (a.) Ravenous.

Ravine (n.) Food obtained by violence; plunder; prey; raven.

Ravine (v. t. & i.) See Raven, v. t. & i.

Razee (v. t.) An armed ship having her upper deck cut away, and thus reduced to the next inferior rate, as a seventy-four cut down to a frigate.

Ready (superl.) Prepared for what one is about to do or experience; equipped or supplied with what is needed for some act or event; prepared for immediate movement or action; as, the troops are ready to march; ready for the journey.

Ready (superl.) Offering itself at once; at hand; opportune; convenient; near; easy.

Reaumur (a.) Of or pertaining to Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur; conformed to the scale adopted by Reaumur in graduating the thermometer he invented.

Receive (v. t.) To take, as something that is offered, given, committed, sent, paid, or the like; to accept; as, to receive money offered in payment of a debt; to receive a gift, a message, or a letter.

Receptiveness (n.) The quality of being receptive.

Rechabite (n.) One of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, all of whom by his injunction abstained from the use of intoxicating drinks and even from planting the vine. Jer. xxxv. 2-19. Also, in modern times, a member of a certain society of abstainers from alcoholic liquors.

Recheat (n.) A strain given on the horn to call back the hounds when they have lost track of the game.

Recherche (a.) Sought out with care; choice. Hence: of rare quality, elegance, or attractiveness; peculiar and refined in kind.

Recipiency (n.) The quality or state of being recipient; a receiving; reception; receptiveness.

Recipient (n.) A receiver; the person or thing that receives; one to whom, or that to which, anything is given or communicated; specifically, the receiver of a still.

Reciprocal (a.) Done by each to the other; interchanging or interchanged; given and received; due from each to each; mutual; as, reciprocal love; reciprocal duties.

Reciprocal (a.) Used to denote different kinds of mutual relation; often with reference to the substitution of reciprocals for given quantities. See the Phrases below.

Recital (n.) A telling in detail and due order of the particulars of anything, as of a law, an adventure, or a series of events; narration.

Recite (v. t.) To repeat, as something already prepared, written down, committed to memory, or the like; to deliver from a written or printed document, or from recollection; to rehearse; as, to recite the words of an author, or of a deed or covenant.

Recite (v. t.) To tell over; to go over in particulars; to relate; to narrate; as, to recite past events; to recite the particulars of a voyage.

Recoil (v. i.) To start, roll, bound, spring, or fall back; to take a reverse motion; to be driven or forced backward; to return.

Recollection (n.) The power of recalling ideas to the mind, or the period within which things can be recollected; remembrance; memory; as, an event within my recollection.

Recompense (n.) An equivalent returned for anything done, suffered, or given; compensation; requital; suitable return.

Reconvene (v. t. & i.) To convene or assemble again; to call or come together again.

Reconvention (n.) A cross demand; an action brought by the defendant against the plaintiff before the same judge.

Record (v. t.) To preserve the memory of, by committing to writing, to printing, to inscription, or the like; to make note of; to write or enter in a book or on parchment, for the purpose of preserving authentic evidence of; to register; to enroll; as, to record the proceedings of a court; to record historical events.

Record (v. t.) A writing by which some act or event, or a number of acts or events, is recorded; a register; as, a record of the acts of the Hebrew kings; a record of the variations of temperature during a certain time; a family record.

Record (v. t.) That which serves to perpetuate a knowledge of acts or events; a monument; a memorial.

Recreant (a.) Crying for mercy, as a combatant in the trial by battle; yielding; cowardly; mean-spirited; craven.

Rector (n.) The superior officer or chief of a convent or religious house; and among the Jesuits the superior of a house that is a seminary or college.

Redan (n.) A step or vertical offset in a wall on uneven ground, to keep the parts level.

Redound (v. i.) To roll back, as a wave or flood; to be sent or driven back; to flow back, as a consequence or effect; to conduce; to contribute; to result.

Redshank (n.) A bare-legged person; -- a contemptuous appellation formerly given to the Scotch Highlanders, in allusion to their bare legs.

Reduction (n.) The act of reducing, or state of being reduced; conversion to a given state or condition; diminution; conquest; as, the reduction of a body to powder; the reduction of things to order; the reduction of the expenses of government; the reduction of a rebellious province.

Reed (n.) A name given to many tall and coarse grasses or grasslike plants, and their slender, often jointed, stems, such as the various kinds of bamboo, and especially the common reed of Europe and North America (Phragmites communis).

Reefer (n.) One who reefs; -- a name often given to midshipmen.

Reentry (n.) A resuming or retaking possession of what one has lately foregone; -- applied especially to land; the entry by a lessor upon the premises leased, on failure of the tenant to pay rent or perform the covenants in the lease.

Reestablish (v. t.) To establish anew; to fix or confirm again; to restore; as, to reestablish a covenant; to reestablish health.

Refectory (n.) A room for refreshment; originally, a dining hall in monasteries or convents.

Reflecting (a.) Given to reflection or serious consideration; reflective; contemplative; as, a reflecting mind.

Reflection (n.) An image given back from a reflecting surface; a reflected counterpart.

Reflex (a.) Of, pertaining to, or produced by, stimulus or excitation without the necessary intervention of consciousness.

Refraction (n.) The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; -- hence distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction.

Refraction (n.) The correction which is to be deducted from the apparent altitude of a heavenly body on account of atmospheric refraction, in order to obtain the true altitude.

Refractiveness (n.) The quality or condition of being refractive.

Refresh (a.) To make fresh again; to restore strength, spirit, animation, or the like, to; to relieve from fatigue or depression; to reinvigorate; to enliven anew; to reanimate; as, sleep refreshes the body and the mind.

Regal (n.) A small portable organ, played with one hand, the bellows being worked with the other, -- used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Regalia (n. pl.) That which belongs to royalty. Specifically: (a) The rights and prerogatives of a king. (b) Royal estates and revenues. (c) Ensings, symbols, or paraphernalia of royalty.

Regime (n.) The condition of a river with respect to the rate of its flow, as measured by the volume of water passing different cross sections in a given time, uniform regime being the condition when the flow is equal and uniform at all the cross sections.

Region (n.) One of the grand districts or quarters into which any space or surface, as of the earth or the heavens, is conceived of as divided; hence, in general, a portion of space or territory of indefinite extent; country; province; district; tract.

Region (n.) The upper air; the sky; the heavens.

Register (n.) One who registers or records; a registrar; a recorder; especially, a public officer charged with the duty of recording certain transactions or events; as, a register of deeds.

Register (n.) A lid, stopper, or sliding plate, in a furnace, stove, etc., for regulating the admission of air to the fuel; also, an arrangement containing dampers or shutters, as in the floor or wall of a room or passage, or in a chimney, for admitting or excluding heated air, or for regulating ventilation.

Register (v. i.) The compass of a voice or instrument; a specified portion of the compass of a voice, or a series of vocal tones of a given compass; as, the upper, middle, or lower register; the soprano register; the tenor register.

Regulator (n.) A member of a volunteer committee which, in default of the lawful authority, undertakes to preserve order and prevent crimes; also, sometimes, one of a band organized for the comission of violent crimes.

Reinette (n.) A name given to many different kinds of apples, mostly of French origin.

Reis (n.) The word is used as a Portuguese designation of money of account, one hundred reis being about equal in value to eleven cents.

Reis Effendi () A title formerly given to one of the chief Turkish officers of state. He was chancellor of the empire, etc.

Rejuvenate (v. t.) To render young again.

Rejuvenation (n.) Rejuvenescence.

Rejuvenescence (n.) A renewing of youth; the state of being or growing young again.

Rejuvenescence (n.) A method of cell formation in which the entire protoplasm of an old cell escapes by rupture of the cell wall, and then develops a new cell wall. It is seen sometimes in the formation of zoospores, etc.

Rejuvenescency (n.) Rejuvenescence.

Rejuvenescent (a.) Becoming, or causing to become, rejuvenated; rejuvenating.

Rejuvenize (v. t.) To rejuvenate.

Relais (n.) A narrow space between the foot of the rampart and the scarp of the ditch, serving to receive the earth that may crumble off or be washed down, and prevent its falling into the ditch.

Relation (n.) The act of relating or telling; also, that which is related; recital; account; narration; narrative; as, the relation of historical events.

Relativeness (n.) The state of being relative, or having relation; relativity.

Releasee (n.) One to whom a release is given.

Releasor (n.) One by whom a release is given.

Relentless (a.) Unmoved by appeals for sympathy or forgiveness; insensible to the distresses of others; destitute of tenderness; unrelenting; unyielding; unpitying; as, a prey to relentless despotism.

Relief (n.) Release from a post, or from the performance of duty, by the intervention of others, by discharge, or by relay; as, a relief of a sentry.

Relief (n.) The appearance of projection given by shading, shadow, etc., to any figure.

Remember (v. t.) To have ( a notion or idea) come into the mind again, as previously perceived, known, or felt; to have a renewed apprehension of; to bring to mind again; to think of again; to recollect; as, I remember the fact; he remembers the events of his childhood; I cannot remember dates.

Remembrance (n.) That which serves to keep in or bring to mind; a memorial; a token; a memento; a souvenir; a memorandum or note of something to be remembered.

Remissible (a.) Capable of being remitted or forgiven.

Remuneration (n.) That which is given to remunerate; an equivalent given, as for services, loss, or sufferings.

Render (n.) An account given; a statement.

Renew (v. t.) To make new again; to restore to freshness, perfection, or vigor; to give new life to; to rejuvenate; to re/stablish; to recreate; to rebuild.

Rent (n.) Income; revenue. See Catel.

Reparation (n.) The act of making amends or giving satisfaction or compensation for a wrong, injury, etc.; also, the thing done or given; amends; satisfaction; indemnity.

Repeating (a.) Doing the same thing over again; accomplishing a given result many times in succession; as, a repeating firearm; a repeating watch.

Repent (v. i.) To be sorry for sin as morally evil, and to seek forgiveness; to cease to love and practice sin.

Repercussion (n.) The act of driving back, or the state of being driven back; reflection; reverberation; as, the repercussion of sound.

Repercussive (a.) Driven back; rebounding; reverberated.

Reprehend (v. t.) To reprove or reprimand with a view of restraining, checking, or preventing; to make charge of fault against; to disapprove of; to chide; to blame; to censure.

Representativeness (n.) The quality or state of being representative.

Reprobate (a.) Abandoned to punishment; hence, morally abandoned and lost; given up to vice; depraved.

Reprobate (a.) Of or pertaining to one who is given up to wickedness; as, reprobate conduct.

Reptilia (n. pl.) A class of air-breathing oviparous vertebrates, usually covered with scales or bony plates. The heart generally has two auricles and one ventricle. The development of the young is the same as that of birds.

Repulse (n.) The act of repelling or driving back; also, the state of being repelled or driven back.

Reservation (n.) Something withheld, either not expressed or disclosed, or not given up or brought forward.

Residue (n.) Any positive or negative number that differs from a given number by a multiple of a given modulus; thus, if 7 is the modulus, and 9 the given number, the numbers -5, 2, 16, 23, etc., are residues.

Resist (n.) A substance used to prevent a color or mordant from fixing on those parts to which it has been applied, either by acting machanically in preventing the color, etc., from reaching the cloth, or chemically in changing the color so as to render it incapable of fixing itself in the fibers.. The pastes prepared for this purpose are called resist pastes.

Resistance (n.) The quality of not yielding to force or external pressure; that power of a body which acts in opposition to the impulse or pressure of another, or which prevents the effect of another power; as, the resistance of the air to a body passing through it; the resistance of a target to projectiles.

Resolve (v. i.) To determine or decide in purpose; to make ready in mind; to fix; to settle; as, he was resolved by an unexpected event.

Resolvent (a.) Having power to resolve; causing solution; solvent.

Resolvent (n.) That which has the power of resolving, or causing solution; a solvent.

Resolvent (n.) That which has power to disperse inflammatory or other tumors; a discutient; anything which aids the absorption of effused products.

Resolvent (n.) An equation upon whose solution the solution of a given pproblem depends.

Respirator (n.) A divice of gauze or wire, covering the mouth or nose, to prevent the inhalation of noxious substances, as dust or smoke. Being warmed by the breath, it tempers cold air passing through it, and may also be used for the inhalation of medicated vapors.

Response (n.) A repetition of the given subject in a fugue by another part on the fifth above or fourth below.

Rest-harrow (n.) A European leguminous plant (Ononis arvensis) with long, tough roots.

Restiffness (n.) Restiveness.

Restitution (v.) That which is offered or given in return for what has been lost, injured, or destroved; compensation.

Retain (v. t.) To restrain; to prevent.

Retainer (n.) A fee paid to engage a lawyer or counselor to maintain a cause, or to prevent his being employed by the opposing party in the case; -- called also retaining fee.

Retard (v. t.) To keep delaying; to continue to hinder; to prevent from progress; to render more slow in progress; to impede; to hinder; as, to retard the march of an army; to retard the motion of a ship; -- opposed to accelerate.

Retention (n.) The power of retaining; retentiveness.

Retentiveness (n.) The quality of being retentive.

Reticence (n.) The quality or state of being reticent, or keeping silence; the state of holding one's tonque; refraining to speak of that which is suggested; uncommunicativeness.

Retreat (n.) A signal given in the army or navy, by the beat of a drum or the sounding of trumpet or bugle, at sunset (when the roll is called), or for retiring from action.

Retribution (n.) That which is given in repayment or compensation; return suitable to the merits or deserts of, as an action; commonly, condign punishment for evil or wrong.

Return (n.) The profit on, or advantage received from, labor, or an investment, undertaking, adventure, etc.

Returnable (a.) Legally required to be returned, delivered, given, or rendered; as, a writ or precept returnable at a certain day; a verdict returnable to the court.

Revelous (a.) Fond of festivity; given to merrymaking or reveling.

Revendicated (imp. & p. p.) of Revendicate

Revendicating (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Revendicate

Revendicate (v. t.) To reclaim; to demand the restoration of.

Revendication (n.) The act of revendicating.

Revenged (imp. & p. p.) of Revenge

Revenging (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Revenge

Revenge (v. t.) To inflict harm in return for, as an injury, insult, etc.; to exact satisfaction for, under a sense of injury; to avenge; -- followed either by the wrong received, or by the person or thing wronged, as the object, or by the reciprocal pronoun as direct object, and a preposition before the wrong done or the wrongdoer.

Revenge (v. t.) To inflict injury for, in a spiteful, wrong, or malignant spirit; to wreak vengeance for maliciously.

Revenge (v. i.) To take vengeance; -- with

Revenge (n.) The act of revenging; vengeance; retaliation; a returning of evil for evil.

Revenge (n.) The disposition to revenge; a malignant wishing of evil to one who has done us an injury.

Revengeable (a.) Capable of being revenged; as, revengeable wrong.

Revengeance (n.) Vengeance; revenge.

Revengeful (a.) Full of, or prone to, revenge; vindictive; malicious; revenging; wreaking revenge.

Revengeless (a.) Unrevenged.

Revengement (n.) Revenge.

Revenger (n.) One who revenges.

Revenging (a.) Executing revenge; revengeful.

Revenue (n.) That which returns, or comes back, from an investment; the annual rents, profits, interest, or issues of any species of property, real or personal; income.

Revenue (n.) Hence, return; reward; as, a revenue of praise.

Revenue (n.) The annual yield of taxes, excise, customs, duties, rents, etc., which a nation, state, or municipality collects and receives into the treasury for public use.

Reverberate (a.) Driven back, as sound; reflected.

Reverberate (v. i.) To be driven back; to be reflected or repelled, as rays of light; to be echoed, as sound.

Revere (v. t.) To regard with reverence, or profound respect and affection, mingled with awe or fear; to venerate; to reverence; to honor in estimation.

Reverence (n.) Profound respect and esteem mingled with fear and affection, as for a holy being or place; the disposition to revere; veneration.

Reverence (n.) The act of revering; a token of respect or veneration; an obeisance.

Reverence (v. t.) To regard or treat with reverence; to regard with respect and affection mingled with fear; to venerate.

Reverend (a.) Worthy of reverence; entitled to respect mingled with fear and affection; venerable.

Reverent (a.) Expressing reverence, veneration, devotion, or submission; as, reverent words; reverent behavior.

Reversion (n.) A payment which is not to be received, or a benefit which does not begin, until the happening of some event, as the death of a living person.

Revocable (a.) Capable of being revoked; as, a revocable edict or grant; a revocable covenant.

Revocation (n.) The act by which one, having the right, annuls an act done, a power or authority given, or a license, gift, or benefit conferred; repeal; reversal; as, the revocation of an edict, a power, a will, or a license.

Revolution (n.) The space measured by the regular return of a revolving body; the period made by the regular recurrence of a measure of time, or by a succession of similar events.

Revolvency (n.) The act or state of revolving; revolution.

Reward (n.) That which is given in return for good or evil done or received; esp., that which is offered or given in return for some service or attainment, as for excellence in studies, for the return of something lost, etc.; recompense; requital.

Rhinoplasty (n.) Plastic surgery of the nose to correct deformity or to replace lost tissue. Tissue may be transplanted from the patient's cheek, forehead, arm, etc., or even from another person.

Rhonchus (n.) An adventitious whistling or snoring sound heard on auscultation of the chest when the air channels are partially obstructed. By some writers the term rhonchus is used as equivalent to rale in its widest sense. See Rale.

Ribbon (n.) A fillet or narrow woven fabric, commonly of silk, used for trimming some part of a woman's attire, for badges, and other decorative purposes.

Ride (n.) A road or avenue cut in a wood, or through grounds, to be used as a place for riding; a riding.

Rig (n.) A romp; a wanton; one given to unbecoming conduct.

Rigadoon (n.) A gay, lively dance for one couple, -- said to have been borrowed from Provence in France.

Right (a.) Most favorable or convenient; fortunate.

Right-handed (a.) Having the same direction or course as the movement of the hands of a watch seen in front; -- said of the motion of a revolving object looked at from a given direction.

Riksdaler (n.) A Swedish coin worth about twenty-seven cents. It was formerly the unit of value in Sweden.

Riptowel (n.) A gratuity given to tenants after they had reaped their lord's corn.

Rise (v.) To grow upward; to attain a certain height; as, this elm rises to the height of seventy feet.

Risk (n.) To expose to risk, hazard, or peril; to venture; as, to risk goods on board of a ship; to risk one's person in battle; to risk one's fame by a publication.

Riven () of Rive

Riven () p. p. & a. from Rive.

Rix-dollar (n.) A name given to several different silver coins of Denmark, Holland, Sweden,, NOrway, etc., varying in value from about 30 cents to $1.10; also, a British coin worth about 36 cents, used in Ceylon and at the Cape of Good Hope. See Rigsdaler, Riksdaler, and Rixdaler.

Roach (n.) A convex curve or arch cut in the edge of a sail to prevent chafing, or to secure a better fit.

Roast (v. t.) To cook by exposure to radiant heat before a fire; as, to roast meat on a spit, or in an oven open toward the fire and having reflecting surfaces within; also, to cook in a close oven.

Roast (v. i.) To cook meat, fish, etc., by heat, as before the fire or in an oven.

Rockrose (n.) A name given to any species of the genus Helianthemum, low shrubs or herbs with yellow flowers, especially the European H. vulgare and the American frostweed, H. Canadense.

Roll (v. i.) To be wound or formed into a cylinder or ball; as, the cloth rolls unevenly; the snow rolls well.

Romance (n.) A species of fictitious writing, originally composed in meter in the Romance dialects, and afterward in prose, such as the tales of the court of Arthur, and of Amadis of Gaul; hence, any fictitious and wonderful tale; a sort of novel, especially one which treats of surprising adventures usually befalling a hero or a heroine; a tale of extravagant adventures, of love, and the like.

Romance (n.) An adventure, or series of extraordinary events, resembling those narrated in romances; as, his courtship, or his life, was a romance.

Romanic (n.) Of or pertaining to any or all of the various languages which, during the Middle Ages, sprung out of the old Roman, or popular form of Latin, as the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Provencal, etc.

Romantic (a.) Characterized by strangeness or variety; suggestive of adventure; suited to romance; wild; picturesque; -- applied to scenery; as, a romantic landscape.

Rompish (a.) Given to rude play; inclined to romp.

Rondel (n.) Specifically, a particular form of rondeau containing fourteen lines in two rhymes, the refrain being a repetition of the first and second lines as the seventh and eighth, and again as the thirteenth and fourteenth.

Rope (v. t.) To prevent from winning (as a horse), by pulling or curbing.

Rosinweed (n.) A name given in California to various composite plants which secrete resins or have a resinous smell.

Rough (n.) Not level; having a broken surface; uneven; -- said of a piece of land, or of a road.

Roughly (adv.) In a rough manner; unevenly; harshly; rudely; severely; austerely.

Roulette (n.) the curve traced by any point in the plane of a given curve when the latter rolls, without sliding, over another fixed curve. See Cycloid, and Epycycloid.

Round (a.) Full; complete; not broken; not fractional; approximately in even units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.; -- said of numbers.

Round (n.) A series of changes or events ending where it began; a series of like events recurring in continuance; a cycle; a periodical revolution; as, the round of the seasons; a round of pleasures.

Round (n.) Ammunition for discharging a piece or pieces once; as, twenty rounds of ammunition were given out.

Roundness (n.) Openess; plainess; boldness; positiveness; as, the roundness of an assertion.

Rout (n.) A fashionable assembly, or large evening party.

Rub (n.) Inequality of surface, as of the ground in the game of bowls; unevenness.

Rubiaceous (a.) Of or pertaining to a very large natural order of plants (Rubiaceae) named after the madder (Rubia tinctoria), and including about three hundred and seventy genera and over four thousand species. Among them are the coffee tree, the trees yielding peruvian bark and quinine, the madder, the quaker ladies, and the trees bearing the edible fruits called genipap and Sierre Leone peach, besides many plants noted for the beauty or the fragrance of their blossoms.

Ruff (n.) A collar on a shaft ot other piece to prevent endwise motion. See Illust. of Collar.

Ruffle (v. t.) To oughen or disturb the surface of; to make uneven by agitation or commotion.

Rugged (n.) Full of asperities on the surface; broken into sharp or irregular points, or otherwise uneven; not smooth; rough; as, a rugged mountain; a rugged road.

Rugged (n.) Not neat or regular; uneven.

Rumple (v. t. & i.) To make uneven; to form into irregular inequalities; to wrinkle; to crumple; as, to rumple an apron or a cravat.

Run (a.) To have a legal course; to be attached; to continue in force, effect, or operation; to follow; to go in company; as, certain covenants run with the land.

Run (v. i.) To drive or force; to cause, or permit, to be driven.

Run (v. i.) To put at hazard; to venture; to risk.

Running (a.) Successive; one following the other without break or intervention; -- said of periods of time; as, to be away two days running; to sow land two years running.

Rush (n.) A name given to many aquatic or marsh-growing endogenous plants with soft, slender stems, as the species of Juncus and Scirpus.

Rusk (n.) A kind of light, soft bread made with yeast and eggs, often toasted or crisped in an oven; or, a kind of sweetened biscuit.

Sabbatarian (n.) One who regards and keeps the seventh day of the week as holy, agreeably to the letter of the fourth commandment in the Decalogue.

Sabbath (n.) A season or day of rest; one day in seven appointed for rest or worship, the observance of which was enjoined upon the Jews in the Decalogue, and has been continued by the Christian church with a transference of the day observed from the last to the first day of the week, which is called also Lord's Day.

Sabbath (n.) The seventh year, observed among the Israelites as one of rest and festival.

Sabian (a.) Relating to the religion of Saba, or to the worship of the heavenly bodies.

Sabian (n.) An adherent of the Sabian religion; a worshiper of the heavenly bodies.

Sack (n.) A name formerly given to various dry Spanish wines.

Sacrament (n.) The pledge or token of an oath or solemn covenant; a sacred thing; a mystery.

Sacramentarian (n.) A name given in the sixteenth century to those German reformers who rejected both the Roman and the Lutheran doctrine of the holy eucharist.

Sacred (a.) Designated or exalted by a divine sanction; possessing the highest title to obedience, honor, reverence, or veneration; entitled to extreme reverence; venerable.

Sacred (a.) Solemnly devoted, in a bad sense, as to evil, vengeance, curse, or the like; accursed; baleful.

Sacrifice (n.) Destruction or surrender of anything for the sake of something else; devotion of some desirable object in behalf of a higher object, or to a claim deemed more pressing; hence, also, the thing so devoted or given up; as, the sacrifice of interest to pleasure, or of pleasure to interest.

Saddle (n.) A piece of meat containing a part of the backbone of an animal with the ribs on each side; as, a saddle of mutton, of venison, etc.

Safe (n.) A ventilated or refrigerated chest or closet for securing provisions from noxious animals or insects.

Safe-conduct (n.) a writing, pass, or warrant of security, given to a person to enable him to travel with safety.

Safe-pledge (n.) A surety for the appearance of a person at a given time.

Sagathy (n.) A mixed woven fabric of silk and cotton, or silk and wool; sayette; also, a light woolen fabric.

Sage (n.) A wise man; a man of gravity and wisdom; especially, a man venerable for years, and of sound judgment and prudence; a grave philosopher.

Sagene (n.) A Russian measure of length equal to about seven English feet.

Saheb (n.) A respectful title or appellation given to Europeans of rank.

Sail (n.) To be impelled or driven forward by the action of wind upon sails, as a ship on water; to be impelled on a body of water by the action of steam or other power.

Saint (n.) One of the blessed in heaven.

Sainted (a.) Entered into heaven; -- a euphemism for dead.

Saiva (n.) One of an important religious sect in India which regards Siva with peculiar veneration.

Salacious (n.) Having a propensity to venery; lustful; lecherous.

Salacity (n.) Strong propensity to venery; lust; lecherousness.

Salimeter (n.) An instrument for measuring the amount of salt present in any given solution.

Sallow (n.) A name given to certain species of willow, especially those which do not have flexible shoots, as Salix caprea, S. cinerea, etc.

Saltwort (n.) A name given to several plants which grow on the seashore, as the Batis maritima, and the glasswort. See Glasswort.

Salute (v.) A token of respect or honor for some distinguished or official personage, for a foreign vessel or flag, or for some festival or event, as by presenting arms, by a discharge of cannon, volleys of small arms, dipping the colors or the topsails, etc.

Samite (a.) A species of silk stuff, or taffeta, generally interwoven with gold.

Sanctify (v. t.) To impart or impute sacredness, venerableness, inviolability, title to reverence and respect, or the like, to; to secure from violation; to give sanction to.

Sanctiloquent (a.) Discoursing on heavenly or holy things, or in a holy manner.

Sanctuary (n.) The most retired part of the temple at Jerusalem, called the Holy of Holies, in which was kept the ark of the covenant, and into which no person was permitted to enter except the high priest, and he only once a year, to intercede for the people; also, the most sacred part of the tabernacle; also, the temple at Jerusalem.

Sandhiller (n.) A nickname given to any "poor white" living in the pine woods which cover the sandy hills in Georgia and South Carolina.

Sanhedrim (n.) the great council of the Jews, which consisted of seventy members, to whom the high priest was added. It had jurisdiction of religious matters.

Sans-culotte (n.) A fellow without breeches; a ragged fellow; -- a name of reproach given in the first French revolution to the extreme republican party, who rejected breeches as an emblem peculiar to the upper classes or aristocracy, and adopted pantaloons.

Santees (n. pl.) One of the seven confederated tribes of Indians belonging to the Sioux, or Dakotas.

Sapindaceous (a.) Of or pertaining to an order of trees and shrubs (Sapindaceae), including the (typical) genus Sapindus, the maples, the margosa, and about seventy other genera.

Sapphic (a.) Belonging to, or in the manner of, Sappho; -- said of a certain kind of verse reputed to have been invented by Sappho, consisting of five feet, of which the first, fourth, and fifth are trochees, the second is a spondee, and the third a dactyl.

Sarcastical (a.) Expressing, or expressed by, sarcasm; characterized by, or of the nature of, sarcasm; given to the use of sarcasm; bitterly satirical; scornfully severe; taunting.

Satinwood (n.) The hard, lemon-colored, fragrant wood of an East Indian tree (Chloroxylon Swietenia). It takes a lustrous finish, and is used in cabinetwork. The name is also given to the wood of a species of prickly ash (Xanthoxylum Caribaeum) growing in Florida and the West Indies.

Satire (a.) A composition, generally poetical, holding up vice or folly to reprobation; a keen or severe exposure of what in public or private morals deserves rebuke; an invective poem; as, the Satires of Juvenal.

Saturday (n.) The seventh or last day of the week; the day following Friday and preceding Sunday.

Saturn (n.) One of the elder and principal deities, the son of Coelus and Terra (Heaven and Earth), and the father of Jupiter. The corresponding Greek divinity was Kro`nos, later CHro`nos, Time.

Saturn (n.) One of the planets of the solar system, next in magnitude to Jupiter, but more remote from the sun. Its diameter is seventy thousand miles, its mean distance from the sun nearly eight hundred and eighty millions of miles, and its year, or periodical revolution round the sun, nearly twenty-nine years and a half. It is surrounded by a remarkable system of rings, and has eight satellites.

Saturnalia (n. pl.) The festival of Saturn, celebrated in December, originally during one day, but afterward during seven days, as a period of unrestrained license and merriment for all classes, extending even to the slaves.

Satyriasis (n.) Immoderate venereal appetite in the male.

Save (a.) To rescue from something undesirable or hurtful; to prevent from doing something; to spare.

Save (a.) To hinder from doing, suffering, or happening; to obviate the necessity of; to prevent; to spare.

Save (v. i.) To avoid unnecessary expense or expenditure; to prevent waste; to be economical.

Save-all (n.) Anything which saves fragments, or prevents waste or loss.

Savor (a.) Pleasure; delight; attractiveness.

Saw-set (n.) An instrument used to set or turn the teeth of a saw a little sidewise, that they may make a kerf somewhat wider than the thickness of the blade, to prevent friction; -- called also saw-wrest.

Saxhorn (n.) A name given to a numerous family of brass wind instruments with valves, invented by Antoine Joseph Adolphe Sax (known as Adolphe Sax), of Belgium and Paris, and much used in military bands and in orchestras.

Scale (n.) A small appendage like a rudimentary leaf, resembling the scales of a fish in form, and often in arrangement; as, the scale of a bud, of a pine cone, and the like. The name is also given to the chaff on the stems of ferns.

Scaleboard (n.) A thin veneer of leaf of wood used for covering the surface of articles of furniture, and the like.

Scalper (n.) A person who buys tickets for entertainment or sports events and sells them at a profit, often at a much higher price. Also, ticket scalper.

Scamblingly (adv.) In a scambling manner; with turbulence and noise; with bold intrusiveness.

Scapulary (n.) The name given to two pieces of cloth worn under the ordinary garb and over the shoulders as an act of devotion.

Scavenge (v. t.) To cleanse, as streets, from filth.

Scavenger (v.) A person whose employment is to clean the streets of a city, by scraping or sweeping, and carrying off the filth. The name is also applied to any animal which devours refuse, carrion, or anything injurious to health.

Scene (n.) An assemblage of objects presented to the view at once; a series of actions and events exhibited in their connection; a spectacle; a show; an exhibition; a view.

Schedule (n.) A written or printed scroll or sheet of paper; a document; especially, a formal list or inventory; a list or catalogue annexed to a larger document, as to a will, a lease, a statute, etc.

Schema (n.) An outline or image universally applicable to a general conception, under which it is likely to be presented to the mind; as, five dots in a line are a schema of the number five; a preceding and succeeding event are a schema of cause and effect.

Schematism (n.) Combination of the aspects of heavenly bodies.

Schematist (n.) One given to forming schemes; a projector; a schemer.

Scheme (n.) A representation of the aspects of the celestial bodies for any moment or at a given event.

Scheming (a.) Given to forming schemes; artful; intriguing.

Schneiderian (a.) Discovered or described by C. V. Schneider, a German anatomist of the seventeenth century.

Scholar (n.) In English universities, an undergraduate who belongs to the foundation of a college, and receives support in part from its revenues.

Schooner (n.) Originally, a small, sharp-built vessel, with two masts and fore-and-aft rig. Sometimes it carried square topsails on one or both masts and was called a topsail schooner. About 1840, longer vessels with three masts, fore-and-aft rigged, came into use, and since that time vessels with four masts and even with six masts, so rigged, are built. Schooners with more than two masts are designated three-masted schooners, four-masted schooners, etc. See Illustration in Appendix.

Scolopendra (n.) A genus of venomous myriapods including the centipeds. See Centiped.

Scope (n.) Room or opportunity for free outlook or aim; space for action; amplitude of opportunity; free course or vent; liberty; range of view, intent, or action.

Scotch (v. t.) To shoulder up; to prop or block with a wedge, chock, etc., as a wheel, to prevent its rolling or slipping.

Scotch (n.) A chock, wedge, prop, or other support, to prevent slipping; as, a scotch for a wheel or a log on inclined ground.

Scotchman (n.) A piece of wood or stiff hide placed over shrouds and other rigging to prevent chafe by the running gear.

Scourge (n.) Hence, a means of inflicting punishment, vengeance, or suffering; an infliction of affliction; a punishment.

Scovel (n.) A mop for sweeping ovens; a malkin.

Scrape (v. t.) To rub over the surface of (something) with a sharp or rough instrument; to rub over with something that roughens by removing portions of the surface; to grate harshly over; to abrade; to make even, or bring to a required condition or form, by moving the sharp edge of an instrument breadthwise over the surface with pressure, cutting away excesses and superfluous parts; to make smooth or clean; as, to scrape a bone with a knife; to scrape a metal plate to an even surface.

Scraping (n.) The act of scraping; the act or process of making even, or reducing to the proper form, by means of a scraper.

Screen (n.) Anything that separates or cuts off inconvenience, injury, or danger; that which shelters or conceals from view; a shield or protection; as, a fire screen.

Screen (v. t.) To provide with a shelter or means of concealment; to separate or cut off from inconvenience, injury, or danger; to shelter; to protect; to protect by hiding; to conceal; as, fruits screened from cold winds by a forest or hill.

Scrim (n.) A kind of light cotton or linen fabric, often woven in openwork patterns, -- used for curtains, etc,; -- called also India scrim.

Scrim (n.) Thin canvas glued on the inside of panels to prevent shrinking, checking, etc.

Scrivener (n.) A professional writer; one whose occupation is to draw contracts or prepare writings.

Scrivener (n.) One whose business is to place money at interest; a broker.

Scrivener (n.) A writing master.

Scrupulous (a.) Given to making objections; captious.

Scrutiny (n.) An examination by a committee of the votes given at an election, for the purpose of correcting the poll.

Scud (v. i.) To move swiftly; especially, to move as if driven forward by something.

Scud (v. i.) To be driven swiftly, or to run, before a gale, with little or no sail spread.

Scud (n.) Loose, vapory clouds driven swiftly by the wind.

Sculptile (a.) Formed by carving; graven; as, sculptile images.

Scutibranchiata (n. pl.) An order of gastropod Mollusca having a heart with two auricles and one ventricle. The shell may be either spiral or shieldlike.

Scylla (n.) A dangerous rock on the Italian coast opposite the whirpool Charybdis on the coast of Sicily, -- both personified in classical literature as ravenous monsters. The passage between them was formerly considered perilous; hence, the saying "Between Scylla and Charybdis," signifying a great peril on either hand.

Scythe (n.) An instrument for mowing grass, grain, or the like, by hand, composed of a long, curving blade, with a sharp edge, made fast to a long handle, called a snath, which is bent into a form convenient for use.

Scythian (a.) Of or pertaining to Scythia (a name given to the northern part of Asia, and Europe adjoining to Asia), or its language or inhabitants.

Sea horse () A fabulous creature, half horse and half fish, represented in classic mythology as driven by sea dogs or ridden by the Nereids. It is also depicted in heraldry. See Hippocampus.

Sea king () One of the leaders among the Norsemen who passed their lives in roving the seas in search of plunder and adventures; a Norse pirate chief. See the Note under Viking.

Seal (n.) An arrangement for preventing the entrance or return of gas or air into a pipe, by which the open end of the pipe dips beneath the surface of water or other liquid, or a deep bend or sag in the pipe is filled with the liquid; a draintrap.

Sea lavender () See Marsh rosemary, under Marsh.

Sea raven () An American cottoid fish (Hemitripterus Americanus) allied to the sculpins, found on the northeren Atlantic coasts.

Sea raven () The cormorant.

Sea snail () A small fish of the genus Liparis, having a ventral sucker. It lives among stones and seaweeds.

Sea snake () Any one of many species of venomous aquatic snakes of the family Hydrophidae, having a flattened tail and living entirely in the sea, especially in the warmer parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They feed upon fishes, and are mostly of moderate size, but some species become eight or ten feet long and four inches broad.

Season (n.) Hence, a period of time, especially as regards its fitness for anything contemplated or done; a suitable or convenient time; proper conjuncture; as, the season for planting; the season for rest.

Sebat (n.) The eleventh month of the ancient Hebrew year, approximately corresponding with February.

Second-sight (n.) The power of discerning what is not visible to the physical eye, or of foreseeing future events, esp. such as are of a disastrous kind; the capacity of a seer; prophetic vision.

Secretary (n.) A piece of furniture, with conveniences for writing and for the arrangement of papers; an escritoire.

Secretiveness (n.) The quality of being secretive; disposition or tendency to conceal.

Secretiveness (n.) The faculty or propensity which impels to reserve, secrecy, or concealment.

Secretness (n.) Secretiveness; concealment.

Security (n.) Something given, deposited, or pledged, to make certain the fulfillment of an obligation, the performance of a contract, the payment of a debt, or the like; surety; pledge.

Seed (n.) Any small seedlike fruit, though it may consist of a pericarp, or even a calyx, as well as the seed proper; as, parsnip seed; thistle seed.

Seer (n.) A person who foresees events; a prophet.

Selectman (n.) One of a board of town officers chosen annually in the New England States to transact the general public business of the town, and have a kind of executive authority. The number is usually from three to seven in each town.

Self-examinant (n.) One who examines himself; one given to self-examination.

Self-motion (n.) Motion given by inherent power, without external impulse; spontaneus or voluntary motion.

Selvedge (n.) The edge of cloth which is woven in such a manner as to prevent raveling.

Semiangle (n.) The half of a given, or measuring, angle.

Semidiurnal (a.) Pertaining to, or traversed in, six hours, or in half the time between the rising and setting of a heavenly body; as, a semidiurnal arc.

Seneschal (n.) An officer in the houses of princes and dignitaries, in the Middle Ages, who had the superintendence of feasts and domestic ceremonies; a steward. Sometimes the seneschal had the dispensing of justice, and was given high military commands.

Sennight (n.) The space of seven nights and days; a week.

Senonian (a.) In european geology, a name given to the middle division of the Upper Cretaceous formation.

Se–ora (n.) A Spanish title of courtesy given to a lady; Mrs.; Madam; also, a lady.

Se–orita (n.) A Spanish title of courtesy given to a young lady; Miss; also, a young lady.

Sensualist (n.) One who is sensual; one given to the indulgence of the appetites or senses as the means of happiness.

Septangle (n.) A figure which has seven angles; a heptagon.

Septemfluous (a.) Flowing sevenfold; divided into seven streams or currents.

Septempartite (a.) Divided nearly to the base into seven parts; as, a septempartite leaf.

Septemvir (n.) One of a board of seven men associated in some office.

Septenary (a.) Consisting of, or relating to, seven; as, a septenary number.

Septenary (a.) Lasting seven years; continuing seven years.

Septenary (n.) The number seven.

Septenate (a.) Having parts in sevens; heptamerous.

Septennate (n.) A period of seven years; as, the septennate during which the President of the French Republic holds office.

Septennial (a.) Lasting or continuing seven years; as, septennial parliaments.

Septennial (a.) Happening or returning once in every seven years; as, septennial elections in England.

Septennially (adv.) Once in seven years.

Septette (n.) A set of seven persons or objects; as, a septet of singers.

Septette (n.) A musical composition for seven instruments or seven voices; -- called also septuor.

Septfoil (n.) An ornamental foliation having seven lobes. Cf. Cinquefoil, Quarterfoil, and Trefoil.

Septfoil (n.) A typical figure, consisting of seven equal segments of a circle, used to denote the gifts of the Holy Chost, the seven sacraments as recognized by the Roman Catholic Church, etc.

Septi- () A combining form meaning seven; as, septifolious, seven-leaved; septi-lateral, seven-sided.

Septic (a.) Of the seventh degree or order.

Septic (n.) A quantic of the seventh degree.

Septifarious (a.) Turned in seven different ways.

Septifluous (a.) Flowing in seven streams; septemfluous.

Septifolious (a.) Having seven leaves.

Septilateral (a.) Having seven sides; as, a septilateral figure.

Septimole (n.) A group of seven notes to be played in the time of four or six.

Septinsular (a.) Consisting of seven islands; as, the septinsular republic of the Ionian Isles.

Septisyllable (n.) A word of seven syllables.

Septuagenarian (n.) A person who is seventy years of age; a septuagenary.

Septuagenary (a.) Consisting of seventy; also, seventy years old.

Septuagesima (n.) The third Sunday before Lent; -- so called because it is about seventy days before Easter.

Septuagesimal (a.) Consisting of seventy days, years, etc.; reckoned by seventies.

Septuagint (n.) A Greek version of the Old Testament; -- so called because it was believed to be the work of seventy (or rather of seventy-two) translators.

Septuary (n.) Something composed of seven; a week.

Septuple (a.) Seven times as much; multiplied by seven; sevenfold.

Septuple (v. t.) To multiply by seven; to make sevenfold.

Sequel (n.) Consequence; event; effect; result; as, let the sun cease, fail, or swerve, and the sequel would be ruin.

Serenade (n.) Music sung or performed in the open air at nights; -- usually applied to musical entertainments given in the open air at night, especially by gentlemen, in a spirit of gallantry, under the windows of ladies.

Serene (n.) Evening air; night chill.

Serenity (n.) Calmness of mind; eveness of temper; undisturbed state; coolness; composure.

Sergeant (n.) A title sometimes given to the servants of the sovereign; as, sergeant surgeon, that is, a servant, or attendant, surgeon.

Series (n.) A number of things or events standing or succeeding in order, and connected by a like relation; sequence; order; course; a succession of things; as, a continuous series of calamitous events.

Serve (v. i.) To be of use; to answer a purpose; to suffice; to suit; to be convenient or favorable.

Service () A name given to several trees and shrubs of the genus Pyrus, as Pyrus domestica and P. torminalis of Europe, the various species of mountain ash or rowan tree, and the American shad bush (see Shad bush, under Shad). They have clusters of small, edible, applelike berries.

Service (n.) Office of devotion; official religious duty performed; religious rites appropriate to any event or ceremonial; as, a burial service.

Servitude (n.) A right whereby one thing is subject to another thing or person for use or convenience, contrary to the common right.

Set (n.) The act of setting, as of the sun or other heavenly body; descent; hence, the close; termination.

Set (n.) That which is staked; a wager; a venture; a stake; hence, a game at venture.

Set (n.) A piece placed temporarily upon the head of a pile when the latter cannot be reached by the weight, or hammer, except by means of such an intervening piece.

Seven (a.) One more than six; six and one added; as, seven days make one week.

Seven (n.) The number greater by one than six; seven units or objects.

Seven (n.) A symbol representing seven units, as 7, or vii.

Sevenfold (a.) Repeated seven times; having seven thicknesses; increased to seven times the size or amount.

Sevenfold (adv.) Seven times as much or as often.

Sevennight (n.) A week; any period of seven consecutive days and nights. See Sennight.

Sevenscore (n. & a.) Seven times twenty, that is, a hundred and forty.

Seven-shooter (n.) A firearm, esp. a pistol, with seven barrels or chambers for cartridges, or one capable of firing seven shots without reloading.

Seventeen (a.) One more than sixteen; ten and seven added; as, seventeen years.

Seventeen (n.) The number greater by one than sixteen; the sum of ten and seven; seventeen units or objects.

Seventeen (n.) A symbol denoting seventeen units, as 17, or xvii.

Seventeenth (a.) Next in order after the sixteenth; coming after sixteen others.

Seventeenth (a.) Constituting or being one of seventeen equal parts into which anything is divided.

Seventeenth (n.) The next in order after the sixteenth; one coming after sixteen others.

Seventeenth (n.) The quotient of a unit divided by seventeen; one of seventeen equal parts or divisions of one whole.

Seventeenth (n.) An interval of two octaves and a third.

Seventh (a.) Next in order after the sixth;; coming after six others.

Seventh (a.) Constituting or being one of seven equal parts into which anything is divided; as, the seventh part.

Seventh (n.) One next in order after the sixth; one coming after six others.

Seventh (n.) The quotient of a unit divided by seven; one of seven equal parts into which anything is divided.

Seventh (n.) An interval embracing seven diatonic degrees of the scale.

Seventh (n.) A chord which includes the interval of a seventh whether major, minor, or diminished.

Seven-thirties (n. pl.) A name given to three several issues of United States Treasury notes, made during the Civil War, in denominations of $50 and over, bearing interest at the rate of seven and three tenths (thirty hundredths) per cent annually. Within a few years they were all redeemed or funded.

Seventhly (adv.) In the seventh place.

Seventieth (a.) Next in order after the sixty-ninth; as, a man in the seventieth year of his age.

Seventieth (a.) Constituting or being one of seventy equal parts.

Seventieth (n.) One next in order after the sixty-ninth.

Seventieth (n.) The quotient of a unit divided by seventy; one of seventy equal parts or fractions.

Seventy (a.) Seven times ten; one more than sixty-nine.

Seventies (pl. ) of Seventy

Seventy (n.) The sum of seven times ten; seventy units or objects.

Seventy (n.) A symbol representing seventy units, as 70, or lxx.

Seventy-four (n.) A naval vessel carrying seventy-four guns.

Seven-up (n.) The game of cards called also all fours, and old sledge.

Several (a.) Consisting of a number more than two, but not very many; divers; sundry; as, several persons were present when the event took place.

Sewel (n.) A scarecrow, generally made of feathers tied to a string, hung up to prevent deer from breaking into a place.

Sexennial (n.) A sexennial event.

Shackle (n.) Something which confines the legs or arms so as to prevent their free motion; specifically, a ring or band inclosing the ankle or wrist, and fastened to a similar shackle on the other leg or arm, or to something else, by a chain or a strap; a gyve; a fetter.

Shackle (n.) Hence, that which checks or prevents free action.

Shackle (v. t.) To tie or confine the limbs of, so as to prevent free motion; to bind with shackles; to fetter; to chain.

Shackle (v. t.) Figuratively: To bind or confine so as to prevent or embarrass action; to impede; to cumber.

Shade (n.) Comparative obscurity owing to interception or interruption of the rays of light; partial darkness caused by the intervention of something between the space contemplated and the source of light.

Shall (v. i. & auxiliary.) As an auxiliary, shall indicates a duty or necessity whose obligation is derived from the person speaking; as, you shall go; he shall go; that is, I order or promise your going. It thus ordinarily expresses, in the second and third persons, a command, a threat, or a promise. If the auxillary be emphasized, the command is made more imperative, the promise or that more positive and sure. It is also employed in the language of prophecy; as, "the day shall come when . . . , " since a promise or threat and an authoritative prophecy nearly coincide in significance. In shall with the first person, the necessity of the action is sometimes implied as residing elsewhere than in the speaker; as, I shall suffer; we shall see; and there is always a less distinct and positive assertion of his volition than is indicated by will. "I shall go" implies nearly a simple futurity; more exactly, a foretelling or an expectation of my going, in which, naturally enough, a certain degree of plan or intention may be included; emphasize the shall, and the event is described as certain to occur, and the expression approximates in meaning to our emphatic "I will go." In a question, the relation of speaker and source of obligation is of course transferred to the person addressed; as, "Shall you go?" (answer, "I shall go"); "Shall he go?" i. e., "Do you require or promise his going?" (answer, "He shall go".) The same relation is transferred to either second or third person in such phrases as "You say, or think, you shall go;" "He says, or thinks, he shall go." After a conditional conjunction (as if, whether) shall is used in all persons to express futurity simply; as, if I, you, or he shall say they are right. Should is everywhere used in the same connection and the same senses as shall, as its imperfect. It also expresses duty or moral obligation; as, he should do it whether he will or not. In the early English, and hence in our English Bible, shall is the auxiliary mainly used, in all the persons, to express simple futurity. (Cf. Will, v. t.) Shall may be used elliptically; thus, with an adverb or other word expressive of motion go may be omitted.

Shalloon (n.) A thin, loosely woven, twilled worsted stuff.

Sharpie (n.) A long, sharp, flat-bottomed boat, with one or two masts carrying a triangular sail. They are often called Fair Haven sharpies, after the place on the coast of Connecticut where they originated.

Sharp-set (a.) Eager in appetite or desire of gratification; affected by keen hunger; ravenous; as, an eagle or a lion sharp-set.

Shaven () of Shave

Shawnees (n. pl.) A tribe of North American Indians who occupied Western New York and part of Ohio, but were driven away and widely dispersed by the Iroquois.

Shelf (v. i.) A stratum lying in a very even manner; a flat, projecting layer of rock.

Shingle (v. t.) To cut, as hair, so that the ends are evenly exposed all over the head, as shingles on a roof.

Shipwreck (n.) The breaking in pieces, or shattering, of a ship or other vessel by being cast ashore or driven against rocks, shoals, etc., by the violence of the winds and waves.

Shock (n.) A sudden agitation of the mind or feelings; a sensation of pleasure or pain caused by something unexpected or overpowering; also, a sudden agitating or overpowering event.

Shoot (v. i.) To let fly, or cause to be driven, with force, as an arrow or a bullet; -- followed by a word denoting the missile, as an object.

Shoot (v. i.) To discharge, causing a missile to be driven forth; -- followed by a word denoting the weapon or instrument, as an object; -- often with off; as, to shoot a gun.

Shoot (v. i.) To be shot or propelled forcibly; -- said of a missile; to be emitted or driven; to move or extend swiftly, as if propelled; as, a shooting star.

Shore (n.) A prop, as a timber, placed as a brace or support against the side of a building or other structure; a prop placed beneath anything, as a beam, to prevent it from sinking or sagging.

Shot (a.) Woven in such a way as to produce an effect of variegation, of changeable tints, or of being figured; as, shot silks. See Shoot, v. t., 8.

Shoven () p. p. of Shove.

Show (v. t.) To make apparent or clear, as by evidence, testimony, or reasoning; to prove; to explain; also, to manifest; to evince; as, to show the truth of a statement; to show the causes of an event.

Showbread (n.) Bread of exhibition; loaves to set before God; -- the term used in translating the various phrases used in the Hebrew and Greek to designate the loaves of bread which the priest of the week placed before the Lord on the golden table in the sanctuary. They were made of fine flour unleavened, and were changed every Sabbath. The loaves, twelve in number, represented the twelve tribes of Israel. They were to be eaten by the priests only, and in the Holy Place.

Shrapnel (a.) Applied as an appellation to a kind of shell invented by Gen. H. Shrapnel of the British army.

Shrimp (v.) In a loose sense, any small crustacean, including some amphipods and even certain entomostracans; as, the fairy shrimp, and brine shrimp. See under Fairy, and Brine.

Shriven (p. p.) of Shrive

Shriven () p. p. of Shrive.

Shrovetide (n.) The days immediately preceding Ash Widnesday, especially the period between the evening before Quinguagesima Sunday and the morning of Ash Wednesday.

Shuffle (v. i.) To move in a slovenly, dragging manner; to drag or scrape the feet in walking or dancing.

Shuffle (n.) The act of shuffling; a mixing confusedly; a slovenly, dragging motion.

Si () A syllable applied, in solmization, to the note B; more recently, to the seventh tone of any major diatonic scale. It was added to Guido's scale by Le Maire about the end of the 17th century.

Siderography (n.) The art or practice of steel engraving; especially, the process, invented by Perkins, of multiplying facsimiles of an engraved steel plate by first rolling over it, when hardened, a soft steel cylinder, and then rolling the cylinder, when hardened, over a soft steel plate, which thus becomes a facsimile of the original. The process has been superseded by electrotypy.

Sieve (n.) A utensil for separating the finer and coarser parts of a pulverized or granulated substance from each other. It consist of a vessel, usually shallow, with the bottom perforated, or made of hair, wire, or the like, woven in meshes.

Sight-seeing (a.) Engaged in, or given to, seeing sights; eager for novelties or curiosities.

Sight-seer (n.) One given to seeing sights or noted things, or eager for novelties or curiosities.

Sigillaria (n. pl.) Little images or figures of earthenware exposed for sale, or given as presents, on the last two days of the Saturnalia; hence, the last two, or the sixth and seventh, days of the Saturnalia.

Sign (n.) A remarkable event, considered by the ancients as indicating the will of some deity; a prodigy; an omen.

Sign (n.) An event considered by the Jews as indicating the divine will, or as manifesting an interposition of the divine power for some special end; a miracle; a wonder.

Signal (n.) A sign made for the purpose of giving notice to a person of some occurence, command, or danger; also, a sign, event, or watchword, which has been agreed upon as the occasion of concerted action.

Signation (v. t.) Sign given; marking.

Signboard (n.) A board, placed on or before a shop, office, etc., on which ssome notice is given, as the name of a firm, of a business, or the like.

Significant (a.) Deserving to be considered; important; momentous; as, a significant event.

Significavit (n.) Formerly, a writ issuing out of chancery, upon certificate given by the ordinary, of a man's standing excommunicate by the space of forty days, for the laying him up in prison till he submit himself to the authority of the church.

Signify (n.) To show by a sign; to communicate by any conventional token, as words, gestures, signals, or the like; to announce; to make known; to declare; to express; as, a signified his desire to be present.

Silk (n.) Hence, thread spun, or cloth woven, from the above-named material.

Simple (a.) Not given to artifice, stratagem, or duplicity; undesigning; sincere; true.

Simultaneous (a.) Existing, happening, or done, at the same time; as, simultaneous events.

Sinaitic (a.) Of or pertaining to Mount Sinai; given or made at Mount Sinai; as, the Sinaitic law.

Since (prep.) From the time of; in or during the time subsequent to; subsequently to; after; -- usually with a past event or time for the object.

Sinch (n.) A saddle girth made of leather, canvas, woven horsehair, or woven grass.

Sing (v. i.) To utter sounds with musical inflections or melodious modulations of voice, as fancy may dictate, or according to the notes of a song or tune, or of a given part (as alto, tenor, etc.) in a chorus or concerted piece.

Siren (n.) An instrument for producing musical tones and for ascertaining the number of sound waves or vibrations per second which produce a note of a given pitch. The sounds are produced by a perforated rotating disk or disks. A form with two disks operated by steam or highly compressed air is used sounding an alarm to vessels in fog.

Sirvente (n.) A peculiar species of poetry, for the most part devoted to moral and religious topics, and commonly satirical, -- often used by the troubadours of the Middle Ages.

Siva (n.) One of the triad of Hindoo gods. He is the avenger or destroyer, and in modern worship symbolizes the reproductive power of nature.

Sivvens (n.) See Sibbens.

Size (n.) A conventional relative measure of dimension, as for shoes, gloves, and other articles made up for sale.

Skag (n.) An additional piece fastened to the keel of a boat to prevent lateral motion. See Skeg.

Skid (n.) A shoe or clog, as of iron, attached to a chain, and placed under the wheel of a wagon to prevent its turning when descending a steep hill; a drag; a skidpan; also, by extension, a hook attached to a chain, and used for the same purpose.

Skim (v. i.) To pass lightly; to glide along in an even, smooth course; to glide along near the surface.

Skipjack (n.) A name given to several kinds of a fish, as the common bluefish, the alewife, the bonito, the butterfish, the cutlass fish, the jurel, the leather jacket, the runner, the saurel, the saury, the threadfish, etc.

Sky (n.) The apparent arch, or vault, of heaven, which in a clear day is of a blue color; the heavens; the firmament; -- sometimes in the plural.

Skylark (n.) A lark that mounts and sings as it files, especially the common species (Alauda arvensis) found in Europe and in some parts of Asia, and celebrated for its melodious song; -- called also sky laverock. See under Lark.

Slacken (n.) A spongy, semivitrifled substance which miners or smelters mix with the ores of metals to prevent their fusion.

Slanderous (a.) Given or disposed to slander; uttering slander.

Slap (n.) A blow, esp. one given with the open hand, or with something broad.

Slatt (n.) A slab of stone used as a veneer for coarse masonry.

Slatternliness (n.) The quality or state of being slatternly; slovenliness; untidiness.

Slav (n.) One of a race of people occupying a large part of Eastern and Northern Europe, including the Russians, Bulgarians, Roumanians, Servo-Croats, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Wends or Sorbs, Slovaks, etc.

Sleek (superl.) Having an even, smooth surface; smooth; hence, glossy; as, sleek hair.

Sleek (v. t.) To make even and smooth; to render smooth, soft, and glossy; to smooth over.

Sleet (n.) Hail or snow, mingled with rain, usually falling, or driven by the wind, in fine particles.

Slide (n.) Smooth, even passage or progress.

Slight (v. t.) To make even or level.

Slippery (a.) Having the quality opposite to adhesiveness; allowing or causing anything to slip or move smoothly, rapidly, and easily upon the surface; smooth; glib; as, oily substances render things slippery.

Slipshod (a.) Figuratively: Careless in dress, manners, style, etc.; slovenly; shuffling; as, slipshod manners; a slipshod or loose style of writing.

Slobberer (n.) A slovenly farmer; a jobbing tailor.

Slopwork (n.) The manufacture of slops, or cheap ready-made clothing; also, such clothing; hence, hasty, slovenly work of any kind.

Sloven (n.) A man or boy habitually negligent of neathess and order; -- the correlative term to slattern, or slut.

Slovenliness (n.) The quality or state of being slovenly.

Slowenly (a.) Having the habits of a sloven; negligent of neatness and order, especially in dress.

Slowenly (a.) Characteristic of a solven; lacking neatness and order; evincing negligence; as, slovenly dress.

Slovenly (adv.) a slovenly manner.

Slovenness (n.) Slovenliness.

Slovenry (n.) Slovenliness.

Slubberingly (adv.) In a slovenly, or hurried and imperfect, manner.

Sluiceway (n.) An artificial channel into which water is let by a sluice; specifically, a trough constructed over the bed of a stream, so that logs, lumber, or rubbish can be floated down to some convenient place of delivery.

Smallage (n.) A biennial umbelliferous plant (Apium graveolens) native of the seacoats of Europe and Asia. When deprived of its acrid and even poisonous properties by cultivation, it becomes celery.

Smooth (superl.) Having an even surface, or a surface so even that no roughness or points can be perceived by the touch; not rough; as, smooth glass; smooth porcelain.

Smooth (superl.) Evenly spread or arranged; sleek; as, smooth hair.

Smooth (superl.) Flowing or uttered without check, obstruction, or hesitation; not harsh; voluble; even; fluent.

Smooth (a.) To make smooth; to make even on the surface by any means; as, to smooth a board with a plane; to smooth cloth with an iron.

Smother (v. t.) To destroy the life of by suffocation; to deprive of the air necessary for life; to cover up closely so as to prevent breathing; to suffocate; as, to smother a child.

Snake (n.) Any species of the order Ophidia; an ophidian; a serpent, whether harmless or venomous. See Ophidia, and Serpent.

Sneerful (a.) Given to sneering.

Snowflake (n.) A name given to several bulbous plants of the genus Leucoium (L. vernum, aestivum, etc.) resembling the snowdrop, but having all the perianth leaves of equal size.

Snug (superl.) Compact, convenient, and comfortable; as, a snug farm, house, or property.

Sock (n.) A knit or woven covering for the foot and lower leg; a stocking with a short leg.

Soiree (n.) An evening party; -- distinguished from levee, and matinee.

Solder (n.) To unite (metallic surfaces or edges) by the intervention of a more fusible metal or metallic alloy applied when melted; to join by means of metallic cement.

Sole (n.) A piece of timber attached to the lower part of the rudder, to make it even with the false keel.

Solemnity (n.) Ceremoniousness; impressiveness; seriousness; grave earnestness; formal dignity; gravity.

Solemnness (n.) The state or quality of being solemn; solemnity; impressiveness; gravity; as, the solemnness of public worship.

Solenostomi (n. pl.) A tribe of lophobranch fishes having a tubular snout. The female carries the eggs in a ventral pouch.

Solfatara (n.) A volcanic area or vent which yields only sulphur vapors, steam, and the like. It represents the stages of the volcanic activity.

Solid (a.) Impenetrable; resisting or excluding any other material particle or atom from any given portion of space; -- applied to the supposed ultimate particles of matter.

Solidity (n.) The state or quality of being solid; density; consistency, -- opposed to fluidity; compactness; fullness of matter, -- opposed to openness or hollowness; strength; soundness, -- opposed to weakness or instability; the primary quality or affection of matter by which its particles exclude or resist all others; hardness; massiveness.

Solitary (a.) Single; individual; sole; as, a solitary instance of vengeance; a solitary example.

Solution (n.) The act or process by which a body (whether solid, liquid, or gaseous) is absorbed into a liquid, and, remaining or becoming fluid, is diffused throughout the solvent; also, the product reulting from such absorption.

Solvability (n.) The condition of being solvent; ability to pay all just debts; solvency; as, the solvability of a merchant.

Solvable (a.) Able to pay one's debts; solvent.

Solvency (n.) The quality or state of being solvent.

Solvend (n.) A substance to be dissolved.

Solvent (a.) Having the power of dissolving; dissolving; as, a solvent fluid.

Solvent (a.) Able or sufficient to pay all just debts; as, a solvent merchant; the estate is solvent.

Solvent (n.) A substance (usually liquid) suitable for, or employed in, solution, or in dissolving something; as, water is the appropriate solvent of most salts, alcohol of resins, ether of fats, and mercury or acids of metals, etc.

Solvent (n.) That which resolves; as, a solvent of mystery.

Some (a.) A certain; one; -- indicating a person, thing, event, etc., as not known individually, or designated more specifically; as, some man, that is, some one man.

Something (n.) Anything unknown, undetermined, or not specifically designated; a certain indefinite thing; an indeterminate or unknown event; an unspecified task, work, or thing.

Sonata (n.) An extended composition for one or two instruments, consisting usually of three or four movements; as, Beethoven's sonatas for the piano, for the violin and piano, etc.

Soothsayer (n.) One who foretells events by the art of soothsaying; a prognosticator.

Soothsaying (n.) The act of one who soothsays; the foretelling of events; the art or practice of making predictions.

Sop (v. t.) Anything given to pacify; -- so called from the sop given to Cerberus, as related in mythology.

Souffle (n.) A side dish served hot from the oven at dinner, made of eggs, milk, and flour or other farinaceous substance, beaten till very light, and flavored with fruits, liquors, or essence.

Sound (v. i.) To make or convey a certain impression, or to have a certain import, when heard; hence, to seem; to appear; as, this reproof sounds harsh; the story sounds like an invention.

Southing (n.) The time at which the moon, or other heavenly body, passes the meridian of a place.

Southing (n.) Distance of any heavenly body south of the equator; south declination; south latitude.

Southron (n.) An inhabitant of the more southern part of a country; formerly, a name given in Scotland to any Englishman.

Souvenance (n.) Alt. of Sovenaunce

Sovenaunce (n.) Remembrance.

Souvenir (n.) That which serves as a reminder; a remembrancer; a memento; a keepsake.

Span (v. t.) A pair of horses or other animals driven together; usually, such a pair of horses when similar in color, form, and action.

Spatter-dock (n.) The common yellow water lily (Nuphar advena).

Spearfish (n.) A large and powerful fish (Tetrapturus albidus) related to the swordfish, but having scales and ventral fins. It is found on the American coast and the Mediterranean.

Spearwort (n.) A name given to several species of crowfoot (Ranunculus) which have spear-shaped leaves.

Specialty (n.) A contract or obligation under seal; a contract by deed; a writing, under seal, given as security for a debt particularly specified.

Species (n.) The form or shape given to materials; fashion or shape; form; figure.

Specific (a.) Exerting a peculiar influence over any part of the body; preventing or curing disease by a peculiar adaption, and not on general principles; as, quinine is a specific medicine in cases of malaria.

Specification (n.) A written statement containing a minute description or enumeration of particulars, as of charges against a public officer, the terms of a contract, the description of an invention, as in a patent; also, a single article, item, or particular, an allegation of a specific act, as in a charge of official misconduct.

Spectacular (a.) Adapted to excite wonder and admiration by a display of pomp or of scenic effects; as, a spectacular celebration of some event; a spectacular play.

Speculate (v. i.) To consider by turning a subject in the mind, and viewing it in its different aspects and relations; to meditate; to contemplate; to theorize; as, to speculate on questions in religion; to speculate on political events.

Speculate (v. i.) To view subjects from certain premises given or assumed, and infer conclusions respecting them a priori.

Speculation (n.) The act or process of reasoning a priori from premises given or assumed.

Speculation (n.) Any business venture in involving unusual risks, with a chance for large profits.

Speculative (a.) Given to speculation; contemplative.

Spekehouse (n.) The parlor or reception room of a convent.

Spencer (n.) A fore-and-aft sail, abaft the foremast or the mainmast, hoisted upon a small supplementary mast and set with a gaff and no boom; a trysail carried at the foremast or mainmast; -- named after its inventor, Knight Spencer, of England [1802].

Sphere (n.) The apparent surface of the heavens, which is assumed to be spherical and everywhere equally distant, in which the heavenly bodies appear to have their places, and on which the various astronomical circles, as of right ascension and declination, the equator, ecliptic, etc., are conceived to be drawn; an ideal geometrical sphere, with the astronomical and geographical circles in their proper positions on it.

Spheric (a.) Of or pertaining to the heavenly orbs, or to the sphere or spheres in which, according to ancient astronomy and astrology, they were set.

Spigot (n.) A pin or peg used to stop the vent in a cask; also, the plug of a faucet or cock.

Spike (v. t.) To stop the vent of (a gun or cannon) by driving a spike nail, or the like into it.

Spike (n.) Spike lavender. See Lavender.

Spile (n.) A small plug or wooden pin, used to stop a vent, as in a cask.

Spile (n.) A large stake driven into the ground as a support for some superstructure; a pile.

Spile (v. t.) To supply with a spile or a spigot; to make a small vent in, as a cask.

Spill (n.) One of the thick laths or poles driven horizontally ahead of the main timbering in advancing a level in loose ground.

Spillway (n.) A sluiceway or passage for superfluous water in a reservoir, to prevent too great pressure on the dam.

Spinetail (n.) Any one of several species of South American and Central American clamatorial birds belonging to Synallaxis and allied genera of the family Dendrocolaptidae. They are allied to the ovenbirds.

Spiracle (n.) Any small aperture or vent for air or other fluid.

Spiritual (a.) Of or pertaining to the soul or its affections as influenced by the Spirit; controlled and inspired by the divine Spirit; proceeding from the Holy Spirit; pure; holy; divine; heavenly-minded; -- opposed to carnal.

Spirituality (n.) The quality or state of being spiritual; incorporeality; heavenly-mindedness.

Spit-venom (n.) Poison spittle; poison ejected from the mouth.

Splashboard (n.) A guard in the front part of vehicle, to prevent splashing by a mud or water from the horse's heels; -- in the United States commonly called dashboard.

Spleen (n.) Anger; latent spite; ill humor; malice; as, to vent one's spleen.

Spoke (n.) A contrivance for fastening the wheel of a vehicle, to prevent it from turning in going down a hill.

Sponge (n.) Dough before it is kneaded and formed into loaves, and after it is converted into a light, spongy mass by the agency of the yeast or leaven.

Sponge (v. i.) To be converted, as dough, into a light, spongy mass by the agency of yeast, or leaven.

Spongiopilin (n.) A kind of cloth interwoven with small pieces of sponge and rendered waterproof on one side by a covering of rubber. When moistend with hot water it is used as a poultice.

Spoom (v. i.) To be driven steadily and swiftly, as before a strong wind; to be driven before the wind without any sail, or with only a part of the sails spread; to scud under bare poles.

Spoondrift (n.) Spray blown from the tops waves during a gale at sea; also, snow driven in the wind at sea; -- written also spindrift.

Sport (n.) That with which one plays, or which is driven about in play; a toy; a plaything; an object of mockery.

Sport (v. i.) To practice the diversions of the field or the turf; to be given to betting, as upon races.

Sportability (n.) Sportiveness.

Sprengel pump () A form of air pump in which exhaustion is produced by a stream of mercury running down a narrow tube, in the manner of an aspirator; -- named from the inventor.

Spurry (n.) An annual herb (Spergula arvensis) with whorled filiform leaves, sometimes grown in Europe for fodder.

Squally (a.) Not equally good throughout; not uniform; uneven; faulty; -- said of cloth.

Square (a.) Even; leaving no balance; as, to make or leave the accounts square.

Square (n.) To compare with, or reduce to, any given measure or standard.

Square (n.) To make even, so as leave no remainder of difference; to balance; as, to square accounts.

Stab (n.) Fig.: An injury inflicted covertly or suddenly; as, a stab given to character.

Stage (n.) A floor elevated for the convenience of mechanical work, or the like; a scaffold; a staging.

Stake (v. t.) A piece of wood, usually long and slender, pointed at one end so as to be easily driven into the ground as a support or stay; as, a stake to support vines, fences, hedges, etc.

Stake (v. t.) A stick inserted upright in a lop, eye, or mortise, at the side or end of a cart, a flat car, or the like, to prevent goods from falling off.

Stand (v. i.) The situation of a shop, store, hotel, etc.; as, a good, bad, or convenient stand for business.

Staple (n.) A loop of iron, or a bar or wire, bent and formed with two points to be driven into wood, to hold a hook, pin, or the like.

Star (n.) One of the innumerable luminous bodies seen in the heavens; any heavenly body other than the sun, moon, comets, and nebulae.

Star-chamber (n.) An ancient high court exercising jurisdiction in certain cases, mainly criminal, which sat without the intervention of a jury. It consisted of the king's council, or of the privy council only with the addition of certain judges. It could proceed on mere rumor or examine witnesses; it could apply torture. It was abolished by the Long Parliament in 1641.

Starlight (n.) The light given by the stars.

Starling (n.) A structure of piles driven round the piers of a bridge for protection and support; -- called also sterling.

Starriness (n.) The quality or state of being starry; as, the starriness of the heavens.

Start (v. t.) To bring onto being or into view; to originate; to invent.

State (n.) The circumstances or condition of a being or thing at any given time.

Station (n.) A regular stopping place in a stage road or route; a place where railroad trains regularly come to a stand, for the convenience of passengers, taking in fuel, moving freight, etc.

Steak (v. t.) A slice of beef, broiled, or cut for broiling; -- also extended to the meat of other large animals; as, venison steak; bear steak; pork steak; turtle steak.

Stealthful (a.) Given to stealth; stealthy.

Stellify (v. t.) To turn into a star; to cause to appear like a star; to place among the stars, or in heaven.

Stem (n.) The part of an inflected word which remains unchanged (except by euphonic variations) throughout a given inflection; theme; base.

Stercoranist (n.) A nickname formerly given to those who held, or were alleged to hold, that the consecrated elements in the eucharist undergo the process of digestion in the body of the recipient.

Sterilize (v. t.) To destroy all spores or germs in (an organic fluid or mixture), as by heat, so as to prevent the development of bacterial or other organisms.

Sternum (n.) The ventral part of any one of the somites of an arthropod.

Stethometer (n.) An apparatus for measuring the external movements of a given point of the chest wall, during respiration; -- also called thoracometer.

Steven (n.) Voice; speech; language.

Steven (n.) An outcry; a loud call; a clamor.

Stick (v. i.) To be prevented from going farther; to stop by reason of some obstacle; to be stayed.

Stickle (v. i.) To separate combatants by intervening.

Stickle (v. t.) To intervene in; to stop, or put an end to, by intervening; hence, to arbitrate.

Stifle (v. i.) To die by reason of obstruction of the breath, or because some noxious substance prevents respiration.

Still (adv.) Not disturbed by noise or agitation; quiet; calm; as, a still evening; a still atmosphere.

Still (a.) In an increasing or additional degree; even more; -- much used with comparatives.

Stinkwood (n.) A name given to several kinds of wood with an unpleasant smell, as that of the Foetidia Mauritiana of the Mauritius, and that of the South African Ocotea bullata.

Stipple (v. t.) To paint, as in water colors, by small, short touches which together produce an even or softly graded surface.

Stippling (n.) A mode of execution in which a flat or even tint is produced by many small touches.

Stipulate (v. i.) To make an agreement or covenant with any person or company to do or forbear anything; to bargain; to contract; to settle terms; as, certain princes stipulated to assist each other in resisting the armies of France.

Stipulation (n.) That which is stipulated, or agreed upon; that which is definitely arranged or contracted; an agreement; a covenant; a contract or bargain; also, any particular article, item, or condition, in a mutual agreement; as, the stipulations of the allied powers to furnish each his contingent of troops.

Stipulator (n.) One who stipulates, contracts, or covenants.

Stocking (n.) A close-fitting covering for the foot and leg, usually knit or woven.

Stoicism (n.) A real or pretended indifference to pleasure or pain; insensibility; impassiveness.

Stoop (n.) Originally, a covered porch with seats, at a house door; the Dutch stoep as introduced by the Dutch into New York. Afterward, an out-of-door flight of stairs of from seven to fourteen steps, with platform and parapets, leading to an entrance door some distance above the street; the French perron. Hence, any porch, platform, entrance stairway, or small veranda, at a house door.

Stop (v. t.) To hinder from acting or moving; to prevent the effect or efficiency of; to cause to cease; to repress; to restrain; to suppress; to interrupt; to suspend; as, to stop the execution of a decree, the progress of vice, the approaches of old age or infirmity.

Stop (n.) A member, plain or molded, formed of a separate piece and fixed to a jamb, against which a door or window shuts. This takes the place, or answers the purpose, of a rebate. Also, a pin or block to prevent a drawer from sliding too far.

Stopper (n.) One who stops, closes, shuts, or hinders; that which stops or obstructs; that which closes or fills a vent or hole in a vessel.

Stopping (n.) A partition or door to direct or prevent a current of air.

Storied (a.) Having a history; interesting from the stories which pertain to it; venerable from the associations of the past.

Storven () p. p. of Starve.

Story (n.) A narration or recital of that which has occurred; a description of past events; a history; a statement; a record.

Story (n.) The relation of an incident or minor event; a short narrative; a tale; especially, a fictitious narrative less elaborate than a novel; a short romance.

Straightedge (n.) A board, or piece of wood or metal, having one edge perfectly straight, -- used to ascertain whether a line is straight or a surface even, and for drawing straight lines.

Strainer (n.) That through which any liquid is passed for purification or to separate it from solid matter; anything, as a screen or a cloth, used to strain a liquid; a device of the character of a sieve or of a filter; specifically, an openwork or perforated screen, as for the end of the suction pipe of a pump, to prevent large solid bodies from entering with a liquid.

Strand (v. i.) To drift, or be driven, on shore to run aground; as, the ship stranded at high water.

Stratarithmetry (n.) The art of drawing up an army, or any given number of men, in any geometrical figure, or of estimating or expressing the number of men in such a figure.

Strength (n.) That quality which tends to secure results; effective power in an institution or enactment; security; validity; legal or moral force; logical conclusiveness; as, the strength of social or legal obligations; the strength of law; the strength of public opinion; strength of evidence; strength of argument.

Strike (v. t.) To cut off, as a mortar joint, even with the face of the wall, or inward at a slight angle.

Strike (v. i.) To quit work in order to compel an increase, or prevent a reduction, of wages.

Striven (p. p.) of Strive

Strived (p. p.) Striven.

Striven () p. p. of Strive.

Strobila (n.) A form of the larva of certain Discophora in a state of development succeeding the scyphistoma. The body of the strobila becomes elongated, and subdivides transversely into a series of lobate segments which eventually become ephyrae, or young medusae.

Strong (superl.) Pertaining to, or designating, a verb which forms its preterit (imperfect) by a variation in the root vowel, and the past participle (usually) by the addition of -en (with or without a change of the root vowel); as in the verbs strive, strove, striven; break, broke, broken; drink, drank, drunk. Opposed to weak, or regular. See Weak.

Studious (a.) Given to study; devoted to the acquisition of knowledge from books; as, a studious scholar.

Studious (a.) Given to thought, or to the examination of subjects by contemplation; contemplative.

Stuff (v. t.) Woven material not made into garments; fabric of any kind; specifically, any one of various fabrics of wool or worsted; sometimes, worsted fiber.

Stuffy (a.) Ill-ventilated; close.

Stultiloquent (a.) Given to, or characterized by, silly talk; babbling.

Stunt (v. t.) To hinder from growing to the natural size; to prevent the growth of; to stint, to dwarf; as, to stunt a child; to stunt a plant.

Stylet (n.) A stiff wire, inserted in catheters or other tubular instruments to maintain their shape and prevent clogging.

Stylet (n.) Any small, more or less rigid, bristlelike organ; as, the caudal stylets of certain insects; the ventral stylets of certain Infusoria.

Stylish (a.) Having style or artistic quality; given to, or fond of, the display of style; highly fashionable; modish; as, a stylish dress, house, manner.

Suant (a.) Spread equally over the surface; uniform; even.

Subastral (a.) Beneath the stars or heavens; terrestrial.

Subbrachiales (n. pl.) A division of soft-finned fishes in which the ventral fins are situated beneath the pectorial fins, or nearly so.

Subbronchial (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the bronchi; as, the subbronchial air sacs of birds.

Subcaudal (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the tail; as, the subcaudal, or chevron, bones.

Subcelestial (a.) Being beneath the heavens; as, subcelestial glories.

Subcranial (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the cranium; facial.

Subhepatic (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the liver; -- applied to the interlobular branches of the portal vein.

Subintestinal (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the intestine.

Subjection (a.) The state of being subject, or under the power, control, and government of another; a state of obedience or submissiveness; as, the safety of life, liberty, and property depends on our subjection to the laws.

Sublime (superl.) Awakening or expressing the emotion of awe, adoration, veneration, heroic resolve, etc.; dignified; grand; solemn; stately; -- said of an impressive object in nature, of an action, of a discourse, of a work of art, of a spectacle, etc.; as, sublime scenery; a sublime deed.

Sublumbar (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

Submissness (n.) Submissiveness.

Subnotochordal (a.) Situated on the ventral side of the notochord; as, the subnotochordal rod.

Subocular (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the eye.

Subpulmonary (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the lungs.

Subreligion (n.) A secondary religion; a belief or principle held in a quasi religious veneration.

Subsacral (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the sacrum.

Subscribe (v. t.) To sign with one's own hand; to give consent to, as something written, or to bind one's self to the terms of, by writing one's name beneath; as, parties subscribe a covenant or contract; a man subscribes a bond.

Subsemitone (n.) The sensible or leading note, or sharp seventh, of any key; subtonic.

Subseptuple (a.) Having the ratio of one to seven.

Subsequent (a.) Following in time; coming or being after something else at any time, indefinitely; as, subsequent events; subsequent ages or years; a period long subsequent to the foundation of Rome.

Subsidy (n.) A grant from the government, from a municipal corporation, or the like, to a private person or company to assist the establishment or support of an enterprise deemed advantageous to the public; a subvention; as, a subsidy to the owners of a line of ocean steamships.

Subsphenoidal (a.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the body of the sphenoid bone.

Substantiveness (n.) The quality or state of being substantive.

Subtile (a.) Delicately constituted or constructed; nice; fine; delicate; tenuous; finely woven.

Subtonic (n.) The seventh tone of the scale, or that immediately below the tonic; -- called also subsemitone.

Subvened (imp. & p. p.) of Subvene

Subvening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Subvene

Subvene (v. i.) To come under, as a support or stay; to happen.

Subventaneous (a.) Produced by the wind.

Subvention (n.) The act of coming under.

Subvention (n.) The act of relieving, as of a burden; support; aid; assistance; help.

Subvention (n.) A government aid or bounty.

Subvention (v. t.) To subventionize.

Subventionize (v. t.) To come to the aid of; to subsidize; to support.

Subventitious (a.) Helping; aiding; supporting.

Subvertebral (a.) Situated beneath, or on the ventral side of, the vertebral column; situated beneath, or inside of, the endoskeleton; hypaxial; hyposkeletal.

Succeed (v. i.) To come in the place of another person, thing, or event; to come next in the usual, natural, or prescribed course of things; to follow; hence, to come next in the possession of anything; -- often with to.

Succession (n.) A series of persons or things according to some established rule of precedence; as, a succession of kings, or of bishops; a succession of events in chronology.

Successionist (n.) A person who insists on the importance of a regular succession of events, offices, etc.; especially (Eccl.), one who insists that apostolic succession alone is valid.

Successiveness (n.) The quality or state of being successive.

Suent (a.) Uniformly or evenly distributed or spread; even; smooth. See Suant.

Suently (adv.) Evenly; smoothly.

Suffer (v. i.) To feel or undergo pain of body or mind; to bear what is inconvenient; as, we suffer from pain, sickness, or sorrow; we suffer with anxiety.

Sufferer (n.) One who suffers; one who endures or undergoes suffering; one who sustains inconvenience or loss; as, sufferers by poverty or sickness; men are sufferers by fire or by losses at sea.

Suffering (n.) The bearing of pain, inconvenience, or loss; pain endured; distress, loss, or injury incurred; as, sufferings by pain or sorrow; sufferings by want or by wrongs.

Sufflaminate (v. t.) To retard the motion of, as a carriage, by preventing one or more of its wheels from revolving, either by means of a chain or otherwise.

Suffrage (n.) A vote given in deciding a controverted question, or in the choice of a man for an office or trust; the formal expression of an opinion; assent; vote.

Suffrage (n.) A short petition, as those after the creed in matins and evensong.

Suggestion (n.) Information without oath; an entry of a material fact or circumstance on the record for the information of the court, at the death or insolvency of a party.

Summary (a.) Hence, rapidly performed; quickly executed; as, a summary process; to take summary vengeance.

Sumptuosity (n.) Expensiveness; costliness; sumptuousness.

Sun (n.) Any heavenly body which forms the center of a system of orbs.

Sun-burner (n.) A circle or cluster of gas-burners for lighting and ventilating public buildings.

Sunsetting (n.) The descent of the sun below the horizon; also, the time when the sun sets; evening. Also used figuratively.

Sunstone (n.) Aventurine feldspar. See under Aventurine.

Sup (v. i.) To eat the evening meal; to take supper.

Superadvenient (a.) Coming upon; coming in addition to, or in assistance of, something.

Supercelestial (a.) Situated above the firmament, or great vault of heaven.

Superheat (v. t.) To heat too much, to overheat; as, to superheat an oven.

Superior (n.) The head of a monastery, convent, abbey, or the like.

Superioress (n.) A woman who acts as chief in a convent, abbey, or nunnery; a lady superior.

Supernal (a.) Relating or belonging to things above; celestial; heavenly; as, supernal grace.

Superstition (n.) The worship of a false god or gods; false religion; religious veneration for objects.

Superstition (n.) Belief in the direct agency of superior powers in certain extraordinary or singular events, or in magic, omens, prognostics, or the like.

Supervened (imp. & p. p.) of Supervene

Supervening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Supervene

Supervene (v. i.) To come as something additional or extraneous; to occur with reference or relation to something else; to happen upon or after something else; to be added; to take place; to happen.

Supervenient (a.) Coming as something additional or extraneous; coming afterwards.

Supervention (n.) The act of supervening.

Supper (n.) A meal taken at the close of the day; the evening meal.

Suppress (v. t.) To keep in; to restrain from utterance or vent; as, to suppress the voice; to suppress a smile.

Suppress (v. t.) To retain without disclosure; to conceal; not to reveal; to prevent publication of; as, to suppress evidence; to suppress a pamphlet; to suppress the truth.

Surcharge (v. t.) To show an omission in (an account) for which credit ought to have been given.

Surcharge (n.) The showing an omission, as in an account, for which credit ought to have been given.

Surcoat (n.) A name given to the outer garment of either sex at different epochs of the Middle Ages.

Surplus (a.) Being or constituting a surplus; more than sufficient; as, surplus revenues; surplus population; surplus words.

Surprise (n.) The state of being surprised, or taken unawares, by some act or event which could not reasonably be foreseen; emotion excited by what is sudden and strange; a suddenly excited feeling of wonder or astonishment.

Survened (imp. & p. p.) of Survene

Survening (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Survene

Survene (v. t.) To supervene upon; to come as an addition to.

Survenue (n.) A sudden or unexpected coming or stepping on.

Survival (n.) A living or continuing longer than, or beyond the existence of, another person, thing, or event; an outliving.

Survive (v. t.) To live beyond the life or existence of; to live longer than; to outlive; to outlast; as, to survive a person or an event.

Survivency (n.) Survivorship.

Survivor (n.) One who survives or outlives another person, or any time, event, or thing.

Susceptibility (n.) Specifically, capacity for deep feeling or emotional excitement; sensibility, in its broadest acceptation; impressibility; sensitiveness.

Suspense (a.) Held or lifted up; held or prevented from proceeding.

Suspicious (a.) Inclined to suspect; given or prone to suspicion; apt to imagine without proof.

Suspiral (n.) A breathing hole; a vent or ventiduct.

Suture (n.) The line, or seam, formed by the union of two margins in any part of a plant; as, the ventral suture of a legume.

Sway-bracing (n.) The horizontal bracing of a bridge, which prevents its swaying.

Sweep (v. i.) To pass over, or traverse, with the eye or with an instrument of observation; as, to sweep the heavens with a telescope.

Sweepstakes (sing. / pl.) The whole money or other things staked at a horse race, a given sum being put up for each horse, all of which goes to the winner, or is divided among several, as may be previously agreed.

Swell (v. i.) To rise or be driven into waves or billows; to heave; as, in tempest, the ocean swells into waves.

Sweven (n.) A vision seen in sleep; a dream.

Swill (n.) The wash, or mixture of liquid substances, given to swine; hogwash; -- called also swillings.

Swipe (n.) A strong blow given with a sweeping motion, as with a bat or club.

Swish (n.) Light driven spray.

Sword (n.) Hence, the emblem of judicial vengeance or punishment, or of authority and power.

Swordfish (n.) A very large oceanic fish (Xiphias gladius), the only representative of the family Xiphiidae. It is highly valued as a food fish. The bones of the upper jaw are consolidated, and form a long, rigid, swordlike beak; the dorsal fin is high and without distinct spines; the ventral fins are absent. The adult is destitute of teeth. It becomes sixteen feet or more long.

Symbol (n.) A visible sign or representation of an idea; anything which suggests an idea or quality, or another thing, as by resemblance or by convention; an emblem; a representation; a type; a figure; as, the lion is the symbol of courage; the lamb is the symbol of meekness or patience.

Symphysis (n.) An articulation formed by intervening cartilage; as, the pubic symphysis.

Symploce (n.) The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning and another at the end of successive clauses; as, Justice came down from heaven to view the earth; Justice returned to heaven, and left the earth.

Symposium (n.) A collection of short essays by different authors on a common topic; -- so called from the appellation given to the philosophical dialogue by the Greeks.

Synchronal (n.) A synchronal thing or event.

Synchronism (n.) The concurrence of events in time; simultaneousness.

Synchronism (n.) The tabular arrangement of historical events and personages, according to their dates.

Synchronism (n.) A representation, in the same picture, of two or events which occured at different times.

Synchronization (n.) The act of synchronizing; concurrence of events in respect to time.

Synchronize (v. t.) To assign to the same date or period of time; as, to synchronize two events of Greek and Roman history.

Synchrony (n.) The concurrence of events in time; synchronism.

Syncopate (v. t.) To commence, as a tone, on an unaccented part of a measure, and continue it into the following accented part, so that the accent is driven back upon the weak part and the rhythm drags.

Syncretist (n.) an adherent of George Calixtus and other Germans of the seventeenth century, who sought to unite or reconcile the Protestant sects with each other and with the Roman Catholics, and thus occasioned a long and violent controversy in the Lutheran church.

Synentognathi (n. pl.) An order of fishes, resembling the Physoclisti, without spines in the dorsal, anal, and ventral fins. It includes the true flying fishes.

Syngnathi (n. pl.) A suborder of lophobranch fishes which have an elongated snout and lack the ventral and first dorsal fins. The pipefishes and sea horses are examples.

Synod (n.) A conjunction of two or more of the heavenly bodies.

Syphilis (n.) The pox, or venereal disease; a chronic, specific, infectious disease, usually communicated by sexual intercourse or by hereditary transmission, and occurring in three stages known as primary, secondary, and tertiary syphilis. See under Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary.

Syphilitically (adv.) In a syphilitic manner; with venereal disease.

Syphilization (n.) Inoculation with the syphilitic virus, especially when employed as a preventive measure, like vaccination.

Syssarcosis (n.) The junction of bones by intervening muscles.

Tabard (n.) A sort of tunic or mantle formerly worn for protection from the weather. When worn over the armor it was commonly emblazoned with the arms of the wearer, and from this the name was given to the garment adopted for heralds.

Tabby (n.) A kind of waved silk, usually called watered silk, manufactured like taffeta, but thicker and stronger. The watering is given to it by calendering.

Tablature (n.) Division into plates or tables with intervening spaces; as, the tablature of the cranial bones.

Table (v. t.) To insert, as one piece of timber into another, by alternate scores or projections from the middle, to prevent slipping; to scarf.

Taboo (n.) A total prohibition of intercourse with, use of, or approach to, a given person or thing under pain of death, -- an interdict of religious origin and authority, formerly common in the islands of Polynesia; interdiction.

Tachometer (n.) An instrument for showing at any moment the speed of a revolving shaft, consisting of a delicate revolving conical pendulum which is driven by the shaft, and the action of which by change of speed moves a pointer which indicates the speed on a graduated dial.

Taciturn (a.) Habitually silent; not given to converse; not apt to talk or speak.

Tacking (n.) A union of securities given at different times, all of which must be redeemed before an intermediate purchaser can interpose his claim.

Taenioglossa (n. pl.) An extensive division of gastropod mollusks in which the odontophore is long and narrow, and usually bears seven rows of teeth. It includes a large number of families both marine and fresh-water.

Tailboard (n.) The board at the rear end of a cart or wagon, which can be removed or let down, for convenience in loading or unloading.

Take (v. t.) To assume; to adopt; to acquire, as shape; to permit to one's self; to indulge or engage in; to yield to; to have or feel; to enjoy or experience, as rest, revenge, delight, shame; to form and adopt, as a resolution; -- used in general senses, limited by a following complement, in many idiomatic phrases; as, to take a resolution; I take the liberty to say.

Take (n.) The quantity or copy given to a compositor at one time.

Talipot (n.) A beautiful tropical palm tree (Corypha umbraculifera), a native of Ceylon and the Malabar coast. It has a trunk sixty or seventy feet high, bearing a crown of gigantic fan-shaped leaves which are used as umbrellas and as fans in ceremonial processions, and, when cut into strips, as a substitute for writing paper.

Talisman (n.) A magical figure cut or engraved under certain superstitious observances of the configuration of the heavens, to which wonderful effects are ascribed; the seal, figure, character, or image, of a heavenly sign, constellation, or planet, engraved on a sympathetic stone, or on a metal corresponding to the star, in order to receive its influence.

Talk (v. t.) To consume or spend in talking; -- often followed by away; as, to talk away an evening.

Talkative (a.) Given to much talking.

Talking (a.) Given to talk; loquacious.

Taluk (n.) A large estate; esp., one constituting a revenue district or dependency the native proprietor of which is responsible for the collection and payment of the public revenue due from it.

Tambourin (n.) An old Provencal dance of a lively character, common on the stage.

Tamp (v. t.) In blasting, to plug up with clay, earth, dry sand, sod, or other material, as a hole bored in a rock, in order to prevent the force of the explosion from being misdirected.

Tampan (n.) A venomous South African tick.

Tandem (adv. & a.) One after another; -- said especially of horses harnessed and driven one before another, instead of abreast.

Tangent (v. t.) A tangent line curve, or surface; specifically, that portion of the straight line tangent to a curve that is between the point of tangency and a given line, the given line being, for example, the axis of abscissas, or a radius of a circle produced. See Trigonometrical function, under Function.

Tangle (v.) A knot of threads, or other thing, united confusedly, or so interwoven as not to be easily disengaged; a snarl; as, hair or yarn in tangles; a tangle of vines and briers. Used also figuratively.

Tangram (n.) A Chinese toy made by cutting a square of thin wood, or other suitable material, into seven pieces, as shown in the cut, these pieces being capable of combination in various ways, so as to form a great number of different figures. It is now often used in primary schools as a means of instruction.

Tansy (n.) A dish common in the seventeenth century, made of eggs, sugar, rose water, cream, and the juice of herbs, baked with butter in a shallow dish.

Tap (n.) A signal, by drum or trumpet, for extinguishing all lights in soldiers' quarters and retiring to bed, -- usually given about a quarter of an hour after tattoo.

Tape (n.) A narrow fillet or band of cotton or linen; a narrow woven fabric used for strings and the like; as, curtains tied with tape.

Tarantula (n.) Any one of several species of large spiders, popularly supposed to be very venomous, especially the European species (Tarantula apuliae). The tarantulas of Texas and adjacent countries are large species of Mygale.

Tariff (n.) A schedule, system, or scheme of duties imposed by the government of a country upon goods imported or exported; as, a revenue tariff; a protective tariff; Clay's compromise tariff. (U. S. 1833).

Tarsus (n.) The ankle; the bones or cartilages of the part of the foot between the metatarsus and the leg, consisting in man of seven short bones.

Tartarus (n.) The infernal regions, described in the Iliad as situated as far below Hades as heaven is above the earth, and by later writers as the place of punishment for the spirits of the wicked. By the later poets, also, the name is often used synonymously with Hades, or the Lower World in general.

Tarweed (n.) A name given to several resinous-glandular composite plants of California, esp. to the species of Grindelia, Hemizonia, and Madia.

Taste (n.) A small portion given as a specimen; a little piece tastted of eaten; a bit.

Tattling (a.) Given to idle talk; apt to tell tales.

Taxation (n.) The act of laying a tax, or of imposing taxes, as on the subjects of a state, by government, or on the members of a corporation or company, by the proper authority; the raising of revenue; also, a system of raising revenue.

Taxgatherer (n.) One who collects taxes or revenues.

Tea (n.) The evening meal, at which tea is usually served; supper.

Tear-thumb (n.) A name given to several species of plants of the genus Polygonum, having angular stems beset with minute reflexed prickles.

Telescope (n.) An optical instrument used in viewing distant objects, as the heavenly bodies.

Teller (n.) One who is appointed to count the votes given in a legislative body, public meeting, assembly, etc.

Temerarious (a.) Unreasonably adventurous; despising danger; rash; headstrong; audacious; reckless; heedless.

Temerity (n.) Unreasonable contempt of danger; extreme venturesomeness; rashness; as, the temerity of a commander in war.

Temperament (v. t.) A system of compromises in the tuning of organs, pianofortes, and the like, whereby the tones generated with the vibrations of a ground tone are mutually modified and in part canceled, until their number reduced to the actual practicable scale of twelve tones to the octave. This scale, although in so far artificial, is yet closely suggestive of its origin in nature, and this system of tuning, although not mathematically true, yet satisfies the ear, while it has the convenience that the same twelve fixed tones answer for every key or scale, C/ becoming identical with D/, and so on.

Temple (n.) A contrivence used in a loom for keeping the web stretched transversely.

Temporality (n.) That which pertains to temporal welfare; material interests; especially, the revenue of an ecclesiastic proceeding from lands, tenements, or lay fees, tithes, and the like; -- chiefly used in the plural.

Tenacity (n.) The quality or state of being tenacious; as, tenacity, or retentiveness, of memory; tenacity, or persistency, of purpose.

Tenacity (n.) That quality of bodies which keeps them from parting without considerable force; cohesiveness; the effect of attraction; -- as distinguished from brittleness, fragility, mobility, etc.

Tenacity (n.) That quality of bodies which makes them adhere to other bodies; adhesiveness; viscosity.

Tender (superl.) Susceptible of the softer passions, as love, compassion, kindness; compassionate; pitiful; anxious for another's good; easily excited to pity, forgiveness, or favor; sympathetic.

Tenebrae (n.) The matins and lauds for the last three days of Holy Week, commemorating the sufferings and death of Christ, -- usually sung on the afternoon or evening of Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, instead of on the following days.

Tennis (n.) A play in which a ball is driven to and fro, or kept in motion by striking it with a racket or with the open hand.

Tense (n.) One of the forms which a verb takes by inflection or by adding auxiliary words, so as to indicate the time of the action or event signified; the modification which verbs undergo for the indication of time.

Tension (a.) The quality in consequence of which an electric charge tends to discharge itself, as into the air by a spark, or to pass from a body of greater to one of less electrical potential. It varies as the quantity of electricity upon a given area.

Tenter (n.) A machine or frame for stretching cloth by means of hooks, called tenter-hooks, so that it may dry even and square.

Tercentenary (n.) The three hundredth anniversary of any event; also, a celebration of such an anniversary.

Teretial (a.) Rounded; as, the teretial tracts in the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain of some fishes.

Term (n.) In universities, schools, etc., a definite continuous period during which instruction is regularly given to students; as, the school year is divided into three terms.

Terma (n.) The terminal lamina, or thin ventral part, of the anterior wall of the third ventricle of the brain.

Ternary (a.) Proceeding by threes; consisting of three; as, the ternary number was anciently esteemed a symbol of perfection, and held in great veneration.

Tertian (n.) A liquid measure formerly used for wine, equal to seventy imperial, or eighty-four wine, gallons, being one third of a tun.

Testable (a.) Capable of being devised, or given by will.

Testament (n.) One of the two distinct revelations of God's purposes toward man; a covenant; also, one of the two general divisions of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures, in which the covenants are respectively revealed; as, the Old Testament; the New Testament; -- often limited, in colloquial language, to the latter.

Testamentary (a.) Bequeathed by will; given by testament.

Testone (n.) A silver coin of Portugal, worth about sixpence sterling, or about eleven cents.

Testudinata (n. pl.) An order of reptiles which includes the turtles and tortoises. The body is covered by a shell consisting of an upper or dorsal shell, called the carapace, and a lower or ventral shell, called the plastron, each of which consists of several plates.

Textile (a.) Pertaining to weaving or to woven fabrics; as, textile arts; woven, capable of being woven; formed by weaving; as, textile fabrics.

Textile (n.) That which is, or may be, woven; a fabric made by weaving.

Texture (n.) That which woven; a woven fabric; a web.

Texture (n.) The disposition or connection of threads, filaments, or other slender bodies, interwoven; as, the texture of cloth or of a spider's web.

Thalamocoele (n.) The cavity or ventricle of the thalamencephalon; the third ventricle.

Thalamus (n.) A mass of nervous matter on either side of the third ventricle of the brain; -- called also optic thalamus.

Thallogen (n.) One of a large class or division of the vegetable kingdom, which includes those flowerless plants, such as fungi, algae, and lichens, that consist of a thallus only, composed of cellular tissue, or of a congeries of cells, or even of separate cells, and never show a distinction into root, stem, and leaf.

Thaumaturgus (n.) A miracle worker; -- a title given by the Roman Catholics to some saints.

Theatre (n.) A place or region where great events are enacted; as, the theater of war.

Theopneustic (a.) Given by the inspiration of the Spirit of God.

Theorist (n.) One who forms theories; one given to theory and speculation; a speculatist.

Therapeutae (n. pl.) A name given to certain ascetics said to have anciently dwelt in the neighborhood of Alexandria. They are described in a work attributed to Philo, the genuineness and credibility of which are now much discredited.

Thereat (adv.) At that occurrence or event; on that account.

Therf (a.) Not fermented; unleavened; -- said of bread, loaves, etc.

Thermidor (n.) The eleventh month of the French republican calendar, -- commencing July 19, and ending August 17. See the Note under Vendemiaire.

Thermopile (n.) An instrument of extreme sensibility, used to determine slight differences and degrees of heat. It is composed of alternate bars of antimony and bismuth, or any two metals having different capacities for the conduction of heat, connected with an astatic galvanometer, which is very sensibly affected by the electric current induced in the system of bars when exposed even to the feeblest degrees of heat.

Thick (superl.) Measuring in the third dimension other than length and breadth, or in general dimension other than length; -- said of a solid body; as, a timber seven inches thick.

Thickskin (n.) A coarse, gross person; a person void of sensibility or sinsitiveness; a dullard.

Thievish (a.) Given to stealing; addicted to theft; as, a thievish boy, a thievish magpie.

Thing (n.) A transaction or occurrence; an event; a deed.

Think (v. t.) To presume; to venture.

Thoracic (n.) One of a group of fishes having the ventral fins placed beneath the thorax or beneath the pectorial fins.

Thornbird (n.) A small South American bird (Anumbius anumbii) allied to the ovenbirds of the genus Furnarius). It builds a very large and complex nest of twigs and thorns in a bush or tree.

Thoth (n.) The god of eloquence and letters among the ancient Egyptians, and supposed to be the inventor of writing and philosophy. He corresponded to the Mercury of the Romans, and was usually represented as a human figure with the head of an ibis or a lamb.

Thresher (n.) A name given to the brown thrush and other allied species. See Brown thrush.

Thrifty (superl.) Given to, or evincing, thrift; characterized by economy and good menegement of property; sparing; frugal.

Thriven () of Thrive

Thriven () p. p. of Thrive.

Throat (n.) The part of the neck in front of, or ventral to, the vertebral column.

Throne (n.) A high order of angels in the celestial hierarchy; -- a meaning given by the schoolmen.

Throng (n.) A great multitude; as, the heavenly throng.

Through (prep.) Between the sides or walls of; within; as, to pass through a door; to go through an avenue.

Throw (v. t.) To cast, as dice; to venture at dice.

Throw (v. t.) To give forcible utterance to; to cast; to vent.

Throw (n.) The extreme movement given to a sliding or vibrating reciprocating piece by a cam, crank, eccentric, or the like; travel; stroke; as, the throw of a slide valve. Also, frequently, the length of the radius of a crank, or the eccentricity of an eccentric; as, the throw of the crank of a steam engine is equal to half the stroke of the piston.

Thule (n.) The name given by ancient geographers to the northernmost part of the habitable world. According to some, this land was Norway, according to others, Iceland, or more probably Mainland, the largest of the Shetland islands; hence, the Latin phrase ultima Thule, farthest Thule.

Thunderbolt (n.) A shaft of lightning; a brilliant stream of electricity passing from one part of the heavens to another, or from the clouds to the earth.

Thunderbolt (n.) Something resembling lightning in suddenness and effectiveness.

Thwart (v. t.) To cross, as a purpose; to oppose; to run counter to; to contravene; hence, to frustrate or defeat.

Ticking (n.) A strong, closely woven linen or cotton fabric, of which ticks for beds are made. It is usually twilled, and woven in stripes of different colors, as white and blue; -- called also ticken.

Ticpolonga (n.) A very venomous viper (Daboia Russellii), native of Ceylon and India; -- called also cobra monil.

Tide (prep.) Tendency or direction of causes, influences, or events; course; current.

Tie (v. t.) An equality in numbers, as of votes, scores, etc., which prevents either party from being victorious; equality in any contest, as a race.

Tie (v. t.) To make an equal score with, in a contest; to be even with.

Tiebeam (n.) A beam acting as a tie, as at the bottom of a pair of principal rafters, to prevent them from thrusting out the wall. See Illust. of Timbers, under Roof.

Tiger's-foot (n.) A name given to some species of morning-glory (Ipomoea) having the leaves lobed in pedate fashion.

Time (n.) The period at which any definite event occurred, or person lived; age; period; era; as, the Spanish Armada was destroyed in the time of Queen Elizabeth; -- often in the plural; as, ancient times; modern times.

Time (n.) Performance or occurrence of an action or event, considered with reference to repetition; addition of a number to itself; repetition; as, to double cloth four times; four times four, or sixteen.

Time-honored (a.) Honored for a long time; venerable, and worthy of honor, by reason of antiquity, or long continuance.

Tincture (n.) The finer and more volatile parts of a substance, separated by a solvent; an extract of a part of the substance of a body communicated to the solvent.

Tineman (n.) An officer of the forest who had the care of vert and venison by night.

Tinsel (n.) A shining material used for ornamental purposes; especially, a very thin, gauzelike cloth with much gold or silver woven into it; also, very thin metal overlaid with a thin coating of gold or silver, brass foil, or the like.

Tipping (n.) A distinct articulation given in playing quick notes on the flute, by striking the tongue against the roof of the mouth; double-tonguing.

Tisar (n.) The fireplace at the side of an annealing oven.

Tisri (n.) The seventh month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, answering to a part of September with a part of October.

Tissue (n.) A woven fabric.

Tissue (n.) A fine transparent silk stuff, used for veils, etc.; specifically, cloth interwoven with gold or silver threads, or embossed with figures.

Title (n.) An appellation of dignity, distinction, or preeminence (hereditary or acquired), given to persons, as duke marquis, honorable, esquire, etc.

Tmesis (n.) The separation of the parts of a compound word by the intervention of one or more words; as, in what place soever, for whatsoever place.

To (prep.) In a very general way, and with innumerable varieties of application, to connects transitive verbs with their remoter or indirect object, and adjectives, nouns, and neuter or passive verbs with a following noun which limits their action. Its sphere verges upon that of for, but it contains less the idea of design or appropriation; as, these remarks were addressed to a large audience; let us keep this seat to ourselves; a substance sweet to the taste; an event painful to the mind; duty to God and to our parents; a dislike to spirituous liquor.

To (prep.) As sign of the infinitive, to had originally the use of last defined, governing the infinitive as a verbal noun, and connecting it as indirect object with a preceding verb or adjective; thus, ready to go, i.e., ready unto going; good to eat, i.e., good for eating; I do my utmost to lead my life pleasantly. But it has come to be the almost constant prefix to the infinitive, even in situations where it has no prepositional meaning, as where the infinitive is direct object or subject; thus, I love to learn, i.e., I love learning; to die for one's country is noble, i.e., the dying for one's country. Where the infinitive denotes the design or purpose, good usage formerly allowed the prefixing of for to the to; as, what went ye out for see? (Matt. xi. 8).

To (prep.) Comparison; as, three is to nine as nine is to twenty-seven; it is ten to one that you will offend him.

Toadstool (n.) A name given to many umbrella-shaped fungi, mostly of the genus Agaricus. The species are almost numberless. They grow on decaying organic matter.

Toed (a.) Having the end secured by nails driven obliquely, said of a board, plank, or joist serving as a brace, and in general of any part of a frame secured to other parts by diagonal nailing.

Token (n.) Something intended or supposed to represent or indicate another thing or an event; a sign; a symbol; as, the rainbow is a token of God's covenant established with Noah.

Token (n.) A memorial of friendship; something by which the friendship of another person is to be kept in mind; a memento; a souvenir.

Token (n.) Something given or shown as a symbol or guarantee of authority or right; a sign of authenticity, of power, good faith, etc.

Token (n.) A piece of metal given beforehand to each person in the congregation who is permitted to partake of the Lord's Supper.

Tolerate (v. t.) To suffer to be, or to be done, without prohibition or hindrance; to allow or permit negatively, by not preventing; not to restrain; to put up with; as, to tolerate doubtful practices.

Toll (n.) A tax paid for some liberty or privilege, particularly for the privilege of passing over a bridge or on a highway, or for that of vending goods in a fair, market, or the like.

Ton (n.) A certain weight or quantity of merchandise, with reference to transportation as freight; as, six hundred weight of ship bread in casks, seven hundred weight in bags, eight hundred weight in bulk; ten bushels of potatoes; eight sacks, or ten barrels, of flour; forty cubic feet of rough, or fifty cubic feet of hewn, timber, etc.

Tone (n.) A sound considered as to pitch; as, the seven tones of the octave; she has good high tones.

Tonsure (n.) The first ceremony used for devoting a person to the service of God and the church; the first degree of the clericate, given by a bishop, abbot, or cardinal priest, consisting in cutting off the hair from a circular space at the back of the head, with prayers and benedictions; hence, entrance or admission into minor orders.

Tonsure (n.) The shaven corona, or crown, which priests wear as a mark of their order and of their rank.

Tonsured (a.) Having the tonsure; shaven; shorn; clipped; hence, bald.

Top (n.) A platform surrounding the head of the lower mast and projecting on all sudes. It serves to spead the topmast rigging, thus strengheningthe mast, and also furnishes a convenient standing place for the men aloft.

Top-chain (n.) A chain for slinging the lower yards, in time of action, to prevent their falling, if the ropes by which they are hung are shot away.

Tops-and-bottoms (n. pl.) Small rolls of dough, baked, cut in halves, and then browned in an oven, -- used as food for infants.

Tortilla (n.) An unleavened cake, as of maize flour, baked on a heated iron or stone.

Tortrix (n.) A genus of tropical short-tailed snakes, which are not venomous. One species (Tortrix scytalae) is handsomely banded with black, and is sometimes worn alive by the natives of Brazil for a necklace.

Torus (n.) One of the ventral parapodia of tubicolous annelids. It usually has the form of an oblong thickening or elevation of the integument with rows of uncini or hooks along the center. See Illust. under Tubicolae.

Tosspot (n.) A toper; one habitually given to strong drink; a drunkard.

Touchhole (n.) The vent of a cannot or other firearm, by which fire is communicateed to the powder of the charge.

Tour (v. t.) A turn; a revolution; as, the tours of the heavenly bodies.

Toweling (n.) Cloth for towels, especially such as is woven in long pieces to be cut at will, as distinguished from that woven in towel lengths with borders, etc.

Tower (n.) A headdress of a high or towerlike form, fashionable about the end of the seventeenth century and until 1715; also, any high headdress.

Trace (v. t.) A very small quantity of an element or compound in a given substance, especially when so small that the amount is not quantitatively determined in an analysis; -- hence, in stating an analysis, often contracted to tr.

Tractrix (n.) A curve such that the part of the tangent between the point of tangency and a given straight line is constant; -- so called because it was conceived as described by the motion of one end of a tangent line as the other end was drawn along the given line.

Tradition (n.) An unwritten code of law represented to have been given by God to Moses on Sinai.

Traditor (n.) A deliverer; -- a name of infamy given to Christians who delivered the Scriptures, or the goods of the church, to their persecutors to save their lives.

Tragedy (n.) A fatal and mournful event; any event in which human lives are lost by human violence, more especially by unauthorized violence.

Transcend (v. t.) To rise above; to surmount; as, lights in the heavens transcending the region of the clouds.

Transcription (n.) An arrangement of a composition for some other instrument or voice than that for which it was originally written, as the translating of a song, a vocal or instrumental quartet, or even an orchestral work, into a piece for the piano; an adaptation; an arrangement; -- a name applied by modern composers for the piano to a more or less fanciful and ornate reproduction on their own instrument of a song or other piece not originally intended for it; as, Liszt's transcriptions of songs by Schubert.

Transformer (n.) One who, or that which, transforms. Specif. (Elec.), an apparatus for producing from a given electrical current another current of different voltage.

Transit (n.) The passage of a heavenly body over the meridian of a place, or through the field of a telescope.

Transit (v. t.) To pass over the disk of (a heavenly body).

Translate (v. t.) To remove to heaven without a natural death.

Transmission (n.) The right possessed by an heir or legatee of transmitting to his successor or successors any inheritance, legacy, right, or privilege, to which he is entitled, even if he should die without enjoying or exercising it.

Transposition (n.) A change of the natural order of words in a sentence; as, the Latin and Greek languages admit transposition, without inconvenience, to a much greater extent than the English.

Trap (n.) A bend, sag, or partitioned chamber, in a drain, soil pipe, sewer, etc., arranged so that the liquid contents form a seal which prevents passage of air or gas, but permits the flow of liquids.

Trapdoor (n.) A door in a level for regulating the ventilating current; -- called also weather door.

Trapezium (n.) A region on the ventral side of the brain, either just back of the pons Varolii, or, as in man, covered by the posterior extension of its transverse fibers.

Treasurer (n.) One who has the care of a treasure or treasure or treasury; an officer who receives the public money arising from taxes and duties, or other sources of revenue, takes charge of the same, and disburses it upon orders made by the proper authority; one who has charge of collected funds; as, the treasurer of a society or corporation.

Treasury (n.) A place or building in which stores of wealth are deposited; especially, a place where public revenues are deposited and kept, and where money is disbursed to defray the expenses of government; hence, also, the place of deposit and disbursement of any collected funds.

Treat (n.) An entertainment given as an expression of regard.

Trespass (v. i.) To go too far; to put any one to inconvenience by demand or importunity; to intrude; as, to trespass upon the time or patience of another.

Tribalism (n.) The state of existing in tribes; also, tribal feeling; tribal prejudice or exclusiveness; tribal peculiarities or characteristics.

Tribute (n.) A certain proportion of the ore raised, or of its value, given to the miner as his recompense.

Tricentenary (n.) A period of three centuries, or three hundred years, also, the three-hundredth anniversary of any event; a tercentenary.

Tricking (a.) Given to tricks; tricky.

Trickish (a.) Given to tricks; artful in making bargains; given to deception and cheating; knavish.

Tricky (a.) Given to tricks; practicing deception; trickish; knavish.

Trig (n.) A stone, block of wood, or anything else, placed under a wheel or barrel to prevent motion; a scotch; a skid.

Trigonometry (n.) That branch of mathematics which treats of the relations of the sides and angles of triangles, which the methods of deducing from certain given parts other required parts, and also of the general relations which exist between the trigonometrical functions of arcs or angles.

Triolet (n.) A short poem or stanza of eight lines, in which the first line is repeated as the fourth and again as the seventh line, the second being, repeated as the eighth.

Trisyllable (n.) A word consisting of three syllables only; as, a-ven-ger.

Trombone (n.) A powerful brass instrument of the trumpet kind, thought by some to be the ancient sackbut, consisting of a tube in three parts, bent twice upon itself and ending in a bell. The middle part, bent double, slips into the outer parts, as in a telescope, so that by change of the vibrating length any tone within the compass of the instrument (which may be bass or tenor or alto or even, in rare instances, soprano) is commanded. It is the only member of the family of wind instruments whose scale, both diatonic and chromatic, is complete without the aid of keys or pistons, and which can slide from note to note as smoothly as the human voice or a violin. Softly blown, it has a rich and mellow sound, which becomes harsh and blatant when the tones are forced; used with discretion, its effect is often solemn and majestic.

Tropaeolin (n.) A name given to any one of a series of orange-red dyestuffs produced artificially from certain complex sulphonic acid derivatives of azo and diazo hydrocarbons of the aromatic series; -- so called because of the general resemblance to the shades of nasturtium (Tropaeolum).

Trotter (n.) One that trots; especially, a horse trained to be driven in trotting matches.

Troubadour (n.) One of a school of poets who flourished from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, principally in Provence, in the south of France, and also in the north of Italy. They invented, and especially cultivated, a kind of lyrical poetry characterized by intricacy of meter and rhyme, and usually of a romantic, amatory strain.

Trouveur (n.) One of a school of poets who flourished in Northern France from the eleventh to the fourteenth century.

Trucebreaker (n.) One who violates a truce, covenant, or engagement.

True-blue (a.) Of inflexible honesty and fidelity; -- a term derived from the true, or Coventry, blue, formerly celebrated for its unchanging color. See True blue, under Blue.

Trumpet (n.) A wind instrument of great antiquity, much used in war and military exercises, and of great value in the orchestra. In consists of a long metallic tube, curved (once or twice) into a convenient shape, and ending in a bell. Its scale in the lower octaves is limited to the first natural harmonics; but there are modern trumpets capable, by means of valves or pistons, of producing every tone within their compass, although at the expense of the true ringing quality of tone.

Trunk (n.) A long tube through which pellets of clay, p/as, etc., are driven by the force of the breath.

Truss (n.) An assemblage of members of wood or metal, supported at two points, and arranged to transmit pressure vertically to those points, with the least possible strain across the length of any member. Architectural trusses when left visible, as in open timber roofs, often contain members not needed for construction, or are built with greater massiveness than is requisite, or are composed in unscientific ways in accordance with the exigencies of style.

Trust (n.) Credit given; especially, delivery of property or merchandise in reliance upon future payment; exchange without immediate receipt of an equivalent; as, to sell or buy goods on trust.

Trust (n.) To risk; to venture confidently.

Tsetse (n.) A venomous two-winged African fly (Glossina morsitans) whose bite is very poisonous, and even fatal, to horses and cattle, but harmless to men. It renders extensive districts in which it abounds uninhabitable during certain seasons of the year.

Tumbleweed (n.) Any plant which habitually breaks away from its roots in the autumn, and is driven by the wind, as a light, rolling mass, over the fields and prairies; as witch grass, wild indigo, Amarantus albus, etc.

Tunnel (n. .) A level passage driven across the measures, or at right angles to veins which it is desired to reach; -- distinguished from the drift, or gangway, which is led along the vein when reached by the tunnel.

Turn (v. t.) To cause to move upon a center, or as if upon a center; to give circular motion to; to cause to revolve; to cause to move round, either partially, wholly, or repeatedly; to make to change position so as to present other sides in given directions; to make to face otherwise; as, to turn a wheel or a spindle; to turn the body or the head.

Turn (v. t.) To give another direction, tendency, or inclination to; to direct otherwise; to deflect; to incline differently; -- used both literally and figuratively; as, to turn the eyes to the heavens; to turn a horse from the road, or a ship from her course; to turn the attention to or from something.

Turn (v. t.) To change from a given use or office; to divert, as to another purpose or end; to transfer; to use or employ; to apply; to devote.

Turn (v. i.) To result or terminate; to come about; to eventuate; to issue.

Turn (n.) Convenience; occasion; purpose; exigence; as, this will not serve his turn.

Turn (n.) A fall off the ladder at the gallows; a hanging; -- so called from the practice of causing the criminal to stand on a ladder which was turned over, so throwing him off, when the signal was given.

Turnstile (n.) A revolving frame in a footpath, preventing the passage of horses or cattle, but admitting that of persons; a turnpike. See Turnpike, n., 1.

Turret (n.) A movable building, of a square form, consisting of ten or even twenty stories and sometimes one hundred and twenty cubits high, usually moved on wheels, and employed in approaching a fortified place, for carrying soldiers, engines, ladders, casting bridges, and other necessaries.

Turret (n.) The elevated central portion of the roof of a passenger car. Its sides are pierced for light and ventilation.

Twelfth (a.) Next in order after the eleventh; coming after eleven others; -- the ordinal of twelve.

Twelfth (n.) The next in order after the eleventh.

Twelfth-night (n.) The evening of Epiphany, or the twelfth day after Christmas, observed as a festival by various churches.

Twelve (a.) One more that eleven; two and ten; twice six; a dozen.

Twelve (n.) The number next following eleven; the sum of ten and two, or of twice six; twelve units or objects; a dozen.

Twist (n.) The form given in twisting.

Two-ply (a.) Woven double, as cloth or carpeting, by incorporating two sets of warp thread and two of weft.

Tyburn ticket () A certificate given to one who prosecutes a felon to conviction, exempting him from certain parish and ward offices.

Type (n.) A simple compound, used as a mode or pattern to which other compounds are conveniently regarded as being related, and from which they may be actually or theoretically derived.

Ularburong (n.) A large East Indian nocturnal tree snake (Dipsas dendrophila). It is not venomous.

Ultimate (v. t. & i.) To come or bring to an end; to eventuate; to end.

Ultion (n.) The act of taking vengeance; revenge.

Ultrazodiacal (a.) Outside the zodiac; being in that part of the heavens that is more than eight degrees from the ecliptic; as, ultrazodiacal planets, that is, those planets which in part of their orbits go beyond the zodiac.

Un- (adv.) Those which have the value of independent words, inasmuch as the simple words are either not used at all, or are rarely, or at least much less frequently, used; as, unavoidable, unconscionable, undeniable, unspeakable, unprecedented, unruly, and the like; or inasmuch as they are used in a different sense from the usual meaning of the primitive, or especially in one of the significations of the latter; as, unaccountable, unalloyed, unbelieving, unpretending, unreserved, and the like; or inasmuch as they are so frequently and familiarly used that they are hardly felt to be of negative origin; as, uncertain, uneven, and the like.

Unactiveness (n.) Inactivity.

Unaudienced (a.) Not given an audience; not received or heard.

Unavoidable (a.) Not avoidable; incapable of being shunned or prevented; inevitable; necessary; as, unavoidable troubles.

Unbarbed (a.) Not shaven.

Unbereaven (a.) Unbereft.

Unchancy (a.) Happening at a bad time; unseasonable; inconvenient.

Uncontrollable (a.) Incapable of being controlled; ungovernable; irresistible; as, an uncontrollable temper; uncontrollable events.

Unconvenient (a.) Inconvenient.

Uncovenable (a.) Not covenable; inconvenient.

Uncovenanted (a.) Not covenanted; not granted or entered into under a covenant, agreement, or contract.

Uncovenanted (a.) Not having joined in a league, or assented to a covenant or agreement, as to the Solemn League and Covenant of the Scottish people in the times of the Stuarts.

Uncovenanted (a.) Not having entered into relationship with God through the appointed means of grace; also, not promised or assured by the divine promises or conditions; as, uncovenanted mercies.

Undecagon (n.) A figure having eleven angles and eleven sides.

Undecane (n.) A liquid hydrocarbon, C11H24, of the methane series, found in petroleum; -- so called from its containing eleven carbon atoms in the molecule.

Undecennary (a.) Occurring once in every period of eleven years; undecennial.

Undecennial (a.) Occurring or observed every eleventh year; belonging to, or continuing, a period of eleven years; undecennary; as, an undecennial festival.

Underdolven () p. p. of Underdelve.

Underfong (v. t.) To insnare; to circumvent.

Underplot (n.) A series of events in a play, proceeding collaterally with the main story, and subservient to it.

Undertake (v. t.) Specifically, to take upon one's self solemnly or expressly; to lay one's self under obligation, or to enter into stipulations, to perform or to execute; to covenant; to contract.

Undertake (v. i.) To venture; to hazard.

Undertaker (n.) One who stipulates or covenants to perform any work for another; a contractor.

Undertime (n.) The under or after part of the day; undermeal; evening.

Underworld (n.) The lower of inferior world; the world which is under the heavens; the earth.

Undivided (a.) Not directed or given to more than one object; as, undivided attention or affection.

Unequal (a.) Not uniform; not equable; irregular; uneven; as, unequal pulsations; an unequal poem.

Unequalness (n.) The quality or state of being unequal; inequality; unevenness.

Uneven (a.) Not even; not level; not uniform; rough; as, an uneven road or way; uneven ground.

Uneven (a.) Not equal; not of equal length.

Uneven (a.) Not divisible by two without a remainder; odd; -- said of numbers; as, 3, 7, and 11 are uneven numbers.

Unfellow (v. t.) To prevent from being a fellow or companion; to separate from one's fellows; to dissever.

Unfortunate (a.) Not fortunate; unsuccessful; not prosperous; unlucky; attended with misfortune; unhappy; as, an unfortunate adventure; an unfortunate man; an unfortunate commander; unfortunate business.

Ungain (a.) Ungainly; clumsy; awkward; also, troublesome; inconvenient.

Unhandsome (a.) Unhandy; clumsy; awkward; inconvenient.

Unhoused (a.) Driven from a house; deprived of shelter.

Uniformity (n.) The quality or state of being uniform; freedom from variation or difference; resemblance to itself at all times; sameness of action, effect, etc., under like conditions; even tenor; as, the uniformity of design in a poem; the uniformity of nature.

Uniformly (adv.) In a uniform manner; without variation or diversity; by a regular, constant, or common ratio of change; with even tenor; as, a temper uniformly mild.

Unimproved (a.) Not tilled, cultivated, or built upon; yielding no revenue; as, unimproved land or soil.

Union (n.) A textile fabric composed of two or more materials, as cotton, silk, wool, etc., woven together.

Unison (n.) Identity in pitch; coincidence of sounds proceeding from an equality in the number of vibrations made in a given time by two or more sonorous bodies. Parts played or sung in octaves are also said to be in unison, or in octaves.

Unleavened (a.) Not leavened; containing no leaven; as, unleavened bread.

Unlikely (a.) Not likely; improbable; not to be reasonably expected; as, an unlikely event; the thing you mention is very unlikely.

Unlooked-for (a.) Not looked for; unexpected; as, an unlooked-for event.

Unlucky (a.) Not lucky; not successful; unfortunate; ill-fated; unhappy; as, an unlucky man; an unlucky adventure; an unlucky throw of dice; an unlucky game.

Unoriginated (a.) Not yet caused to be, or to be made; as, possible inventions still unoriginated.

Unprevented (a.) Not prevented or hindered; as, unprevented sorrows.

Unprevented (a.) Not preceded by anything.

Unrazored (a.) Not shaven.

Unrevenued (a.) Not furnished with a revenue.

Unrumple (v. t.) To free from rumples; to spread or lay even,

Unseven (v. t.) To render other than seven; to make to be no longer seven.

Unspike (v. t.) To remove a spike from, as from the vent of a cannon.

Unsuccessful (a.) Not successful; not producing the desired event; not fortunate; meeting with, or resulting in, failure; unlucky; unhappy.

Untidy (a.) Not tidy or neat; slovenly.

Until (prep.) To; up to; till; before; -- used of time; as, he staid until evening; he will not come back until the end of the month.

Untoward (a.) Inconvenient; troublesome; vexatious; unlucky; unfortunate; as, an untoward wind or accident.

Unweave (v. t.) To unfold; to undo; to ravel, as what has been woven.

Unwroken (a.) Not revenged; unavenged.

Upcast (n.) The ventilating shaft of a mine out of which the air passes after having circulated through the mine; -- distinguished from the downcast. Called also upcast pit, and upcast shaft.

Upher (n.) A fir pole of from four to seven inches diameter, and twenty to forty feet long, sometimes roughly hewn, used for scaffoldings, and sometimes for slight and common roofs, for which use it is split.

Upstart (n.) One who has risen suddenly, as from low life to wealth, power, or honor; a parvenu.

Up-train () A train going in the direction conventionally called up.

Uranic (a.) Of or pertaining to the heavens; celestial; astronomical.

Uranography (n.) A description or plan of the heavens and the heavenly bodies; the construction of celestial maps, globes, etc.; uranology.

Uranology (n.) A discourse or treatise on the heavens and the heavenly bodies; the study of the heavens; uranography.

Uranoscopy (n.) Observation of the heavens or heavenly bodies.

Uranyl (n.) The radical UO2, conveniently regarded as a residue of many uranium compounds.

Ureameter (n.) An apparatus for the determination of the amount of urea in urine, in which the nitrogen evolved by the action of certain reagents, on a given volume of urine, is collected and measured, and the urea calculated accordingly.

Urinal (n.) A place or convenience for urinating purposes.

Usual (n.) Such as is in common use; such as occurs in ordinary practice, or in the ordinary course of events; customary; ordinary; habitual; common.

Utter (a.) To dispose of in trade; to sell or vend.

Vaccination (n.) The act, art, or practice of vaccinating, or inoculating with the cowpox, in order to prevent or mitigate an attack of smallpox. Cf. Inoculation.

Vagabond (a.) Floating about without any certain direction; driven to and fro.

Vagarious (a.) Given to, or characterized by, vagaries; capricious; whimsical; crochety.

Vail (n.) Money given to servants by visitors; a gratuity; -- usually in the plural.

Valencia (n.) A kind of woven fabric for waistcoats, having the weft of wool and the warp of silk or cotton.

Valid (a.) Having legal strength or force; executed with the proper formalities; incapable of being rightfully overthrown or set aside; as, a valid deed; a valid covenant; a valid instrument of any kind; a valid claim or title; a valid marriage.

Value (n.) In an artistical composition, the character of any one part in its relation to other parts and to the whole; -- often used in the plural; as, the values are well given, or well maintained.

Valve (n.) A lid, plug, or cover, applied to an aperture so that by its movement, as by swinging, lifting and falling, sliding, turning, or the like, it will open or close the aperture to permit or prevent passage, as of a fluid.

Vandalic (a.) Of or pertaining to the Vandals; resembling the Vandals in barbarism and destructiveness.

Varix (n.) A uneven, permanent dilatation of a vein.

Vaudeville (n.) A kind of song of a lively character, frequently embodying a satire on some person or event, sung to a familiar air in couplets with a refrain; a street song; a topical song.

Vault (n.) The canopy of heaven; the sky.

Vauntful (a.) Given to vaunting or boasting; vainly ostentatious; boastful; vainglorious.

Vehement (a.) Very ardent; very eager or urgent; very fervent; passionate; as, a vehement affection or passion.

Vein (n.) One of the vessels which carry blood, either venous or arterial, to the heart. See Artery, 2.

Veinal (a.) Pertaining to veins; venous.

Velvetleaf (n.) A name given to several plants which have soft, velvety leaves, as the Abutilon Avicennae, the Cissampelos Pareira, and the Lavatera arborea, and even the common mullein.

Venal (a.) Of or pertaining to veins; venous; as, venal blood.

Venal (a.) Capable of being bought or obtained for money or other valuable consideration; made matter of trade or barter; held for sale; salable; mercenary; purchasable; hireling; as, venal services.

Venality (n.) The quality or state of being venal, or purchasable; mercenariness; prostitution of talents, offices, or services, for money or reward; as, the venality of a corrupt court; the venality of an official.

Venally (adv.) In a venal manner.

Venatorial (a.) Or or pertaining to hunting; venatic.

Vend (v. t.) To transfer to another person for a pecuniary equivalent; to make an object of trade; to dispose of by sale; to sell; as, to vend goods; to vend vegetables.

Vend (n.) The act of vending or selling; a sale.

Vendace (n.) A European lake whitefish (Coregonus Willughbii, or C. Vandesius) native of certain lakes in Scotland and England. It is regarded as a delicate food fish. Called also vendis.

Vendee (n.) The person to whom a thing is vended, or sold; -- the correlative of vendor.

Vender (n.) One who vends; one who transfers the exclusive right of possessing a thing, either his own, or that of another as his agent, for a price or pecuniary equivalent; a seller; a vendor.

Vendetta (n.) A blood feud; private revenge for the murder of a kinsman.

Vendibility (n.) The quality or state of being vendible, or salable.

Vendible (a.) Capable of being vended, or sold; that may be sold; salable.

Vendition (n.) The act of vending, or selling; sale.

Vendor (n.) A vender; a seller; the correlative of vendee.

Veneer (v. t.) To overlay or plate with a thin layer of wood or other material for outer finish or decoration; as, to veneer a piece of furniture with mahogany. Used also figuratively.

Veneering (n.) The act or art of one who veneers.

Veneering (n.) Thin wood or other material used as a veneer.

Vennation (n.) Poison; venom.

Venene (a.) Poisonous; venomous.

Venerability (n.) The quality or state of being venerable; venerableness.

Venerable (a.) Capable of being venerated; worthy of veneration or reverence; deserving of honor and respect; -- generally implying an advanced age; as, a venerable magistrate; a venerable parent.

Venerable (a.) Rendered sacred by religious or other associations; that should be regarded with awe and treated with reverence; as, the venerable walls of a temple or a church.

Venerate (v. t.) To regard with reverential respect; to honor with mingled respect and awe; to reverence; to revere; as, we venerate parents and elders.

Veneration (n.) The act of venerating, or the state of being venerated; the highest degree of respect and reverence; respect mingled with awe; a feeling or sentimental excited by the dignity, wisdom, or superiority of a person, by sacredness of character, by consecration to sacred services, or by hallowed associations.

Venerator (n.) One who venerates.

Venereal (a.) Of or pertaining to venery, or sexual love; relating to sexual intercourse.

Venereal (a.) Arising from sexual intercourse; as, a venereal disease; venereal virus or poison.

Venereal (a.) Adapted to the cure of venereal diseases; as, venereal medicines.

Venereal (a.) Adapted to excite venereal desire; aphrodisiac.

Venereal (n.) The venereal disease; syphilis.

Venerean (a.) Devoted to the offices of Venus, or love; venereal.

Venew (n.) A bout, or turn, as at fencing; a thrust; a hit; a veney.

Veney (n.) A bout; a thrust; a venew.

Venge (v. t.) To avenge; to punish; to revenge.

Vengeable (a.) Revengeful; deserving revenge.

Vengeance (n.) Punishment inflicted in return for an injury or an offense; retribution; -- often, in a bad sense, passionate or unrestrained revenge.

Vengeful (a.) Vindictive; retributive; revengeful.

Vengement (n.) Avengement; penal retribution; vengeance.

Venger (n.) An avenger.

Venial (a.) Capable of being forgiven; not heinous; excusable; pardonable; as, a venial fault or transgression.

Veniality (n.) The quality or state of being venial; venialness.

Venire facias () A writ in the nature of a summons to cause the party indicted on a penal statute to appear. Called also venire.

Venom (n.) To infect with venom; to envenom; to poison.

Venomous (a.) Full of venom; noxious to animal life; poisonous; as, the bite of a serpent may be venomous.

Venomous (a.) Having a poison gland or glands for the secretion of venom, as certain serpents and insects.

Venomous (a.) Noxious; mischievous; malignant; spiteful; as, a venomous progeny; a venomous writer.

Venose (a.) Having numerous or conspicuous veins; veiny; as, a venose frond.

Venosity (n.) The quality or state of being venous.

Venous (a.) Of or pertaining to a vein or veins; as, the venous circulation of the blood.

Venous (a.) Marked with veins; veined; as, a venous leaf.

Vent (v. t.) To sell; to vend.

Vent (n.) A small aperture; a hole or passage for air or any fluid to escape; as, the vent of a cask; the vent of a mold; a volcanic vent.

Vent (v. t.) To let out at a vent, or small aperture; to give passage or outlet to.

Vent (v. t.) To suffer to escape from confinement; to let out; to utter; to pour forth; as, to vent passion or complaint.

Vent (v. t.) To furnish with a vent; to make a vent in; as, to vent. a mold.

Ventage (n.) A small hole, as the stop in a flute; a vent.

Venter (n.) One who vents; one who utters, reports, or publishes.

Venter (n.) A belly, or protuberant part; a broad surface; as, the venter of a muscle; the venter, or anterior surface, of the scapula.

Venter (n.) A pregnant woman; a mother; as, A has a son B by one venter, and a daughter C by another venter; children by different venters.

Venthole (n.) A touchhole; a vent.

Ventiduct (n.) A passage for wind or air; a passage or pipe for ventilating apartments.

Ventilate (v. t.) To open and expose to the free passage of air; to supply with fresh air, and remove impure air from; to air; as, to ventilate a room; to ventilate a cellar; to ventilate a mine.

Ventilate (v. t.) To provide with a vent, or escape, for air, gas, etc.; as, to ventilate a mold, or a water-wheel bucket.

Ventilate (v. t.) To winnow; to fan; as, to ventilate wheat.

Ventilate (v. t.) To sift and examine; to bring out, and subject to penetrating scrutiny; to expose to examination and discussion; as, to ventilate questions of policy.

Ventilate (v. t.) To give vent; to utter; to make public.

Ventilation (n.) The act of ventilating, or the state of being ventilated; the art or process of replacing foul air by that which is pure, in any inclosed place, as a house, a church, a mine, etc.; free exposure to air.

Ventilation (n.) The act of refrigerating, or cooling; refrigeration; as, ventilation of the blood.

Ventilation (n.) The act of giving vent or expression.

Ventilative (a.) Of or pertaining to ventilation; adapted to secure ventilation; ventilating; as, ventilative apparatus.

Ventilator (n.) A contrivance for effecting ventilation; especially, a contrivance or machine for drawing off or expelling foul or stagnant air from any place or apartment, or for introducing that which is fresh and pure.

Ventose (n.) A ventouse.

Ventosity (n.) Quality or state of being ventose; windiness; hence, vainglory; pride.

Ventrad (adv.) Toward the ventral side; on the ventral side; ventrally; -- opposed to dorsad.

Ventral (a.) Of, pertaining to, or situated near, the belly, or ventral side, of an animal or of one of its parts; hemal; abdominal; as, the ventral fin of a fish; the ventral root of a spinal nerve; -- opposed to dorsal.

Ventricous (a.) Swelling out on one side or unequally; bellied; ventricular; as, a ventricose corolla.

Ventricular (a.) Of or pertaining to a ventricle; bellied.

Ventriculous (a.) Somewhat distended in the middle; ventricular.

Ventriloquist (n.) One who practices, or is skilled in, ventriloquism.

Ventriloquize (v. i.) To practice ventriloquism; to speak like a ventriloquist.

Ventriloquous (a.) Of or pertaining to a ventriloquist or ventriloquism.

Ventro- () A combining form used in anatomy to indicate connection with, or relation to, the abdomen; also, connection with, relation to, or direction toward, the ventral side; as, ventrolateral; ventro-inguinal.

Ventro-inguinal (a.) Pertaining both to the abdomen and groin, or to the abdomen and inguinal canal; as, ventro-inguinal hernia.

Venture (n.) An undertaking of chance or danger; the risking of something upon an event which can not be foreseen with certainty; a hazard; a risk; a speculation.

Venture (n.) An event that is not, or can not be, foreseen; an accident; chance; hap; contingency; luck.

Venture (v. i.) To make a venture; to run a hazard or risk; to take the chances.

Venture (v. t.) To expose to hazard; to risk; to hazard; as, to venture one's person in a balloon.

Venture (v. t.) To put or send on a venture or chance; as, to venture a horse to the West Indies.

Venturer (n.) One who ventures, or puts to hazard; an adventurer.

Venturesome (a.) Inclined to venture; not loth to run risk or danger; venturous; bold; daring; adventurous; as, a venturesome boy or act.

Venturous (n.) Daring; bold; hardy; fearless; venturesome; adveturous; as, a venturous soldier.

Venulose (a.) Full of venules, or small veins.

Venus (n.) One of the planets, the second in order from the sun, its orbit lying between that of Mercury and that of the Earth, at a mean distance from the sun of about 67,000,000 miles. Its diameter is 7,700 miles, and its sidereal period 224.7 days. As the morning star, it was called by the ancients Lucifer; as the evening star, Hesperus.

Verderor (n.) An officer who has the charge of the king's forest, to preserve the vert and venison, keep the assizes, view, receive, and enroll attachments and presentments of all manner of trespasses.

Verdict (n.) The answer of a jury given to the court concerning any matter of fact in any cause, civil or criminal, committed to their examination and determination; the finding or decision of a jury on the matter legally submitted to them in the course of the trial of a cause.

Vermifugal (a.) Tending to prevent, destroy, or expel, worms or vermin; anthelmintic.

Vernier (n.) A short scale made to slide along the divisions of a graduated instrument, as the limb of a sextant, or the scale of a barometer, for indicating parts of divisions. It is so graduated that a certain convenient number of its divisions are just equal to a certain number, either one less or one more, of the divisions of the instrument, so that parts of a division are determined by observing what line on the vernier coincides with a line on the instrument.

Vert (n.) Everything that grows, and bears a green leaf, within the forest; as, to preserve vert and venison is the duty of the verderer.

Vertebrata (n. pl.) One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom, comprising all animals that have a backbone composed of bony or cartilaginous vertebrae, together with Amphioxus in which the backbone is represented by a simple undivided notochord. The Vertebrata always have a dorsal, or neural, cavity above the notochord or backbone, and a ventral, or visceral, cavity below it. The subdivisions or classes of Vertebrata are Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Pisces, Marsipobranchia, and Leptocardia.

Vertex (n.) The zenith, or the point of the heavens directly overhead.

Vesper (n.) The evening star; Hesper; Venus, when seen after sunset; hence, the evening.

Vesper (a.) Of or pertaining to the evening, or to the service of vespers; as, a vesper hymn; vesper bells.

Vesperal (a.) Vesper; evening.

Vespers (n.) The evening song or service.

Vespertine (a.) Of or pertaining to the evening; happening or being in the evening.

Vespertine (a.) Blossoming in the evening.

Vessel (n.) A continuous tube formed from superposed large cylindrical or prismatic cells (tracheae), which have lost their intervening partitions, and are usually marked with dots, pits, rings, or spirals by internal deposition of secondary membranes; a duct.

Veto (n.) A power or right possessed by one department of government to forbid or prohibit the carrying out of projects attempted by another department; especially, in a constitutional government, a power vested in the chief executive to prevent the enactment of measures passed by the legislature. Such a power may be absolute, as in the case of the Tribunes of the People in ancient Rome, or limited, as in the case of the President of the United States. Called also the veto power.

Veto (n.) The exercise of such authority; an act of prohibition or prevention; as, a veto is probable if the bill passes.

Veto (v. t.) To prohibit; to negative; also, to refuse assent to, as a legislative bill, and thus prevent its enactment; as, to veto an appropriation bill.

Viaticum (n.) The communion, or eucharist, when given to persons in danger of death.

Vicious (a.) Not well tamed or broken; given to bad tricks; unruly; refractory; as, a vicious horse.

Vigil (v. i.) A religious service performed in the evening preceding a feast.

Vindicate (v. t.) To avenge; to punish; as, a war to vindicate or punish infidelity.

Vindicative (a.) Revengeful; vindictive.

Vindicatory (a.) Inflicting punishment; avenging; punitory.

Vindictive (a.) Disposed to revenge; prompted or characterized by revenge; revengeful.

Vinolent (a.) Given to wine; drunken; intemperate.

Violation (n.) Infringement; transgression; nonobservance; as, the violation of law or positive command, of covenants, promises, etc.

Viper (a.) Any one of numerous species of Old World venomous makes belonging to Vipera, Clotho, Daboia, and other genera of the family Viperidae.

Viperous (a.) Having the qualities of a viper; malignant; venomous; as, a viperous tongue.

Virtue (n.) Active quality or power; capacity or power adequate to the production of a given effect; energy; strength; potency; efficacy; as, the virtue of a medicine.

Virulency (n.) The quality or state of being virulent or venomous; poisonousness; malignancy.

Virulent (a.) Extremely poisonous or venomous; very active in doing injury.

Visionary (a.) Affected by phantoms; disposed to receive impressions on the imagination; given to reverie; apt to receive, and act upon, fancies as if they were realities.

Visitation (n.) Special dispensation; communication of divine favor and goodness, or, more usually, of divine wrath and vengeance; retributive calamity; retribution; judgment.

Visne (n.) Neighborhood; vicinity; venue. See Venue.

Vista (n.) A view; especially, a view through or between intervening objects, as trees; a view or prospect through an avenue, or the like; hence, the trees or other objects that form the avenue.

Vivency (n.) Manner of supporting or continuing life or vegetation.

Vivifical (a.) Giving life; reviving; enlivening.

Voider (n.) A tray, or basket, formerly used to receive or convey that which is voided or cleared away from a given place; especially, one for carrying off the remains of a meal, as fragments of food; sometimes, a basket for containing household articles, as clothes, etc.

Volapuk (n.) Literally, world's speech; the name of an artificial language invented by Johan Martin Schleyer, of Constance, Switzerland, about 1879.

Vol-au-vent (n.) A light puff paste, with a raised border, filled, after baking, usually with a ragout of fowl, game, or fish.

Voluptuous (a.) Given to the enjoyments of luxury and pleasure; indulging to excess in sensual gratifications.

Voracious (a.) Greedy in eating; very hungry; eager to devour or swallow; ravenous; gluttonous; edacious; rapacious; as, a voracious man or appetite; a voracious gulf or whirlpool.

Votary (n.) One devoted, consecrated, or engaged by a vow or promise; hence, especially, one devoted, given, or addicted, to some particular service, worship, study, or state of life.

Votive (a.) Given by vow, or in fulfillment of a vow; consecrated by a vow; devoted; as, votive offerings; a votive tablet.

Wabble (n.) A hobbling, unequal motion, as of a wheel unevenly hung; a staggering to and fro.

Wafer (n.) A thin cake or piece of bread (commonly unleavened, circular, and stamped with a crucifix or with the sacred monogram) used in the Eucharist, as in the Roman Catholic Church.

Wage (v. t.) To pledge; to hazard on the event of a contest; to stake; to bet, to lay; to wager; as, to wage a dollar.

Wage (v. t.) To expose one's self to, as a risk; to incur, as a danger; to venture; to hazard.

Wage (v. t.) To adventure, or lay out, for hire or reward; to hire out.

Wage (v. t.) That which is staked or ventured; that for which one incurs risk or danger; prize; gage.

Wager (v. t.) Something deposited, laid, or hazarded on the event of a contest or an unsettled question; a bet; a stake; a pledge.

Wager (v. t.) A contract by which two parties or more agree that a certain sum of money, or other thing, shall be paid or delivered to one of them, on the happening or not happening of an uncertain event.

Wages (n.) A compensation given to a hired person for services; price paid for labor; recompense; hire. See Wage, n., 2.

Waif (n.) Goods found of which the owner is not known; originally, such goods as a pursued thief threw away to prevent being apprehended, which belonged to the king unless the owner made pursuit of the felon, took him, and brought him to justice.

Wait (v. i.) To stay or rest in expectation; to stop or remain stationary till the arrival of some person or event; to rest in patience; to stay; not to depart.

Wake (n.) An annual parish festival formerly held in commemoration of the dedication of a church. Originally, prayers were said on the evening preceding, and hymns were sung during the night, in the church; subsequently, these vigils were discontinued, and the day itself, often with succeeding days, was occupied in rural pastimes and exercises, attended by eating and drinking, often to excess.

Waldenses (n. pl.) A sect of dissenters from the ecclesiastical system of the Roman Catholic Church, who in the 13th century were driven by persecution to the valleys of Piedmont, where the sect survives. They profess substantially Protestant principles.

Walk (n.) The act of walking for recreation or exercise; as, a morning walk; an evening walk.

Walk (n.) That in or through which one walks; place or distance walked over; a place for walking; a path or avenue prepared for foot passengers, or for taking air and exercise; way; road; hence, a place or region in which animals may graze; place of wandering; range; as, a sheep walk.

Walk (n.) The route or district regularly served by a vender; as, a milkman's walk.

Walnut (n.) The fruit or nut of any tree of the genus Juglans; also, the tree, and its timber. The seven or eight known species are all natives of the north temperate zone.

Waney (n.) A sharp or uneven edge on a board that is cut from a log not perfectly squared, or that is made in the process of squaring. See Wany, a.

Wanion (n.) A word of uncertain signification, used only in the phrase with a wanion, apparently equivalent to with a vengeance, with a plague, or with misfortune.

Wantonness (n.) The quality or state of being wanton; negligence of restraint; sportiveness; recklessness; lasciviousness.

Wany (a.) Waning or diminished in some parts; not of uniform size throughout; -- said especially of sawed boards or timber when tapering or uneven, from being cut too near the outside of the log.

War (n.) A contest between nations or states, carried on by force, whether for defence, for revenging insults and redressing wrongs, for the extension of commerce, for the acquisition of territory, for obtaining and establishing the superiority and dominion of one over the other, or for any other purpose; armed conflict of sovereign powers; declared and open hostilities.

Warburg's tincture () A preparation containing quinine and many other ingredients, often used in the treatment of malarial affections. It was invented by Dr. Warburg of London.

Ward (n.) A projecting ridge of metal in the interior of a lock, to prevent the use of any key which has not a corresponding notch for passing it.

Wardian (a.) Designating, or pertaining to, a kind of glass inclosure for keeping ferns, mosses, etc., or for transporting growing plants from a distance; as, a Wardian case of plants; -- so named from the inventor, Nathaniel B. Ward, an Englishman.

Warm (superl.) Fig.: Not cool, indifferent, lukewarm, or the like, in spirit or temper; zealous; ardent; fervent; excited; sprightly; irritable; excitable.

Warm (a.) To make engaged or earnest; to interest; to engage; to excite ardor or zeal; to enliven.

Warrant (n.) To assure, as a thing sold, to the purchaser; that is, to engage that the thing is what it appears, or is represented, to be, which implies a covenant to make good any defect or loss incurred by it.

Warranter (n.) One who assures, or covenants to assure; one who contracts to secure another in a right, or to make good any defect of title or quality; one who gives a warranty; a guarantor; as, the warranter of a horse.

Warranty (n.) A covenant real, whereby the grantor of an estate of freehold and his heirs were bound to warrant and defend the title, and, in case of eviction by title paramount, to yield other lands of equal value in recompense. This warranty has long singe become obsolete, and its place supplied by personal covenants for title. Among these is the covenant of warranty, which runs with the land, and is in the nature of a real covenant.

Wartwort (n.) A name given to several plants because they were thought to be a cure for warts, as a kind of spurge (Euphorbia Helioscopia), and the nipplewort (Lampsana communis).

Washer (n.) A ring of metal, leather, or other material, or a perforated plate, used for various purposes, as around a bolt or screw to form a seat for the head or nut, or around a wagon axle to prevent endwise motion of the hub of the wheel and relieve friction, or in a joint to form a packing, etc.

Watch (v. i.) The act of watching; forbearance of sleep; vigil; wakeful, vigilant, or constantly observant attention; close observation; guard; preservative or preventive vigilance; formerly, a watching or guarding by night.

Watchword (n.) A word given to sentinels, and to such as have occasion to visit the guards, used as a signal by which a friend is known from an enemy, or a person who has a right to pass the watch from one who has not; a countersign; a password.

Water-bound (a.) Prevented by a flood from proceeding.

Water frame () A name given to the first power spinning machine, because driven by water power.

Water gate () A gate, or valve, by which a flow of water is permitted, prevented, or regulated.

Water joint () A joint in a stone pavement where the stones are left slightly higher than elsewhere, the rest of the surface being sunken or dished. The raised surface is intended to prevent the settling of water in the joints.

Water line () Any one of several lines marked upon the outside of a vessel, corresponding with the surface of the water when she is afloat on an even keel. The lowest line indicates the vessel's proper submergence when not loaded, and is called the light water line; the highest, called the load water line, indicates her proper submergence when loaded.

Water moccasin () A venomous North American snake (Ancistrodon piscivorus) allied to the rattlesnake but destitute of a rattle. It lives in or about pools and ponds, and feeds largely of fishes. Called also water snake, water adder, water viper.

Water motor () A water wheel; especially, a small water wheel driven by water from a street main.

Wave (v. i.) Unevenness; inequality of surface.

Waywode (n.) Originally, the title of a military commander in various Slavonic countries; afterwards applied to governors of towns or provinces. It was assumed for a time by the rulers of Moldavia and Wallachia, who were afterwards called hospodars, and has also been given to some inferior Turkish officers.

Weasy (a.) Given to sensual indulgence; gluttonous.

Weather-driven (a.) Driven by winds or storms; forced by stress of weather.

Woven (p. p.) of Weave

Weave (v. i.) To become woven or interwoven.

Web (n.) That which is woven; a texture; textile fabric; esp., something woven in a loom.

Web (n.) A whole piece of linen cloth as woven.

Webbing (n.) A woven band of cotton or flax, used for reins, girths, bed bottoms, etc.

Wedge (v. t.) To force or drive as a wedge is driven.

Wedge (v. t.) To press closely; to fix, or make fast, in the manner of a wedge that is driven into something.

Wedgwood ware () A kind of fine pottery, the most remarkable being what is called jasper, either white, or colored throughout the body, and capable of being molded into the most delicate forms, so that fine and minute bas-reliefs like cameos were made of it, fit even for being set as jewels.

Week (n.) A period of seven days, usually that reckoned from one Sabbath or Sunday to the next.

Weekly (n.) A publication issued once in seven days, or appearing once a week.

Weft (n.) A web; a thing woven.

Weight (v. t.) Importance; power; influence; efficacy; consequence; moment; impressiveness; as, a consideration of vast weight.

Weightiness (n.) The quality or state of being weighty; weight; force; importance; impressiveness.

Weldon's process () A process for the recovery or regeneration of manganese dioxide in the manufacture of chlorine, by means of milk of lime and the oxygen of the air; -- so called after the inventor.

Welkin (n.) The visible regions of the air; the vault of heaven; the sky.

Well (v. i.) A pit or hole sunk into the earth to such a depth as to reach a supply of water, generally of a cylindrical form, and often walled with stone or bricks to prevent the earth from caving in.

Well (v. t.) In such manner as is desirable; so as one could wish; satisfactorily; favorably; advantageously; conveniently.

Well (a.) Good in condition or circumstances; desirable, either in a natural or moral sense; fortunate; convenient; advantageous; happy; as, it is well for the country that the crops did not fail; it is well that the mistake was discovered.

Wellingtonia (n.) A name given to the "big trees" (Sequoia gigantea) of California, and still used in England. See Sequoia.

West (n.) The point in the heavens where the sun is seen to set at the equinox; or, the corresponding point on the earth; that one of the four cardinal points of the compass which is in a direction at right angles to that of north and south, and on the left hand of a person facing north; the point directly opposite to east.

Wharfing (n.) A mode of facing sea walls and embankments with planks driven as piles and secured by ties.

Whig (n.) One of a political party which grew up in England in the seventeenth century, in the reigns of Charles I. and II., when great contests existed respecting the royal prerogatives and the rights of the people. Those who supported the king in his high claims were called Tories, and the advocates of popular rights, of parliamentary power over the crown, and of toleration to Dissenters, were, after 1679, called Whigs. The terms Liberal and Radical have now generally superseded Whig in English politics. See the note under Tory.

Whimling (n.) One given to whims; hence, a weak, childish person; a child.

Whinstone (n.) A provincial name given in England to basaltic rocks, and applied by miners to other kind of dark-colored unstratified rocks which resist the point of the pick. -- for example, to masses of chert. Whin-dikes, and whin-sills, are names sometimes given to veins or beds of basalt.

Whip (v. t.) A call made upon members of a Parliament party to be in their places at a given time, as when a vote is to be taken.

Whip-poor-will (n.) An American bird (Antrostomus vociferus) allied to the nighthawk and goatsucker; -- so called in imitation of the peculiar notes which it utters in the evening.

Whipstaff (n.) A bar attached to the tiller, for convenience in steering.

Whisk (n.) A plane used by coopers for evening chines.

Whisket (n.) A basket; esp., a straw provender basket.

Whitsunday (n.) The seventh Sunday, and the fiftieth day, after Easter; a festival of the church in commemoration of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost; Pentecost; -- so called, it is said, because, in the primitive church, those who had been newly baptized appeared at church between Easter and Pentecost in white garments.

Whitworth gun () A form of rifled cannon and small arms invented by Sir Joseph Whitworth, of Manchester, England.

Whoop (n.) A shout of pursuit or of war; a very of eagerness, enthusiasm, enjoyment, vengeance, terror, or the like; an halloo; a hoot, or cry, as of an owl.

Wig (n.) A covering for the head, consisting of hair interwoven or united by a kind of network, either in imitation of the natural growth, or in abundant and flowing curls, worn to supply a deficiency of natural hair, or for ornament, or according to traditional usage, as a part of an official or professional dress, the latter especially in England by judges and barristers.

Wild-cat (a.) Unsound; worthless; irresponsible; unsafe; -- said to have been originally applied to the notes of an insolvent bank in Michigan upon which there was the figure of a panther.

Will (adv.) As an auxiliary, will is used to denote futurity dependent on the verb. Thus, in first person, "I will" denotes willingness, consent, promise; and when "will" is emphasized, it denotes determination or fixed purpose; as, I will go if you wish; I will go at all hazards. In the second and third persons, the idea of distinct volition, wish, or purpose is evanescent, and simple certainty is appropriately expressed; as, "You will go," or "He will go," describes a future event as a fact only. To emphasize will denotes (according to the tone or context) certain futurity or fixed determination.

Wilton carpet () A kind of carpet woven with loops like the Brussels, but differing from it in having the loops cut so as to form an elastic velvet pile; -- so called because made originally at Wilton, England.

Wind (v. t.) To expose to the wind; to winnow; to ventilate.

Windbound (a.) prevented from sailing, by a contrary wind. See Weatherbound.

Winding (a.) Twisting from a direct line or an even surface; circuitous.

Windlestraw (n.) A grass used for making ropes or for plaiting, esp. Agrostis Spica-ventis.

Wind-sucker (n.) A horse given to wind-sucking

Windtight (a.) So tight as to prevent the passing through of wind.

Wink (n.) A hint given by shutting the eye with a significant cast.

Winnebagoes (n.) A tribe of North American Indians who originally occupied the region about Green Bay, Lake Michigan, but were driven back from the lake and nearly exterminated in 1640 by the IIlinnois.

Winsomeness (n.) The characteristic of being winsome; attractiveness of manner.

Winze (n.) A small shaft sunk from one level to another, as for the purpose of ventilation.

Wire (n.) A thread or slender rod of metal; a metallic substance formed to an even thread by being passed between grooved rollers, or drawn through holes in a plate of steel.

Witch (n.) One who exercises more than common power of attraction; a charming or bewitching person; also, one given to mischief; -- said especially of a woman or child.

Witcraft (n.) Art or skill of the mind; contrivance; invention; wit.

Withwind (n.) A kind of bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis).

Witness (v. i.) Attestation of a fact or an event; testimony.

Woad-waxen (n.) A leguminous plant (Genista tinctoria) of Europe and Russian Asia, and adventitious in America; -- called also greenwood, greenweed, dyer's greenweed, and whin, wood-wash, wood-wax, and wood-waxen.

Woful (a.) Bringing calamity, distress, or affliction; as, a woeful event; woeful want.

Wolf (a.) Any one of several species of wild and savage carnivores belonging to the genus Canis and closely allied to the common dog. The best-known and most destructive species are the European wolf (Canis lupus), the American gray, or timber, wolf (C. occidentalis), and the prairie wolf, or coyote. Wolves often hunt in packs, and may thus attack large animals and even man.

Wolf (a.) Fig.: Any very ravenous, rapacious, or destructive person or thing; especially, want; starvation; as, they toiled hard to keep the wolf from the door.

Wood (n.) The fibrous material which makes up the greater part of the stems and branches of trees and shrubby plants, and is found to a less extent in herbaceous stems. It consists of elongated tubular or needle-shaped cells of various kinds, usually interwoven with the shinning bands called silver grain.

Wood's metal () A fusible alloy consisting of one or two parts of cadmium, two parts of tin, four of lead, with seven or eight part of bismuth. It melts at from 66¡ to 71¡ C. See Fusible metal, under Fusible.

Woof (n.) The threads that cross the warp in a woven fabric; the weft; the filling; the thread usually carried by the shuttle in weaving.

Wooingly (adv.) In a wooing manner; enticingly; with persuasiveness.

Worktable (n.) A table for holding working materials and implements; esp., a small table with drawers and other conveniences for needlework, etc.

World (n.) The earth and the surrounding heavens; the creation; the system of created things; existent creation; the universe.

World (n.) Any planet or heavenly body, especially when considered as inhabited, and as the scene of interests analogous with human interests; as, a plurality of worlds.

World (n.) In a more restricted sense, that part of the earth and its concerns which is known to any one, or contemplated by any one; a division of the globe, or of its inhabitants; human affairs as seen from a certain position, or from a given point of view; also, state of existence; scene of life and action; as, the Old World; the New World; the religious world; the Catholic world; the upper world; the future world; the heathen world.

World (n.) The earth and its affairs as distinguished from heaven; concerns of this life as distinguished from those of the life to come; the present existence and its interests; hence, secular affairs; engrossment or absorption in the affairs of this life; worldly corruption; the ungodly or wicked part of mankind.

Worm (n.) A short revolving screw, the threads of which drive, or are driven by, a worm wheel by gearing into its teeth or cogs. See Illust. of Worm gearing, below.

Worship (v. t.) To pay divine honors to; to reverence with supreme respect and veneration; to perform religious exercises in honor of; to adore; to venerate.

Woulfe bottle (n.) A kind of wash bottle with two or three necks; -- so called after the inventor, Peter Woulfe, an English chemist.

Woven () p. p. of Weave.

Wreak (v. t.) To revenge; to avenge.

Wreak (v. t.) To execute in vengeance or passion; to inflict; to hurl or drive; as, to wreak vengeance on an enemy.

Wreak (v. t.) Revenge; vengeance; furious passion; resentment.

Wreaker (n.) Avenger.

Wreakful (a.) Revengeful; angry; furious.

Wreakless (a.) Unrevengeful; weak.

Wreath (n.) A garland; a chaplet, esp. one given to a victor.

Wreathe (v. i.) To be intewoven or entwined; to twine together; as, a bower of wreathing trees.

Wrinkle (n.) hence, any roughness; unevenness.

Wrinkle (v. t.) Hence, to make rough or uneven in any way.

Xenium (n.) A present given to a guest or stranger, or to a foreign ambassador.

Xenopterygii (n. pl.) A suborder of fishes including Gobiesox and allied genera. These fishes have soft-rayed fins, and a ventral sucker supported in front by the pectoral fins. They are destitute of scales.

Xyris (n.) A genus of endogenous herbs with grassy leaves and small yellow flowers in short, scaly-bracted spikes; yellow-eyed grass. There are about seventeen species in the Atlantic United States.

Yestereve (n.) Alt. of Yester-evening

Yester-evening (n.) The evening of yesterday; the evening last past.

Yestreen (n.) Yester-evening; yesternight; last night.

Yet (conj.) Before some future time; before the end; eventually; in time.

Yet (conj.) Even; -- used emphatically.

Yeven (p. p.) Given.

Yield (v. t.) To give in return for labor expended; to produce, as payment or interest on what is expended or invested; to pay; as, money at interest yields six or seven per cent.

Yoke (n.) A frame worn on the neck of an animal, as a cow, a pig, a goose, to prevent passage through a fence.

Young (superl.) Not long born; still in the first part of life; not yet arrived at adolescence, maturity, or age; not old; juvenile; -- said of animals; as, a young child; a young man; a young fawn.

Youth (n.) The quality or state of being young; youthfulness; juvenility.

Za (n.) An old solfeggio name for B flat; the seventh harmonic, as heard in the or aeolian string; -- so called by Tartini. It was long considered a false, but is the true note of the chord of the flat seventh.

Zaimet (n.) A district from which a Zaim draws his revenue.

Zamindar (n.) A landowner; also, a collector of land revenue; now, usually, a kind of feudatory recognized as an actual proprietor so long as he pays to the government a certain fixed revenue.

Zendik (n.) An atheist or unbeliever; -- name given in the East to those charged with disbelief of any revealed religion, or accused of magical heresies.

Zenith (n.) That point in the visible celestial hemisphere which is vertical to the spectator; the point of the heavens directly overhead; -- opposed to nadir.

Zimb (n.) A large, venomous, two-winged fly, native of Abyssinia. It is allied to the tsetse fly, and, like the latter, is destructive to cattle.

Zion (n.) The heavenly Jerusalem; heaven.

Zodiac (n.) An imaginary belt in the heavens, 16¡ or 18¡ broad, in the middle of which is the ecliptic, or sun's path. It comprises the twelve constellations, which one constituted, and from which were named, the twelve signs of the zodiac.


/home/ddailey/public_html/data/wordstudy/v003/wb1913_z.html A 1 () A registry mark given by underwriters (as at Lloyd\'s) to ships in first-class condition. Inferior grades are indicated by A 2 and A 3.

Ab (n.) The fifth month of the Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with August.

Abandoned (a.) Self-abandoned, or given up to vice; extremely wicked, or sinning without restraint; irreclaimably wicked ; as, an abandoned villain.

Abba (n.) Father; religious superior; -- in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch.

Abbe (n.) The French word answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress.

Abbess (n.) A female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the abbots have over the monks. See Abbey.

Abbreviator (n.) One of a college of seventy-two officers of the papal court whose duty is to make a short minute of a decision on a petition, or reply of the pope to a letter, and afterwards expand the minute into official form.

Abderian (a.) Given to laughter; inclined to foolish or incessant merriment.

Abdominal (a.) Of or pertaining to the abdomen; ventral; as, the abdominal regions, muscles, cavity.

Abdominales (n. pl.) A group including the greater part of fresh-water fishes, and many marine ones, having the ventral fins under the abdomen behind the pectorals.

Aberration (n.) A small periodical change of position in the stars and other heavenly bodies, due to the combined effect of the motion of light and the motion of the observer; called annual aberration, when the observer\'s motion is that of the earth in its orbit, and daily or diurnal aberration, when of the earth on its axis; amounting when greatest, in the former case, to 20.4\'\', and in the latter, to 0.3\'\'. Planetary aberration is that due to the motion of light and the motion of the planet relative to the earth.

Ability (n.) The quality or state of being able; power to perform, whether physical, moral, intellectual, conventional, or legal; capacity; skill or competence in doing; sufficiency of strength, skill, resources, etc.; -- in the plural, faculty, talent.

Abortiveness (n.) The quality of being abortive.

Above (adv.) In a higher place; overhead; into or from heaven; as, the clouds above.

Abrahamic (a.) Pertaining to Abraham, the patriarch; as, the Abrachamic covenant.

Abrupt (a.) Without notice to prepare the mind for the event; sudden; hasty; unceremonious.

Absent (v. t.) To take or withdraw (one\'s self) to such a distance as to prevent intercourse; -- used with the reflexive pronoun.

Absoluteness (n.) The quality of being absolute; independence of everything extraneous; unlimitedness; absolute power; independent reality; positiveness.

Absolution (n.) An absolving, or setting free from guilt, sin, or penalty; forgiveness of an offense.

Absolution (n.) The exercise of priestly jurisdiction in the sacrament of penance, by which Catholics believe the sins of the truly penitent are forgiven.

Absolvent (a.) Absolving.

Absolvent (n.) An absolver.

Absorbency (n.) Absorptiveness.

Absorptiveness (n.) The quality of being absorptive; absorptive power.

Absorptivity (n.) Absorptiveness.

Abstersiveness (n.) The quality of being abstersive.

Abstractiveness (n.) The quality of being abstractive; abstractive property.

Abusive (a.) Given to misusing; also, full of abuses.

Abusiveness (n.) The quality of being abusive; rudeness of language, or violence to the person.

Acanthopterygii (n. pl.) An order of fishes having some of the rays of the dorsal, ventral, and anal fins unarticulated and spinelike, as the perch.

Accelerate (v. t.) To hasten, as the occurence of an event; as, to accelerate our departure.

Accent (n.) A special emphasis of a tone, even in the weaker part of the measure.

Accent (n.) A mark at the right hand of a number, indicating minutes of a degree, seconds, etc.; as, 12\'27\'\', i. e., twelve minutes twenty seven seconds.

Accident (n.) Literally, a befalling; an event that takes place without one\'s foresight or expectation; an undesigned, sudden, and unexpected event; chance; contingency; often, an undesigned and unforeseen occurrence of an afflictive or unfortunate character; a casualty; a mishap; as, to die by an accident.

Accommodate (v. t.) To furnish with something desired, needed, or convenient; to favor; to oblige; as, to accommodate a friend with a loan or with lodgings.

Accommodate (v. t.) To show the correspondence of; to apply or make suit by analogy; to adapt or fit, as teachings to accidental circumstances, statements to facts, etc.; as, to accommodate prophecy to events.

Accommodation (n.) Whatever supplies a want or affords ease, refreshment, or convenience; anything furnished which is desired or needful; -- often in the plural; as, the accommodations -- that is, lodgings and food -- at an inn.

Account (n.) A statement in general of reasons, causes, grounds, etc., explanatory of some event; as, no satisfactory account has been given of these phenomena. Hence, the word is often used simply for reason, ground, consideration, motive, etc.; as, on no account, on every account, on all accounts.

Ache (n.) A name given to several species of plants; as, smallage, wild celery, parsley.

Acknowledgment (n.) Something given or done in return for a favor, message, etc.

Acquisitiveness (n.) The quality of being acquisitive; propensity to acquire property; desire of possession.

Acquisitiveness (n.) The faculty to which the phrenologists attribute the desire of acquiring and possessing.

Action (n.) The event or connected series of events, either real or imaginary, forming the subject of a play, poem, or other composition; the unfolding of the drama of events.

Action (n.) A suit or process, by which a demand is made of a right in a court of justice; in a broad sense, a judicial proceeding for the enforcement or protection of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or the punishment of a public offense.

Active (a.) Given to action; constantly engaged in action; energetic; diligent; busy; -- opposed to dull, sluggish, indolent, or inert; as, an active man of business; active mind; active zeal.

Active (a.) Given to action rather than contemplation; practical; operative; -- opposed to speculative or theoretical; as, an active rather than a speculative statesman.

Activeness (n.) The quality of being active; nimbleness; quickness of motion; activity.

Acuteness (n.) The faculty of nice discernment or perception; acumen; keenness; sharpness; sensitiveness; -- applied to the senses, or the understanding. By acuteness of feeling, we perceive small objects or slight impressions: by acuteness of intellect, we discern nice distinctions.

Ad- () As a prefix ad- assumes the forms ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-, assimilating the d with the first letter of the word to which ad- is prefixed. It remains unchanged before vowels, and before d, h, j, m, v. Examples: adduce, adhere, adjacent, admit, advent, accord, affect, aggregate, allude, annex, appear, etc. It becomes ac- before qu, as in acquiesce.

Adam (n.) The name given in the Bible to the first man, the progenitor of the human race.

Adamant (n.) A stone imagined by some to be of impenetrable hardness; a name given to the diamond and other substances of extreme hardness; but in modern mineralogy it has no technical signification. It is now a rhetorical or poetical name for the embodiment of impenetrable hardness.

Adaptive (a.) Suited, given, or tending, to adaptation; characterized by adaptation; capable of adapting.

Adaptiveness (n.) The quality of being adaptive; capacity to adapt.

Adder (n.) A small venomous serpent of the genus Vipera. The common European adder is the Vipera (/ Pelias) berus. The puff adders of Africa are species of Clotho.

Adducent (a.) Bringing together or towards a given point; -- a word applied to those muscles of the body which pull one part towards another. Opposed to abducent.

Adhesiveness (n.) The quality of sticking or adhering; stickiness; tenacity of union.

Adhesiveness (n.) Propensity to form and maintain attachments to persons, and to promote social intercourse.

Adjourn (v. t.) To put off or defer to another day, or indefinitely; to postpone; to close or suspend for the day; -- commonly said of the meeting, or the action, of convened body; as, to adjourn the meeting; to adjourn a debate.

Adjourn (v. i.) To suspend business for a time, as from one day to another, or for a longer period, or indefinitely; usually, to suspend public business, as of legislatures and courts, or other convened bodies; as, congress adjourned at four o\'clock; the court adjourned without day.

Admittatur (n.) The certificate of admission given in some American colleges.

Adoration (n.) Homage paid to one in high esteem; profound veneration; intense regard and love; fervent devotion.

Adroit (a.) Dexterous in the use of the hands or in the exercise of the mental faculties; exhibiting skill and readiness in avoiding danger or escaping difficulty; ready in invention or execution; -- applied to persons and to acts; as, an adroit mechanic, an adroit reply.

Adscititious (a.) Supplemental; additional; adventitious; ascititious.

Adulterer (n.) A man who violates his religious covenant.

Adulterous (a.) Guilty of, or given to, adultery; pertaining to adultery; illicit.

Adultery (n.) Lewdness or unchastity of thought as well as act, as forbidden by the seventh commandment.

Ad valorem () A term used to denote a duty or charge laid upon goods, at a certain rate per cent upon their value, as stated in their invoice, -- in opposition to a specific sum upon a given quantity or number; as, an ad valorem duty of twenty per cent.

Advance (v. t.) To make earlier, as an event or date; to hasten.

Advancement (v. t.) Property given, usually by a parent to a child, in advance of a future distribution.

Advene (v. i.) To accede, or come (to); to be added to something or become a part of it, though not essential.

Advenient (a.) Coming from outward causes; superadded.

Advent (n.) The period including the four Sundays before Christmas.

Advent (n.) The first or the expected second coming of Christ.

Advent (n.) Coming; any important arrival; approach.

Adventist (n.) One of a religious body, embracing several branches, who look for the proximate personal coming of Christ; -- called also Second Adventists.

Adventitious (a.) Added extrinsically; not essentially inherent; accidental or causal; additional; supervenient; foreign.

Adventitious (a.) Out of the proper or usual place; as, adventitious buds or roots.

Adventitious (a.) Accidentally or sparingly spontaneous in a country or district; not fully naturalized; adventive; -- applied to foreign plants.

Adventitious (a.) Acquired, as diseases; accidental.

Adventive (a.) Accidental.

Adventive (a.) Adventitious.

Adventive (n.) A thing or person coming from without; an immigrant.

Adventual (a.) Relating to the season of advent.

Adventure (n.) That which happens without design; chance; hazard; hap; hence, chance of danger or loss.

Adventure (n.) Risk; danger; peril.

Adventure (n.) The encountering of risks; hazardous and striking enterprise; a bold undertaking, in which hazards are to be encountered, and the issue is staked upon unforeseen events; a daring feat.

Adventure (n.) A remarkable occurrence; a striking event; a stirring incident; as, the adventures of one\'s life.

Adventure (n.) A mercantile or speculative enterprise of hazard; a venture; a shipment by a merchant on his own account.

Adventured (imp. & p. p.) of Adventure

Adventuring (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Adventure

Adventure (n.) To risk, or hazard; jeopard; to venture.

Adventure (n.) To venture upon; to run the risk of; to dare.

Adventure (v. i.) To try the chance; to take the risk.

Adventureful (a.) Given to adventure.

Adventurer (n.) One who adventures; as, the merchant adventurers; one who seeks his fortune in new and hazardous or perilous enterprises.

Adventurer (n.) A social pretender on the lookout for advancement.

Adventuresome (a.) Full of risk; adventurous; venturesome.

Adventuress (n.) A female adventurer; a woman who tries to gain position by equivocal means.

Adventurous (n.) Inclined to adventure; willing to incur hazard; prone to embark in hazardous enterprise; rashly daring; -- applied to persons.

Adventurous (n.) Full of hazard; attended with risk; exposing to danger; requiring courage; rash; -- applied to acts; as, an adventurous undertaking, deed, song.

Adventurously (adv.) In an adventurous manner; venturesomely; boldly; daringly.

Adventurousness (n.) The quality or state of being adventurous; daring; venturesomeness.

Advice (n.) Information or notice given; intelligence; as, late advices from France; -- commonly in the plural.

Adytum (n.) The innermost sanctuary or shrine in ancient temples, whence oracles were given. Hence: A private chamber; a sanctum.

Affected (p. p. & a.) Given to false show; assuming or pretending to possess what is not natural or real.

Affecting (a.) Affected; given to false show.

Affirmation (n.) That which is asserted; an assertion; a positive statement; an averment; as, an affirmation, by the vender, of title to property sold, or of its quality.

Afflicting (a.) Grievously painful; distressing; afflictive; as, an afflicting event. -- Af*flict"ing*ly, adv.

Affordment (n.) Anything given as a help; bestowal.

Affrontiveness (n.) The quality that gives an affront or offense.

Afterclap (n.) An unexpected subsequent event; something disagreeable happening after an affair is supposed to be at an end.

Afternoon (n.) The part of the day which follows noon, between noon and evening.

Afterwise (a.) Wise after the event; wise or knowing, when it is too late.

Agallochum (n.) A soft, resinous wood (Aquilaria Agallocha) of highly aromatic smell, burnt by the orientals as a perfume. It is called also agalwood and aloes wood. The name is also given to some other species.

Agave (n.) A genus of plants (order Amaryllidaceae) of which the chief species is the maguey or century plant (A. Americana), wrongly called Aloe. It is from ten to seventy years, according to climate, in attaining maturity, when it produces a gigantic flower stem, sometimes forty feet in height, and perishes. The fermented juice is the pulque of the Mexicans; distilled, it yields mescal. A strong thread and a tough paper are made from the leaves, and the wood has many uses.

Age (n.) That part of the duration of a being or a thing which is between its beginning and any given time; as, what is the present age of a man, or of the earth?

Ageratum (n.) A genus of plants, one species of which (A. Mexicanum) has lavender-blue flowers in dense clusters.

Agio (n.) The premium or percentage on a better sort of money when it is given in exchange for an inferior sort. The premium or discount on foreign bills of exchange is sometimes called agio.

Agnomen (n.) An additional or fourth name given by the Romans, on account of some remarkable exploit or event; as, Publius Caius Scipio Africanus.

Agrimony (n.) The name is also given to various other plants; as, hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum); water agrimony (Bidens).

Agrypnotic (n.) Anything which prevents sleep, or produces wakefulness, as strong tea or coffee.

Aid (v. t.) To support, either by furnishing strength or means in cooperation to effect a purpose, or to prevent or to remove evil; to help; to assist.

Air (n.) Utterance abroad; publicity; vent.

Air (n.) A musical idea, or motive, rhythmically developed in consecutive single tones, so as to form a symmetrical and balanced whole, which may be sung by a single voice to the stanzas of a hymn or song, or even to plain prose, or played upon an instrument; a melody; a tune; an aria.

Air (n.) To expose to the air for the purpose of cooling, refreshing, or purifying; to ventilate; as, to air a room.

Air drill () A drill driven by the elastic pressure of condensed air; a pneumatic drill.

Air engine () An engine driven by heated or by compressed air.

Air pipe () A pipe for the passage of air; esp. a ventilating pipe.

Albeit (conj.) Even though; although; notwithstanding.

Alborak (n.) The imaginary milk-white animal on which Mohammed was said to have been carried up to heaven; a white mule.

Alcoholic (n.) A person given to the use of alcoholic liquors.

Alembic (n.) An apparatus formerly used in distillation, usually made of glass or metal. It has mostly given place to the retort and worm still.

Alisanders (n.) A name given to two species of the genus Smyrnium, formerly cultivated and used as celery now is; -- called also horse parsely.

Alexiterical (a.) Resisting poison; obviating the effects of venom; alexipharmic.

Algates (adv.) By any or means; at all events.

Alimentiveness (n.) The instinct or faculty of appetite for food.

Alkahest (n.) The fabled "universal solvent" of the alchemists; a menstruum capable of dissolving all bodies.

All (adv.) Even; just. (Often a mere intensive adjunct.)

Allege (v. t.) To bring forward with positiveness; to declare; to affirm; to assert; as, to allege a fact.

Allemande (n.) A dance in moderate twofold time, invented by the French in the reign of Louis XIV.; -- now mostly found in suites of pieces, like those of Bach and Handel.

Allhallows (n.) All the saints (in heaven).

Allhallow eve () The evening before Allhallows. See Halloween.

Allheal (n.) A name popularly given to the officinal valerian, and to some other plants.

Alliciency (n.) Attractive power; attractiveness.

Allopathy (n.) That system of medical practice which aims to combat disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the special disease treated; -- a term invented by Hahnemann to designate the ordinary practice, as opposed to homeopathy.

Allspice (n.) The berry of the pimento (Eugenia pimenta), a tree of the West Indies; a spice of a mildly pungent taste, and agreeably aromatic; Jamaica pepper; pimento. It has been supposed to combine the flavor of cinnamon, nutmegs, and cloves; and hence the name. The name is also given to other aromatic shrubs; as, the Carolina allspice (Calycanthus floridus); wild allspice (Lindera benzoin), called also spicebush, spicewood, and feverbush.

Allusiveness (n.) The quality of being allusive.

Almacantar (n.) A recently invented instrument for observing the heavenly bodies as they cross a given almacantar circle. See Almucantar.

Almadie (n.) A boat used at Calicut, in India, about eighty feet long, and six or seven broad.

Alms (n. sing. & pl.) Anything given gratuitously to relieve the poor, as money, food, or clothing; a gift of charity.

Aloft (adv.) In the top; at the mast head, or on the higher yards or rigging; overhead; hence (Fig. and Colloq.), in or to heaven.

Alopecist (n.) A practitioner who tries to prevent or cure baldness.

Also (adv. & conj.) Even as; as; so.

Alternate (a.) Designating the members in a series, which regularly intervene between the members of another series, as the odd or even numbers of the numerals; every other; every second; as, the alternate members 1, 3, 5, 7, etc. ; read every alternate line.

Alternativeness (n.) The quality of being alternative, or of offering a choice between two.

Altiscope (n.) An arrangement of lenses and mirrors which enables a person to see an object in spite of intervening objects.

Altitude (n.) Space extended upward; height; the perpendicular elevation of an object above its foundation, above the ground, or above a given level, or of one object above another; as, the altitude of a mountain, or of a bird above the top of a tree.

Amativeness (n.) The faculty supposed to influence sexual desire; propensity to love.

Ambulacral (a.) Of or pertaining to ambulacra; avenuelike; as, the ambulacral ossicles, plates, spines, and suckers of echinoderms.

Gum ammoniac (n.) The concrete juice (gum resin) of an umbelliferous plant, the Dorema ammoniacum. It is brought chiefly from Persia in the form of yellowish tears, which occur singly, or are aggregated into masses. It has a peculiar smell, and a nauseous, sweet taste, followed by a bitter one. It is inflammable, partially soluble in water and in spirit of wine, and is used in medicine as an expectorant and resolvent, and for the formation of certain plasters.

Amoebaeum (n.) A poem in which persons are represented at speaking alternately; as the third and seventh eclogues of Virgil.

Amorphism (n.) A state of being amorphous; esp. a state of being without crystallization even in the minutest particles, as in glass, opal, etc.

Amount (n.) The sum total of two or more sums or quantities; the aggregate; the whole quantity; a totality; as, the amount of 7 and 9 is 16; the amount of a bill; the amount of this year\'s revenue.

Amphiarthrosis (n.) A form of articulation in which the bones are connected by intervening substance admitting slight motion; symphysis.

Amphitrocha (n.) A kind of annelid larva having both a dorsal and a ventral circle of special cilia.

Anachorism (n.) An error in regard to the place of an event or a thing; a referring something to a wrong place.

Anachronism (n.) A misplacing or error in the order of time; an error in chronology by which events are misplaced in regard to each other, esp. one by which an event is placed too early; falsification of chronological relation.

Anadiplosis (n.) A repetition of the last word or any prominent word in a sentence or clause, at the beginning of the next, with an adjunct idea; as, "He retained his virtues amidst all his misfortunes -- misfortunes which no prudence could foresee or ')">prevent."

Anagogical (a.) Mystical; having a secondary spiritual meaning; as, the rest of the Sabbath, in an anagogical sense, signifies the repose of the saints in heaven; an anagogical explication.

Anagraph (n.) An inventory; a record.

Analogue (n.) An organ which is equivalent in its functions to a different organ in another species or group, or even in the same group; as, the gill of a fish is the analogue of a lung in a quadruped, although the two are not of like structural relations.

Anapest (n.) A metrical foot consisting of three syllables, the first two short, or unaccented, the last long, or accented (/ / -); the reverse of the dactyl. In Latin d/-/-tas, and in English in-ter-vene#, are examples of anapests.

Ancient (a.) Dignified, like an aged man; magisterial; venerable.

Ancile (n.) The sacred shield of the Romans, said to have-fallen from heaven in the reign of Numa. It was the palladium of Rome.

Angel (n.) A minister or pastor of a church, as in the Seven Asiatic churches.

Angel (n.) An appellation given to a person supposed to be of angelic goodness or loveliness; a darling.

Angelical (a.) Belonging to, or proceeding from, angels; resembling, characteristic of, or partaking of the nature of, an angel; heavenly; divine.

Angelus (n.) A form of devotion in which three Ave Marias are repeated. It is said at morning, noon, and evening, at the sound of a bell.

Angle (n.) A name given to four of the twelve astrological ')">"houses."

Angora (n.) A city of Asia Minor (or Anatolia) which has given its name to a goat, a cat, etc.

Animate (v. t.) To give spirit or vigor to; to stimulate or incite; to inspirit; to rouse; to enliven.

Annals (n. pl.) A relation of events in chronological order, each event being recorded under the year in which it happened.

Annals (n. pl.) The record of a single event or item.

Anniversary (n.) The annual return of the day on which any notable event took place, or is wont to be celebrated; as, the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.

Anniversary (n.) The day on which Mass is said yearly for the soul of a deceased person; the commemoration of some sacred event, as the dedication of a church or the consecration of a pope.

Annuity (n.) A sum of money, payable yearly, to continue for a given number of years, for life, or forever; an annual allowance.

Ansa (n.) A name given to either of the projecting ends of Saturn\'s ring.

-ant () A suffix sometimes marking the agent for action; as, merchant, covenant, servant, pleasant, etc. Cf. -ent.

Antaphrodisiac (a.) Capable of blunting the venereal appetite.

Antaphrodisiac (n.) Anything that quells the venereal appetite.

Antecedent (a.) Going before in time; prior; anterior; preceding; as, an event antecedent to the Deluge; an antecedent cause.

Antecedent (n.) The earlier events of one\'s life; previous principles, conduct, course, history.

Antecommunion (n.) A name given to that part of the Anglican liturgy for the communion, which precedes the consecration of the elements.

Antevert (v. t.) To prevent.

Anthorism (n.) A description or definition contrary to that which is given by the adverse party.

Antiattrition (n.) Anything to prevent the effects of friction, esp. a compound lubricant for machinery, etc., often consisting of plumbago, with some greasy material; antifriction grease.

Anticipate (v. t.) To be before in doing; to do or take before another; to preclude or prevent by prior action.

Anticipation (n.) Previous view or impression of what is to happen; instinctive prevision; foretaste; antepast; as, the anticipation of the joys of heaven.

Antidote (n.) Whatever tends to prevent mischievous effects, or to counteract evil which something else might produce.

Antidote (v. t.) To counteract or prevent the effects of, by giving or taking an antidote.

Antihydrophobic (a.) Counteracting or preventing hydrophobia.

Antihypnotic (a.) Tending to prevent sleep.

Antilithic (a.) Tending to prevent the formation of urinary calculi, or to destroy them when formed.

Antilogarithm (n.) The number corresponding to a logarithm. The word has been sometimes, though rarely, used to denote the complement of a given logarithm; also the logarithmic cosine corresponding to a given logarithmic sine.

Antimacassar (n.) A cover for the back or arms of a chair or sofa, etc., to prevent them from being soiled by macassar or other oil from the hair.

Antiorgastic (a.) Tending to allay venereal excitement or desire; sedative.

Antiperiodic (n.) A remedy possessing the property of preventing the return of periodic paroxysms, or exacerbations, of disease, as in intermittent fevers.

Antiphrasis (n.) The use of words in a sense opposite to their proper meaning; as when a court of justice is called a court of vengeance.

Antiplastic (a.) Preventing or checking the process of healing, or granulation.

Antipyic (a.) Checking or preventing suppuration.

Antipyretic (a.) Efficacious in preventing or allaying fever.

Antipyrotic (n.) Anything of use in preventing or healing burns or pyrosis.

Antiseptical (a.) Counteracting or preventing putrefaction, or a putrescent tendency in the system; antiputrefactive.

Antiseptic (n.) A substance which prevents or retards putrefaction, or destroys, or protects from, putrefactive organisms; as, salt, carbolic acid, alcohol, cinchona.

Antisolar (a.) Opposite to the sun; -- said of the point in the heavens 180¡ distant from the sun.

Antispasmodic (n.) A medicine which prevents or allays spasms or convulsions.

Antivariolous (a.) Preventing the contagion of smallpox.

Antivenereal (a.) Good against venereal poison; antisyphilitic.

Antizymic (a.) Preventing fermentation.

Antizymotic (a.) Preventing fermentation or decomposition.

Anxiety (n.) Concern or solicitude respecting some thing or event, future or uncertain, which disturbs the mind, and keeps it in a state of painful uneasiness.

Anyhow (adv.) In any way or manner whatever; at any rate; in any event.

Anything (n.) Any object, act, state, event, or fact whatever; thing of any kind; something or other; aught; as, I would not do it for anything.

Aphrodisiacal (a.) Exciting venereal desire; provocative to venery.

Aphrodisiac (n.) That which (as a drug, or some kinds of food) excites to venery.

Apodal (n.) Destitute of the ventral fin, as the eels.

Apodes (n. pl.) An order of fishes without ventral fins, including the eels.

Apologue (n.) A story or relation of fictitious events, intended to convey some moral truth; a moral fable.

Apophyge (n.) The small hollow curvature given to the top or bottom of the shaft of a column where it expands to meet the edge of the fillet; -- called also the scape.

Apparatus (n.) Hence: A full collection or set of implements, or utensils, for a given duty, experimental or operative; any complex instrument or appliance, mechanical or chemical, for a specific action or operation; machinery; mechanism.

Appellativeness (n.) The quality of being appellative.

Appreciativeness (n.) The quality of being appreciative; quick recognition of excellence.

Apprehensiveness (n.) The quality or state of being apprehensive.

Apprenticeship (n.) The time an apprentice is serving (sometimes seven years, as from the age of fourteen to twenty-one).

Approach (v. i.) A way, passage, or avenue by which a place or buildings can be approached; an access.

Approbativeness (n.) The quality of being approbative.

Approbativeness (n.) Love of approbation.

Approximation (n.) An approach to a correct estimate, calculation, or conception, or to a given quantity, quality, etc.

Appulse (n.) The near approach of one heavenly body to another, or to the meridian; a coming into conjunction; as, the appulse of the moon to a star, or of a star to the meridian.

Apron (n.) A leaden plate that covers the vent of a cannon.

Apt (a.) Inclined; disposed customarily; given; ready; -- used of persons.

Aptera (n. pl.) Insects without wings, constituting the seventh Linnaen order of insects, an artificial group, which included Crustacea, spiders, centipeds, and even worms. These animals are now placed in several distinct classes and orders.

Aquarius (n.) The Water-bearer; the eleventh sign in the zodiac, which the sun enters about the 20th of January; -- so called from the rains which prevail at that season in Italy and the East.

Aqueduct (n.) A canal or passage; as, the aqueduct of Sylvius, a channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain.

Arcade (n.) An arched or covered passageway or avenue.

Archiannelida (n. pl.) A group of Annelida remarkable for having no external segments or distinct ventral nerve ganglions.

Ardent (a.) Warm, applied to the passions and affections; passionate; fervent; zealous; vehement; as, ardent love, feelings, zeal, hope, temper.

Area (n.) The superficial contents of any figure; the surface included within any given lines; superficial extent; as, the area of a square or a triangle.

Arendator (n.) In some provinces of Russia, one who farms the rents or revenues.

Argas (n.) A genus of venomous ticks which attack men and animals. The famous Persian Argas, also called Miana bug, is A. Persicus; that of Central America, called talaje by the natives, is A. Talaje.

Argot (n.) A secret language or conventional slang peculiar to thieves, tramps, and vagabonds; flash.

Argue (v. i.) To invent and offer reasons to support or overthrow a proposition, opinion, or measure; to use arguments; to reason.

Argumentative (a.) Given to argument; characterized by argument; disputatious; as, an argumentative writer.

Ark (n.) The oblong chest of acacia wood, overlaid with gold, which supported the mercy seat with its golden cherubs, and occupied the most sacred place in the sanctuary. In it Moses placed the two tables of stone containing the ten commandments. Called also the Ark of the Covenant.

Armature (n.) A piece of soft iron used to connect the two poles of a magnet, or electro-magnet, in order to complete the circuit, or to receive and apply the magnetic force. In the ordinary horseshoe magnet, it serves to prevent the dissipation of the magnetic force.

Armistice (n.) A cessation of arms for a short time, by convention; a temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement; a truce.

Arquebuse (n.) A sort of hand gun or